Download: E FS 119NERGY March 1996 EFFICIENCY RENEWABLE Solar Water Heating ENERGY

DOE/GO-10096-050 E FS 119NERGY March 1996 EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE Solar Water Heating ENERGY This publication provides basic informa- cost of solar water heaters is higher than tion on the components and types of solar that of conventional water heaters, the water heaters currently available and the fuel (sunshine) is free. Plus, they are economic and environmental benefits of environmentally friendly. To take advan- owning a system. Although the publica- tage of these heaters, you must have an tion does not provide information on unshaded, south-facing location (a roof, building and installi...
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This publication provides basic informa- cost of solar water heaters is higher than tion on the components and types of solar that of conventional water heaters, the water heaters currently available and the fuel (sunshine) is free. Plus, they are economic and environmental benefits of environmentally friendly. To take advan- owning a system. Although the publica- tage of these heaters, you must have an tion does not provide information on unshaded, south-facing location (a roof, building and installing your own system, for example) on your property. it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar These systems use the sun to heat either equipment dealer. water or a heat-transfer fluid, such as a water-glycol antifreeze mixture, in Solar water heaters, sometimes called collectors generally mounted on a roof. solar domestic hot water systems, may be The heated water is then stored in a tank a good investment for you and your fam- similar to a conventional gas or electric ily. Solar water heaters are cost competi- water tank. Some systems use an electric tive in many applications when you pump to circulate the fluid through the account for the total energy costs over the collectors. life of the system. Although the initial Homes such as this one use solar water heaters to supply most of the hot-water needs for the household.


ENT OFERNThis document was produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a DOE national laboratory. The document was produced by the Information Services Program, under the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC) is operated by NCI Information Systems, Inc., for NREL / DOE. The statements contained herein are based on information known to EREC and NREL at the time of printing. No recommendation or endorsement of any product or service is implied if mentioned by EREC. STA ATES OF Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 20% postconsumer waste


, Solar water heaters can operate in any cli- more information on ways to use less mate. Performance varies depending, in energy for water heating, contact The part, on how much solar energy is avail- Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy able at the site, but also on how cold the Clearinghouse (EREC—see Source List at water coming into the system is. The the end of this publication). colder the water, the more efficiently the system operates. In almost all climates, You’ll also want to make sure your site has

Using less hot water you will need a conventional backup sys- enough available sunshine to meet your

tem. In fact, many building codes require needs efficiently and economically. Your reduces the size you to have a conventional water heater local solar equipment dealer can perform as the backup. a solar site analysis for you or show you (and cost) of the how to do your own. You can also contact

First Things First EREC for more information.

solar water heater Before investing in any solar energy sys- Remember: Local zoning laws or you will need. tem, it is more cost effective to invest in covenants may restrict where you canmaking your home more energy efficient. place your collectors. Check with your Taking steps to use less hot water and to city, county, and homeowners association lower the temperature of the hot water to find out about any restrictions. you use reduces the size and cost of your solar water heater. Solar Water Heater Basics Good first steps are installing low-flow Solar water heaters are made up of collec- showerheads or flow restrictors in shower tors, storage tanks, and, depending on the heads and faucets, insulating your current system, electric pumps. water heater, and insulating any hot-water pipes that pass through unheated areas. If There are basically three types of collec- you have no dishwasher, or your dish- tors: flat-plate, evacuated-tube, and con- washer is equipped with its own auto- centrating. A flat-plate collector, the most matic water heater, lower the thermostat common type, is an insulated, weather- on your water heater to 120°F (49°C). For proofed box containing a dark absorber plate under one or more transparent or translucent covers. Flat-Plate Collector Glazing frame Evacuated-tube collectors are made up of Glazing rows of parallel, transparent glass tubes. Inlet connection Each tube consists of a glass outer tubeOutlet connection and an inner tube, or absorber, covered with a selective coating that absorbs solar energy well but inhibits radiative heat loss. The air is withdrawn (“evacuated”) from the space between the tubes to form a vacuum, which eliminates conductive and convective heat loss.Enclosure Concentrating collectors for residential Flow tubes applications are usually parabolic troughsAbsorber plate that use mirrored surfaces to concentrate Insulation the sun’s energy on an absorber tube (called a receiver) containing a heat- transfer fluid. For more information on solar collectors, contact EREC. A flat-plate collector is an insulated, weatherproofed box containing a dark Most commercially available solar water absorber plate. The plate heats up and transfers the heat to the fluid flowing heaters require a well-insulated storage through tubes in or near the absorber plate. tank. Many systems use converted electric, closed-loop system uses a heat-transfer Active, Closed-Loop Solar Water Heater fluid (water or diluted antifreeze, for example) to collect heat and a heat exchanger to transfer the heat to house- hold water. Active Systems Active systems use electric pumps, valves, Hot water and controllers to circulate water or other Flat-plate to house heat-transfer fluids through the collectors. collector They are usually more expensive than pas- Cold water sive systems but are also more efficient. supply Active systems are usually easier to retro- Antifreeze fluid in fit than passive systems because their stor- collector loop only Solar storage/ age tanks do not need to be installed backup water heater above or close to the collectors. But because they use electricity, they will not function in a power outage. Active sys- Double-walled Pump heat exchanger tems range in price from about $2,000 to $4,000 installed. Open-Loop Active Systems Open-loop active systems use pumps to circulate household water through the col- An active, closed-loop system heats a heat-transfer fluid (such as water or lectors. This design is efficient and lowers antifreeze) in the collector and uses a heat exchanger to transfer the heat to the household water. operating costs but is not appropriate if your water is hard or acidic because scale water heater tanks or plumb the solar stor- and corrosion quickly disable the system. age tank in series with the conventional water heater. In this arrangement, the These open-loop systems are popular in solar water heater preheats water before nonfreezing climates such as Hawaii. They it enters the conventional water heater. should never be installed in climates that experience freezing temperatures for sus- Some solar water heaters use pumps to tained periods. You can install them in recirculate warm water from storage tanks mild but occasionally freezing climates, through collectors and exposed piping. but you must consider freeze protection.

Active systems use This is generally to protect the pipes from

freezing when outside temperatures drop Recirculation systems are a specific type electric pumps, to freezing or below. of open-loop system that provide freeze protection. They use the system pump to valves, and controls Types of Solar Water Heaters circulate warm water from storage tanks through collectors and exposed piping to circulate fluid Solar water heaters can be either active or when temperatures approach freezing. passive. An active system uses an electric Consider recirculation systems only where through the collectors. pump to circulate the heat-transfer fluid; a mild freezes occur once or twice a year passive system has no pump. The amount at most. Activating the freeze protection of hot water a solar water heater produces more frequently wastes electricity and depends on the type and size of the sys- stored heat. tem, the amount of sun available at the site, proper installation, and the tilt angle Of course, when the power is out, the and orientation of the collectors. pump will not work and the system will freeze. To guard against this, a freeze Solar water heaters are also characterized valve can be installed to provide addi- as open loop (also called “direct”) or tional protection in the event the pump closed loop (also called “indirect”). An doesn’t operate. In freezing weather, the open-loop system circulates household valve dribbles warmer water through the (potable) water through the collector. A collector to prevent freezing., Closed-Loop Active Systems the collectors are empty, which assures These systems pump heat-transfer fluids freeze protection and also allows the sys- (usually a glycol-water antifreeze mixture) tem to turn off if the water in the storage through collectors. Heat exchangers trans- tank becomes too hot. fer the heat from the fluid to the house-

Passive systems hold water stored in the tanks. Pumps in Active Systems

The pumps in solar water heaters have are generally more Double-walled heat exchangers prevent low power requirements, and some com- contamination of household water. Some panies now include direct current (DC) reliable, easier to codes require double walls when the heat- pumps powered by small solar-electric transfer fluid is anything other than (photovoltaic, or PV) panels. PV panels maintain, and household water. convert sunlight into DC electricity. Such systems cost nothing to operate and con- possibly longer- Closed-loop glycol systems are popular tinue to function during power outages. in areas subject to extended freezing tem- lasting than active peratures because they offer good freeze Passive Systems protection. However, glycol antifreeze sys- Passive systems move household water or systems. tems are a bit more expensive to buy and a heat-transfer fluid through the system install, and the glycol must be checked without pumps. Passive systems have no each year and changed every 3 to 10 years, electric components to break. This makes depending on glycol quality and system them generally more reliable, easier to temperatures. maintain, and possibly longer lasting than active systems. Drainback systems use water as the heat- transfer fluid in the collector loop. A Passive systems can be less expensive than pump circulates the water through the col- active systems, but they can also be less lectors. The water drains by gravity to the efficient. Installed costs for passive systems storage tank and heat exchanger; there are range from about $1,000 to $3,000, depend- no valves to fail. When the pumps are off, ing on whether it is a simple batch heater or a sophisticated thermosiphon system. Batch Solar Collector Batch Heaters Pressure tank with Batch heaters (also known as “bread box” selective surface or integral collector storage systems) are Double or triple simple passive systems consisting of one glazing or more storage tanks placed in an insu- lated box that has a glazed side facing the Cusp reflector sun. Batch heaters are inexpensive and have few components—in other words, less maintenance and fewer failures. A batch heater is mounted on the ground or on the roof (make sure your roof structureis strong enough to support it). Some batch heaters use “selective” surfaces onthe tank(s). These surfaces absorb sun well Insulated collector box but inhibit radiative loss. In climates where freezing occurs, batch heaters must either be protected from Drain valves freezing or drained for the winter. In well- Insulated Pump flow designed systems, the most vulnerable plumbing lines components for freezing are the pipes, if located in uninsulated areas, that lead to An open-loop system heats household water directly in the collectors. One such the solar water heater. If these pipes are type of open-loop system is the batch heater. This system is simply a black tank well insulated, the warmth from the tank filled with water and placed inside a south-facing, insulated, glazed box, where it absorbs solar energy. will prevent freezing. Certified systems, These systems are reliable and relatively Thermosiphon Solar Water Heater inexpensive but require careful planning in new construction because the water tanks are heavy. They can be freeze- proofed by circulating an antifreeze solu- tion through a heat exchanger in a closed loop to heat the household water. Collector Insulatedstorage tank Sizing Your System Just as you have to choose a 30-, 40-, or 50-gallon (114-, 151-, or 189-liter) conven- tional water heater, you need to determine the right size solar water heater to install. Sizing a solar water heater involves deter- mining the total collector area and the Cold water storage volume required to provide 100% of your household’s hot water during the Auxiliary summer. Solar-equipment experts use heater worksheets or special computer programs to assist you in determining how large a system you need. A thermosiphon solar water heater uses natural convection to circulate water Solar storage tanks are usually 50-, 60-, through the collectors. Cold water flows from the bottom of the insulated 80-, or 120-gallon (189-, 227-, 303-, or storage tank to the bottom of the collector, and then returns to the storage 454-liter) capacity. A small (50 to 60 gallon) tank when warmed. system is sufficient for 1 to 3 people, a medium (80-gallon) system is adequate for clearly state the temperature level that can a 3- or 4-person household, and a large cause damage. In addition, you can install (120-gallon) system is appropriate for 4 to heat tape (electrical plug-in tape to wrap 6 people. around the pipes to keep them from freez- ing), insulate exposed pipes, or both. A rule of thumb for sizing collectors: allow Remember, heat tape requires electricity, about 20 square feet (about 2 square so the combination of freezing weather meters) of collector area for each of the and a power outage can lead to burst

It makes economic first two family members and 8 squarepipes. If you live in an area where freezing

feet (0.7 square meter) for each additional is infrequent, you can use plastic pipe that sense to think beyond family member if you live in the Sun Belt.does not crack or burst when it freezes. Allow 12 to 14 additional square feet Keep in mind, though, that some of these the initial purchase (1.1 to 1.3 square meters) per person if youpipes can’t withstand unlimited live in the northern United States. freeze/thaw cycles before they crack. price and consider Thermosiphon Systems A ratio of at least 1.5 gallons (5.7 liters) lifetime energy costs. of storage capacity to 1 square foot A thermosiphon system relies on warm (0.1 square meter) of collector area pre- water rising, a phenomenon known as nat- vents the system from overheating when ural convection, to circulate water through the demand for hot water is low. In very the collectors and to the tank. In this type warm, sunny climates, experts suggest of installation, the tank must be above the that the ratio should be at least 2 gallons collector. As water in the collector heats, (7.6 liters) of storage to 1 square foot it becomes lighter and rises naturally into (0.1 square meter) of collector area. For the tank above. Meanwhile, cooler water example, a family of four in a northern in the tank flows down pipes to the bot- climate would need between 64 and tom of the collector, causing circulation 68 square feet (5.9 and 6.3 square meters) throughout the system. The storage tank is of collector area and a 96- to 102-gallon attached to the top of the collector so that (363- to 386-liter) storage tank. (This thermosiphoning can occur. assumes 20 square feet of collector area for the first person, 20 for the second person,, 12 to 14 for the third person, and 12 to 14 water with electricity, fuel oil, propane, or

Tax Incentives and for the fourth person. This equals 64 to even natural gas because the fuel (sun- Rebates 68 square feet, multiplied by 1.5 gallons shine) is free.

Some local or state govern- of storage capacity, which equals 96 to ments offer tax incentives 102 gallons of storage.) Because you might However, at the current low prices of nat- to encourage residents to not be able to find a 96-gallon tank, you ural gas, solar water heaters cannot com- invest in solar energy tech- may want to get a 120-gallon tank to be pete with natural gas water heaters in nologies. Check with your state or local energy office sure to meet your hot water needs. most parts of the country except in new or Department of Revenue home construction. Although you will still for information. Some Benefits of Solar Water Heaters save energy costs with a solar water heater electric utilities offer because you won’t be buying natural gas, rebates to customers who There are many benefits to owning a solar it won’t be economical on a dollar-for- install solar energy equip- water heater, and number one is econom- ment because these instal- dollar basis.ics. Solar water heater economics compare lations help utilities reduce quite favorably with those of electric peak loads. Peak loads are Paybacks vary widely, but you can expect periods when the utility water heaters, while the economics aren’t a simple payback of 4 to 8 years on a well- must generate extra power quite so attractive when compared with designed and properly installed solar to meet a high demand. those of gas water heaters. Heating water Heating water in the water heater. (Simple payback is thewith the sun also means long-term bene- evening is one example. length of time required to recover yourfits, such as being cushioned from future investment through reduced or avoided fuel shortages and price increases, and energy costs.) You can expect shorter pay- environmental benefits. backs in areas with higher energy costs. Economic Benefits After the payback period, you accrue the savings over the life of the system, which Many home builders choose electric water ranges from 15 to 40 years, depending on heaters because they are easy to install the system and how well it is maintained.

When you have and relatively inexpensive to purchase.

However, research shows that an average You can determine the simple payback of calculated the net cost household with an electric water heater a solar water heater by first determining spends about 25% of its home energy costs the net cost of the system. Net costs of your solar water on heating water. include the total installed cost less any tax heater, figure the incentives or utility rebates. (See the boxIt makes economic sense to think beyond for more information.) After you calculate annual fuel savings, the initial purchase price and consider life- the net cost of the system, calculate the time energy costs, or how much you will annual fuel savings and divide the net and divide the net spend on energy to use the appliance over investment by this number to determine its lifetime. The Florida Solar Energy Cen- the simple payback. investment by this ter (FSEC—see Source List) studied the potential savings to Florida homeowners number to determine An example: Your total utility bill aver-of common water-heating systems com- ages $160 per month and your water heat- the simple payback. pared with electric water heaters. It found ing costs are average (25% of your totalthat solar water heaters offered the largest utility costs) at $40 per month. If you pur- potential savings, with solar water-heater chase a solar water heater for $2,000 that owners saving as much as 50% to 85% provides an average of 60% of your hot annually on their utility bills over the cost water each year, that system will save you of electric water heating. $24 per month ($40 x 0.60 = $24) or $288 per year (12 x $24 = $288). This system has The FSEC analysis illustrates that the ini- a simple payback of less than 7 years tial installed cost of the solar water heater ($2,000 ÷ $288 = 6.9). For the remainder of ($1,500 to $3,000) is higher than that of a the life of the solar water heater, 60% of gas water heater ($350 to $450) or an elec- your hot water will be free, saving you tric water heater ($150 to $350). The costs $288 each year. You will need to account vary from region to region, so check for some operation and maintenance costs, locally for costs in your area. Depending which are estimated at $25 to $30 a year. on the price of fuel sources, the solar This is primarily to have the system water heater can be more economical over checked every 3 years. the lifetime of the system than heating, If you are building a new home or refi- solar industry, state energy officials, and nancing your present home to do a major consumer advocates to certify and rate renovation, the economics are even more solar water heaters. attractive. The cost of including the price of a solar water heater in a new 30-year A national standard (OG-300) addresses a mortgage is usually between $13 and $20 variety of concerns, including safety and per month. The portion of the federal health, durability and reliability, installa- income tax deduction for mortgage inter- tion, performance, and operation and

When a solar water est attributable to the solar system reduces maintenance. To meet this standard, a sys-

that amount by about $3 to $5 per month. tem is rigorously tested. A certified solar heater replaces an If your fuel savings are more than $15 per water heater carries the SRCC OG-300 month, the investment in the solar water label, and the system performance is listed electric water heater, heater is profitable immediately. in a published directory. A similar pro- gram has been established for Florida by the electricity Long-Term Benefits FSEC. Both SRCC and FSEC provide col- Solar water heaters offer long-term bene- lector testing and rating programs. displaced over fits that go beyond simple economics. In addition to having free hot water after the Find out if the manufacturer offers a war- 20 years represents system has paid for itself in reduced util- ranty, and, if so, what the warranty covers ity bills, you and your family will be cush- and for how long. If the dealer you are more than 50 tons ioned from future fuel shortages and price buying the equipment from goes out of increases. You will also be doing your part business, can you get support and parts of avoided carbon to reduce this country’s dependence on from the manufacturer, or from a local foreign oil. The National Remodelers plumbing contractor? dioxide emissions Association reports that adding a solar water heater to an existing home raises the Make sure that the workers who are actu- alone. resale value of the home by the entire cost ally installing the system are qualified to of the system. You may be able to recoup do the work. Ask the installation contrac- your entire investment when you sell your tor for references and check them. When home. the job is finished, have the contractor walk you through the system so you are Environmental Benefits familiar with the installation. And be sure that an owner’s manual with maintenance Solar water heaters do not pollute. By instructions is included as part of the investing in one, you will be avoiding car- package. bon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur diox- ide, and the other air pollution and wastes A Bright Future created when your utility generates power

Consider only or you burn fuel to heat your household A solar water heater is a long-term invest-

water. When a solar water heater replaces ment that will save you money and energy certified and labeled an electric water heater, the electricity dis- for many years. Like other renewable placed over 20 years represents more than energy systems, solar water heaters mini- systems when 50 tons of avoided carbon dioxide emis- mize the environmental effects of enjoying sions alone. Carbon dioxide traps heat in a comfortable, modern lifestyle. In addi- choosing a solar the upper atmosphere, thus contributing tion, they provide insurance against to the “greenhouse effect.” energy price increases, help reduce our water heater. dependence on foreign oil, and are invest-

Be a Smart Consumer ments in everyone’s future.

Take the same care in choosing a solar You might also consider other solar energy water heater that you would in the pur- systems for your home. Systems similar to chase of any major appliance. Your best the solar water heater are used for space protection is to consider only certified and heating and swimming pool heating. In labeled systems. One such label is put on fact, pool heating is a major market for by the Solar Rating & Certification Corpo- solar energy systems. For more informa- ration (SRCC), a nonprofit, independent tion on these systems, contact EREC. third-party organization formed by the,

Source List Reading List

The following organizations can provide you with infor- The following publications provide further information mation to help you find the solar water heater that is about solar water heaters. The list is not exhaustive, nor right for you. does the mention of any publication constitute a recom- mendation or endorsement. American Solar Energy Society (ASES) 2400 Central Avenue, Unit G-1 Articles Boulder, CO 80301 “Let the Sun Provide Your Shower,” S. Baldassari, (303) 443-3130 Countryside & Small Stock Journal, (78) p. 55, Fax: (303) 443-3212 November/December 1994. ASES is a nonprofit educational organization founded in 1954 to encourage the use of solar energy technologies. ASES pub- “Solar Hot Water for the 90s,” M. Rosenbaum, Solar lishes a bimonthly magazine, Solar Today, and offers a variety Today, (5:5), p. 20, September/October 1991. of solar publications through its catalogue. “Solar Water Heaters Now,” Home Mechanix, (87:760) Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) p. 67, November 1, 1991. 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 “Solar Water Heating: A Viable Technology Alternative,” (407) 638-1000 M. Sheffer, Energy User News, (19:9), p. 44, September Fax: (407) 638-1010 1994. FSEC is an alternative energy center. The FSEC staff conducts “Solar Water Heating in Pennsylvania,” M.B. Sheffer and research on a range of solar technologies, offers solar energy A.S. Lau, Solar Today, (8:1), p. 12, January/February 1994. workshops, and distributes many free publications to the public. “Wisconsin Public Service Company’s Orphan Solar Program,” J. DeLaune, Solar Today, (9:3), p. 32, Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) May/June 1995. 122 C Street, NW, 4th Floor Washington, DC 20001 Books, Pamphlets, and Reports (202) 383-2600 Consumer Guide to Solar Energy, S. Sklar and Fax: (202) 383-2670 K. Sheinkopf, Bonus Books, Inc., 160 East Illinois Street, SEIA provides lists of solar-equipment manufacturers and Chicago, IL 60611, 1991. dealers and publishes a magazine called the Solar Industry Journal. The Homeowner’s Handbook of Solar Water Heating Systems, B. Keisling, Rodale Press, 1983. Solar Rating & Certification Corporation (SRCC) 122 C Street, NW, 4th Floor Periodicals Washington, DC 20001 Home Energy Magazine, 2124 Kittredge Street, No. 95, (202) 383-2570 Berkeley, CA, 94704-9942. (510) 524-5405. Home Energy SRCC publishes the thermal-performance ratings of solar Magazine is a source of information on reducing energy energy equipment. The SRCC offers a directory of certified consumption. solar systems and collectors as well as a document (OG-300-91) that details the operating guidelines and minimum standards Solar Industry Journal, Solar Energy Industries Associa- for certifying solar hot-water systems. tion, 122 C Street, NW, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20001. Solar Industry Journal has information on commercializ- For information about many kinds of energy efficiency and ing new technologies, case studies of commercially renewable energy topics, contact: available technologies, and articles on government policies and regulations that affect renewable-energy The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy businesses. Clearinghouse (EREC) P.O. Box 3048 Solar Today, 2400 Central Avenue, Unit G-1, Boulder, CO, Merrifield, VA 22116 80301. (303) 443-3130. Solar Today covers all the solar (800) DOE-EREC (363-3732) technologies, both mature and emerging, in a general- Fax: (703) 893-0400 interest format. Email: email is hidden EREC provides free general and technical information to the public on the many topics and technologies pertaining to energy efficiency and renewable energy. You may also contact your state and local energy offices for region-specific information on solar water heaters.]

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