Download: Ubuntu Installation Guide

Ubuntu Installation Guide Ubuntu Installation Guide Copyright © 2004 – 2015 the Debian Installer team Copyright © 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2015 Canonical Ltd. This document contains installation instructions for the Ubuntu 16.04 system (codename “‘Xenial Xerus’”), for the 64-bit PC (“amd64”) architecture. It also contains pointers to more information and information on how to make the most of your new Ubuntu system. This manual is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Please refer to the license in Appendix F...
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Content

Ubuntu Installation Guide, Ubuntu Installation Guide Copyright © 2004 – 2015 the Debian Installer team Copyright © 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2015 Canonical Ltd. This document contains installation instructions for the Ubuntu 16.04 system (codename “‘Xenial Xerus’”), for the 64-bit PC (“amd64”) architecture. It also contains pointers to more information and information on how to make the most of your new Ubuntu system. This manual is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Please refer to the license in Appendix F.,

Table of Contents

Installing Ubuntu 16.04 “Xenial Xerus” For amd64 ... x 1. Welcome to Ubuntu ... 1 1.1. What is Ubuntu?... 1 1.1.1. Sponsorship by Canonical ... 1 1.2. What is Debian? ... 1 1.2.1. Ubuntu and Debian... 2 1.2.1.1. Package selection ... 2 1.2.1.2. Releases... 3 1.2.1.3. Development community... 3 1.2.1.4. Freedom and Philosophy... 3 1.2.1.5. Ubuntu and other Debian derivatives... 4 1.3. What is GNU/Linux? ... 4 1.4. Getting Ubuntu... 5 1.5. Getting the Newest Version of This Document... 5 1.6. Organization of This Document... 5 1.7. Your Documentation Help is Welcome... 6 1.8. About Copyrights and Software Licenses... 6 2. System Requirements ... 8 2.1. Supported Hardware... 8 2.1.1. Supported Architectures ... 8 2.1.2. CPU Support... 8 2.1.3. Laptops ... 8 2.1.4. Multiple Processors ... 9 2.1.5. Graphics Hardware Support ... 9 2.1.6. Network Connectivity Hardware... 9 2.1.6.1. Wireless Network Cards ... 9 2.1.7. Braille Displays ... 10 2.1.8. Hardware Speech Synthesis ... 10 2.1.9. Peripherals and Other Hardware ... 10 2.2. Devices Requiring Firmware ... 10 2.3. Purchasing Hardware Specifically for GNU/Linux ... 11 2.3.1. Avoid Proprietary or Closed Hardware ... 11 2.4. Installation Media ... 12 2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM ... 12 2.4.2. USB Memory Stick ... 12 2.4.3. Network ... 12 2.4.4. Hard Disk... 13 2.4.5. Un*x or GNU system ... 13 2.4.6. Supported Storage Systems ... 13 2.5. Memory and Disk Space Requirements... 13 3. Before Installing Ubuntu... 14 3.1. Overview of the Installation Process... 14 3.2. Back Up Your Existing Data!... 15 3.3. Information You Will Need... 15 3.3.1. Documentation ... 15 3.3.1.1. Installation Manual ... 15 3.3.1.2. Hardware documentation ... 15 3.3.2. Finding Sources of Hardware Information... 15 iii, 3.3.3. Hardware Compatibility ... 16 3.3.3.1. Testing hardware compatibility with a Live-System ... 17 3.3.4. Network Settings ... 18 3.4. Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements ... 18 3.5. Pre-Partitioning for Multi-Boot Systems ... 19 3.6. Pre-Installation Hardware and Operating System Setup... 20 3.6.1. Invoking the BIOS Set-Up Menu ... 20 3.6.2. Boot Device Selection ... 20 3.6.3. Systems with UEFI firmware ... 21 3.6.4. Disabling the Windows 8 “fast boot” feature ... 22 3.6.5. Hardware Issues to Watch Out For... 22 4. Obtaining System Installation Media ... 23 4.1. Official Ubuntu CD-ROMs ... 23 4.2. Downloading Files from Ubuntu Mirrors ... 23 4.2.1. Where to Find Installation Images ... 23 4.3. Preparing Files for USB Memory Stick Booting ... 23 4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD or DVD image ... 24 4.3.2. Manually copying files to the USB stick ... 25 4.3.3. Manually copying files to the USB stick — the flexible way ... 25 4.3.3.1. Partitioning the USB stick ... 25 4.3.3.2. Adding the installer image ... 26 4.4. Preparing Files for Hard Disk Booting ... 26 4.4.1. Hard disk installer booting from Linux using LILO or GRUB... 26 4.5. Preparing Files for TFTP Net Booting... 27 4.5.1. Setting up a DHCP server... 27 4.5.1.1. Enabling PXE Booting in the DHCP configuration... 28 4.5.2. Setting up a BOOTP server ... 29 4.5.3. Enabling the TFTP Server ... 29 4.5.4. Move TFTP Images Into Place... 30 4.6. Automatic Installation... 30 4.6.1. Automatic Installation Using the Ubuntu Installer... 30 4.6.2. Automatic Installation Using Kickstart ... 30 4.6.2.1. Additions... 31 4.6.2.2. Missing features ... 31 4.6.2.3. Example ... 32 5. Booting the Installation System... 35 5.1. Booting the Installer on 64-bit PC ... 35 5.1.1. Booting from USB Memory Stick... 35 5.1.2. Booting from a CD-ROM... 35 5.1.3. Booting from Linux using LILO or GRUB ... 35 5.1.4. Booting with TFTP... 36 5.1.4.1. NIC or Motherboard that support PXE... 36 5.1.4.2. NIC with Network BootROM... 36 5.1.4.3. Etherboot... 37 5.1.5. The Boot Screen ... 37 5.2. Accessibility... 38 5.2.1. Installer front-end ... 38 5.2.2. USB Braille Displays ... 38 5.2.3. Serial Braille Displays... 39 5.2.4. Software Speech Synthesis... 39 5.2.5. Hardware Speech Synthesis ... 39 iv, 5.2.6. Board Devices... 39 5.2.7. High-Contrast Theme ... 40 5.2.8. Zoom... 40 5.2.9. Preseeding... 40 5.2.10. Accessibility of the installed system ... 40 5.3. Boot Parameters ... 40 5.3.1. Boot console ... 40 5.3.2. Ubuntu Installer Parameters ... 41 5.3.3. Using boot parameters to answer questions ... 44 5.3.4. Passing parameters to kernel modules... 45 5.3.5. Blacklisting kernel modules ... 45 5.4. Troubleshooting the Installation Process ... 46 5.4.1. CD-ROM Reliability ... 46 5.4.1.1. Common issues ... 46 5.4.1.2. How to investigate and maybe solve issues ... 46 5.4.2. Boot Configuration ... 48 5.4.3. Software Speech Synthesis... 48 5.4.4. Common 64-bit PC Installation Problems... 48 5.4.4.1. System Freeze During the PCMCIA Configuration Phase ... 48 5.4.5. Interpreting the Kernel Startup Messages ... 49 5.4.6. Reporting Installation Problems ... 49 5.4.7. Submitting Installation Reports ... 49 6. Using the Ubuntu Installer... 51 6.1. How the Installer Works... 51 6.2. Components Introduction... 51 6.3. Using Individual Components... 54 6.3.1. Setting up Ubuntu Installer and Hardware Configuration ... 54 6.3.1.1. Check available memory / low memory mode ... 54 6.3.1.2. Selecting Localization Options ... 55 6.3.1.3. Choosing a Keyboard... 56 6.3.1.4. Looking for the Ubuntu Installer ISO Image... 56 6.3.1.5. Configuring the Network ... 56 6.3.1.5.1. Automatic network configuration... 57 6.3.1.5.2. Manual network configuration ... 57 6.3.1.5.3. IPv4 and IPv6 ... 57 6.3.1.6. Configuring the Clock and Time Zone ... 57 6.3.2. Setting Up Users And Passwords ... 58 6.3.2.1. Create an Ordinary User ... 58 6.3.3. Partitioning and Mount Point Selection ... 58 6.3.3.1. Supported partitioning options... 59 6.3.3.2. Guided Partitioning... 60 6.3.3.3. Manual Partitioning ... 61 6.3.3.4. Configuring Multidisk Devices (Software RAID) ... 62 6.3.3.5. Configuring the Logical Volume Manager (LVM) ... 65 6.3.3.6. Configuring Encrypted Volumes... 66 6.3.4. Installing the Base System... 68 6.3.5. Installing Additional Software ... 69 6.3.5.1. Configuring apt ... 69 6.3.5.1.1. Installing from more than one CD or DVD... 70 6.3.5.1.2. Using a network mirror ... 70 6.3.5.1.3. Choosing a network mirror... 71 v, 6.3.5.2. Selecting and Installing Software ... 71 6.3.6. Making Your System Bootable... 72 6.3.6.1. Detecting other operating systems ... 72 6.3.6.2. Install the Grub Boot Loader on a Hard Disk... 72 6.3.6.3. Install the LILO Boot Loader on a Hard Disk ... 73 6.3.6.4. Continue Without Boot Loader... 73 6.3.7. Finishing the Installation ... 73 6.3.7.1. Setting the System Clock ... 74 6.3.7.2. Reboot the System ... 74 6.3.8. Troubleshooting... 74 6.3.8.1. Saving the installation logs ... 74 6.3.8.2. Using the Shell and Viewing the Logs... 74 6.3.9. Installation Over the Network ... 75 6.4. Loading Missing Firmware ... 76 6.4.1. Preparing a medium... 77 6.4.2. Firmware and the Installed System ... 77 7. Booting Into Your New Ubuntu System... 78 7.1. The Moment of Truth... 78 7.2. Mounting encrypted volumes... 78 7.2.1. Troubleshooting... 79 7.3. Log In ... 79 8. Next Steps and Where to Go From Here ... 81 8.1. Shutting down the system ... 81 8.2. If You Are New to Unix ... 81 8.3. Orienting Yourself to Ubuntu... 81 8.3.1. Ubuntu Packaging System... 81 8.3.2. Additional Software Available for Ubuntu... 82 8.3.3. Application Version Management ... 82 8.3.4. Cron Job Management... 82 8.4. Further Reading and Information... 82 8.5. Setting Up Your System To Use E-Mail ... 83 8.5.1. Default E-Mail Configuration... 83 8.5.2. Sending E-Mails Outside The System... 84 8.5.3. Configuring the Exim4 Mail Transport Agent ... 84 8.6. Compiling a New Kernel... 85 8.6.1. Kernel Image Management ... 86 8.7. Recovering a Broken System ... 87 A. Installation Howto... 88 A.1. Booting the installer ... 88 A.1.1. CDROM... 88 A.1.2. USB memory stick... 88 A.1.3. Booting from network ... 88 A.2. Installation... 88 A.3. And finally.... 90 B. Automating the installation using preseeding ... 91 B.1. Introduction ... 91 B.1.1. Preseeding methods ... 91 B.1.2. Limitations ... 92 B.1.3. Debconf basics ... 92 B.2. Using preseeding ... 92 vi, B.2.1. Loading the preconfiguration file... 93 B.2.2. Using boot parameters to preseed questions... 93 B.2.3. Auto mode... 94 B.2.4. Aliases useful with preseeding ... 96 B.2.5. Using a DHCP server to specify preconfiguration files ... 96 B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file ... 97 B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for xenial) ... 98 B.4.1. Localization ... 98 B.4.2. Network configuration ... 99 B.4.3. Network console ... 101 B.4.4. Mirror settings... 101 B.4.5. Account setup ... 101 B.4.6. Clock and time zone setup ... 103 B.4.7. Partitioning... 103 B.4.7.1. Partitioning example... 103 B.4.7.2. Partitioning using RAID... 105 B.4.7.3. Controlling how partitions are mounted... 106 B.4.8. Base system installation... 106 B.4.9. Apt setup ... 107 B.4.10. Package selection ... 108 B.4.11. Boot loader installation... 109 B.4.12. Finishing up the installation... 110 B.4.13. Preseeding other packages ... 110 B.5. Advanced options ... 110 B.5.1. Running custom commands during the installation... 110 B.5.2. Using preseeding to change default values ... 111 B.5.3. Chainloading preconfiguration files... 111 C. Partitioning for Ubuntu... 113 C.1. Deciding on Ubuntu Partitions and Sizes ... 113 C.2. The Directory Tree ... 113 C.3. Recommended Partitioning Scheme... 115 C.4. Device Names in Linux ... 115 C.5. Ubuntu Partitioning Programs ... 116 C.5.1. Partitioning for 64-bit PC ... 116 D. Random Bits ... 118 D.1. Linux Devices ... 118 D.1.1. Setting Up Your Mouse ... 118 D.2. Disk Space Needed for Tasks... 119 D.3. Disk Space Needed ... 120 D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System... 120 D.4.1. Getting Started... 120 D.4.2. Install debootstrap... 121 D.4.3. Run debootstrap ... 121 D.4.4. Configure The Base System ... 122 D.4.4.1. Create device files ... 122 D.4.4.2. Mount Partitions... 122 D.4.4.3. Setting Timezone ... 124 D.4.4.4. Configure Networking... 124 D.4.4.5. Configure Apt... 125 D.4.4.6. Configure Locales and Keyboard... 125 D.4.5. Install a Kernel... 126 vii, D.4.6. Set up the Boot Loader ... 126 D.4.7. Remote access: Installing SSH and setting up access ... 127 D.4.8. Finishing touches... 127 D.4.9. Create a User ... 128 D.4.10. Install the Ubuntu Desktop ... 128 D.5. Installing Ubuntu over Parallel Line IP (PLIP)... 129 D.5.1. Requirements ... 129 D.5.2. Setting up source ... 129 D.5.3. Installing target ... 130 D.6. Installing Ubuntu using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) ... 130 E. Administrivia... 132 E.1. About This Document ... 132 E.2. Contributing to This Document ... 132 E.3. Major Contributions... 132 E.4. Trademark Acknowledgement... 133 F. GNU General Public License ... 134 F.1. Preamble... 134 F.2. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE... 134 F.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs... 138 viii,

List of Tables

3-1. Hardware Information Helpful for an Install ... 16 3-2. Recommended Minimum System Requirements ... 18 ix,

Installing Ubuntu 16.04 “Xenial Xerus” For

amd64 We are delighted that you have decided to try Ubuntu, and are sure that you will find that Ubuntu’s GNU/Linux distribution is unique. Ubuntu brings together high-quality free software from around the world, integrating it into a coherent whole. We believe that you will find that the result is truly more than the sum of the parts. We understand that many of you want to install Ubuntu without reading this manual, and the Ubuntu installer is designed to make this possible. If you don’t have time to read the whole Installation Guide right now, we recommend that you read the Installation Howto, which will walk you through the basic installation process, and links to the manual for more advanced topics or for when things go wrong. The Installation Howto can be found in Appendix A. With that said, we hope that you have the time to read most of this manual, and doing so will lead to a more informed and likely more successful installation experience. x,

Chapter 1. Welcome to Ubuntu

This chapter provides an overview of the Ubuntu Project, and the Debian Project upon which it is based. If you already know about the Ubuntu Project’s history and the Ubuntu distribution, feel free to skip to the next chapter. 1.1. What is Ubuntu? Ubuntu is a complete Linux operating system, freely available with both community and professional support. The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Ubuntu Manifesto: that soft- ware should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customize and alter their software in whatever way they see fit. • Ubuntu will always be free of charge, and there is no extra fee for the “enterprise edition”, we make our very best work available to everyone on the same Free terms. • Ubuntu includes the very best in translations and accessibility infrastructure that the Free Software community has to offer, to make Ubuntu usable by as many people as possible. • Ubuntu is shipped in stable and regular release cycles; a new release will be shipped every six months. You can use the current stable release or the current development release. A release will be supported for 18 months. • Ubuntu is entirely committed to the principles of open source software development; we encourage people to use open source software, improve it and pass it on. Ubuntu is suitable for both desktop and server use. The current Ubuntu release supports Intel x86 (IBM-compatible PC), AMD64 (x86-64), ARMv7, ARMv8 (ARM64), IBM POWER8, IBM zSeries (zEC12/zEC13), and PowerPC architectures. Ubuntu includes more than 1000 pieces of software, starting with the Linux kernel version 4.4 and GNOME 3.18, and covering every standard desktop application from word processing and spread- sheet applications to internet access applications, web server software, email software, programming languages and tools and of course several games. 1.1.1. Sponsorship by Canonical The Ubuntu Project is sponsored by Canonical Ltd (http://www.canonical.com/). Canonical will not charge licence fees for Ubuntu, now or at any stage in the future. Canonical’s business model is to provide technical support and professional services related to Ubuntu. We encourage more companies also to offer support for Ubuntu, and will list those that do on the Support pages of this web site. 1.2. What is Debian? Debian is an all-volunteer organization dedicated to developing free software and promoting the ide- als of the Free Software community. The Debian Project began in 1993, when Ian Murdock issued, Chapter 1. Welcome to Ubuntu an open invitation to software developers to contribute to a complete and coherent software distri- bution based on the relatively new Linux kernel. That relatively small band of dedicated enthusiasts, originally funded by the Free Software Foundation (http://www.fsf.org/) and influenced by the GNU (http://www.gnu.org/gnu/the-gnu-project.html) philosophy, has grown over the years into an organi- zation of around 1026 Debian Developers. Debian Developers are involved in a variety of activities, including Web (http://www.debian.org/) and FTP (ftp://ftp.debian.org/) site administration, graphic design, legal analysis of software licenses, writing documentation, and, of course, maintaining software packages. In the interest of communicating our philosophy and attracting developers who believe in the princi- ples that Debian stands for, the Debian Project has published a number of documents that outline our values and serve as guides to what it means to be a Debian Developer: • The Debian Social Contract (http://www.debian.org/social_contract) is a statement of Debian’s commitments to the Free Software Community. Anyone who agrees to abide to the Social Contract may become a maintainer (http://www.debian.org/doc/maint-guide/). Any maintainer can introduce new software into Debian — provided that the software meets our criteria for being free, and the package follows our quality standards. • The Debian Free Software Guidelines (http://www.debian.org/social_contract#guidelines) are a clear and concise statement of Debian’s criteria for free software. The DFSG is a very influen- tial document in the Free Software Movement, and was the foundation of the The Open Source Definition (http://opensource.org/osd). • The Debian Policy Manual (http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/) is an extensive specifica- tion of the Debian Project’s standards of quality. Debian developers are also involved in a number of other projects; some specific to Debian, others involving some or all of the Linux community. Some examples include: • The Linux Standard Base (http://www.linuxbase.org/) (LSB) is a project aimed at standardizing the basic GNU/Linux system, which will enable third-party software and hardware developers to easily design programs and device drivers for Linux-in-general, rather than for a specific GNU/Linux distribution. • The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (http://www.pathname.com/fhs/) (FHS) is an effort to standard- ize the layout of the Linux file system. The FHS will allow software developers to concentrate their efforts on designing programs, without having to worry about how the package will be installed in different GNU/Linux distributions. • Debian Jr. (http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-jr/) is an internal project, aimed at making sure Debian has something to offer to our youngest users. For more general information about Debian, see the Debian FAQ (http://www.debian.org/doc/FAQ/). 1.2.1. Ubuntu and Debian Ubuntu and Debian are distinct but parallel and closely linked systems. The Ubuntu project seeks to complement the Debian project in the following areas:, Chapter 1. Welcome to Ubuntu 1.2.1.1. Package selection Ubuntu does not provide security updates and professional support for every package available in the open source world, but selects a complete set of packages making up a solid and comprehensive system and provides support for that set of packages. For users that want access to every known package, Ubuntu provides a "universe" component (set of packages) where users of Ubuntu systems install the latest version of any package that is not in the supported set. Most of the packages in Ubuntu universe are also in Debian, although there are other sources for universe too. See the Ubuntu Components page for more detail on the structure of the Ubuntu web distribution. 1.2.1.2. Releases Ubuntu makes a release every six months, and supports those releases for 18 months with daily secu- rity fixes and patches to critical bugs. As Ubuntu prepares for release, we “freeze” a snapshot of Debian’s development archive (“sid”). We start from “sid” in order to give ourselves the freedom to make our own decisions with regard to release management, independent of Debian’s release-in-preparation. This is necessary because our release criteria are very different from Debian’s. As a simple example, a package might be excluded from Debian “testing” due to a build failure on any of the 11 architectures supported by Debian “sarge”, but it is still suitable for Ubuntu if it builds and works on only three of them. A package will also be prevented from entering Debian “testing” if it has release-critical bugs according to Debian criteria, but a bug which is release-critical for Debian may not be as important for Ubuntu. As a community, we choose places to diverge from Debian in ways that minimize the difference between Debian and Ubuntu. For example, we usually choose to update to the very latest version of Gnome rather than the older version in Debian, and we might do the same for key other pieces of infrastructure such as X or GCC. Those decisions are listed as Feature Goals for that release, and we work as a community to make sure that they are in place before the release happens. 1.2.1.3. Development community Many Ubuntu developers are also recognized members of the Debian community. They continue to stay active in contributing to Debian both in the course of their work on Ubuntu and directly in Debian. When Ubuntu developers fix bugs that are also present in Debian packages - and since the projects are linked, this happens often - they send their bugfixes to the Debian developers responsible for that package in Debian and record the patch URL in the Debian bug system. The long term goal of that work is to ensure that patches made by the full-time Ubuntu team members are immediately also included in Debian packages where the Debian maintainer likes the work. In Ubuntu, team members can make a change to any package, even if it is one maintained by some- one else. Once you are an Ubuntu maintainer it’s encouraged that you fix problems you encounter, although we also encourage polite discussions between people with an interest in a given package to improve cooperation and reduce friction between maintainers. 1.2.1.4. Freedom and Philosophy Debian and Ubuntu are grounded on the same free software philosophy. Both groups are explicitly committed to building an operating system of free software., Chapter 1. Welcome to Ubuntu Differences between the groups lie in their treatment of non-computer applications (like documenta- tion, fonts and binary firmware) and non-free software. Debian distributes a small amount of non-free software from their Internet servers. Ubuntu will also distribute binary drivers in the "restricted" com- ponent on its Internet servers but will not distribute any other software applications that do not meet its own Ubuntu Licensing Guidelines. 1.2.1.5. Ubuntu and other Debian derivatives There are many other distributions that also share the same basic infrastructure (package and archive format). Ubuntu is distinguished from them in a number of ways. First, Ubuntu contributes patches directly to Debian as bugs are fixed during the Ubuntu release pro- cess, not just when the release is actually made. With other Debian-style distributions, the source code and patches are made available in a "big bang" at release time, which makes them difficult to integrate into the upstream HEAD. Second, Ubuntu includes a number of full-time contributors who are also Debian developers. Many of the other distributions that use Debian-style packaging do not include any active Debian contributors. Third, Ubuntu makes much more frequent and fresher releases. Our release policy of releasing every six months is (at the time of writing :-) unique in the Linux distribution world. Ubuntu aims to provide you with a regular stable and security-supported snapshot of the best of the open source world. 1.3. What is GNU/Linux? Linux is an operating system: a series of programs that let you interact with your computer and run other programs. An operating system consists of various fundamental programs which are needed by your computer so that it can communicate and receive instructions from users; read and write data to hard disks, tapes, and printers; control the use of memory; and run other software. The most important part of an operating system is the kernel. In a GNU/Linux system, Linux is the kernel component. The rest of the system consists of other programs, many of which were written by or for the GNU Project. Because the Linux kernel alone does not form a working operating system, we prefer to use the term “GNU/Linux” to refer to systems that many people casually refer to as “Linux”. Linux is modelled on the Unix operating system. From the start, Linux was designed to be a multi- tasking, multi-user system. These facts are enough to make Linux different from other well-known operating systems. However, Linux is even more different than you might imagine. In contrast to other operating systems, nobody owns Linux. Much of its development is done by unpaid volunteers. Development of what later became GNU/Linux began in 1984, when the Free Software Foundation (http://www.fsf.org/) began development of a free Unix-like operating system called GNU. The GNU Project (http://www.gnu.org/) has developed a comprehensive set of free software tools for use with Unix™ and Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. These tools enable users to perform tasks ranging from the mundane (such as copying or removing files from the system) to the arcane (such as writing and compiling programs or doing sophisticated editing in a variety of document formats). While many groups and individuals have contributed to Linux, the largest single contributor is still the Free Software Foundation, which created not only most of the tools used in Linux, but also the philosophy and the community that made Linux possible., Chapter 1. Welcome to Ubuntu The Linux kernel (http://www.kernel.org/) first appeared in 1991, when a Finnish computing science student named Linus Torvalds announced an early version of a replacement kernel for Minix to the Usenet newsgroup comp.os.minix. See Linux International’s Linux History Page (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~awb/linux.history.html). Linus Torvalds continues to coordinate the work of several hundred developers with the help of a number of subsystem maintainers. There is an official website (http://www.kernel.org/) for the Linux kernel. Information about the linux-kernel mailing list can be found on the linux-kernel mailing list FAQ (http://www.tux.org/lkml/). Linux users have immense freedom of choice in their software. For example, Linux users can choose from a dozen different command line shells and several graphical desktops. This selection is often bewildering to users of other operating systems, who are not used to thinking of the command line or desktop as something that they can change. Linux is also less likely to crash, better able to run more than one program at the same time, and more secure than many operating systems. With these advantages, Linux is the fastest growing operating system in the server market. More recently, Linux has begun to be popular among home and business users as well. 1.4. Getting Ubuntu For information on how to download Ubuntu from the Internet, see the download web page (http://www.ubuntu.com/download/). The list of Ubuntu mirrors (http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Archive) contains a full set of official Ubuntu mirrors, so you can easily find the nearest one. Ubuntu can be upgraded after installation very easily. The installation procedure will help set up the system so that you can make those upgrades once installation is complete, if need be. 1.5. Getting the Newest Version of This Document This document is constantly being revised. Updated versions of this installation manual are available from the official Install Manual pages (http://help.ubuntu.com/16.04/installation-guide/amd64/). 1.6. Organization of This Document This document is meant to serve as a manual for first-time Ubuntu users. It tries to make as few assumptions as possible about your level of expertise. However, we do assume that you have a general understanding of how the hardware in your computer works. Expert users may also find interesting reference information in this document, including minimum installation sizes, details about the hardware supported by the Ubuntu installation system, and so on. We encourage expert users to jump around in the document. In general, this manual is arranged in a linear fashion, walking you through the installation process from start to finish. Here are the steps in installing Ubuntu, and the sections of this document which correlate with each step: 1. Determine whether your hardware meets the requirements for using the installation system, in Chapter 2., Chapter 1. Welcome to Ubuntu 2. Backup your system, perform any necessary planning and hardware configuration prior to in- stalling Ubuntu, in Chapter 3. If you are preparing a multi-boot system, you may need to create partitionable space on your hard disk for Ubuntu to use. 3. In Chapter 4, you will obtain the necessary installation files for your method of installation. 4. Chapter 5 describes booting into the installation system. This chapter also discusses troubleshoot- ing procedures in case you have problems with this step. 5. Perform the actual installation according to Chapter 6. This involves choosing your language, configuring peripheral driver modules, configuring your network connection, so that remaining installation files can be obtained directly from an Ubuntu server (if you are not installing from a CD), partitioning your hard drives and installation of a base system, then selection and installation of tasks. (Some background about setting up the partitions for your Ubuntu system is explained in Appendix C.) 6. Boot into your newly installed base system, from Chapter 7. Once you’ve got your system installed, you can read Chapter 8. That chapter explains where to look to find more information about Unix and Ubuntu, and how to replace your kernel. Finally, information about this document and how to contribute to it may be found in Appendix E. 1.7. Your Documentation Help is Welcome Any help, suggestions, and especially, patches, are greatly appreciated. Working versions of this doc- ument can be found at http://d-i.alioth.debian.org/manual/. There you will find a list of all the different architectures and languages for which this document is available. Source is also available publicly; look in Appendix E for more information concerning how to contribute. We welcome suggestions, comments, patches, and bug reports (use the package installation-guide for bugs, but check first to see if the problem is already reported). 1.8. About Copyrights and Software Licenses We’re sure that you’ve read some of the licenses that come with most commercial software — they usually say that you can only use one copy of the software on a single computer. This system’s license isn’t like that at all. We encourage you to put a copy of Ubuntu on every computer in your school or place of business. Lend your installation media to your friends and help them install it on their computers! You can even make thousands of copies and sell them — albeit with a few restrictions. Your freedom to install and use the system comes directly from Ubuntu being based on free software. Calling software free doesn’t mean that the software isn’t copyrighted, and it doesn’t mean that CDs/DVDs containing that software must be distributed at no charge. Free software, in part, means that the licenses of individual programs do not require you to pay for the privilege of distributing or using those programs. Free software also means that not only may anyone extend, adapt, and modify the software, but that they may distribute the results of their work as well. Note: The Ubuntu project, as a pragmatic concession to its users, does make some packages available that do not meet our criteria for being free. These packages are not part of the official distribution, however, and are only available from the multiverse area of Ubuntu mirrors; see the Ubuntu web site (http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/components) for more information about the layout and contents of the archives., Chapter 1. Welcome to Ubuntu Many of the programs in the system are licensed under the GNU General Public License, often simply referred to as “the GPL”. The GPL requires you to make the source code of the programs available whenever you distribute a binary copy of the program; that provision of the license ensures that any user will be able to modify the software. Because of this provision, the source code1 for all such programs is available in the Ubuntu system. There are several other forms of copyright statements and software licenses used on the programs in Ubuntu. You can find the copyrights and licenses for every package installed on your system by looking in the file /usr/share/doc/package-name/copyright once you’ve installed a package on your system. For more information about licenses and how Ubuntu determines whether software is free enough to be included in the main distribution, see the Ubuntu License Policy (http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/licensing). The most important legal notice is that this software comes with no warranties. The programmers who have created this software have done so for the benefit of the community. No guarantee is made as to the suitability of the software for any given purpose. However, since the software is free, you are empowered to modify that software to suit your needs — and to enjoy the benefits of the changes made by others who have extended the software in this way. 1. For information on how to locate, unpack, and build binaries from Ubuntu source packages, see the Debian FAQ (http://www.debian.org/doc/FAQ/), under “Basics of the Debian Package Management System”.,

Chapter 2. System Requirements

This section contains information about what hardware you need to get started with Ubuntu. You will also find links to further information about hardware supported by GNU and Linux. 2.1. Supported Hardware Ubuntu does not impose hardware requirements beyond the requirements of the Linux kernel and the GNU tool-sets. Therefore, any architecture or platform to which the Linux kernel, libc, gcc, etc. have been ported, and for which an Ubuntu port exists, can run Ubuntu. Rather than attempting to describe all the different hardware configurations which are supported for 64-bit PC, this section contains general information and pointers to where additional information can be found. 2.1.1. Supported Architectures Ubuntu 16.04 supports six major architectures and several variations of each architecture known as “flavors”. One other architecture (IBM/Motorola PowerPC) has an unofficial port. Architecture Ubuntu Designation Subarchitecture Flavor Intel x86-based i386 AMD64 & Intel 64 amd64 ARM with hardware armhf multiplatform generic

FPU

multiplatform for generic-lpae LPAE-capable systems 64bit ARM arm64 IBM/Motorola powerpc PowerMac pmac PowerPC Power Systems ppc64el IBM POWER8 or newer machines 64bit IBM S/390 s390x IPL from VM-reader generic and DASD 2.1.2. CPU Support Both AMD64 and Intel 64 processors are supported. 2.1.3. Laptops From a technical point of view, laptops are normal PCs, so all information regarding PC systems applies to laptops as well. Installations on laptops nowadays usually work out of the box, including things like automatically suspending the system on closing the lid and laptop specfic hardware buttons, Chapter 2. System Requirements like those for disabling the wifi interfaces (“airplane mode”). Nonetheless sometimes the hardware vendors use specialized or proprietary hardware for some laptop-specific functions which might not be supported. To see if your particular laptop works well with GNU/Linux, see for example the Linux Laptop pages (http://www.linux-laptop.net/). 2.1.4. Multiple Processors Multiprocessor support — also called “symmetric multiprocessing” or SMP — is available for this architecture. The standard Ubuntu 16.04 kernel image has been compiled with SMP-alternatives sup- port. This means that the kernel will detect the number of processors (or processor cores) and will automatically deactivate SMP on uniprocessor systems. Having multiple processors in a computer was originally only an issue for high-end server systems but has become common in recent years nearly everywhere with the introduction of so called “multi-core” processors. These contain two or more processor units, called “cores”, in one physical chip. 2.1.5. Graphics Hardware Support Ubuntu’s support for graphical interfaces is determined by the underlying support found in X.Org’s X11 system, and the kernel. Basic framebuffer graphics is provided by the kernel, whilst desktop environments use X11. Whether advanced graphics card features such as 3D-hardware acceleration or hardware-accelerated video are available, depends on the actual graphics hardware used in the system and in some cases on the installation of additional “firmware” images (see Section 2.2). On modern PCs, having a graphical display usually works out of the box. In very few cases there have been reports about hardware on which installation of additional graphics card firmware was required even for basic graphics support, but these have been rare exceptions. For quite a lot of hardware, 3D acceleration also works well out of the box, but there is still some hardware that needs binary blobs to work well. Details on supported graphics hardware and pointing devices can be found at http://xorg.freedesktop.org/. Ubuntu 16.04 ships with X.Org version 7.7. 2.1.6. Network Connectivity Hardware Almost any network interface card (NIC) supported by the Linux kernel should also be supported by the installation system; drivers should normally be loaded automatically. This includes most PCI/PCI- Express cards as well as PCMCIA/Express Cards on laptops. ISDN is supported, but not during the installation. 2.1.6.1. Wireless Network Cards Wireless networking is in general supported as well and a growing number of wireless adapters are supported by the official Linux kernel, although many of them do require firmware to be loaded. If firmware is needed, the installer will prompt you to load firmware. See Section 6.4 for detailed information on how to load firmware during the installation. Wireless NICs that are not supported by the official Linux kernel can generally be made to work under Ubuntu, but are not supported during the installation., Chapter 2. System Requirements If there is a problem with wireless and there is no other NIC you can use during the installation, it is still possible to install Ubuntu using a full CD-ROM or DVD image. Select the option to not configure a network and install using only the packages available from the CD/DVD. You can then install the driver and firmware you need after the installation is completed (after the reboot) and configure your network manually. In some cases the driver you need may not be available as an Ubuntu package. You will then have to look if there is source code available in the internet and compile the driver yourself. How to do this is outside the scope of this manual. If no Linux driver is available, your last resort is to use the ndiswrapper package, which allows you to use a Windows driver. 2.1.7. Braille Displays Support for braille displays is determined by the underlying support found in brltty. Most displays work under brltty, connected via either a serial port, USB or bluetooth. Details on supported braille devices can be found on the brltty website (http://brltty.com/). Ubuntu 16.04 ships with brltty version 5.3.1. 2.1.8. Hardware Speech Synthesis Support for hardware speech synthesis devices is determined by the underlying support found in speakup. speakup only supports integrated boards and external devices connected to a serial port (no USB, serial-to-USB or PCI adapters are supported). Details on supported hardware speech synthesis devices can be found on the speakup website (http://www.linux-speakup.org/). Ubuntu 16.04 ships with speakup version 3.1.6. 2.1.9. Peripherals and Other Hardware Linux supports a large variety of hardware devices such as mice, printers, scanners, PCMCIA/CardBus/ExpressCard and USB devices. However, most of these devices are not required while installing the system. USB hardware generally works fine. On some very old PC systems some USB keyboards may require additional configuration (see Section 3.6.5). On modern PCs, USB keyboards and mice work without requiring any specific configuration. 2.2. Devices Requiring Firmware Besides the availability of a device driver, some hardware also requires so-called firmware or mi- crocode to be loaded into the device before it can become operational. This is most common for net- work interface cards (especially wireless NICs), but for example some USB devices and even some hard disk controllers also require firmware. With many graphics cards, basic functionality is available without additional firmware, but the use of advanced features requires an appropriate firmware file to be installed in the system. On many older devices which require firmware to work, the firmware file was permanently placed in an EEPROM/Flash chip on the device itself by the manufacturer. Nowadays most new devices do not, Chapter 2. System Requirements have the firmware embedded this way anymore, so the firmware file must be uploaded into the device by the host operating system every time the system boots. In most cases firmware is non-free according to the criteria used by the Ubuntu project and thus cannot be included in the main distribution or in the installation system. If the device driver itself is included in the distribution and if Ubuntu legally can distribute the firmware, it will often be available as a separate package from the non-free section of the archive. However, this does not mean that such hardware cannot be used during an installation. The debian-installer supports loading firmware files or packages containing firmware from a removable medium, such as a USB stick. See Section 6.4 for detailed information on how to load firmware files or packages during the installation. If the debian-installer prompts for a firmware file and you do not have this firmware file available or do not want to install a non-free firmware file on your system, you can try to proceed without loading the firmware. There are several cases where a driver prompts for additional firmware because it may be needed under certain circumstances, but the device does work without it on most systems (this e.g. happens with certain network cards using the tg3 driver). 2.3. Purchasing Hardware Specifically for GNU/Linux There are several vendors, who ship systems with Ubuntu or other distributions of GNU/Linux pre- installed (http://www.debian.org/distrib/pre-installed). You might pay more for the privilege, but it does buy a level of peace of mind, since you can be sure that the hardware is well-supported by GNU/Linux. If you do have to buy a machine with Windows bundled, carefully read the software license that comes with Windows; you may be able to reject the license and obtain a rebate from your vendor. Searching the Internet for “Microsoft Windows Rebate” will provide information on how to go about getting a rebate. Whether or not you are purchasing a system with Linux bundled, or even a used system, it is still important to check that your hardware is supported by the Linux kernel. Check if your hardware is listed in the references found above. Let your salesperson (if any) know that you’re shopping for a Linux system. Support Linux-friendly hardware vendors. 2.3.1. Avoid Proprietary or Closed Hardware Some hardware manufacturers simply won’t tell us how to write drivers for their hardware. Others won’t allow us access to the documentation without a non-disclosure agreement that would prevent us from releasing the driver’s source code, which is one of the central elements of free software. Since we haven’t been granted access to usable documentation on these devices, they simply won’t work under Linux. In many cases there are standards (or at least some de-facto standards) describing how an operating system and its device drivers communicate with a certain class of devices. All devices which comply to such a (de-facto-)standard can be used with a single generic device driver and no device-specific drivers are required. With some kinds of hardware (e.g. USB “Human Interface Devices”, i.e. key- boards, mice, etc., and USB mass storage devices like USB flash disks and memory card readers) this works very well and practically every device sold in the market is standards-compliant. In other fields, among them e.g. printers, this is unfortunately not the case. While there are many printers which can be addressed via a small set of (de-facto-)standard control languages and therefore can be made to work without problems in any operating system, there are quite a few models which, Chapter 2. System Requirements only understand proprietary control commands for which no usable documentation is available and therefore either cannot be used at all on free operating systems or can only be used with a vendor- supplied closed-source driver. Even if there is a vendor-provided closed-source driver for such hardware when purchasing the de- vice, the practical lifespan of the device is limited by driver availability. Nowadays product cycles have become short and it is not uncommon that a short time after a consumer device has ceased pro- duction, no driver updates get made available any more by the manufacturer. If the old closed-source driver does not work anymore after a system update, an otherwise perfectly working device becomes unusable due to lacking driver support and there is nothing that can be done in this case. You should therefore avoid buying closed hardware in the first place, regardless of the operating system you want to use it with. You can help improve this situation by encouraging manufacturers of closed hardware to release the documentation and other resources necessary for us to provide free drivers for their hardware. 2.4. Installation Media This section will help you determine which different media types you can use to install Ubuntu. There is a whole chapter devoted to media, Chapter 4, which lists the advantages and disadvantages of each media type. You may want to refer back to this page once you reach that section. 2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM Note: Whenever you see “CD-ROM” in this manual, it applies to all of CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs and BD-ROMs, because all these technologies are really the same from the operating system’s point of view. CD-ROM based installation is supported for most architectures. On PCs SATA, IDE/ATAPI, USB and SCSI CD-ROMs are supported, as are FireWire devices that are supported by the ohci1394 and sbp2 drivers. 2.4.2. USB Memory Stick USB flash disks a.k.a. USB memory sticks have become a commonly used and cheap storage device. Most modern computer systems also allow booting the debian-installer from such a stick. Many modern computer systems, in particular netbooks and thin laptops, do not have a CD/DVD-ROM drive anymore at all and booting from USB media is the standard way of installing a new operating system on them. 2.4.3. Network The network can be used during the installation to retrieve files needed for the installation. Whether the network is used or not depends on the installation method you choose and your answers to certain questions that will be asked during the installation. The installation system supports most types of, Chapter 2. System Requirements network connections (including PPPoE, but not ISDN or PPP), via either HTTP or FTP. After the installation is completed, you can also configure your system to use ISDN and PPP. You can also boot the installation system over the network without needing any local media like CDs/DVDs or USB sticks. If you already have a netboot-infrastructure available (i.e. you are already running DHCP and TFTP services in your network), this allows an easy and fast deployment of a large number of machines. Setting up the necessary infrastructure requires a certain level of technical experience, so this is not recommended for novice users. Diskless installation, using network booting from a local area network and NFS-mounting of all local filesystems, is another option. 2.4.4. Hard Disk Booting the installation system directly from a hard disk is another option for many architectures. This will require some other operating system to load the installer onto the hard disk. This method is only recommended for special cases when no other installation method is available. 2.4.5. Un*x or GNU system If you are running another Unix-like system, you could use it to install Ubuntu without using the debian-installer described in the rest of this manual. This kind of install may be useful for users with otherwise unsupported hardware or on hosts which can’t afford downtime. If you are interested in this technique, skip to the Section D.4. This installation method is only recommended for advanced users when no other installation method is available. 2.4.6. Supported Storage Systems The Ubuntu installer contains a kernel which is built to maximize the number of systems it runs on. Generally, the Ubuntu installation system includes support for IDE (also known as PATA) drives, SATA and SCSI controllers and drives, USB, and FireWire. The supported file systems include FAT, Win-32 FAT extensions (VFAT) and NTFS. 2.5. Memory and Disk Space Requirements You must have at least 112MB of memory and 680MB of hard disk space to perform a normal instal- lation. Note that these are fairly minimal numbers. For more realistic figures, see Section 3.4. Installation on systems with less memory or disk space available may be possible but is only advised for experienced users.,

Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu

This chapter deals with the preparation for installing Ubuntu before you even boot the installer. This includes backing up your data, gathering information about your hardware, and locating any necessary information. 3.1. Overview of the Installation Process First, just a note about re-installations. With Ubuntu, a circumstance that will require a complete re- installation of your system is very rare; perhaps mechanical failure of the hard disk would be the most common case. Many common operating systems may require a complete installation to be performed when critical failures take place or for upgrades to new OS versions. Even if a completely new installation isn’t required, often the programs you use must be re-installed to operate properly in the new OS. Under Ubuntu, it is much more likely that your OS can be repaired rather than replaced if things go wrong. Upgrades never require a wholesale installation; you can always upgrade in-place. And the programs are almost always compatible with successive OS releases. If a new program version requires newer supporting software, the Ubuntu packaging system ensures that all the necessary soft- ware is automatically identified and installed. The point is, much effort has been put into avoiding the need for re-installation, so think of it as your very last option. The installer is not designed to re-install over an existing system. Here’s a road map for the steps you will take during the installation process. 1. Back up any existing data or documents on the hard disk where you plan to install. 2. Gather information about your computer and any needed documentation, before starting the in- stallation. 3. Locate and/or download the installer software and any specialized driver or firmware files your machine requires. 4. Set up boot media such as CDs/DVDs/USB sticks or provide a network boot infrastructure from which the installer can be booted. 5. Boot the installation system. 6. Select the installation language. 7. Activate the ethernet network connection, if available. 8. If necessary, resize existing partitions on your target harddisk to make space for the installation. 9. Create and mount the partitions on which Ubuntu will be installed. 10. Watch the automatic download/install/setup of the base system. 11. Install a boot loader which can start up Ubuntu and/or your existing system. 12. Load the newly installed system for the first time. If you have problems during the installation, it helps to know which packages are involved in which steps. Introducing the leading software actors in this installation drama: The installer software, debian-installer, is the primary concern of this manual. It detects hardware and loads appropriate drivers, uses dhcp-client to set up the network connection, runs debootstrap to install the base system packages, and runs tasksel to allow you to install certain, Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu additional software. Many more actors play smaller parts in this process, but debian-installer has completed its task when you load the new system for the first time. To tune the system to your needs, tasksel allows you to choose to install various predefined bundles of software like a Web server or a Desktop environment. Just be aware that the X Window System is completely separate from debian-installer, and in fact is much more complicated. Troubleshooting of the X Window System is not within the scope of this manual. 3.2. Back Up Your Existing Data! Before you start, make sure to back up every file that is now on your system. If this is the first time a non-native operating system is going to be installed on your computer, it is quite likely you will need to re-partition your disk to make room for Ubuntu. Anytime you partition your disk, you run a risk of losing everything on the disk, no matter what program you use to do it. The programs used in the installation are quite reliable and most have seen years of use; but they are also quite powerful and a false move can cost you. Even after backing up, be careful and think about your answers and actions. Two minutes of thinking can save hours of unnecessary work. If you are creating a multi-boot system, make sure that you have the distribution media of any other present operating systems on hand. Even though this is normally not necessary, there might be sit- uations in which you could be required to reinstall your operating system’s boot loader to make the system boot or in a worst case even have to reinstall the complete operating system and restore your previously made backup. 3.3. Information You Will Need 3.3.1. Documentation 3.3.1.1. Installation Manual This document you are now reading, in plain ASCII, HTML or PDF format. • install.en.txt • install.en.html • install.en.pdf 3.3.1.2. Hardware documentation Often contains useful information on configuring or using your hardware. • The Debian Wiki hardware page (http://wiki.debian.org/Hardware), Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu 3.3.2. Finding Sources of Hardware Information In many cases, the installer will be able to automatically detect your hardware. But to be prepared, we do recommend familiarizing yourself with your hardware before the install. Hardware information can be gathered from: • The manuals that come with each piece of hardware. • The BIOS setup screens of your computer. You can view these screens when you start your com- puter by pressing a combination of keys. Check your manual for the combination. Often, it is the Delete or the F2 key, but some manufacturers use other keys or key combinations. Usually upon starting the computer there will be a message stating which key to press to enter the setup screen. • The cases and boxes for each piece of hardware. • The System window in the Windows Control Panel. • System commands or tools in another operating system, including file manager displays. This source is especially useful for information about RAM and hard drive memory. • Your system administrator or Internet Service Provider. These sources can tell you the settings you need to set up your networking and e-mail. Table 3-1. Hardware Information Helpful for an Install Hardware Information You Might Need Hard Drives How many you have. Their order on the system. Whether IDE (also known as PATA), SATA or SCSI. Available free space. Partitions. Partitions where other operating systems are installed. Network interfaces Type/model of available network interfaces. Printer Model and manufacturer. Video Card Type/model and manufacturer. 3.3.3. Hardware Compatibility Many products work without trouble on Linux. Moreover, hardware support in Linux is improving daily. However, Linux still does not run as many different types of hardware as some operating sys- tems. Drivers in Linux in most cases are not written for a certain “product” or “brand” from a specific man- ufacturer, but for a certain hardware/chipset. Many seemingly different products/brands are based on the same hardware design; it is not uncommon that chip manufacturers provide so-called “reference designs” for products based on their chips which are then used by several different device manufac- turers and sold under lots of different product or brand names., Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu This has advantages and disadvantages. An advantage is that a driver for one chipset works with lots of different products from different manufacturers, as long as their product is based on the same chipset. The disadvantage is that it is not always easy to see which actual chipset is used in a certain prod- uct/brand. Unfortunately sometimes device manufacturers change the hardware base of their product without changing the product name or at least the product version number, so that when having two items of the same brand/product name bought at different times, they can sometimes be based on two different chipsets and therefore use two different drivers or there might be no driver at all for one of them. For USB and PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard devices, a good way to find out on which chipset they are based is to look at their device IDs. All USB/PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard devices have so called “vendor” and “product” IDs, and the combination of these two is usually the same for any product based on the same chipset. On Linux systems, these IDs can be read with the lsusb command for USB devices and with the lspci -nn command for PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard devices. The vendor and product IDs are usually given in the form of two hexadecimal numbers, seperated by a colon, such as “1d6b:0001”. An example for the output of lsusb: “Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub”, whereby 1d6b is the vendor ID and 0002 is the product ID. An example for the output of lspci -nn for an Ethernet card: “03:00.0 Ethernet controller [0200]: Re- altek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller [10ec:8168] (rev 06)”. The IDs are given inside the rightmost square brackets, i.e. here 10ec is the vendor- and 8168 is the product ID. As another example, a graphics card could give the following output: “04:00.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI RV710 [Radeon HD 4350] [1002:954f]”. On Windows systems, the IDs for a device can be found in the Windows device manager on the tab “details”, where the vendor ID is prefixed with VEN_ and the product ID is prefixed with DEV_. On Windows 7 systems, you have to select the property “Hardware IDs” in the device manager’s details tab to actually see the IDs, as they are not displayed by default. Searching on the internet with the vendor/product ID, “Linux” and “driver” as the search terms often results in information regarding the driver support status for a certain chipset. If a search for the vendor/product ID does not yield usable results, a search for the chip code names, which are also often provided by lsusb and lspci (“RTL8111”/“RTL8168B” in the network card example and “RV710” in the graphics card example), can help. 3.3.3.1. Testing hardware compatibility with a Live-System Ubuntu is also available as a so-called “live system” for certain architectures. A live system is a preconfigured ready-to-use system in a compressed format that can be booted and used from a read- only medium like a CD or DVD. Using it by default does not create any permanent changes on your computer. You can change user settings and install additional programs from within the live system, but all this only happens in the computer’s RAM, i.e. if you turn off the computer and boot the live system again, everything is reset to its defaults. If you want to see whether your hardware is supported by Ubuntu, the easiest way is to run a Ubuntu live system on it and try it out. There are a few limitations in using a live system. The first is that as all changes you do within the live system must be held in your computer’s RAM, this only works on systems with enough RAM to do that, so installing additional large software packages may fail due to memory constraints. An- other limitation with regards to hardware compatibility testing is that the official Ubuntu live system contains only free components, i.e. there are no non-free firmware files included in it. Such non-free packages can of course be installed manually within the system, but there is no automatic detection of, Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu required firmware files like in the debian-installer, so installation of non-free components must be done manually if needed. Information about the available variants of the Ubuntu live images can be found at the download web page (http://www.ubuntu.com/download/). 3.3.4. Network Settings If your computer is connected to a fixed network (i.e. an Ethernet or equivalent connection — not a dialup/PPP connection) which is administered by somebody else, you should ask your network’s system administrator for this information: • Your host name (you may be able to decide this on your own). • Your domain name. • Your computer’s IP address. • The netmask to use with your network. • The IP address of the default gateway system you should route to, if your network has a gateway. • The system on your network that you should use as a DNS (Domain Name Service) server. If the network you are connected to uses DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) for configur- ing network settings, you don’t need this information because the DHCP server will provide it directly to your computer during the installation process. If you have internet access via DSL or cable modem (i.e. over a cable tv network) and have a router (often provided preconfigured by your phone or catv provider) which handles your network connec- tivity, DHCP is usually available by default. As a rule of thumb: if you run a Windows system in your home network and did not have to manually perform any network settings there to achieve Internet access, network connectivity in Ubuntu will also be configured automatically. If you use a WLAN/WiFi network, you should find out: • The ESSID (“network name”) of your wireless network. • The WEP or WPA/WPA2 security key to access the network (if applicable). 3.4. Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements Once you have gathered information about your computer’s hardware, check that your hardware will let you do the type of installation that you want to do. Depending on your needs, you might manage with less than some of the recommended hardware listed in the table below. However, most users risk being frustrated if they ignore these suggestions. A Pentium 4, 1GHz system is the minimum recommended for a desktop system., Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu Table 3-2. Recommended Minimum System Requirements Install Type RAM (minimum) RAM Hard Drive (recommended) No desktop 128 megabytes 512 megabytes 2 gigabytes With Desktop 256 megabytes 1 gigabyte 10 gigabytes The actual minimum memory requirements are a lot less than the numbers listed in this table. De- pending on the architecture, it is possible to install Ubuntu with as little as 60MB (for amd64). The same goes for the disk space requirements, especially if you pick and choose which applications to install; see Section D.3 for additional information on disk space requirements. It is possible to run a graphical desktop environment on older or low-end systems, but in that case it is recommended to install a window manager that is less resource-hungry than those of the GNOME or KDE desktop environments; alternatives include xfce4, icewm and wmaker, but there are others to choose from. It is practically impossible to give general memory or disk space requirements for server installations as those very much depend on what the server is to be used for. Remember that these sizes don’t include all the other materials which are usually to be found, such as user files, mail, and data. It is always best to be generous when considering the space for your own files and data. Disk space required for the smooth operation of the Ubuntu system itself is taken into account in these recommended system requirements. Notably, the /var partition contains a lot of state information specific to Ubuntu in addition to its regular contents, like logfiles. The dpkg files (with information on all installed packages) can easily consume 40MB. Also, apt-get puts downloaded packages here before they are installed. You should usually allocate at least 200MB for /var, and a lot more if you install a graphical desktop environment. 3.5. Pre-Partitioning for Multi-Boot Systems Partitioning your disk simply refers to the act of breaking up your disk into sections. Each section is then independent of the others. It’s roughly equivalent to putting up walls inside a house; if you add furniture to one room it doesn’t affect any other room. If you already have an operating system on your system (Windows 9x, Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7, OS/2, MacOS, Solaris, FreeBSD, .) which uses the whole disk and you want to stick Ubuntu on the same disk, you will need to repartition it. Ubuntu requires its own hard disk partitions. It cannot be installed on Windows or Mac OS X partitions. It may be able to share some partitions with other Unix systems, but that’s not covered here. At the very least you will need a dedicated partition for the Ubuntu root filesystem. You can find information about your current partition setup by using a partitioning tool for your cur- rent operating system, such as the integrated Disk Manager in Windows or fdisk in DOS. Partitioning tools always provide a way to show existing partitions without making changes. In general, changing a partition with a file system already on it will destroy any information there. Thus you should always make backups before doing any repartitioning. Using the analogy of the house, you would probably want to move all the furniture out of the way before moving a wall or you risk destroying it. Several modern operating systems offer the ability to move and resize certain existing partitions with- out destroying their contents. This allows making space for additional partitions without losing ex-, Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu isting data. Even though this works quite well in most cases, making changes to the partitioning of a disk is an inherently dangerous action and should only be done after having made a full backup of all data. For FAT/FAT32 and NTFS partitions as used by DOS and Windows systems, the ability to move and resize them losslessly is provided both by debian-installer as well as by the integrated Disk Manager of Windows 7. To losslessly resize an existing FAT or NTFS partition from within debian-installer, go to the partitioning step, select the option for manual partitioning, select the partition to resize, and simply specify its new size. Creating and deleting partitions can be done from within debian-installer as well as from an existing operating system. As a rule of thumb, partitions should be created by the system for which they are to be used, i.e. partitions to be used by Ubuntu should be created from within debian-installer and partitions to be used from another operating system should be created from there. debian-installer is capable of creating non-Linux partitions, and partitions created this way usually work without problems when used in other operating systems, but there are a few rare corner cases in which this could cause problems, so if you want to be sure, use the native partitioning tools to create partitions for use by other operating systems. If you are going to install more than one operating system on the same machine, you should install all other system(s) before proceeding with the Ubuntu installation. Windows and other OS installations may destroy your ability to start Ubuntu, or encourage you to reformat non-native partitions. You can recover from these actions or avoid them, but installing the native system first saves you trouble. 3.6. Pre-Installation Hardware and Operating System

Setup

This section will walk you through pre-installation hardware setup, if any, that you will need to do prior to installing Ubuntu. Generally, this involves checking and possibly changing BIOS/system firmware settings for your system. The “BIOS” or “system firmware” is the core software used by the hardware; it is most critically invoked during the bootstrap process (after power-up). 3.6.1. Invoking the BIOS Set-Up Menu The BIOS provides the basic functions needed to boot your machine and to allow your operating system to access your hardware. Your system provides a BIOS setup menu, which is used to configure the BIOS. To enter the BIOS setup menu you have to press a key or key combination after turning on the computer. Often it is the Delete or the F2 key, but some manufacturers use other keys. Usually upon starting the computer there will be a message stating which key to press to enter the setup screen. 3.6.2. Boot Device Selection Within the BIOS setup menu, you can select which devices shall be checked in which sequence for a bootable operating system. Possible choices usually include the internal harddisks, the CD/DVD- ROM drive and USB mass storage devices such as USB sticks or external USB harddisks. On modern systems there is also often a possibility to enable network booting via PXE. Depending on the installation media (CD/DVD ROM, USB stick, network boot) you have chosen you should enable the appropriate boot devices if they are not already enabled., Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu Most BIOS versions allow you to call up a boot menu on system startup in which you select from which device the computer should start for the current session. If this option is available, the BIOS usually displays a short message like “press F12 for boot menu” on system startup. The actual key used to select this menu varies from system to system; commonly used keys are F12, F11 and F8. Choosing a device from this menu does not change the default boot order of the BIOS, i.e. you can start once from a USB stick while having configured the internal harddisk as the normal primary boot device. If your BIOS does not provide you with a boot menu to do ad-hoc choices of the current boot device, you will have to change your BIOS setup to make the device from which the debian-installer shall be booted the primary boot device. Unfortunately some computers contain buggy BIOS versions. Booting debian-installer from a USB stick might not work even if there is an appropriate option in the BIOS setup menu and the stick is selected as the primary boot device. On some of these systems using a USB stick as boot medium is impossible; others can be tricked into booting from the stick by changing the device type in the BIOS setup from the default “USB harddisk” or “USB stick” to “USB ZIP” or “USB CDROM”. In particular if you use an isohybrid CD/DVD image on a USB stick (see Section 4.3.1), changing the device type to “USB CDROM” helps on some BIOSes which will not boot from a USB stick in USB harddisk mode. If you cannot manipulate the BIOS to boot directly from a USB stick you still have the option of using an ISO copied to the stick. Boot debian-installer using Section 4.4 and, after scanning the hard drives for an installer ISO image, select the USB device and choose an installation image. 3.6.3. Systems with UEFI firmware UEFI (“Unified Extensible Firmware Interface”) is a new kind of system firmware that is used on many modern systems and is - among other uses - intended to replace the classic PC BIOS. Currently most PC systems that use UEFI also have a so-called “Compatibility Support Module” (CSM) in the firmware, which provides excatly the same interfaces to an operating system as a classic PC BIOS, so that software written for the classic PC BIOS can be used unchanged. Nonetheless UEFI is intended to one day completely replace the old PC BIOS without being fully backwards-compatible and there are already a lot of systems with UEFI but without CSM. On systems with UEFI there are a few things to take into consideration when installing an operating system. The way the firmware loads an operating system is fundamentally different between the clas- sic BIOS (or UEFI in CSM mode) and native UEFI. One major difference is the way the harddisk partitions are recorded on the harddisk. While the classic BIOS and UEFI in CSM mode use a DOS partition table, native UEFI uses a different partitioning scheme called “GUID Partition Table” (GPT). On a single disk, for all practical purposes only one of the two can be used and in case of a multi-boot setup with different operating systems on one disk, all of them must therefore use the same type of partition table. Booting from a disk with GPT is only possible in native UEFI mode, but using GPT becomes more and more common as hard disk sizes grow, because the classic DOS partition table cannot address disks larger than about 2 Terabytes while GPT allows for far larger disks. The other major difference between BIOS (or UEFI in CSM mode) and native UEFI is the location where boot code is stored and in which format it has to be. This means that different bootloaders are needed for each system. The latter becomes important when booting debian-installer on a UEFI system with CSM be- cause debian-installer checks whether it was started on a BIOS- or on a native UEFI system and installs the corresponding bootloader. Normally this simply works but there can be a problem in multi- boot environments. On some UEFI systems with CSM the default boot mode for removable devices, Chapter 3. Before Installing Ubuntu can be different from what is actually used when booting from hard disk, so when booting the in- staller from a USB stick in a different mode from what is used when booting another already installed operating system from the hard disk, the wrong bootloader might be installed and the system might be unbootable after finishing the installation. When choosing the boot device from a firmware boot menu, some systems offer two seperate choices for each device, so that the user can select whether booting shall happen in CSM or in native UEFI mode. 3.6.4. Disabling the Windows 8 “fast boot” feature Windows 8 offers a feature called “fast boot” to cut down system startup time. Technically, when this feature is enabled, Windows 8 does not do a real shutdown and a real cold boot afterwards when ordered to shut down, but instead does something resembling a partial suspend to disk to reduce the “boot” time. As long as Windows 8 is the only operating system on the machine, this is unproblematic, but it can result in problems and data loss when you have a dual boot setup in which another operating system accesses the same filesystems as Windows 8 does. In that case the real state of the filesystem can be different from what Windows 8 believes it to be after the “boot” and this could cause filesystem corruption upon further write accesses to the filesystem. Therefore in a dual boot setup, to avoid filesystem corruption the “fast boot” feature has to be disabled within Windows. It may also be necessary to disable “fast boot” to even allow access to UEFI setup to choose to boot another operating system or debian-installer. On some UEFI systems, the firmware will reduce “boot” time by not initialising the keyboard controller or USB hardware; in these cases, it is necessary to boot into Windows and disable this feature to allow for a change of boot order. 3.6.5. Hardware Issues to Watch Out For USB BIOS support and keyboards. If you have no PS/2-style keyboard, but only a USB model, on some very old PCs you may need to enable legacy keyboard emulation in your BIOS setup to be able to use your keyboard in the bootloader menu, but this is not an issue for modern systems. If your keyboard does not work in the bootloader menu, consult your mainboard manual and look in the BIOS for “Legacy keyboard emulation” or “USB keyboard support” options.,

Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media

4.1. Official Ubuntu CD-ROMs By far the easiest way to install Ubuntu is from an Official Ubuntu CD-ROM (http://releases.ubuntu.com/xenial/). You may download the CD-ROM image from an Ubuntu mirror and make your own CD, if you have a fast network connection and a CD burner. If you have an Ubuntu CD and CDs are bootable on your machine, which is the case on all modern PCs, you can skip right to Chapter 5; much effort has been expended to ensure the files most people need are there on the CD. If your machine doesn’t support CD booting (only relevant on very old PC systems), but you do have a CD, you can use an alternative strategy such as hard disk, usb stick, net boot, or manually loading the kernel from the CD to initially boot the system installer. The files you need for booting by another means are also on the CD; the Ubuntu network archive and CD folder organization are identical. So when archive file paths are given below for particular files you need for booting, look for those files in the same directories and subdirectories on your CD. Once the installer is booted, it will be able to obtain all the other files it needs from the CD. If you don’t have a CD, then you will need to download the installer system files and place them on the hard disk or usb stick or a connected computer so they can be used to boot the installer. 4.2. Downloading Files from Ubuntu Mirrors To find the nearest (and thus probably the fastest) mirror, see the list of Ubuntu mirrors (http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Archive). When downloading files from an Ubuntu mirror using FTP, be sure to download the files in binary mode, not text or automatic mode. 4.2.1. Where to Find Installation Images The installation images are located on each Ubuntu mirror in the directory ubuntu/dists/xenial/main/installer-amd64/current/images/ (http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/dists/xenial/main/installer-amd64/current/images) — the MANIFEST (http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/dists/xenial/main/installer- amd64/current/images/MANIFEST) lists each image and its purpose. 4.3. Preparing Files for USB Memory Stick Booting To prepare the USB stick, you will need a system where GNU/Linux is already running and where USB is supported. With current GNU/Linux systems the USB stick should be automatically recog- nized when you insert it. If it is not you should check that the usb-storage kernel module is loaded. When the USB stick is inserted, it will be mapped to a device named /dev/sdX, where the “X” is, Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media a letter in the range a-z. You should be able to see to which device the USB stick was mapped by running the command dmesg after inserting it. To write to your stick, you may have to turn off its write protection switch.

Warning

The procedures described in this section will destroy anything already on the device! Make very sure that you use the correct device name for your USB stick. If you use the wrong device the result could be that all information on for example a hard disk could be lost. 4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD or DVD image Ubuntu CD and DVD images can now be written directly to a USB stick, which is a very easy way to make a bootable USB stick. Simply choose a CD or DVD image that will fit on your USB stick. See Section 4.1 to get a CD or DVD image. Alternatively, for very small USB sticks, only a few megabytes in size, you can download the mini.iso image from the netboot directory (at the location mentioned in Section 4.2.1). The CD or DVD image you choose should be written directly to the USB stick, overwriting its current contents. For example, when using an existing GNU/Linux system, the CD or DVD image file can be written to a USB stick as follows, after having made sure that the stick is unmounted: # cp debian.iso /dev/sdX # sync The win32diskimager (http://sf.net/projects/win32diskimager/) utility can be used under other oper- ating systems to copy the image. Important: The image must be written to the whole-disk device and not a partition, e.g. /dev/sdb and not /dev/sdb1. Do not use tools like unetbootin which alter the image. Important: Simply writing the CD or DVD image to USB like this should work fine for most users. The other options below are more complex, mainly for people with specialised needs. The hybrid image on the stick does not occupy all the storage space, so it may be worth considering using the free space to hold firmware files or packages or any other files of your choice. This could be useful if you have only one stick or just want to keep everything you need on one device. Create a second, FAT partition on the stick, mount the partition and copy or unpack the firmware onto it. For example: # mount /dev/sdX2 /mnt # cd /mnt # tar zxvf /path/to/firmware.tar.gz # cd / # umount /mnt, Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media You might have written the mini.iso to the USB stick. In this case the second partition doesn’t have to be created as, very nicely, it will already be present. Unplugging and replugging the USB stick should make the two partitions visible. 4.3.2. Manually copying files to the USB stick An alternative way to set up your USB stick is to manually copy the installer files, and also a CD image to it. Note that the USB stick should be at least 1 GB in size (smaller setups are possible if you follow Section 4.3.3). There is an all-in-one file netboot/boot.img.gz (http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/dists/xenial/main/installer- amd64/current//images/netboot/boot.img.gz) which contains all the installer files (including the kernel) as well as syslinux and its configuration file . To use this image simply extract it directly to a partition on your USB stick: # zcat boot.img.gz > /dev/sdX1 4.3.3. Manually copying files to the USB stick — the flexible way If you like more flexibility or just want to know what’s going on, you should use the following method to put the files on your stick. One advantage of using this method is that — if the capacity of your USB stick is large enough — you have the option of copying any ISO image, even a DVD image, to it. 4.3.3.1. Partitioning the USB stick We will show how to set up the memory stick to use the first partition, instead of the entire device. Note: Since most USB sticks come pre-configured with a single FAT16 partition, you probably won’t have to repartition or reformat the stick. If you have to do that anyway, use cfdisk or any other partitioning tool to create a FAT16 partition1, install an MBR using: # install-mbr /dev/sdX The install-mbr command is contained in the mbr Ubuntu package. Then create the filesystem using: # mkdosfs /dev/sdX1 Take care that you use the correct device name for your USB stick. The mkdosfs command is contained in the dosfstools Ubuntu package. 1. Don’t forget to set the “bootable” bootable flag., Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media In order to start the kernel after booting from the USB stick, we will put a boot loader on the stick. Although any boot loader (e.g. lilo) should work, it’s convenient to use syslinux, since it uses a FAT16 partition and can be reconfigured by just editing a text file. Any operating system which supports the FAT file system can be used to make changes to the configuration of the boot loader. To put syslinux on the FAT16 partition on your USB stick, install the syslinux and mtools packages on your system, and do: # syslinux /dev/sdX1 Again, take care that you use the correct device name. The partition must not be mounted when start- ing syslinux. This procedure writes a boot sector to the partition and creates the file ldlinux.sys which contains the boot loader code. 4.3.3.2. Adding the installer image Mount the partition (mount /dev/sdX1 /mnt) and copy the following installer image files to the stick: • vmlinuz or linux (kernel binary) • initrd.gz (initial ramdisk image) You can choose between either the text-based or the graphical version of the installer. The latter can be found in the gtk subdirectory. If you want to rename the files, please note that syslinux can only process DOS (8.3) file names. Next you should create a syslinux.cfg configuration file, which at a bare minimum should contain the following line (change the name of the kernel binary to “linux” if you used a netboot image): default vmlinuz initrd=initrd.gz For the graphical installer you should add vga=788 to the line. Other parameters can be appended as desired. To enable the boot prompt to permit further parameter appending, add a prompt 1 line. If you used an hd-media image, you should now copy the ISO file of an Ubuntu ISO image2 onto the stick. When you are done, unmount the USB memory stick (umount /mnt). 4.4. Preparing Files for Hard Disk Booting The installer may be booted using boot files placed on an existing hard drive partition, either launched from another operating system or by invoking a boot loader directly from the BIOS. A full, “pure network” installation can be achieved using this technique. This avoids all hassles of removable media, like finding and burning CD images or struggling with too numerous and unreliable floppy disks. 2. You can use either a netinst or a full CD image (see Section 4.1). Be sure to select one that fits. Note that the “netboot mini.iso” image is not usable for this purpose., Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media 4.4.1. Hard disk installer booting from Linux using LILO or

GRUB

This section explains how to add to or even replace an existing linux installation using either LILO or GRUB. At boot time, both bootloaders support loading in memory not only the kernel, but also a disk image. This RAM disk can be used as the root file-system by the kernel. Copy the following files from the Ubuntu archives to a convenient location on your hard drive (note that LILO can not boot from files on an NTFS file system), for instance to /boot/newinstall/. • vmlinuz (kernel binary) • initrd.gz (ramdisk image) Finally, to configure the bootloader proceed to Section 5.1.3. 4.5. Preparing Files for TFTP Net Booting If your machine is connected to a local area network, you may be able to boot it over the network from another machine, using TFTP. If you intend to boot the installation system from another machine, the boot files will need to be placed in specific locations on that machine, and the machine configured to support booting of your specific machine. You need to set up a TFTP server, and for many machines a DHCP server, or BOOTP server. BOOTP is an IP protocol that informs a computer of its IP address and where on the network to obtain a boot image. The DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a more flexible, backwards- compatible extension of BOOTP. Some systems can only be configured via DHCP. The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used to serve the boot image to the client. Theoretically, any server, on any platform, which implements these protocols, may be used. In the examples in this section, we shall provide commands for SunOS 4.x, SunOS 5.x (a.k.a. Solaris), and GNU/Linux. Note: For an Ubuntu or Debian server we recommend tftpd-hpa. It’s written by the same author as the syslinux bootloader and is therefore least likely to cause issues. A good alternative is atftpd. 4.5.1. Setting up a DHCP server One free software DHCP server is ISC dhcpd. For Ubuntu, the isc-dhcp-server package is rec- ommended. Here is a sample configuration file for it (see /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf): option domain-name "example.com"; option domain-name-servers ns1.example.com; option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; default-lease-time 600; max-lease-time 7200;, Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media server-name "servername"; subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 { range 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.253; option routers 192.168.1.1; } host clientname { filename "/tftpboot.img"; server-name "servername"; next-server servername; hardware ethernet 01:23:45:67:89:AB; fixed-address 192.168.1.90; } In this example, there is one server servername which performs all of the work of DHCP server, TFTP server, and network gateway. You will almost certainly need to change the domain-name op- tions, as well as the server name and client hardware address. The filename option should be the name of the file which will be retrieved via TFTP. After you have edited the dhcpd configuration file, restart it with /etc/init.d/isc-dhcp-server restart. 4.5.1.1. Enabling PXE Booting in the DHCP configuration Here is another example for a dhcp.conf using the Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE) method of TFTP. option domain-name "example.com"; default-lease-time 600; max-lease-time 7200; allow booting; allow bootp; # The next paragraph needs to be modified to fit your case subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 { range 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.253; option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255; # the gateway address which can be different # (access to the internet for instance) option routers 192.168.1.1; # indicate the dns you want to use option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.3; } group { next-server 192.168.1.3; host tftpclient { # tftp client hardware address hardware ethernet 00:10:DC:27:6C:15; filename "pxelinux.0"; } }, Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media Note that for PXE booting, the client filename pxelinux.0 is a boot loader, not a kernel image (see Section 4.5.4 below). 4.5.2. Setting up a BOOTP server There are two BOOTP servers available for GNU/Linux. The first is CMU bootpd. The other is actu- ally a DHCP server: ISC dhcpd. In Ubuntu these are contained in the bootp and isc-dhcp-server packages respectively. To use CMU bootpd, you must first uncomment (or add) the relevant line in /etc/inetd.conf. On Debian or Ubuntu, you can run update-inetd -enable bootps, then /etc/init.d/inetd reload to do so. Just in case your BOOTP server does not run Debian or Ubuntu, the line in question should look like: bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -i -t 120 Now, you must create an /etc/bootptab file. This has the same sort of familiar and cryptic format as the good old BSD printcap, termcap, and disktab files. See the bootptab manual page for more information. For CMU bootpd, you will need to know the hardware (MAC) address of the client. Here is an example /etc/bootptab: client:\ hd=/tftpboot:\ bf=tftpboot.img:\ ip=192.168.1.90:\ sm=255.255.255.0:\ sa=192.168.1.1:\ ha=0123456789AB: You will need to change at least the “ha” option, which specifies the hardware address of the client. The “bf” option specifies the file a client should retrieve via TFTP; see Section 4.5.4 for more details. By contrast, setting up BOOTP with ISC dhcpd is really easy, because it treats BOOTP clients as a moderately special case of DHCP clients. Some architectures require a complex configuration for booting clients via BOOTP. If yours is one of those, read the section Section 4.5.1. Otherwise you will probably be able to get away with simply adding the allow bootp directive to the configura- tion block for the subnet containing the client in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf, and restart dhcpd with /etc/init.d/isc-dhcp-server restart. 4.5.3. Enabling the TFTP Server To get the TFTP server ready to go, you should first make sure that tftpd is enabled. In the case of tftpd-hpa there are two ways the service can be run. It can be started on demand by the system’s inetd daemon, or it can be set up to run as an independent daemon. Which of these methods is used is selected when the package is installed and can be changed by reconfiguring the package. Note: Historically, TFTP servers used /tftpboot as directory to serve images from. However, Ubuntu packages may use other directories to comply with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (http://www.pathname.com/fhs/). For example, tftpd-hpa by default uses /srv/tftp. You may have to adjust the configuration examples in this section accordingly., Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media All in.tftpd alternatives available in Ubuntu should log TFTP requests to the system logs by default. Some of them support a -v argument to increase verbosity. It is recommended to check these log messages in case of boot problems as they are a good starting point for diagnosing the cause of errors. 4.5.4. Move TFTP Images Into Place Next, place the TFTP boot image you need, as found in Section 4.2.1, in the tftpd boot image di- rectory. You may have to make a link from that file to the file which tftpd will use for booting a particular client. Unfortunately, the file name is determined by the TFTP client, and there are no strong standards. For PXE booting, everything you should need is set up in the netboot/netboot.tar.gz tarball. Simply extract this tarball into the tftpd boot image directory. Make sure your dhcp server is config- ured to pass pxelinux.0 to tftpd as the filename to boot. 4.6. Automatic Installation For installing on multiple computers it’s possible to do fully automatic installations using the Ubuntu Installer itself. 4.6.1. Automatic Installation Using the Ubuntu Installer The Ubuntu Installer supports automating installs via preconfiguration files. A preconfiguration file can be loaded from the network or from removable media, and used to fill in answers to questions asked during the installation process. Full documentation on preseeding including a working example that you can edit is in Appendix B. 4.6.2. Automatic Installation Using Kickstart The Ubuntu installer supports automating installs using Kickstart files, as designed by Red Hat for use in their Anaconda installer. This method is not as flexible as the preconfiguration file method above, but it requires less knowledge of how the installer works. This section documents only the basics, and differences between Anaconda and the Ubuntu installer. Refer to the Red Hat documentation (http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en- US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Installation_Guide/ch-kickstart2.html) for detailed instructions. To generate a Kickstart file, install the system-config-kickstart package and run system-config-kickstart. This offers you a graphical user interface to the various options available. Once you have a Kickstart file, you can edit it if necessary, and place it on a web, FTP, or NFS server, or copy it onto the installer’s boot media. Wherever you place the file, you need to pass a parameter to the installer at boot time to tell it to use the file. To make the installer use a Kickstart file downloaded from a web or FTP server, add ks=http://url/to/ks.cfg or ks=ftp://url/to/ks.cfg respectively to the kernel boot parameters. This, Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media requires the installer to be able to set up the network via DHCP on the first connected interface without asking any questions; you may also need to add ksdevice=eth1 or similar if the installer fails to determine the correct interface automatically. Similarly, to make the installer use a Kickstart file on an NFS server, add ks=nfs:server:/path/to/ks.cfg to the kernel boot parameters. The method supported by Anaconda of adding a plain "ks" boot param- eter to work out the location of the Kickstart file from a DHCP response is not yet supported by the Ubuntu installer. To place a Kickstart file on a CD, you would need to remaster the ISO image to include your Kickstart file, and add ks=cdrom:/path/to/ks.cfg to the kernel boot parameters. See the manual page for mkisofs for details. Alternatively, put the Kickstart file on a floppy, and add ks=floppy:/path/to/ks.cfg to the kernel boot parameters. 4.6.2.1. Additions The Ubuntu installer supports a few extensions to Kickstart that were needed to support automatic installations of Ubuntu: • The rootpw command now takes the -disabled option to disable the root password. If this is used, the initial user will be given root privileges via sudo. • A new user command has been added to control the creation of the initial user: user joe -fullname "Joe User" -password iamjoe The -disabled option prevents any non-root users from being created. The -fullname option specifies the user’s full name, as opposed to the Unix username. The -password option supplies the user’s password, by default in the clear (in which case make sure your Kickstart file is kept confidential!); the -iscrypted option may be used to state that the password is already MD5- hashed. • A new preseed command has been added to provide a convenient way to preseed additional items in the debconf database that are not directly accessible using the ordinary Kickstart syntax: preseed -owner gdm shared/default-x-display-manager select gdm Note that if the value contains any special characters, then the value must be quoted, as follows: preseed preseed/late_command string "sed -i ’s/foo/bar/g’ /target/etc/hosts" The -owner option sets the name of the package that owns the question; if omitted, it defaults to d-i, which is generally appropriate for items affecting the first stage of the installer. The three mandatory arguments are the question name, question type, and answer, in that order, just as would be supplied as input to the debconf-set-selections command. • As of Ubuntu 6.10, the keyboard option takes X layout names. To use an X keyboard variant, set this option to layout_variant, with appropriate values of layout and variant. For example, in_guj selects the Gujarati variant of the Indian layout. • You may use the apt-install command to install packages in %post -nochroot scripts (although you might also choose to generate a %packages section in a %pre script and include it using %include). Note that this does not work if the post-installation script is run in the chroot environ- ment., Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media 4.6.2.2. Missing features As yet, the Ubuntu installer only supports a subset of Kickstart’s features. The following is a brief summary of features that are known to be missing: • LDAP, Kerberos 5, Hesiod, and Samba authentication. • The auth -enablecache command to enable nscd. • The bootloader -linear, -nolinear, and -lba32 options for detailed LILO configura- tion. • Upgrades. To upgrade from one Ubuntu release to another, use the facilities provided by apt and its frontends. • Partitioning of multiple drives. Due to current limitations in the partition manager, it is only possible to partition a single drive. • Using the device command to install extra kernel modules. • Driver disks. • Firewall configuration. • Installation from an archive on a local hard disk or from an NFS archive. • The lilocheck command to check for an existing LILO installation. • The logvol -percent, -bytes-per-inode, and -fsoptions options for certain kinds of detailed Logical Volume Management (LVM) configuration. (LVM configuration in general is experimentally supported as of Ubuntu 9.04; please let us know about your experiences with it.) • Restrictions of a partition to a particular disk or device, and specifications of the starting or ending cylinder for a partition. • Checking a partition for bad sectors. • RAID configuration. • The xconfig -monitor option to use a specified monitor name. • Most package groups. As special cases, the "Ubuntu Desktop" and "Kubuntu Desktop" groups install the standard Ubuntu or Kubuntu desktop systems respectively, and any group name not containing a space (for example, "ubuntu-desktop") causes packages with the corresponding Task: header in the Packages file to be installed. • Exclusions in %packages sections are no longer supported as of Ubuntu 6.10, as a casualty of other improvements. You may need to use a %post script instead to remove unnecessary packages. • Pre-installation scripts and non-chrooted post-installation scripts may only be shell scripts; other interpreters are not available at this point in the installation. 4.6.2.3. Example Here is an example Kickstart file that can be used as a starting point: # #Generic Kickstart template for Ubuntu #Platform: x86 and x86-64 #, Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media #System language lang en_US #Language modules to install langsupport en_US #System keyboard keyboard us #System mouse mouse #System timezone timezone America/New_York #Root password rootpw -disabled #Initial user (user with sudo capabilities) user ubuntu -fullname "Ubuntu User" -password root4me2 #Reboot after installation reboot #Use text mode install text #Install OS instead of upgrade install #Installation media cdrom #nfs -server=server.com -dir=/path/to/ubuntu/ #System bootloader configuration bootloader -location=mbr #Clear the Master Boot Record zerombr yes #Partition clearing information clearpart -all -initlabel #Basic disk partition part / -fstype ext4 -size 1 -grow -asprimary part swap -size 1024 part /boot -fstype ext4 -size 256 -asprimary #Advanced partition #part /boot -fstype=ext4 -size=500 -asprimary #part pv.aQcByA-UM0N-siuB-Y96L-rmd3-n6vz-NMo8Vr -grow -size=1 #volgroup vg_mygroup -pesize=4096 pv.aQcByA-UM0N-siuB-Y96L-rmd3-n6vz-NMo8Vr #logvol / -fstype=ext4 -name=lv_root -vgname=vg_mygroup -grow -size=10240 -maxsize=20480 #logvol swap -name=lv_swap -vgname=vg_mygroup -grow -size=1024 -maxsize=8192 #System authorization infomation auth -useshadow -enablemd5, Chapter 4. Obtaining System Installation Media #Network information network -bootproto=dhcp -device=eth0 #Firewall configuration firewall -disabled -trust=eth0 -ssh #Do not configure the X Window System skipx,

Chapter 5. Booting the Installation System

5.1. Booting the Installer on 64-bit PC

Warning

If you have any other operating systems on your system that you wish to keep (dual boot setup), you should make sure that they have been properly shut down before you boot the installer. Installing an operating system while another operating system is in hibernation (has been suspended to disk) could result in loss of, or damage to the state of the suspended operating system which could cause problems when it is rebooted. 5.1.1. Booting from USB Memory Stick If your computer will boot from USB, this will probably be the easiest route for installation. Assuming you have prepared everything from Section 3.6.2 and Section 4.3, just plug your USB stick into some free USB connector and reboot the computer. The system should boot up, and unless you have used the flexible way to build the stick and not enabled it, you should be presented with a graphical boot menu (on hardware that supports it). Here you can select various installer options, or just hit Enter. 5.1.2. Booting from a CD-ROM The easiest route for most people will be to use an Ubuntu CD. If you have a CD, and if your machine supports booting directly off the CD, great! Simply configure your system for booting off a CD as described in Section 3.6.2, insert your CD, reboot, and proceed to the next chapter. Note that certain CD drives may require special drivers, and thus be inaccessible in the early instal- lation stages. If it turns out the standard way of booting off a CD doesn’t work for your hardware, revisit this chapter and read about alternate kernels and installation methods which may work for you. Even if you cannot boot from CD-ROM, you can probably install the Ubuntu system components and any packages you want from CD-ROM. Simply boot using a different medium and when it’s time to install the operating system, base system, and any additional packages, point the installation system at the CD-ROM drive. If you have problems booting, see Section 5.4. 5.1.3. Booting from Linux using LILO or GRUB To boot the installer from hard disk, you must first download and place the needed files as described in Section 4.4. If you intend to use the hard drive only for booting and then download everything over the net- work, you should download the netboot/ubuntu-installer/amd64/initrd.gz file and its cor- responding kernel netboot/ubuntu-installer/amd64/linux. This will allow you to repartition the hard disk from which you boot the installer, although you should do so with care. For LILO, you will need to configure two essential things in /etc/lilo.conf:, Chapter 5. Booting the Installation System • to load the initrd.gz installer at boot time; • have the vmlinuz kernel use a RAM disk as its root partition. Here is a /etc/lilo.conf example: image=/boot/newinstall/vmlinuz label=newinstall initrd=/boot/newinstall/initrd.gz For more details, refer to the initrd(4) and lilo.conf(5) man pages. Now run lilo and reboot. The procedure for GRUB1 is quite similar. Locate your menu.lst in the /boot/grub/ directory (or sometimes /boot/boot/grub/) and add an entry for the installer, for example (assuming /boot is on the first partition of the first disk in the system): title New Install root (hd0,0) kernel /boot/newinstall/vmlinuz initrd /boot/newinstall/initrd.gz The procedure for GRUB2 is very similar. The file is named grub.cfg instead of menu.lst. An entry for the installer would be for instance for example: menuentry ’New Install’ { insmod part_msdos insmod ext2 set root=’(hd0,msdos1)’ linux /boot/newinstall/vmlinuz initrd /boot/newinstall/initrd.gz } From here on, there should be no difference between GRUB or LILO. 5.1.4. Booting with TFTP Booting from the network requires that you have a network connection and a TFTP network boot server (and probably also a DHCP, RARP, or BOOTP server for automatic network configuration). The server-side setup to support network booting is described in Section 4.5. There are various ways to do a TFTP boot on i386. 5.1.4.1. NIC or Motherboard that support PXE It could be that your Network Interface Card or Motherboard provides PXE boot functionality. This is a Intel™ re-implementation of TFTP boot. If so, you may be able to configure your BIOS to boot from the network., Chapter 5. Booting the Installation System 5.1.4.2. NIC with Network BootROM It could be that your Network Interface Card provides TFTP boot functionality. Let us (
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