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F=.. $i+' ;ii:' H,:', &, F' , r \ I Jlnfin, lllllulrlurrillililllll The Broadcast Powero f Nikola Tesla Part I by Gery Vassilatos tTf HE drama of Twentieth Century Science and its I intrlguing relationship with financiers and gov I ernments unfold together in the remarkable life of Nikola Tesla. His is a biography replete with all the elements of tragedy. Tesla, a great discoverer of unsur- passed force, became the focal point of old insidious forces intent on destroying the future for the selfish sake of the statusq uo. Tesla remains a focal point of wonder- ment, of dream, and of worlds whic...
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F=.. $i+' ;ii:' H,:', &, F' , r \ I Jlnfin, lllllulrlurrillililllll,

The Broadcast Powero f Nikola Tesla Part I

by Gery Vassilatos tTf HE drama of Twentieth Century Science and its I intrlguing relationship with financiers and gov I ernments unfold together in the remarkable life of Nikola Tesla. His is a biography replete with all the elements of tragedy. Tesla, a great discoverer of unsur- passed force, became the focal point of old insidious forces intent on destroying the future for the selfish sake of the statusq uo. Tesla remains a focal point of wonder- ment, of dream, and of worlds which yet should be to those who are familiar with his biography. For them, Tesla stands astride the quaint past century and the gleaming future. He is a technological Colossus, point- ing the way to a new dawn. The biography of Nikola Tesla should be the very first chapter in every child's sciencet ext. Yet, we ffnd his name stricken from the record in every avenue of which he alone holds priori ty. This conspicuous absence prompts wonderment. What the world does with discov- erers determines the world course. In the life of Nikola Tesla we see the portrayal of our own future, the fate of the world. The achievements of this researcher were lofty. The world has not yet implemented his greatest works. For a time, all the world's dramatis persone focussed on world as we know it. Tesla. He remains the legend, the theme, the archetype of all He attended various Universities in Eastern Europe during his Twentieth Century scientists. early adulthood. While delving into his studies, he became aware But who was Nikola Tesla, and where was he from? How did he by the new and insidious scientific trends which questioned the reach such a mighty stature,a nd what did he actually invent? Tesla validity of human sense and reason. An impassioned soul, Tesla was born in 1856,t he son of an illustrious Serbian family. His father, felt the pain of modern humanity in its intellectual searchf or a soul. an Orthodox priesl his uncles noteworthy military heroes of Finding no solace in any of his classes,h e sought refuge in a more highest rank. He was educated in Graz, and later moved to romantic treatment of science and nature. None could be found. Budapest.T hroughout his life he was blessed,o r haunted, by vivid Professors dutifully promoted the "new view" by which it was visions. In the terminology of Reichenbach he would be termed an declared that the natural world was " ere collection extreme sensitive. It was through these remarkable visions that of forces". Nikola Tesla invented devicesw hich the Victorian world had never This quantitative regime was mounting force among academes, seen. Indeed, his visionary experiences produced the modern who were then attempting the total conversion of scientific method. 36 SeconQd uarter1 996 Bonnent-aNos, Those who would not accept the new order were compelled !o thesee ffortsw as the strongestd esiret o achieves omethingo riginal, departf rom academicp ursuits.T esla totally rejectedt hesen otions and by this, to attain financial independencef or the sake of pure on the shongesto f inner intuitions. Most of his instructorsw ould research.H is only dream was to have a laboratory facility of his have said that he was not Univenity material. Tesla, sensitivet o own. every such dogmaticw ind, rejected their thesisa nd sought some The excessivela bors and mental exertionsn early drove him to befrerm eansf or knowing nature.I f he was to excel in engineering, the brink of madness.H e was, for as time, seizedw ith stxange there could only be cooperationw ith natural force, never violence. maladies and sensitivitiesw hich physicians could not address. It was clear to him that the new scientific world-attack would Reichenbacha ccuratelyd escribest hese symptoms,c haracteristic ultimately lead to violent responsesfr om nature itself. of extreme sensitives.T here come times when the neurological His inner conflict expressedit selfo penly and candidly, bringing sensitivityo f these individuals literally transformsa nd processes young Tesla into certain disrepute, unong rigid Univenity authori- through their being. The emergence of these rare sensitivities ties. Universitiesw ere more like military academiest han places affectss uch personsf or the remainder of their lives. where original thinking was conducted in open forum. Tesld Tesla found that his sensesw ere amplified beyond reason.H e challenged too many persons of esteemed rank with probing was terribly frightened at first nervouse xhaustionp ermeatingh is questionsf or which he was given rebuke but no real answers. frail being. Eventually leaming to managet heser are faculties,heAgifted researchera nd voracious reader, he chanced upon again resumed his life. But the visions which began in his youth somef orgottenv olumes of natural sciencew ritten by Goethe.H e were now more vivid and solid than ever before.W hen they came, had not been awaret hat Goethe, long before he chosep oetry for unbidden, he could literally touch and walk around them. Now the vehicle of his scientific themes, had also, he was equal to receiving them. written several magnificenttomes on the He was waiting for the revelation by ilffi,-A1lffi:.'#,l,1'lWo*hili"le y eta studenTt,e slawhich his alternating current motorwould appear. very same emotions, When the new Tesla's life came into a new focus [:"Jil3:*,T;fr,$?T:h':a"'dibl fie camaew areo f cer- while walking in a park with somefriends, the year 1881. It was late afternoon, and Tesla became en- ;Tl*;il""asonewhostantadisnw asctciehn tific imperatives hanced with the sight of a glorious Goethe was well aware of the new sunset. Moved to indescribable scientrinecna dn idt, i *;ri;;;;. ih" enqngiated by JOhann YOn emotions, he began quoting a verse reduction of nature to forces and mecha- from Goethe's "Faust": 'lii#:T' :iff":H:;"[#,fff*, :;

G oetheO. neo f thesew as "The glow retreats, done is our

;J[T::t"":;i,l :'kTf fi: thep reservatiaond e xten-day of toil;it yonder hastes,n ew fields of life textsa nd read theset o the exclusion of exploring, all other philosophies.I t was through siono f alla ctivitiensa tural. ah, can no wing lift me from this this window that we may comprehend soi l .all of Tesla'ss ciendficm ethodsa nd later upon his track to follow, follow statementsF. or in Teslawe seet he quest soaring?" for communion with nature, one based on the faith that mind, sensation,c onsciousnessa,n d ordained skucture form the world- As he reachedt his last line of verse,T esla was suddenlys eized foundations. by an overwhelmingv ision. In il he beheld a greatv ortex, whirling The sense-validatinQg ;ralitativeT heme againa ppearsi n Nikola eternally in the sun and driving acrosst he earth with its infinite Tesla.A rmed with this foundation,h e was able to filter and qualify power. Completely absorbed in this glory, he became catatonic every other new study with which he was presented.I n addition, and irresponsive...tot he great fear of his companions.H is mind he was irresistibly drawn into the study of electricity, the "new and body buzzingwith the power of the vision, he suddenlyb lurted magick". In the following months, he absorbed the electrical oul "seem y motor here...watchm e reversei t", They shookh im, engineeringc oursess o rapidly that he no longer attendedc lasses. believing he had lost his mind completely. He had taken a technical position in Budapest. Several new Rigid and resistinga ll of their efforts,h e would not move until intuitionsh ad seizedh im. Tesla becamef ascinated.o bsessedw ith thev isions ubsidedW. hen he wasl inallyl ed to a bench,h e seemed alternatinge urrent electricity.T he problem he faced was consid- completelyh ansformed.T he remainder of the day was spentinaered insurmountable, Tesla was sure that he could devise an grand and joyous celebration,T esla's remaining funds supplying enginew hich wast urned, not by contact-currentsb, ut by magnetic the feast.T hroughout the long hours of that night he sharedw ith field actionsa lone. his friends the great sight he had beheld. They spoke of the sure The struggle toward designing such a device, begun as a implications portended for the world's future, and departedw ith puzzlinga musemen!w as now completelyc onsumingh is strength. very great expectations. The answer,t antalizinga nd near,s eemede lusive.U ndergirding all Moving to Strassburg,h e was employed as an engineer in a BononRr-eNns SecondQ uarter 1996 37, subsidiary of the Continental Edison Company' It was lously wealthy at a Young age'telephone Tesla extended Lis generatorf requenciesi n multiples of sixtyinasmallmachineshopthatheconshuctedtheworld' sfirstumagnetic until reachings omet hirty thousandc yclesP er second'T hesev ery brushless motors, He called them vortex motors"' Their current became the marvel whirling magnetic fields ba.filed electrical engineers' Now, Tesla's high frequeriry altemating Senerators riere studying his work' Goethe was absolute in his of-all tt u and engneering world' They were copied and profurri., ".ua"mic subsequent inventors including judgement human nature: nature leads humanity to modified by several other of science and "follow, follow soaring". Alexanderson. R emarkably driven at excessives peeds,t hey con- stituted Tesla's first belief that high frequency alternatingc urrentTesla'sstxangewhi. l ingdevicesworkedontheirveryf irsttr ial . connections between the rotors and stators' no generatorsw ould supply the world's There were no Power' and elficienl High frequencyc urrent phenomenaw ere new and exceedinglysparking, lossy brushes. The motion was smooth generators, transformers' and culoJs. A line of experimentalr esearchw as conductedinorder to Nu*"ro,r. alternating current motors, all were developed by Tesla in quick succes-' evaluaten ew safea nd possibly m ore efficientw aysf or hansmiting "brushless" elevatedl ines, Tesla statedt hat the transmission sion. The vision in material form. Himself a professional draftsman' power along long Tesla emigrated to of such safe currents acrossv e{y long powerline distancesi n thehe mapped out his entire Polyphase System' a full pordolio of plans. America would be the place future would be a certainty, s eeingt heir wonderful new qualities. America with where his dreams would find fulfillment' Tesla found that high frequency currentsw ere harmlessw hen body. Dischargesf rom these generators Continually attracted to engineering problems which none contactedb y the human never penehatingm afrer could master, his sudden visualization of the solutions became his haversedt he outer surfaceo f materials, as well as others' he with depth. There was no danger when working with high normal mode of operation' In this respec! his technical assistants' He worked for fr"q.r"ncy currents. He also observed their very curious and remained the wonder of all Edison in NewJersey for a very short time period until beautifuf spark effects. They hissed and fizzled all over wire Thomas securing a laboratory and financial supPorters of his own' conductors, could stimulate luminescence in low pressure gas venture he developed arc lamps and bulbs. seemedt o traversei nsulativeb arriers with ease,a nd made In his first independent fireworks displays' lighting systems. When his financial supporters betrayed his trusg Iisle pinwheelss pin like delicate little effects were weak and furtive' They ti"y tJft'frit" bankrupt ovemight. He became a ditch digger, Though curious, the in America seemed to intimate some future technology which he was yetsufiering faced -t hael l the indignities which immigrants value of publicity after his unable to penetrate.T esla learned that his intuitions and visionsduring 1880's. He learned the very incesslantm ention of polyphase and alternating current managed were infallible. What he guessedu sually proved true' This to attract the attention of certain new financial supporters' Theypd^,e rsonalr evelation, he later claimed, was his Sreatest iscovery' his own As the safety of all personnel was his main concern, he wasdrew him out of the ditch, but not before he demanded Polyphase laboratory, a machine shop, and a sizable personal percentage "up consumedw ith the idea of making his High Frequency our present day electrical distribution system' Systemc ompletelys afef or human operaton and consumen alike' front". The resultwas Tesla did not invenf alternating current' Tesla reinvented An extensivee xamination of each Systemc omPonentw as under' alternating currentin the form of Polyphase Current' His Polyphase taken with this aim in mind. Tesla was thorough and relentlessin system *a. a no\rel means for blending three identical alternating his quest for safety a nd efliciency. currents together simultaneously, but "out of step"' The idea was But, his involvement w ith alternatingc urrentsw ould come to an similar to having three pistons on a crankshaft rather than one' abrupt and unexpected e nd. During a serieso f experimentsw hich Tesla's method had wonderful advantages, especially when motors followed theseh igh frequency t ests,a n amazings eldom-mentioned were to be operated. Formally, no one could make an alternating accidento ""u.r"d in which Tesla observeda phenomenonw hich current motor turn at all simply because no net motion could be forever altered his view of electricity and technology' derived from a current which lust "shuttled" to and fro' Polyphase applied a continuous series of separate "pushes" to SHOCKING


and professionael xperimentert hroughouth is rotors. hesla's-iolyphase System made brushless motors and Teslaw as an avid an intensen ature that he was able !o brilliant lighting methods possible. Polyphase made it also possible life. His curiosityw as of such with no regard for to send elect ical power to very great distances with little loss. plumb the mysierieso f an electricalp eculiarity would work and sleepf or a few Alternating electrical currents vibrated in the line. Current did not iri. o*r, comiort. Whereas E dison sleepu ntil he had achieved flow continuously from end to end, as in Edison's flawed system' hours on the floor, Tesla would never venture. This marathon could last for Edison's direct current system could not supply electricity beyond successin an experimental to work through a seventyt wo hour a few city blocks before current virtually disappeared' days. He *". orr.. observed techniciansw ere in awe of him' In efforts to discover a more efficient kind of polyphase, Tesla period without fatigue. His over with new eleckical discov- explored higher frequency alternating currents' During this re- The Victorian Era was flooding up with the sheer volume of shange ,"ur.h, he built and patented several remarkable generators' eries by the day. Keeping Higher frequency polyphase was found by Tesla to perform with electrical discoveries and curiosities was a task which Tesla than the common sixty-cycle variety which we thoroughly enjoyed...and preferred. His Polyphase System in faigreater "ffi.u"y occupationo fshrdying new still-use. He fully intended on implementing these special genera- perfeciwotking order, the pleasurable journals often fascinatedh is mind to the tors in the systemw hich his Patron and friend, George Westinghouse, gazettesa nd slientific all other iesponsibilities. A millionaire and world- had proliferated. The business arrangement rendered Tesla fabu- Ixclusion of 38 SecondQ uarter 1996 BoRoBRleups, were quickly closed and opened in his Polyphase

GREATSffi System.S wirch terminals were often blasted to pieceswhen the speed of the switchmanm atched the current DISCOVEWhyendl phase.Tesla assessedth e situation very accurately. Sud- Nhola Tesla ,fl denly applied currents will stress conductors both

-I Postttvely E'',.ct Tt'Elt Wkt h, tl', Nos, Dc{od.Nt* elecbically and mechanically' When the speed of the Sourcq ol EneeJI llflll Bcopend Up Wl&h switch-actionis brief enough, and the power reachesa mtl fttt at th U.rloJ/d ol MatM Emryvbn ft|vo sufliciently high crescendo,t he effectsa f,en ot unlike a tn llnttmttud Amo.iitt-I Ha|, LId.a D''(',V.'/l miniature lightring stroke. Electricity initially heatst he whlch I.E t.Et to Ant'pdtitr. &6" wire, bringing it to vapor point. The continual applica- & Flrry Gol&r tion of current then blastst he wire apart by electrostatic f,llIOU fEl,ILd|ffi. l. F l! -i.. r. repulsion.B utwas this mechanistice xplanationr esPon- sible for eveqyp art of the phenomenon? The mostr efractorym etalsw ere saidt o be vaporized by such eleckical blasts.O thers had used this phenom- htl$ ddb- ldUd. t . r { | d rhllenon to generatet iny granular diamonds. Yes, there.a . bffib Laadh5ll. * were other aspectsa bout this violent impulse phenom- enon which tantalized him. Sufficiently inhigued, he developeda small lightning "generator"c onsistingofahigh voltage dynamo and small capacitors torageb ank. His idea was to blast sectionso f wire with lightningJike currents.H e wanted to observet he mechanicallye xplo sive effects which wires sustain under sudden high-powerede leckific ations. Instantaneousa pplicationso fhigh current and high voltage could literally convert thin wires into vapor. Chargedt o high direct current potentials,h is capacitors were allowed to dischargea crossa sectiono f thin wire. Tesla configured his test apparatus to eliminate all possiblec urrent alternationsT. he applicationofasingle switch contactw ould here produce a single, explosive electrical surge: a direct current impulse resembling lightning. At first Tesla hand-operated the system, ,;;",us before the age of thirty, Tesla sought the pure kind manually snappinga heavy knife switch on and off. This became of research he had so long craved' lessf avorablea s the dynamo voltagesw ere deliberatelyi ncreased. Whenever he observed any intriguing electrical effect he He quickly closedt he large knife switchh eld in his glovedh and. immediately launched into experimental study with a hundred Bang!T he wire exploded.B ut as it did so, Teslaw as stungbyavariations. Each study brought him such a wealth of new knowl- pressure blast of needle-like penetrations.C losing the dynamo edge that, based on phenomena which he observed, he was down. he rubbed his face, neck, arms, chest,a nd hands' The immediately able to formulate new inventions and acquire new irritation was distinct.H e thoughtw hile the dynamo whirred down patents. to a slows pin.T he blastwasp owerful.H e musth aveb eens prayed Tesla's New York laboratories had several sections. This com- by hot metal droplets as small as smoke particles. Though he plex was arranged as a multilevel gallery, providing a complete examined his person, he fortunately found no wounds. No evi- research and production facility. Tesla fabricated several of his dence of the stinging blast which he so powerfully felt. large transformers and generators in the lower floors, where the Placing a large glassp late between himself and the exploding machine shops of this building were housed. The upper floors wire, he performed the test again.B ang! The wire again turned to contained his privaie research laboratories. He had athacted a vapor...butt he pressureds tinginge ffectw as still felt. But' what was loyal staff of technicians. Of all these, Kolman Czito was a trusted this? How were these stinging effectsa ble to penetratet he glass friend who would stand by Tesla for the remainder of his life. Czito plate?N ow he wasn ot surew hetherh e wase xperiencinga Pressure was the machine shop foreman in each of Tesla's New York effect or an electrical one. The glassw ould have screeneda ny laboratories. mechanicals hrapnel,b utwould not appreciablys hield any electri- Tesla observed that instantaneous applications of either direct cal effects. or altemating current to lines often caused explosive effects. While Through careful isolation of each experimental componenl these had obvious practical applications in improvement and Tesla graduallyr ealizedt hat he was observinga very raxee lechical shock safety, Tesla was seized by certain peculiar asPectso f the phenom- phenomenonE. ach" bang" producedt he sameu nexpected wire sectionsi nto vapor' enon. He had observed these powerful blasts when knife-switches responsei n Tesla,w hile exploding small

BoRornt-nNos SeconQd uarter1 996 39

, The instantaneousb urst produced strangee frectsn ever observed He could freely walk around the room during the tesLH e could with alternatingc urrents.T he painful shockings ensationa ppeared hold the shield or simply walk without it A small rotary spark each time he closed or opened the switch. These sudden shock switch was arranged in place of the hand-held knife switch. The currentsw ere MPUISES, not alternations.W hat surprised him rotary switch was arranged to intemrpt the dynamo current in slow, was the fact that these needle-like shocla were able to reach him successivein tervals.T he system was actuated,t he motor switch from a disiance: he was standing almost ten feet from the discharge cranked it contactss lowly. Snap...snap...snap'..eaccho ntact pro- site! duced the very s:une room-Iilling irritation. These electrical irritations expanded out of the wire in all This time itwas most intense.T esla could not get awayf rom the directions and filled the room in a mys6$ing manner. He had shocks,r egardlesso f his distance from the apparatusa crossh is neverb eforeo bserveds ucha n effecl He thoughtt hat the hot metal considerablyl arge gallery hall. He scarcelyc ould get near enough vapor might be actinga s a'carrier' for the electricalc harges.T his to deactivate the rotating switch. From what he was able to painfully would explain the shong Pressurew ave accompanied by the observe,t hin sparksofabright blue-whitec olor stood shaight out sensationo f electrical shock. He utilized longer wires. When the of the line with each eleckical contact. dischargew ire was resistivee nough, no explosion could occur. The shock e{fectsw ere felt far beyond the visible sparkt ermina- Wire in place,t he dynamo whirred at a slowers peed.H e threw tions. This seemedt o indicate that their potential was far greater the switch for a brief instanl and was again caught offguard by the than the voltage applied to the line. A paradox! The dynamo stingingp ressurew ave! The effect per- charge was supplied at a tension of Iifteen thousand volts, yet the sting- :ff*,*":3ih;.:l:.:ll:'i ** Thes hocke ffectws erefe lt ing sparks were characteristics of ine mystery. Hotvaporwas not available electrostatic discharges exceeding farb eyonthde v isiblsep arksome two hundred fifty thousandH'tr;*:J:'n*;lm:*s'T volts. Somehow this input current

H#ff"*l'ilffi::.?H":l lt'eilr minations...Tkenselaw was being bansformed

into a much higher voltage by an unknown pro. what was happening here? cess. No nahral explanation could The pressure wave was sharp and thatt hisw asn o ordinarybe found. No scientilic explanation strong,l ike a miniature thunderclap.I t sufticedT. here wass implyn ot enough felt strangely "electrical" when the dy- phenomenoSno.m ewherdata on the phenomenonf or an an-namo voltage was sumciently high. In swer. And Tesla knew that this was no ordinary phenomenon. Some-ff:i'Jlilffi'1#y"Tf*::i5n theh earot f thisa ctivity where in the heart of this activityw as beyond certain thresholds.I t became a deep natural secret.S ecretso f this humanity into ;:T"ffiffifl:ffi;;;il:JwllTas a deepn aturasle cret.kind always opened new revolutions. this strangev olt- l*,:"*"liffH'X"""#"S:Je.:c reotsf thisk inda lways Tesla considered age multiplying effect from several used.P erhapsh e was fortunatee nough viewpoints. The problem centered too bserve,"-,t"lp ,uh ;;;;; r?; Opened hUmanity intO ney around the fact that there wursn o the first time. magnetic induction taking place. Transformers raise or lower voltage *Jf this sh"anTgehm a*nn;elr?: HlT:;i" revolutions. when current is changing.H ere were ere was a pnhe:- *il impulses. Change was happening nomenon which was not described in during the impulse.B ut there was no any of the texts with which he was familiar. And he knew every bansformeri n the circuit. No wiresw ere closee noughf or magnetic written thing on electricity.T hinking that he was the victim of some inductions to take place. Without magnetici nduction, there could subtle,a nd possibly deadly short circuil he rigorously examined theoreticallyb e ro transformatione ffecl No conversionf rom low the circuit design.T hough he searched,h e could find no eleckical to high voltage at all. Yel each switch snap brought both the leakages.'f here were simply no paths for any possible corona radiating blue-white sparksa nd their painful sting. effectst o lind their way back into the switching terminal which he held. IMPULSES Deciding !o better insulate the arrangementi n order that all Tesla noted that the shanges parls were more like elechostatic possiblel ine leakagesc ould be eradicated,h e again attemptedt he dischargesI.f the sparksh ad been direct current arcsr eachingf rom experimenl The knife switch rapidly closed and opened,h e again the test line, he would surely have been killed with the very first felt the unpleasants hockJusta s painfully as before. Right through closeo f the swilch.T he physicalp ressurea nd sfrngingp ain of these the glasss hield! Now he was perplexed. Desiring total distance sparksa crosss uchd istancesc ould not be explained.T his phenom- from the apparatus,h e modified the grstem once more by making enon had never been reported by thosew ho should have seena nd it "automatic'. felt its activities. 40 SecondQ uarter1 996 BonoeRLANos, Tesla gradually casre to the conclusion that the shock effect was in the confidence that all elechical phenomena had been both something new, something never before observed. He further observeda nd mathematicallyd escribed, academiciansw ould be concluded that the effect was never seen before becausen o one very slow to acceptT esla's claims. had ever conskucied such a powerful impulse generator.N o one But this academic sloth is not what bothered Tesla. He had had ever reported the phenomenon because no one had ever already found adequatec ompensationf or his superior knowledge generatedt he phenomenon. in the world of industry.T esla,n ow in possessiono f an effectwhich Tesla once envisioneda vortex of pure energy while looking was not predicted by Maxwell, began to question his own knowl.. into a sunsel The result of this great hovidential vision was edge. Had he become a "mechanist", the very thing which he polyphase cunenl A true revelation. But this, this wiu an original reviled when a shrdent?E mpirical fact conbadicted what that upon discovery found through an accidenL Itwas an empirical discovery he based his whole life's work. Goethe taught that nahnre leads of enormous signiffcance.H ere was a new electrical force, an humanity. utterly new species of electrical force which should have been The choice was clean accept the empirical evidence and reject incorporated into the electrical equations ofJames Clerk Morwell. the conventional theory. For a time he struggled with a way to Surprisingly, it was not "derive" the shock elfect phenomenon by mathematically wres- Tesla now questionedh is own knowledge. He questionedt he tling "vdidity" from Maxwell's equations...butc ould not. A new foundationso n which he had placeds o much conlidencei n the last electricalp rinciple had been revealed.T esla would take this, as he severaly ears. Maxwell was the "rule and measureob y which all of did the magnetic vortex, and from it weave a new world. Tesla'sp olyphaseg eneratorsh ad been What had historically taken place constructedT. esla penetratedt he valid- was indeed unfortunate. Had Max- ity of Maxwell's mathematicalm ethod. rtw awse kun own Hf f: _t . ".,'il'Jffl".: igh _ r/ voltage well lived impulse after Tesla's cur- accidentaldiscovery, then the effect might have derived his mathematical descriptions been included in the laws. Of course, ore rechomagindeutict i,ot''. T i fents pfgdqged a hitheftO we have to assume that Maxwellgreat collection of available eleckical would have 'chosenn the phenom- lTl"ffij;i 'i:1ff":*ff';f,u',n; knowrna dianet ffectI.n enon among those which heconsidered "fundamental". doing so. pJrhanps There ew er was no phenomena.had otherway not to see hisf ctrhere was an electrical new discovery now. Empirical fact been discovered, and were therefore conhadicted theoretical base. Tesla ilil:H::fJ ffi"'i1ffi:f; oobroadcaesftf"e ctw hosewas compelled to follow. The resultwas an epiphany which changed statingh is equationsa s "final"? In deriv- Tesla's inventive €ourse. For t}te re- ing the laws of electromagnetic implementatiinoa nm yriadmainder of his life he would make induction, Maxr,vell had imposed his buarredesignswouslcidentislic easstertions which few couldnl;:[:l*U;**t""rt'#:of believe, and fewer yet would repro-duce. There ye t ex is t severa l :ff';fl*::T'llTi:1'i:"fT:Ie sla partf roma ll other reproducible eleckical phenomenawhich cannot be predicted by Max- observeds ince the eighteenthc entury. well. They continual ly appear

Maxwehua dd ifficult;y;; ;:; inVentOfS. whenever adventuresome experi-

he consideredt o be "the most funda- menters make acc identa l mental" induction effectsf rom the start observations. The selectionp rocessw as purely arbitrary. After having "decided" which induction efrectsw ere "the most fundamental", Maxwell FOCUS then reducedt heses electedc asesa nd describedt hem mathemati- High voltagei mpulsec urrentsp roduceda hithertou nknown cally. His hope was to simplif matters for engineersw ho were radiant effect. In facl here wirs an elechical "broadcast" effect designingn ew electrical machines. The results were producing whose implementation in a myriad of bizarre designsw ould set "prejudicial" responsesi n engineers who could not bear the Tesla apart from all other inventors.T his new electical force thought of any variations from the ustandard". effect Tesla had experi- wasa pre-eminentd iscoveryo f greath istoricals igniftcanceD. espite enced this kind of thematic propaganda before, when he was a this fact, few academiciansg rasped its signiftcancea s such. Fo- student.T he quandtativew ave of blindnessw as catching up with cussedn ow on dogmatizingM axwell's work, they could not accept him. Tesla's excited announcements.A cademes argued that Tesla's Tesla and others knew very well that there were strange and effectc ould not exisl They insistedt hat Tesla reviseh is statements. anomalousf orms of electromagnetici nduction which were con- Tesla's mysterious effect could not have been predicted by stantlya nd accidentallyb eing observed.T hese seemedt o vary as Maxwell becauseM axwell did notincorporate itwhen formulating the experimentala pparatusv aried. New elechicalf orce discoveries his equations.H ow could he have done so,w hen the phenomenon were a regular feature of every Nature Magazine issue.A damant wasj ust discovered?T esla now pondered the academicr amifica- BoRnenLaNos SecondQ uarter 1996 41, with confidence. Positionedb ehind his copper mantle, Tesla initiated the action. 7Z727Z...the motorized switch whirring, dynamo voltage inter- rupted severalh undred timesp er second,t he shocka ctionw asn ow continuous.H e felt a steadyr hythm of elechostaticir ritationsr ight through the barrier accompaniedbyapressurew ave which kept expanding. An impossibiltty.N o elechical influence should have passedt hrough the amount of copper which composedt he shield. Yet this energetice ffectw as penehating,e lectricallys hocking,a nd pressured,H e had no words to describe this aspect of the new phenomenon.T he shocksr eally stung. ., Tesla was sure that this new discovery would p.roduce a completelyn ew breed of inventions,o nce tamed and regulated.I ts effectsd iffered completelyf rom thoseo bservedi n high frequency alternatingc urrenl These specialr adiant sparksw ere the result of non-reversingi mpulses. In facl this effect relied on the non- reversingn ature of each applied burst for its appearanceA. quick contactc hargebyapowerful high voltage dynamo wasp erforming a feat of which no alternatingg eneratorw as capable.H ere was a demonshationo f "broadcast eleckicity". Most researchersa nd engineersa re fixed in their view of Nikola Tesla and his discoveries.T hey seem curiously rigidiffed in the thought that his only realm of experimental developmentsl ay in altemating current electricity. This is an erroneous conception which careful patents tudy reveals.F ew recognizet he documented facts thal after his work with alternating currents was completed, Tesla switched over completely to the study of impulse currents, His patentsf rom this period to the end of his careera re filled with the ierminology equatedw ith electrical impulsesa lone. The secretl ay principally in the direct current application in a small time interval. Tesla studied this time increment, believing that it might be possiblet o eliminate the pain lield by shortening the Iength of time during which the switch contact is made. In a daring series of experiments, he developed rapid mechanical rotary switchesw hich handled very high direct voltage potentials. Each contact lasted an averageo f one ten-thousandths econd. Exposing himself to such impulses of very low power, he discoveredt o hisj oy and amazement hat the pain field was nearly Nikola Tesla, age 63. absent.I n its placew as a strangep ressuree ffectwhich could be felt right through the copper barriers. Increasingt he power levels of this device produced no pain increase, but did produce an tions of this new effect.W hat then of his own a"ndp ossibly other inhiguing increasedp ressureli eld. The result of simplei ntemrpted elechicapl henomenaw hich weren ot incorporatedin to Maxwell's high voltage DC, the phenomenon was never before reported force laws?W ould academesn ow ignore their existence?W ould exceptb y wihresseso f closel ightning strokes.T his wase rroneously theyn ow evend aret o rejectt he possibilityo f suchp henomenao n attributed however to pressuree ffectsi n air. the basiso f an incomplete mathematicald escription? Not able to properly comprehendt treir nature at firsl Tesla also Seeingt hat the effectc ould grant humanity enortnousp ossibili- conservativelya pproachedt he pressurep henomenona sd ue to air ties when once tamed, Tesla wished to study and implement the pressure.H e had first statedt hat the pressuref ield efrectw as due radiante lectricala ctionu nder much saferc onditions.T he very first to sharp soundwavesw hich proceededo utward from the suddenly stepw hich he took before proceedingw ith this experimental line chargedl ine. In fac! he reported this in a little-knownp ublication was the conshuctiono f special grounded copper barriers: shields where he first announcedt he discovery.C alling the pressuree ffects to block the electricale manationsf rom reaching him. "elecbified soundwaves",h e describedt heir penetratingn ature in They were large, body sizedm andeso f relatively thick copper. acoustict erms. He groundedt heset o insure his own completes afety.I n electrical Further experimentation however, gradually brought the new terms,t hey formed a "Faraday Cage" around him. This assembly awaf,enessth at both the observed pressure effect and eleckical would block out all static dischargesf rom ever reaching Tesla shockf ieldsw ere not taking place in air at all. He demonstratedth at during the tests.N ow he could both observea nd write what he saw thesea ctionsc ould take place in oil immersions.I mpulse charged 42 SeconQd uarter1 996 BoRosRr-eNns, lines were placed in mineral oil and carefully watched. Strong linked almostd irectly to one side of this capacitor,a long and thick pressurep rojectionse mergedf rom sharp wire ends in the oil, as if copper strap connecting the magnetic arc and the far capacitor air were sheamingo ut under high pressure. plate. Teslaf irst believedt hat this streamw asw ire-absorbeda ir driven This simple asymmetric positioning of the magnetic arc dis- off by electricalp ressure.C ontinual operationo f the phenomenon charger to one side of the dynamo supply produced pure convinced him that the projected stream was not air at all. unidirectional electropositiveo r elechonegativei mpulses as de- Furthermore,h e was not at-a loss to explain the effecl but was sired. Tesla designed this very simple and powerfully effective reluctantt o mention his own theory of what had been generatedb y automatics witchings ystemf or achievingu ltra-rapidi mpulsesofahigh voltage direct current impulses. singlep olarity. Capacitorv alues,a rc distancesm, agneticf ields and Tesla made eleckical measurementso f this projective sheam. dynamo voltages were all balanced and adjusted to leld a One lead of a galvanometerw as connectedtoacopper plate, the repedtive train of ultrashort singular impulses without "flyback" other grounded. When impulses were applied to wire line, the elfects. unattacheda nd distantm eter registereda continual direct current. The system is not really well understood by engineers,t he Current through space without wires! Now here was something exceptional activities of the arc plasma inhoducing numerous which impulsesa chieved,n ever observedw ith alternaUngc urents addifional featurest o the overall system.W hile the effectsw hich of any frequency. Tesla claimed can be reproduced with electron tube impulse Analysis of this situation proved that electrical energy or circuitry, these produce decidedly inferior effects. The overall electrically productive energies were being projected from the power of the basic arc discharge is diflicult to egual. Tesla impulse device as rays,n ot waves.T esla was amazedt o lind these eventuallye nclosedt he magnetica rc, immersingt he gap spacei n rays absolutelyl ongitudinal in their action through space,d escrib- mineral oil. This blocked premature arcing, while very greatly ing them in a patent as "light-like rays". These observations increasingt he systemo utput. conformed with theoretical expectations described in 1854 by Most imagine that the Tesla impulse systemi s merely a "very Kelvin. high frequencya lternator".T his is a completelye rroneousn otion, In anothera rticleT esla callst hem "dark-rays",a nd "raysw hich resulting in elfects which can never equal those to which Tesla are more light-likei n character".T he rays neither diminishedw ith referred. The magnetic discharge device was a kue stroke of the inverses quareo f the distancen or the invene of the distance genius.I t rapidly extinguishesc apacitorc hargeinasingle disrup- from their source. They seemed to stretch out in a progressive tive blast.T his rapid current rise and declinef ormed an impulseo f shock-sheltlo great distancesw ithout any apparent loss. extraordina{F power. Tesla called this form of automatic arc switching a "disruptive discharge" circuil distinguishingi t from MAGNETIC ARCS rlumerouso ther kinds of arc discharges ystemsI.t is very simply a Nikola Tesla now required greater power levels than those means for intemrpting a high voltage direct current without provided by his mechanicalr otary switch system.H e also sawt he allowing any backward current alternations.W hen these condi- need for controlling ultra-rapid current interruptions of high tions are satisfied,t he Tesla Effect is then observed. repetition ("succession")r ates. No mechanical switch could per- The asymmetricapl ositioningo f the capacitora nd the magnetic form in this manner. He had to envision and devise some new arc determinest he polarity of the impulse train. If the magnetica rc meansb y which ultra-rapidi nterruptionsc ould be obtained.I n his device is placed near the positive charging side, then the sbap is best and most efftcient system, highly charged capacitorsw ere chargedn egativea nd the resultantc urent dischargei s decidedly allowed to impulsively dischargea crosss pecial heavy duty mag- negative. netic arcs. Tesla approachedt he testingo f his more powerful systemsw ith The magnetica rc gap wasc apableo f handling the largec urrents certain fear. Each step of the testing processw as necessarilya required by Tesla.I n achievingp owerful, sudden impulseso f one dangerous one. But he discovered that when the discharges polarity, these were the most durable. Horn shaped electrodes exceeded ten thousand per second, the painful shock elfect was were positionedw ith a powerful permanentm agneticl ield. Placed absent.N erveso f the body were obviouslyi ncapableo f registering at right anglest o the arc itself,t he currentsw hich suddenlyf ormed the separatei mpulses.B ut this insensitivityc ould lead to a most in this magnetics pacew ere accelerateda long the horns until they seductived eath. The deadly aspectso f elechicity might remain. were extinguished.R apidly extinguished! Tesla was therefore all the more wary of the experiments. Arcs were thus completely extinguishedw ithin a speciliedt ime He noticed thal though the pain field was gone, the familiar increment.T esla conligured the circuit parameterss o as to prevent pressuree ffectr emained.I n its place came a defined and penetrat- capacitora lternationsf rom occurring through the arc space.E ach ing heat.T esla was well awaret hat such heat could signal internal arc discharger epresenteda pure unidirectional impulse of very elecbocution. He had already made a thorough study of these greatp ower.N o "contaminatingc urrent reversals'w ere possibleo r processesr,e cognizingt hat such heatingp recedest he formation of permissible. electricala rcst hrough the body. Neverthelessh, e applied power to Reversals..,alternations...wourludi n the "shock broadcast".T he the dynamo in small but steady intervals. effectwasn ever observedw hen alternadngc urrentsw ere engaged. Each increaseb rought increasei n the intemal heating effects. High voltagew as supplied by a large dynamo. Tesla could speed He remainedp oiseda t eachp ower level,s ensinga nd scopingh is or slow this dynamo with a hand operated rheostat.P ower was own physiologyf or danger signs.H e continued raising the power applied in parallel across the capacitor. The magnetic arc was level until the magnetic arc reached its full buzzing roar. Tesla

BononRllNos SecondQ uarter 1996 43

, found that this heat could be adjusteda nd, when not extreme'w as appeaxanceS. mooth, fluidic sheaths c overed coPper cylinders of completelye njoyable.S o soothing,r eloring, and comfortablew as speciftc size. This absolutely fascinated Tesla' There was an this manifestationt hat Tesla daily exposedh imself !o the energies' aerodynamic nature inherent in radiant eleckicity' An eleckical'sauna'. Copper cylinders produced remarkable volumes of white dis- He Iater reported these ftndings in medical journals, freely charges.T he dischargesf rom certain sized cylinders were actually offering the discovery to the medical world for ib therapeutic larger than those being applied. This inferred that an energy benefits.T esla was a notoriousu ser of all such therapiesf rom this baisformation efrect was talcing place withhf the cylinder' This time on, often falling into a deep sleep in the warm and penetrating reminded him of his initial observation with the shock-excited influences.C )nce,h aving overindulged the electresaunat herapy, wires.T hose which did not explode gave f orth far greaterv oltages he fell into a profoundly deep sleepf rom which he emergeda day than were initially used. He had never understoodw hy this was later! He reported that this experience was not unpleasant but occurring. Here was another instance in which applied energy wrN realizedt hat proper "electrodosages"w ould necessarilyh ave'tob e seeminglym agnified by a conductor. Why was this happening? determinedb y medical The key to understandingt his bizarre phenomenon might be Personnel. copper During this time, Tesla found shorteri mpulse lengthsw here the found here, he thoughr He observedt he discharges f tom white heating effect disappeared altogether, rendering the radiance cylinders of various diameters.E ach became edged with harmless.T hese impulse trains were so very high that brush discharges when held near or actually placed within the absolutely the deepestn enreso f one's body could not senset he permeadng conductive copPers trap of the impulser' The discharge e frectw as radiant energyf ield. Now he could Pumueh is vision of broadcast most pronouncedw hen cylinders w ere placedw ithin the periphery energy systemsw ithout fear of rendering to humanity a technologi- of the copper strap. cal curse, rather than a true blessing' Tesla noticed that white corona sheathsw ere actually covering the outer cylinder wall at times' These would appear, build in TRAI{ISFORMERS strength, and disappear on sudden dischargew ith a surprising Tesla opera0edt he magnetic arc $'stem at higher power levels' length. The sheathing action was repetitive when the cylinder had experim.enting with various impulse lengths and repetition rates' small volume. Very small cylinders behaved like rods, " "titi".[y He measured the mys0eriouse lechical current which apparently where dischargeso nly appeared at their edges.T he stability of flowed through space from this system. These radiant ftelds theses hanges heathd ischargesv aried with cylinder diameter and operated at far greater power than before. Strange effecb were length. suddenlya ppearinga tcertaind istancesfr om the magneticimpulser. Tesla noticed that not every cylinder performed well near the For one thing,T eslan odcedt hat metallics urfacesn eart he impulser impulser. Only cylinders of specificv olume produced stablea nd became covered with white brush-like corona dischaqges.W hile white electricals heathsI' f the cylindersw ere too small,"otttinoonr the sparksp layed in uails acrosst he metal surfacesT, esla observed then the sheaths were intermitent and unstable. There was an physicalm ovement among the metal objects.T ensionsa nd rock- obvious connection between the supplied impulse hain and the ing motions. Both phenomena occurtng simultaneously,h e was cylinder volume. But what was it? utterly fascinated. The sparls themselves seemed alive. The Tesla surveyed the entire range of his recent discoveries' moving metal objectss eemedt o suggestn ew motor effects.W hat Impulses produced a radiant elechicd effect. Radiant electricity, was this shange codition, this synchronicity of phenomena? was mysteriously flowing through space. As it flowed, it focussed Brilliant white coronas came forth with a gaseous "hhslng" over metal conductors as a white fluidic corona' When the shape just the energy soundf rom metal poinb and edges.M etal platesw ere soonp oised and volume of the metal conductorsw ere righg around the device for observation' Tesla recognized at once that appeared as a stable white corona of far greater voltage than the all these efrecb were not identical with those obtained earlier while impulse generators upplied. More quesdons.M ore discoveries' using high frequency dteinating currents. These new discharges Rods produced sparks from their edges, but not as long as which worked very were white, energetic,a nd shong. copper cylindersd id. Tesla selecteda cylinder The electrical behavior of copper plates, rods, cylinders, and well, and placed severalh orizontal" cuts" all around its surface'H e spheresn ear his impulser brought forth a great variety of was totally surprised when, on testing, the spark discharge f rom the Primary white fluidic dischargesS. trong dischargeb rushesa ppearedf rom cut cylinder wasn otably larger than before.I ncreaseds park l ength conductivity the ends of copper plates' These came in prodigious volumes, meansi ncreasedv oltage.B utwhy did this diminished hissing and arcing wildly in all directions, especially from sharp force the voltage uP? points. Tesla hied copper discs.T hese seemedt o produce more The cuts diminished conductivity in the cylinder by forcing the stabled ischargesH. e observedt he curious manner in which these energy into a tighter "squeeze". He had noted that eleckical dischargess eemedt o *raceoa white round the disc edge at times, impuisesd isplayeda tendencyt o traverset he outer surfaceo f metal blending and separating with all the other sparls. Here was a conductors. Certain cylinders were often ensheathedinafluidic C- reatlym agnilied example of Reichenbach'sO d force perhaps! white dischargew hich smoothly havelled between coil ends in a He noted the manner in which white brush dischargesa ppeared tightly constrictedl ayer. Here was something truly notable' His coil from copperc onductorso f difrerents hapesE. achf orm, poisedn ear inpui voltage was far lesst han that produced from the upper his impulser, gave a characteristicc orona dishibution. This coronal terminal. But why from end to end? corresponderrcew ith specilic geometric form greatly The essentialr easonw hy current preferred outer surfacec on- {Pressed trim. With certain metal forms the discha^rgesw ere very fluidic in duction was precisely because t hey were impulsing' The sudden 44 SecondQ uarter 1995 BonpBnt-nvos, Tesla knew that here is where the secret lies. If resistancei n the conductor is great enough, the snapping electrostaticf orce cannot move any charges. It is forced to "grow" over the conductor surface until it discharges at the end point where greatly magnified voltagesa re obtained. When the wire diameter is small enough, the wire explodes under electrostatic pressures which exceed those seen in dynamite. In effect, Tesla had managed to interrupt a high voltage direct current several thousand times per second. In doing so, he had discovered away to completely separatee lectrostatice nergy from current impulses. Tesla pondered these facts, wondering if it was . possible to force the magnification effect beyond the limits of standard electromagnetic transformers. In other words, how high could voltage be raised? Was there a limit to the process? In order to achieve such enormous voltage levels, he needed a conductive shape which offered so much resistance to charge movemen! that all the applied energy would become electrostatic. In effect, Tesla wanted to convert a quantity of supply power into a pure electrostatic voltage. This phenomena suggested that his goal was not impossible. Tesla extended his idea of the cut copper cylinder to coils. From the viewpoint of electrostatici mpulses, flat copper coils appear to be "continuously cut" cylinders. The electrostaticf ield focuseso ver the coil as it did with the cylinders, from end to end. A simple magnet coil of specific volume would offer so much resistancet irat it would be difficult to predict the actual resultant voltage which results without an empirical test.


Qonstructing several of these, he was ready for the test. When each copper magrret coil was impulsed, Tesla saw tremendous white brushes leaping from their free ends: dischargesa pproaching one million volts! But his supply power was nowhere near these voltages, and the coil was not wrapped in thousands of windings. These previously unexpected voltage magnifications were the result of an energ'yt ransformation, one which took electrical power and converted it completely into pressure. Watts into Volts, an unheard thing. It was the key to a new and explosive technology. shock which any conductor experienced produced an expansive Tesla also found that such coils required very thin coil forms. He effect, where the electrical charge was rejected by the conductive ceased using cellulose and cardboard forms, preferring "squirrel interior. This "skin effect" was a function of impulse time and cage" type forms made of thin end-braced wooden rods. Wire was conductor resistance. Highly resistant objects forced all of the wound about these cylindrically disposed rods, producing the very impulse energy to the surface. best effects. Spacings were also tried between successive coil Now he was getting somewhere. Frustrated radiant electricity windings with excellent results. Spaced windings reduced spark- constricted into a tighter surface volume when encountering metal ing to a minimum. surfaces.T his intense surface focussing effect brought the voltage Tesla remarked that the electrostatic potentials along the coil up to tremendous values. Here was a new transformer effect! He surface (from end to end) could be as much as ten thousand volts believed it was an electrostatic transformation. Impulse currents per inch of winding! A ten inch coil of proper volume could each possesseda n electrostaticn ature. The bunching of charge in produce one hundred thousand volt discharges.I n addition, and the impulser brings this electrostatic field to a peak in a small instant in confirmation of his suspicions,n o current was ever measured at of time. the free terminals of these coils. A "zero coil current" condition! It Constricting this field volume produces a greatly magnified was simply another paradox which would occupy the academ! voltage. Placement of any conductor in the field space alters the cians for several more argumentative decades. field by constricting its shape. When symmetrical conductors of Tesla suddenly realized that coils representeda truly special and special shape,v olume, and resistancea re placed in this space,t he valuable component in his quest. The instantaneous resistance field is greatly constricted.B ecauset he impulsing electrostaticf ield which any coil offered to an applied impulse was so immense that is very abrupt, it "snaps" over the conductor from end to end. current could not flow through the wire length. As a phenomenal

BoRoBnleNos SecondQ uarter1 996 45

, consequencen, o current flowed through the coil windings at all! themselves, though violent in appearance' were "soft" when But sparkingw as observed,t ravelling from coil end to end. Here compared to all other forms of electricity. He had successfully was yet another anomaly! removed the hazard from electricity. In blocking the slow and He began placing these" secondary" coils within his "primary" dense charges,h e had freed the mysterious effirsive ather streams impulserc ircuit.T he straPw hich connectedh is magnetica rc to the inherent in electricity.B ecauseo f this, new,and intensifiedr adiant capacitorsf ormed the "primary". He made necessaryd istinctions effecb were constantlym aking their appearancea crossh is labora- among his Transformer components.F ew engineersa ctually ap tory space. preciate these distinctions. The "primary" and "secondary" of Tesla found that as thesen ew "Impulse Transformers"g reatly Tesla Transforners are not magrretic inductors. They are resistive magnified power supplied to them, so also their radiant elechic capacitors.C oil-shapedc apacitors!T esla Transformer action is effectsw ere equally magniffed. He found it possiblet o wirelessly electrostatici nduction. project elechostaticp ower to very great distancesl,i ghting special There were conditionsf or the most efffcientm anifestationo f the .. lamps to full candlepower at hundreds of feet' In these experi- effect.M axrvell could not predict thesev alues' Tesla empirically ments,h e alsoc onceivedo f signallings ystemsI.t would be possible discoveredm ost of the rules for impulse behavior. He found that 0o switch radiant effects in telegraphic fashion. Distant vacuum the hansformative abilities of these smooth copPer coils were tube receiversw ould then light or dim in correspondingm anner. maximum when the coil masse qualled the masso f the impulser's Tesla experimentedw ith a specialb reed of telegraphicw irelessi n conductive copper shap. It did not matter how thin the coil 1890. windingsw ere. The equality of copper massesb rought mardmum He also found it possible to wirelessly oPerates pecially con' hansformativee ffects.W hen this equal mass condition was ful- structedm otors by properly interceptingt his space-flowinge nergy Iilled, Tesla said that the coil-capacitorsw ere uin resonance'' stream.H e had made his own polyphases ystemo bsolete!T he new Electrostaticr esonance. vision was vastly more enthralling. The world would be hans- Tesla found it possiblet o produce millions of elecirostaticv olts formed. He discoveredw ays to beam the enerry out to any focus, by this method. His {irst Transformersw ere horizontal in orienta- even !o the zenith. His plan to illuminate the night sky with a radiant tion, both free ends of the secondary coil-capacitorp roducing energy beacon captured the minds of all who listened' unidirectional impulses of great Power' White dischargesf rom Tesla now possessedth e meansb y which the radiant eleckicity eacho fthesef ree endsh ad very differentc harac0eristicisn,d icating could be Creadym agnilied and hansmised. He could now bans- the unidirectionalf low. Elechopositivel erminals alwaysa ppeared form the very nature of the radiance so that it could carry brushlike and broad. Electronegativet erminals always appeared increasinglyg reaterp ower. Now he could begin developinga new conskicted and dartlike. technology which would completely revitalize the world order. His next Transformer seriese mployed vertical cylinders with Powdr could be broadcastt o any location without wire connec- the basec onnectedd irectly to ground. Free terminalss tood quite tions. Radiant electricity could be utilized in completely new a distancea bove the primary capacitor straP,s Poutinga brilliant appliances.A new world was about to be released! white crown.T hesem arked a turning pointin his theoriesc oncern- ing electricity,s incei twas possiblef or him to developw ell over one SPACE FLOWING CI,JRRENT million volts impulsep ower in a devices carcelyt aller than a child. Understandingt he analogue between these electrical impulse Thesed ischargesw ere of an intensew hite coloration.W hitefire. effectsa nd the behavior of high Pressureg asesw .ul of paramount Very sudden impulsesc olor dischargec hannelsw ith the brilliant importance.T his gaseousa specto f impulse electricalr adiancew as whitefire becauseT esla Transformerss eparatet he effusivee ether perhapst he most mystifying aspecto f these new-found energies. from electrons.T esla Transformer conduct ether, not elechons. Those who sought out Tesla's every lechrre were very aware that The whitefireb rilliance is the disfnctive etheric hademark ofTesla a new elechical speciesh ad been discovered. Transformers. While yet a shldenl Teslah ad becamea wareo f certains cientilic During this time, Tesla discovered the peculiar necessityf or imperativese nunciatedb yJohann von Goethe. One of thesew as streamliningh is Transformers. Clindrical secondary capacitors the preservation and extension of all activities-nahrralG. oethe suddenlyb ecamec onical forms.T hese presentedt he most bizarre implied that when natural conditions were Preserved during appearanceo f all. Tesla used cone-shapeds econdariesto focust he experimentation,t hen nature itselfw as in the best conliguration0 o impulses.W hitefire dischargesf rom these forms evidenced real reveal more unified phenomenale xhibitions to qualitativeo bserv- focussinge ffects, the dischargest hemselvesa ssuming inverted ers. conical shapes.T heir greatly intensified nature is seen in photo Tesla recognizedt hat his new discoveryo f impulse,t he resulto f graphsw hich were taken under his own inhigued supervisionT. he an acciden! was a total departure from polyphase alternating magnified voltagesw ere reaching those thresholds in which his current.W hile his original vision of the vortex was applied by him laboratory enclosuresw ere far too small !o continue making to the designingo f motors and generatorsT, esla now redized that indushial scalep rogresso n radiant energy systems. this was not its primary messageI' n fact, taken from the viewpoint The fact that whitefire dischargesp ass through all matter, which Goettree xpressed,p olyphasew as a most unnaturalf orm of notably insulators,r evealed the etheric nature. Tesla saw that enerS'y. whitefire dischargesc ould permeate all materials in a strangely Nahrral acfivity is suffused with impulses, not alternations. gaseousm anner. This penetrations carcelyh eated mafrer. In facl Natural activity is initiated as a primary impulse. Nature is flooded the whitefire brushes often had a cooling effect' The sparks with impulses of all kinds. From lightning to nervous activities, all 46 SeconQd uarter1 996 BonoenLlNos, natural energy movements occur as impulses. Impulses were now as conceived by Faraday. Young James Clerk Mocwell also seen by Tesla to fill the natural world. But, more fundamentally, believed that force lines were dynamic, longitudinal lines of flow. Tesla saw that impulses flood the metaphysical world. But flowlines of what substance?H ere lay the principle problem The mysterious flow of meanings during conversation occurs as which occupied physicistst hroughout the Victorian Era. a sequence of directed impulses in space. Though inert air vibrates Victorian researchersa nd natural philosophersw ished to dis- in alternations with sounds uttered, the flow of meaning remains cbver the exact nature of the "flowing charge" of which force lines unidirectional. Intentions are also impulses. The unidirectional were composed. Most agreed that the mysteriousf lowing "sub- flow of intentions appear as impulses. Motivations proceed from stance" had to be an effusive, ultra-gaseousfl ux, This flux was the manifestation of sudden desires. Overtly expressed as actions, composed of infinitesimal energy particles which effected the the initiating impulses are then fulfilled. various pressuresa nd inductions observed. Tesla wished to comprehend where this "motivating force" Henry and Faraday shuggledw ith the idea of deriving usable came from, and where it went during the expressed actions. In all elechic power from static charges.T he notions was thal since of this, he was very much the wonderful stereotype of the Victorian forcelinesw ere made of a "flowing charge substance",t hen lixed natural phllosopher. His scientific pursuits followed these consid- contactsp laced on chargedm :Nsesw ould supply electricalp ower erations until the last. Those who study his announcements forever. No one was able, however, to derive this flowing charge. recog'nize his metaphysical foundations, the basis of all his subse- Iossy dischargesp recedede very contact,M ost researchersw, hose quent scientificq uests. attempts with highly charged ley- Tesla observed the amazing "coordi- denJarsf ailed,s oughta more benign nationr 'e pwr ,",,o*";,'4,u r lg"t VefVf epUtable expefiment- source of concenhatedc harge.T he seeme'd, tloj b,r3ing 1new1 te'cThno;lo#gic:a:l p '

Jo- "Tj;'ill quest shifted to magnets, but thelillf, ersb esideTse slcao ntinuedattempt remained as futile as ever.There remained no availablew ay to

new and fortunate position in nature. I o . lr / zt at derive power from the individual

Havinsgo meh"obw.o kehni-s ii xarionC lalmmg tnat"spaCe ilOW- flowing chargesofaforceline.

with the unnatural...with polyphase...he . JJ. Thomsond iscoverede lechons r-e,-e,n,te"r.e-d" ,th ^e i,nf,ha ,tu6.,ra,l o,'rf: :":::::j:; ing electriiciityt"'i s the real in vacuum dischargesa, ssumingth atpulsesC. ould it be thatt he inductiono f these" electric particles' operaledi n i,lil$ri'il'Jlij:il:ffi1,eI1le",c*t;r icityT.e sla'sc lassicall instancesw here electricala ctivitywas observed.V ictorian researchers he producing a metaphysical vortex, r did not acceptt his view completely.intwo hicuhut r ,"i. ,,p,l,:"ori;;; demOnStfatiOnspfovedthat Thomson's "elechons"w ere viewed of nature would now flow? Was this the as the result of violent collisions ;T:il:['T""'ff:;T:i;";r3a1pfiid::e lectricailm pulsesacrossa vacuum accelerations pace.It was not possible to ascertain electricity the fundamental natural actuallye xceetdh ea bility whether theses ame uThomsonc ur- energy...t he motivator? rents' were active within eleckical Victorian Science was not exactly conductors operating at small volt- sure what electricity was, there being so of fixedc hargetso trans- ages. verv manv attributes associated with the Very reputable experimenters ffiifi:l,TnffiJ,:3iffmi*,i:ttf hi ea ppliefdo rces. besides Tesla continued claiming that "spacef lowing electricity' is the on the nature of both electric and mag- real elechicity. Tesla's classicd em- netic forces. Gilbert and Descartes onstrations proved that rapid shared the belief that these forces were a special kind of "flowing electrical impulses actually exceed the ability of ffxed charges to charge", a space radiant stream which took place in tightly transmit the applied forces. Charges lag where electrostatic forces constricted lines. Some equated the electromagnetic forces with a continue propagating. One is compelled to see that electrostatic "dark light", which Karl von Reichenbach later proved in part. forces precede the movement of charges. Faraday adopbed and modified the view that electromagnetic Tesla saw that electrostatic impulses could flow without line forces acted through space because they were a special flow of charges. His "zero current coils" operated simply because the charge. This effusive charge movement changed when travelling charges themselves were immobilized. Electricrty was shown to be through conductors, becoming more densified and retarded in more in the nature of a flowing force rather than a sheam of massive velocity. Faraday's "lines of force' were not conceived by him to particles. But what then was this u{lowing current"? be mere static tensions as modernists view them. Faraday envi- In Tesla's view, radiant electricity is a space flowing current sioned these force lines as radiant, sheaming lines. They were which is NOT made of electrons. Later Mctorians believed that mobile, moving longitudinally into space. there was a substance which both filled all space and permeaied all Others would change the names, referring to electric force lines matter. Several serious researchers claimed to have identfied this as "dia-electric' or dielectric flux, but the view remained essentially gas. Notables, such as Mendeleev predicted the existence of BononnLeNos SecondQ uarter1 996 47, several ulha-raxe gases which Preceded hydrogen' These, he claimed, were inert gases.T his is why they were rarely detected' IT{TERIIATIOilALO UILD @ The inert gasesw hich Mendeleevp redicted formed an atrnosphere rclEllcE4dKt which llooded all of space.T hese gaseousm ixtures composedt he oF aDvaNCED

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ather. l { onp iolitOrllnltstion Tesla and others believed that both electrical and magnetic " ! tthG.ntrr{ r r chno loqg l odca " forces were achrally streams of ether gas which had been ftxated in matter.M aterialsw ere somehow" polarized" byvarious "frictive" PslonicH elmets- Boxes - Courses- Tesla Colls - beabnents by which an ather gas flow was induced in them' Most Wimshus&t VanD eG raffG eneratorsT-i meTravelL- evi- materials could maintain the flow indeffnitely, since no work was required on their parl Matter had only to remain polarized, tation- Invisibilit-y Hundredosf HiddenT echnologRy e- transducing the ather flow' The ather gas contained all the powor' ports- RadionicC ourses- Books- BlackB oxes- Lotso f Unlimited power. tt EnergyT rensfeDr evices'P sionicE neqy Pro' This ether gas power manilested as the elechomagnetic forces Hardware themselves,a dequate reason to Pursue the development of an JectingD evlces- MinclP ower- KlrllanM achlne's Aura ether gas engne. Such an engine could run forever on the eternal Goggle-s A llenT echnologyO' rgoneH eadbandsE' nergy kinetic ener$es of the ether itself, it being both generateda nd &iven by the stars. Waters- Teleportatio-n A stralP rojedionD evlces. Tesla believedt hat radiant electricityi s composedo f ather gas' Bachelors& MesterD egreeP rogramsi n the He basedt his belief on the fact that his zero current coils were not AdvancedS c iences conducting the "slow and dense" charges usually obsewed in ordinary electricalc ircuib. Abrupt impulsesp roduced distinctiveoooooooooooooooooooooooooooand difierente ffects...fluidice ffectsT. he qualitiesa scribedb y Tesla

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oooo" ooooto "electricity" or things "electrical" in his numerous Patent texts " ca ta l ogue s3 .00 and press inteMews are those which refer to the ether gas' Tesla 255N .EfC leloR tl. Suite8 5658,P almS pritps,C A.g%2 did not refer to elechon cunents as "electricity"' He did not equate (619)3 27-73551, 0AM-5PMP CT,C losedS unday& Tues. "elecficity" with electronf low. Whenever Tesla spoke of "elecki- cal" effects he always described their efrusive, gaseousq uality. Tesla referred to sPace as the "ambient or nahral medium". Space, he claimed, was that which "conducb electricity". He had found a means by which ttris gaseous electrical flow could be gfeatly concentrated, magnifted, and directed. He saw that this radiant elecblcity was, in reality, a gaseouse manation. An etheric emanation. This is why he made constant reference to fluidic termtnology throughout his lechrres. Resistance,v olume, capacity, reservoir, surface area' tension, pressure,p ressurer elease:t hesew ere the terms upon w-hichT esla ielied throughouthisp resentadonsT. he terminology of hydraulics' Tesla also recognized that because ether was a gas, it had aerodynamicr equiremenb. BorderlandS ciences .fBtiiet, in Tesla's lexicon, wiN sPacef lowing electricity: a gas of qualities. /Ether was the electricity ResearchF oundationsuperlative and transcendent *hi"h fiilud all of space,a vast reservoir of unsurpassablep ower' Archives Motive, dynamic' and free for the taking. ,iEther gas technology would revolutionize the world. ,Ether gas engines would provide an eternalp ower sourcef or the world. Science,i ndusbry,c orPora- Connectto Borderlands tions,f inanciala lignmenb,s ocialo rders,n ations...everythinwg ould change. | (Part 2 in ncxt issuc) on the Internet!

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Grnnv Vlssr,eros began lvrifing for Borderlands magazines everal y'seeaierssa ,Tgou.rH ae is the producer of the Rayo f Drscooarvyid eo documentary MotorsE, arth Toncs,a nd is dso the author of rhe Vril Compcndiu-m a borderlandr esearche ncyclopediaw hich now totalsI I SendE -maitlo : volumes' As an avid experimenter' lvfr' Vassilat'osh as conhibuted to severala dvancementsin the lields of Radionics and energy research' email is hidden Thisi shisf ifthbiographyina nongoingserieosf theb orderland" greats"' 48 SecondQ uarter 1996 Bonoenl-.Al.Ios, lillll[ilffifl|[illlliln ,,,,iur{ry&{&.,

The Broadcast Power of I{ikola Tesla Part r

by Gery Vassilatos OMPLETING a tour of the major scientilic instihrtes in America" Tesla expected to retire for a seasono f rest in New York once again. News of his advancements however, flooded every technical trade joumal. The nasre Teslawas everywhere once again. First polypbase and now radiant electricity. He was the "darling" of the press.T esla caphrred the public eye once again. People everywhere were thrilled with the projected fuhrre visions which Tesla freely provided. He was a model European immigrant suave and debonair. These are probably the qualitiesw hich ffrst attracted Anne Morgan- lrresistible, wealthy, unat- tached,a nd warm. Tesla was her obsession. Despite his great personal charm and magnetic per- sonality, he maintained his serious tone and poise wherever he went. The vision of the future was far more important than the a.frentionsofayoung and llirtatious lady. In anticipadono f thesef orthcoming events,T esla often invited other socially esteemed guestst o his labe ratory for special demonstrations.I n this manner, it was noised abroad that what he claimed was in fact real. Anne often attended theseg atherings, breathing silently i:n the shadows of his laage loft laboratoqy. ROYAL SOCIETY LECTURES There were othersw ho, dthough not attendingt hesed emonsha- In the very midst of all these national attentions, Tesla received tions, were equally watchful of Tesla's newest radiant energy an invitation from Lord Kelvin. He was formally requested to developments,S everalo f these Persons's hall we say, were inter- addresst he Royal Society,h is latestf indingsw ere earnestlyd esired. ested in his new discovery and its implications...becauseth eir The English,u sually extremely conservative,w ere sure that Tesla fortunes were threatened.T esla had swept the world once with would changet he course of world history. polyphase.H e wiped outEdison'sD irect Current Systemo vernight. Tesla, adjourning from his daily researchesn ow prepared J.P.Morgan,E dison'sr ecent "patron", had lost a considerables um himself for the lecturesw hich would start the world-change.H e during that ffasco.I t was certain that Tesla would soon sweept he packedn earlye veryp ieceo f delicatee quipmento ne cani magine. world againw ith broadcaste lecbicity. This destabilizingi nfluence Vacuum tubes,T rinsformers, strangem otors, and equally strange would not be tolerated.A nne complicatedt he affair considerably. wirelessa pparatusA. llwere carefullyc rateda nd penonallybrought She was in love with Tesla. Obsessedi n facl Too obsesseda nd to Europeb y Teslah imself.H is beloved elder and personalm entor, desperatet o let go. Sir William Crookes,g reetedh im.

BoRonnLeNos Third Quarter 1996 53

, In the opening portions of his Royal Societyl ecturesT esla first eries as mere preparatoryi nhoductions to impulses. describedh is preliminaqrwork with high voltage high frequency Teslas howedb y way of comparisont hat disruptivef fe ld impulse alternatingcurrentsin somel ength.H e explainedt hatthesed evices banscendentlye xceed all other electro,inductivee ffectsb y several embodied the very last investigationsa nd improvements of his orders. He expressedd ifficulty in discerning whether the effecb PolyphaseS ystem.H e demonstrateds everalo f the ffnt small hig-tho were elechostatico r electrodynamici n nature, preferringt o associ frequency alternators and iron-core induction coils in order atet hem more with electrostatice ffects.W e deducet hathe had onlv prepareh is audiencef or a final announcemenl recentlyb egun developingt he electrici mpulse effectb ecauseo f his In thisv ery lastd ramaiic demonshationT esla revealedt o British hesitancei n identiSing the phenomenap roperly. Academia the disruptive electric dischargea nd the properties of Tesla was skingently exact in all his statements.T his seems electricr ays.T eslam ade a rare and complete" full discLsureno f the uncharacteristico f his scientilic nature. But he did this in true elechic ray effect at the very end of his lecture. It was the very last scientifico pennessT. esla did not know exactlyw hat was occurring time he would ever do so again in academicc ircles, in the eleckic impulse at that time, desiring only to share the Tesla showed that the new radiant eleckicity was distinctive. discovery openly and candidly. Academic disapproval of his been openly fraving proclaimed during the london Royal Society personals emanticsc ame swiftly in journal afterj ournal. lectures.T esla deliberaiely compared It is clear that Sir William Crookes and conbasted the potentimpulse rad! completelyg raspedt he signilicance ;ffi"::.H"ffiil:;T*',Tfffe slda of i scovertehda t Tesla'se ntire demonshationa nd real- ized the closingf ormal announcement ruary 1892). Fluorescent lamps and otherruminouswonderse;x"fcfieiJs#s ivg sparking, ofthe new eleckicf orce.C rookesc ouldnot contain the thrilling implications. encespellboundA. ll thew hile hisv oice, He was f,T31;,:fil'5frT;li:,ht'hoouucghh-im pressive also sure that the new to forcewould completely revolutionize the scientiffcw orld. He demonshatedwirelessla mps,l it to full brilliance by radiant electricity. observerwse, rea ctually Crookesu pheld Teslat hereaftera sthe true discoverero fan unrecognized He ran small motors at sizable dis- "lossiyn stabilities". eleckicalf orce.T eslac ontinuedc tances orre-f or his audiencesto see.T his last spondencew ith his mentor after lechrre representst his he only recorded departuref rom England.H e had instance hopedin which Tesla openly an- that his dramatic announcement nounced andhis d iscovery Thed istanrta of the diant demonstrationw ould produce a new elecho-radianti mpulse. He tells the effectsh ed esirewd ere regime of electrical engineering, personally andrevolutionizinga specto f his that othersw ould now reproduce the discovery and how it virtually eradi- interrupteadn d radiant electric effects as described.cates his previous work. He went bo His hopesw ould be strangely great dasheddetail verbally describing and to piecesi n the comingyearsw hen the disclosingt he exactmeansf or eliciting derisive academica ttacksb egan. the phenomenon. distortewd henever To European academes,t he lec- In his closing time Tesla quickly demonstratess pecial "electrostatic" sparkinogc curred. ture seriesw as astounding.I t was aglimpseo f the future,s o clearthatfew motors and lamps made to utilize the could find time to arguew ith Tesla radiant ateffect. Examination of these all. Tesla concluded his tour of En- {irstl amp and vane-motord evicesr evealst heir primitive and initial gland and France,e verywhereh eralded in typical Victorian heroic state. Tesla modelled the motor after the Crookes radiometer, style. One nighg while in Paris, a telegram informed him that stating hist his fact publicly for the benelit of his reveredm entor. Tesla mother was on point of death.R ushingt o her bedside,h e managed finally statedt he vasti mplicationso f the discovery.H e pointed their a few hours offinal conversation. minds toward the establishmento f true power transmission. He alwaysr eferredt o her ast he one who completelyu nderstood He prophetically announced the new civilization which would his strangea biliues.W as she not the woman who had encouraged emergef rom thesef irst devicesa nd systemsT. he world would be him when he fint remarked about his childhood visions?\ llien completely revolutionized by this new principle. Tesla described siblingsa nd friends derided him, shew ash is support.E arly the next beam-kansmissiono f electrical energy, and the possibility of har_ morning, in an adjacenth ouse,h e wasa bruptly awakenb y avision. nessingt he radiant energieso f spacei tself. What he beheld changed his life. A seraphich ost surrounded his Those who had witnessedT esla's entire demonstrauonw ere mother. Shew asa scendingi nto bright clouds.S everalm inutesa fter completely enthralled at his results, but misunderstoodh is new thal the announcementc ame.H is mother had quietly passeda way. announcementc ompletely.T his becamea pparentt o Tesla a short He spenta torturousw eek in his nativel and for her funeral,a nd fled while after he, highly decorated and honored, departed for his back again to New York, Parisian tour. British Science was yet delving into Teslian high frequencya lternationsT. esla had already disposedo f thesed iscov- 54 Third Quaner 1996 BonoenleNos, RE\rERSALS him. Opinion would fade when others gradually sawt he astounding When Englishe ngineersw rote, askingt he meansf or generating developmenb which he would produce. In these actions,T esla his impulse effects,T esla gave them very strict descriptiveP axam- revealedh is noble and naive nature.T he world had changed,b ut eters.H e never failed to openly discloset he secret by which his changedt oward a more brutish rule. spectaculare ffectsw ere oblained. He had learned to freely share what he kner,vw ith all. He was surprised to discover that the BROADCAST POW.ER academics ocietiesw ho so warmly addressedh im in Europe' were He set to work developing more powerful embodimentso f his graduallyl osingi nteresti n his discovery.B eing utterly incapableo f initial Transformers. In order to malD BonneRLaNos Third Quarter 1996 '55, Copper in the receiver had to "match" the copper masso f the Their reticencel eftTeslainastateo f bewildermenl Once,inaditch, hansmifrerinaveqys peciale quivalence,o therwiser adiant transfer his conversationa lone was sufiicient perfrrme to attract the bees. would not be efiicienLT he requirementsd iffered very much from Now? None would dare leap into the new world sea.W hy? What those of ordinary radio antennas.H e also found that elevated sharla were there besides themselves?T esla could simply not copper spheresm ore powerfully enhanced the broadcastr adiant understandt his new "dearthn, this incredulous conservafisma nd power from his transmifrersT. his was Tesla's meansb y which his lack of imagination on the part of New York investors. hansmittersa nd receiversc ould be beter "connected"d espitet heir Eagert o begin,T esla patientlyw aited for the messengertso call. distance, Had he known more of the world around him, however,h e would Tesla believed that thesee lectricalb eamsi nvisibly linked both have stoppedw aiting. Shortly after Tesla'sp rivate demonshations his hansmitter and receivers together. He considered each as were concluded,M organ'sa gentapproachedT eslawith a "business "disconnectedt erminals"t o ground. Electricalr adiances preado ut proposition".T he bribe being sizable,c onhactsw ould havep laced in all directionsf rom the elevatedc opper sphereo f his transmitter. Morgan in control of Tesla'sn ew system.T esla laugheda t the pale The secret in receiving a maximum signal was to match the little Mr. Brown in his pinching-tight tails, informing him that he hansmitter'sc opper massw ith the receiver mass.T hen, the ather himself was already a millionaire. Why should he need such an streamsw ould actuallyf ocusi nto the matchedr eceiver.T his afrnity af{iliation at all? He was escortedv ery graciouslyb y the amused would take time, the hansmitter energy "searching" for befrer Tesla. ground sites. Radiant elechicity evidenced curiously vegetative While dining in the Waldorf severalh ours later, a rude intemrp- "growth characteristics". tion informed him that his laboratoriesw ere ablaze.T he connection Receiversn ow were outfiued with small copper spheres.T hese between his refusal to bow and the flames which now provided reacheda more elficient aflinity and absorption for the radiated skywardwasn otmade until allwas consumed.T hatnight, power. the The additional worldcopper spheresw hich surmounted Tesla changedc ompletelyf or Nikola Tesla.H e lost everything hansmifrerse ffectivelyofhis past lowered the input eleckical power for the Everything. The totality of his technological achievements production of focussed w ere ether discharges. burned into vapor, Books,p ricelesss ouvenirs,d elicate Tesla took the eguipmenlgas dynamic analogy to another level when he patents,m odels,d rawings,n ewpieces found that of apparatus. both low Everythingwaspressureg aseousa nd vacuum tubes could burned. He read the messagew ell. replace copper. Electro-radiante ffectsf rom gas-ftlledg lobesw ere There wasa two week period projected where he with lesse simply vanished. lectricall oss No and oneeveng reaterp ower. Iarge low could lind him. Kolman pressure Czito, :ugon his trusted gasf illed technical globesw ere foreman empirically andfound to broadcast machinistf earedf or hemendous Tesla's radiance life. w hen IGtherine used UnderwoodJohnson atop his transmittersA. was dditionally, besideh erselfw ith he found anguish. that argong She was asa t low the wife pressures of a could closef riend, servea s: ur thee quivalent only real love receiver of as Tesla's pure life. copper The spheres. lire was meant to kill. It was amessagea Thu s clear filled asa nyone globesw ould would be less need. costly The than assassinaHon copper afrempt&" spherest o failed disseminate to kill the in intended public use. victim. It He was certainly approaching did not kill a totally his dreams.ellicient Wherever systemN. umerous he wasf or personageswere thoset wo weeks,t he invitedto dreamsw ere observet hese with him.historic But tests.J.H. a part of Nikola HammondJr. Tesla was died in the one {ire. such individual. It wast he part which Enthralled waswith tied Tesla's to the past. developments,h His eyes e and on the his wife future,T esla invited developed Tesla his repeatedly discoveryto their into home in a major technologylater years. w hich Teslaw as the their world honored seemst o guest have for forgotlen.months at a time. Of all thoseLater w ho in years, prayed after and wept World over War Tesla,s I, disappearance, both Tesla and one Hammond worked personw as on robotics no longer concemed. remote Never and control. againw ould Anne need to Tesla be troubled envisioned by the thought small power of Nikola units for both Tesla. home His love and was industrial already use.T he sealed. installationa Tesla nd recovered maintenance from the of these flames.units would require a small monthly His fee. subsequenThroughdtiscoveries thesew ireless and inventions units surpassed one could his formerdraw sufficient works power for to forty more operate faotories years;s pecialr adiation and homes projectors, alike. self-actingElechical usage heat could be engines, metered. power transmitters,r The superiority emote of this control new and robotics, broadcast the power systemw as obvious "World Broadcast to all who System",B eam observed Broadcastt it ransmitters, in operation. "etheric Tesla reactors also describedt he and use etheric of these engines', cosmic power units ray motors, foi hansporta- psychohonic tion. Transatlantic television...the shipsc ould list of astounding simply draw their motive inventions is huly power from awe-inspiring. continentalp ower broadcast Tesla stations. demonshated Trains each these and automobiles of systems could for a select group of be operatedb y drawing their wibnesses.power. The potential fortunesw ould soon stimulate{ inancierst o invest Furthermore, heavily in the despiter umors "coming of his activity" public and scientificd emise, In keepingwith yorkerhis publicity-mindedness, Tesla maintainedt wo severali nvestors penthouses uitesa top were the Hoiel New alwaysi nviied to Tesla's in private a time when demonshations. suche xtravagancew as Tesla otherwiseknew that u nobtainable.O ne their urge to supporth is new world-shaking of these venture suites was w ould converted into become a complete radio laboratory, irresistiblew hen once each had beheld several his accoutrements small broadcast of which having power been rebieved by antique system.T he demonstrationsw ere radio deemed by these enthusiasts. individuals Tesla was an indefatigable as researcherT. he biog- "entertaining",i n their typical dry tone. raphy Bul Nikola he rarely of Tesla heard is replete from with truly mysteriousd esignsa nd thesep eople again. developments.B ut thesea re pa.rtso f his biography which must be Here was a new change.S hy moneymen. told fA true in other volumes. conhadiction. 56 Third Quarter 1996 Bonoenr-eNps,

M*ilK#M MI d il M *MMMilil# & MMMMW

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