Download: Canon® EOS 40D Digital Field Guide Charlotte K. Lowrie

01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page i Canon® EOS 40D Digital Field Guide Charlotte K. Lowrie 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page i Canon® EOS 40D Digital Field Guide Charlotte K. Lowrie 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page ii Canon® EOS 40D Digital Field Guide Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 Copyright © 2008 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-26044-9 Manufactured in the United States of America 10987654321No part of this publication may be reprod...
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01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page i

Canon® EOS 40D Digital Field Guide

Charlotte K. Lowrie, 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page i

Canon® EOS 40D Digital Field Guide

Charlotte K. Lowrie, 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page ii Canon® EOS 40D Digital Field Guide Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 Copyright © 2008 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-26044-9 Manufactured in the United States of America 10987654321No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUD- ING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WAR- RANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEB SITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZA- TION OF WEB SITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEB SITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Control Number: 2008922127 Trademarks: Wiley and the Wiley Publishing logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., and/or its affiliates. Canon is a registered trademark of Canon, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book., 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page iii

About the Author

Charlotte K. Lowrie is a freelance editorial, portrait, and stock photographer and an award- winning writer based in the Seattle, Washington area. Her writing and photography have appeared in newsstand magazines including Popular Photography & Imaging and PHOTOgraphic. She is the author of eight books including the best-seller Canon EOS Digital Rebel XTi Digital Field Guide, the Canon 5D Digital Field Guide, and the Canon 30D Digital Field Guide, and she is co-author of Exposure and Lighting. Charlotte also teaches several photography classes at Her images have appeared on the Canon Digital Learning Center, and she is a featured photographer on In stock and editorial assignment photography, Charlotte enjoys nature and portrait photo- graphy. Her images have been published in a variety of books, magazine articles, commer- cial products, and advertisements., 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page iv


Acquisitions Editor Project Coordinator Ryan Spence Lynsey Stanford Senior Project Editor Graphics and Production Specialists Cricket Krengel Alissa D. Ellet Jennifer Mayberry Technical Editor Marianne Wallace Quality Control Technician Caitie Kelly Copy Editor Kim Heusel Proofreading Mildred Rosenzweig Editorial Manager Robyn B. Siesky Indexing Johnna VanHoose Vice President & Group Executive Publisher Special Help Richard Swadley Jama Carter Sarah Cisco Vice President & Publisher Barry Pruett Business Manager Amy Knies Senior Marketing Manager Sandy Smith, 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page v This book is gratefully dedicated to John Isaac,, consummate photographer, mentor, and friend. John’s passion for people, his compassionate photography, his life’s journey, and, most important, his faith in God changed my life forever. Thank you, John. Additionally, this book is dedicated to God and His son, Jesus Christ, through whom all things are possible., 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page vi Acknowledgments

My thanks to Peter Bryant and Rob Kline, professional photographers and dearfriends, who kindly contributed their images for this book.

, 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page vii


Welcome to the Canon EOS 40D Digital Field Guide. With the introduction of the40D, Canon combined the best of its recent technologies into an affordable, dig- ital SLR that is fast, reliable, and produces stunning image quality. This book is designed to help you master using the camera and to help you get the best images possible from it. From my experience with the camera, I can safely say that this camera is an amazingly capa- ble tool to help you express your creative vision, whether your passion is action photogra- phy, nature and landscape, documentary, news, wedding photography, or portraiture. The 40D features the best of Canon’s latest technology that gives this camera super fast response and performance, and a suite of features that has never been offered before in an EOS digital camera in this price range until now. The camera is approachable with a small and lightweight footprint, and it features Live View shooting for new creative opportunities and with the option for silent shooting, unprecedented customizability, 14-bit conversion for fine gradation and more colors, highlight tone priority, a new and improved autofocus sensor, in-camera Canon EX Speedlite control, large-text, intuitive, full-feature menus, a per- sonalized menu, three fully customizable Camera User Settings modes, a huge, bright, wide-angle view LCD, and automatic image-sensor cleaning with the option of recording and applying Dust-Delete Data after image capture in Canon’s Digital Photo Professional program. The camera initially looks much like the other EOS digital SLRs in Canon’s stable, but once you dig into the rich features, you’ll soon see that the 40D represents a new breed, a new generation of cameras that opens the door to creative expression in not known before. This book is designed to help you go deep into the 40D and use its full potential. You’ll find that this book is a mix of how-to-use the camera as well as in-field experience with specific photographic subjects. Regardless of your shooting specialty preference, when the day is done, most photographers know that all of life is a photographic stage. In his book The Mind’s Eye: Writings on Photography and Photographers, Henri Cartier-Bresson said, “There is subject in all that takes place in the world, as well as in our personal uni- verse. We cannot negate subject. It is everywhere. So we must be lucid toward what is going on in the world, and honest about what we feel.In photography, the smallest thing can be a great subject. The little human detail can become a leitmotiv. We see and show the world around us, but it is an event itself which provokes the organic rhythm of forms.” I hope that this book is a rewarding journey for you, not only in learning to use the EOS 40D, but also in exploring a universe of subjects and distilling the essence of each image with freshness and personal creative vision. And as you use this book, remember that it is the photographer who makes the picture—and having a camera like the EOS 40D is great extension of your vision and your creative insight., 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page viii viii Introduction

Getting the Most from This Book

If you want to begin shooting right away, go first to the Quick Tour and double-check that you have setup the essential camera features and functions. This is also where you’ll get a quick overview of the exposure controls used for shooting. In the Quick Tour and through- out the book, you work toward making your workflow more efficient by setting up the cam- era for routine shooting so that you get the highest image quality and the color settings that fit best within your workflow. The first half of the book is devoted to not only setting the camera controls, but also on the effect of using different controls and settings during shooting. It is essential to know the camera controls well, and to set up functions so that they best suit your routine shooting preferences. The 40D is perhaps the most customizable camera that Canon has produced to this point, so you have ample opportunity to make the camera work well for you. Further, Canon provided a full complement of professional features that give you control over expo- sure, color, and drive modes. Knowing the extent of these features will go a long way toward making shoots efficient and successful and giving you creative control. While you may or may not be drawn to the Picture Styles, offered on Canon EOS digital cameras, Chapter 2 explains why you need to carefully evaluate and consider modifying Picture Styles, particularly the default Standard style. The more you know about Picture Styles, the better your chances of getting the best color and quality both from the camera and subsequently from the prints you make. The 40D also offers many opportunities to cus- tomize the functions and use of the camera. Fortunately, you can save customized settings in a number of different ways, which means that you can setup specific settings for scene- specific shooting such as weddings, an indoor sports arena, and your studio. All the cus- tomization features translate into saving you time during shooting and later as you process your 40D images. This alone makes Chapter3amust-read if you want to get the best per- sonalized performance from the camera. You’ll also find discussions of Canon lenses and Speedlites in Chapters 5 and 6. Chapter 5 introduces the range of lenses that Canon offers as well as providing example images taken using some of the lenses. In Chapter 6, you’ll learn about both the onboard flash as well as using one and more accessory Speedlites. These chapters are designed as a quick reference, not an exhaustive compendium of lens test results and flash shooting techniques — both of which are book-length topics on their own. The next part of the book concentrates on the photographic areas where the EOS 40D is a stand-out performer. Each section offers discussions about each photographic area; field notes on using the 40D; lenses, flash, and accessories specific to each specialty; shooting tips and experiences; and, workflow notes., 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page ix Introduction ix This part of the book is designed to discuss camera performance and capability in various venues and to provide suggestions and comments to make your shooting more efficient and successful. As with any area of photography, there are as many options, preferences, and opinions as there are photographers. The information provided in this part of the book reflects one photographer’s experience — use it as a springboard in planning assignments and shooting them with the 40D. Digital images aren’t finished, of course, until they are edited, and, in the case of both RAW capture, until they are converted to TIFF or JEPG format. Canon provides a suite of programs that allow you to view and edit 40D images. In addition, if you are interested in getting started with RAW capture, Chapter 10 provides the basics for shooting and converting RAW images using Canon’s Digital Photo Professional program. Of course, a variety of other RAW conversion programs are available, which are presented as an introduction to some of the options that you can consider. In Chapter 10, you learn about getting and installing periodic firmware updates for the 40D that are provided by Canon. These updates are important in resolving any known bugs with the camera as well as updating menu functions to include such things as new language options. In the Appendixes, those who are new to photography can get an overview on the basics of photographic exposure including an introduction to ISO, aperture, shutter speed, and light, and how these elements work together to create a good exposure. Appendix A offers insights into Canon’s sensor technology. You may wonder why that matters, but the more you under- stand about the technology, the greater your understanding of the capabilities of the camera. You don’t have to become a technology geek, but rather an informed photographer. Complementing the Canon sensor information, Canon’s specifications for the 40D are in Appendix B. Specifications are a great when you want to quickly look up anything about the camera such as the sync speed, maximum shutter speed, frames per second, or any other fact regarding camera parameters, particularly while you’re shooting or planning a shoot. Finally, Appendix C contains a compendium of professional photography resources includ- ing organization, magazines, and Web sites. Like no other profession, photographers thrive on inspiration, ideas, and mutual support. These resources are a good starting point for finding favorite resources that provide you with not only inspiration, but also give you the latest news and views on various specialty areas. I hope that during your journey through this book, you will be inspired and challenged to capture stunning, personal-best images. Regardless, I am confident that you will find that the EOS 40D is an exceptional tool to help you achieve your photographic vision. The editor, the staff at Wiley, and I hope that you enjoy reading and using this book as much as we enjoyed creating it for you., 01_260449 ffirs.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page x, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xi


Acknowledgments vi Front camera controls 9 Camera terminals 11 Introduction vii Side and bottom camera features 11 Getting the Most from This Book viii Lens controls 11 Viewfinder display 13

Part I: Using the Canon Camera menus 13 EOS 40D 1 Setting the Date and Time 18

Choose the File Format and Quality 19 Chapter 1: Exploring the RAW versus JPEG format 19 Canon EOS 40D 3 JPEG capture 19 RAW capture 20 sRAW capture 21 Setting File Numbering 23 Continuous numbering 24 Auto Reset 24 Manual Reset 24 Shooting Modes 25 Basic Zone modes 26 Full Auto mode 27 Portrait mode 27 Landscape mode 28 Close-up mode 29 Sports mode 29 Night Portrait mode 30 Flash Off mode 31 Creative Zone modes 31 Program AE 31 Shutter-Priority AE 32 Aperture-Priority AE 33 Manual mode 34 Bulb 35 Anatomy of the EOS 40D 4 Camera controls 4 Top camera controls 5 Rear camera controls 6, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xii Chapter 2: Working with Index display 67 the Canon EOS 40D 37 Jump quickly among images 68 Erasing Images 69 Protecting Images 70 Displaying Images on a TV 71 Restoring the Camera’s Default Settings 72 Cleaning the Image Sensor 73 Obtaining Dust Delete Data 74 Applying Dust Delete Data 75 Cleaning the sensor manually 76 Chapter 3: Color and Understanding and Using Picture Styles 79 Autofocus 37 About autofocus points and autofocus modes 38 Does focus-lock and recompose work? 40 Selecting AF points 41 Verifying sharp focus 44 Selecting a Metering Mode 44 Evaluating Exposure 47 Brightness histogram 47 RGB histogram 48 Modifying Exposure 51 Automated Brightness and Contrast Correction 51 Highlight Tone Priority 51 Auto Exposure Lock 52 Auto Exposure Bracketing 54 Exposure Compensation 55 About ISO settings 57 ISO Range, Expansion, and C.Fn options 58 Setting the ISO and extended About Color Spaces 79 range ISO 60 Choosing a Color Space 82 Selecting a Drive Mode 61 Choosing White Balance Options 82 Viewing and Playing Back Images 64 Approaches to using various Single-Image playback and White Balance options 85 Magnified view 65 Set a custom white balance 86, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xiii Use White Balance Auto Chapter 5: Using Live Bracketing 88 View Shooting 131 Set a White Balance Shift 90 Specify a color temperature 92 Choosing and Customizing a Picture Style 93 Registering a User Defined Picture Style 99 Using the Picture Style Editor 100 Chapter 4: Customizing the EOS 40D 105 Learning about Custom Functions 106 Custom Function groupings 106 Custom Functions specifics 108 About Live View Shooting 132 C.Fn I: Exposure 108 Live View Features and Functions 132 C.Fn II: Image 112 Live View using autofocusing 132 C.Fn III: Autofocus/Drive 113 Exposure simulation andmetering 133 C.Fn IV: Operation/Others 118 Using a flash 133 Setting Custom Functions 118 Setting up for Live View Shooting 134 Creating Custom Function sets 122 Live View function settings 134 Wedding set 122 Custom Functions for Live View shooting 136 Landscape and Nature set 124 Custom Function III-6 136 Registering Camera User Settings 124 Custom Function IV-7 137 Customizing My Menu 129 Shooting in Live View 137 Using autofocus or manual focus 137 Using tethered or wireless connection 139, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xiv

Part II: Getting the Chapter 7: Working Most from the Canon with Light 167 EOS 40D 143

Chapter 6: Selecting and Using Lenses 145 Understanding the Focal Length Multiplication Factor 145 Lens Choices 147 Wide angle 147 Normal 148 Telephoto 148 Macro 148 Zoom Versus Prime Lenses 149 Understanding Color Temperature 167 About zoom lenses 149 The Colors of Light 170 Zoom lens advantages 150 Sunrise 170 Zoom lens disadvantages 150 Midday 171 About prime lenses 151 Sunset 172 Prime lens advantages 151 Diffused light 172 Prime lens disadvantages 151 Electronic flash 172 Canon Lens Terminology 151 Tungsten light 173 Using Wide-Angle Lenses 154 Fluorescent and other light173 Using Telephoto Lenses 156 Metering Light and Reflected Light 174 Using Normal Lenses 158 Additional Characteristics of Light 175 Using Macro Lenses 159 Hard light 175 Using Tilt-and-Shift Lenses 159 Soft light 176 Using Image Stabilized Lenses 160 Directional light 176 Exploring Lens Accessories 163 Lens extenders 164 Extension tubes and close-up lenses 165, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xv Chapter 8: Using Flash 179 Action and Sports Photography 193 Inspiration 195 Taking action and sports photographs 196 Action and sports photography tips 198 Architectural and Interior Photography 199 Inspiration 200 Taking architectural and interior photographs 202 Architectural photography tips 204 Exploring Flash Technology 179 Business Photography 204 Using Onboard Flash 182 Inspiration 206 Disabling the flash but enabling the flash’s Taking business photographs 207 autofocus assist beam 184 Business photography tips 209 Red-eye reduction 184 Editorial Photography 209 Modifying Flash Exposure 185 Inspiration 211 Flash Exposure Compensation 185 Taking editorial photographs 212 Flash Exposure Lock 187 Editorial photography tips 214 Using Flash Control Options 189 Macro Photography 214 Using One or More Accessory Inspiration 216 Speedlites 192 Taking macro photographs 217 Macro photography tips 219 Chapter 9: In the Field Nature and Landscape with the EOS 40D 193 Photography 219 Inspiration 221 Taking nature and landscape photographs 221 Nature and landscape photography tips 223 Night and Low-Light Photography 223 Inspiration 225 Taking night and low-light photographs 226 Night and low-light photography tips 228 Pet and Wildlife Photography 230 Inspiration 231 Taking pet and wildlife photographs 232 Pet and wildlife photography tips 234, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xvi Portrait Photography 234 Sample RAW Image Conversion 262 Lens choices 234 Creating an Efficient Workflow 264 Lighting 235 Updating the 40D Firmware 266 Accessory flash 236 Getting the latest firmware Posing 236 and software 266 Rapport 237 Direction 237 Appendix A: Image Sensors Inspiration 237 and the Canon DIGIC Taking portrait photographs 238 Processor 269 Portrait photography tips 240 Stock Photography 241 Inspiration 242 Taking stock photographs 243 Stock photography tips 244 Travel Photography 245 Inspiration 246 Taking travel photographs 247 Travel photography tips 248 Wedding Photography 249 Inspiration 250 Sensor Technology 269 Taking wedding photographs 250 DIGIC III Image Processor 271 Wedding photography tips 252 Appendix B: EOS 40D

Part III: Completing Specifications 273

the Picture 253 Chapter 10: Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware 255 Characteristics of RAW Images 255 Choosing a RAW Conversion Program 258, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xvii Type of camera 273 Internet Resources 277 Image sensor 273 Photography Publications Recording system 273 and Web Sites 278 White balance 274 Professional Organizations 278 Viewfinder 274 Commercial 278 Autofocus 274 Editorial/Photojournalism 279 Exposure control 274 Fine art 279 Shutter 275 General 279 Built-in flash 275 Nature and wildlife 279 Drive system 275 Photoshop 279 LCD monitor 275 Portrait/Wedding 279 Playback 275 Stock 279 Image protection and Workshops 279 erase 275 Menus 276 Glossary 281 Power source 276 Dimensions and weight 276 Operating conditions 276 Appendix C: Professional Resources 277 Index 291, 02_260449 ftoc.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page xviii, 03_260449 pp01.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page 1

Using thePART Canon EOS

40D I ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ In This Part Chapter 1 Exploring the Canon EOS 40D Chapter 2 Working with the Canon EOS 40D Chapter 3 Color and Picture Styles Chapter 4 Customizing the EOS 40D Chapter 5 Using Live View Shooting ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦, 03_260449 pp01.qxp 2/26/08 12:05 AM Page 2, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:03 AM Page 3

Exploring C H1APTERthe Canon EOS 40D ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

In This Chapter Anatomy of the

W EOS 40Dhether you are a wedding, landscape, nature, orportrait photographer, the Canon EOS 40D is a Setting the date

star performer in virtually all respects. In terms of image res- and time olution and quality, the 10.1-megapixel sensor delivers 16-×- 11-inch inkjet print sizes and offers the telephoto advantage Choose the file format of a 1.6x focal length multiplication factor. The new sensor and quality microlens and Canon’s new DIGIC III processor with four- channel reading and 14-bit analog-to-digital (AD) conversion Setting file numbering combine to offer very fine image detail, finer gradation, far more color information than in previous 12-bit models, and Shooting modes noticeably faster camera performance with improved pro- cessing speed and writing to the CompactFlash card. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Standard and basic shooting modes are available on the Mode dial along with three customizable C modes so you can register your most often used modes, exposure, camera, and Custom Function settings. The 40D offers the full complement of metering and drive-mode options that are suitable for a wide range of shooting scenarios. ISO options including ISO expansion cover a broad range of lighting needs, and the noise performance is excellent even at the highest sensitivi- ties. Depending on the ISO, the 40D’s dynamic range — the range of dark-to-light values that can be captured by the cam- era as measured in f-stops — is approximately nine f-stops with both RAW and JPEG shooting, which represents roughly a one f-stop increase over the EOS 30D. A new autofocus (AF) sensor provides an elliptical distribu- tion of nine cross-type AF points across a bright, optical viewfinder that provides a 95 percent view. The 40D delivers rich, saturated color using any of the seven preset white balance options, plus custom white balance, and the ability to, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:03 AM Page44Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D set a specific color temperature. The 40D ✦ LCD panel and buttons. This supports color-managed workflow with panel and the buttons on the top sRGB and Adobe RGB color space options. of the camera group the most commonly used exposure and This is only a small overview of the new fea- drive settings controls, including tures that the 40D offers. In this chapter, you metering, white balance, focusing can study in-depth the 40D functions and mode, drive mode, ISO, and flash controls that you can use to suit your shoot- exposure. Each button located ing needs and to complement your creative above the LCD panel has two func- vision. Here you concentrate on the camera tions. The first function is con- controls, menus, file quality, and numbering, trolled using the Main dial and the as well as shooting modes. second function is controlled using the Quick Control dial. For exam- Chapter 2 reviews autofocus ple, if you press the Metering and exposure options as well as mode-WB button, you can select a setting ISO and viewing and metering mode by turning the playing back your images. Main dial, or you can select a white balance (WB) setting by turning the Quick Control dial. Unless you

Anatomy of the pay attention to which dial setswhich function, it’s easy to inadver- EOS 40D tently set exposure compensationwhen you really intended to

change the ISO. When changing Many of the 40D’s controls are within a fin- the settings on the LCD panel, you ger’s reach for quick adjustment as you’re do not need to confirm changes by shooting. Less frequently used functions are pressing the Set button. accessible only via the menus, and others require the simultaneous use of two con- ✦ Camera menus. These are trols. Regardless, adjustments are easy to accessed by pressing the Menu but- master, especially if you understand Canon’s ton on the back of the camera. functional logic and the grouping of con- Nine menu tabs group functions trols. into two Shooting (color-coded red), two Playback (blue), three Set- up (yellow), one Custom Functions

Camera controls (orange), and one My Menu

(green) menus. To move among The 40D groups commonly used functions menu tabs, press the Jump button, in three areas on the camera: or tilt the Multi-controller to the left and right. To display submenus, ✦ Mode dial. This dial enables you press the Set button located in the to switch among shooting modes center of the Quick Control dial. For by lining up the mode you want expanding menus, use the Quick with the white mark beside the Control dial to scroll among dial. Details on each shooting options, and press the Set button to mode are provided later in this select and/or confirm an option. chapter. Setting up C1, C2, and C3 Each menu and many of the modes is detailed in Chapter 4. options are detailed in this chapter., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:03 AM Page 5

Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 5 Top camera controls ✦ Hot shoe. The hot shoe has stan-

The top camera controls provide ease of use dard dedicated flash-sync contacts so that the thumb and index finger of both for mounting a Canon EX-series Speedlite or third-party flash unit. the right and left hand control common The flash sync speed is 1/250 sec- adjustments quickly and without taking the ond or slower, or it can be fixed at camera out of shooting position as you hold 1/250 second using C.Fn I-7. it. Moving from left to right, here is a look at the top camera controls. ✦ LCD Panel Illumination button. Located at the left of the row of ✦ Mode dial. Rotate this dial to buttons above the LCD panel, this change the Shooting modes. button turns on an amber backlight Shooting modes, detailed in so you can see the panel options Chapter 2, determine how much in low-light or darkness. Pressing control you have over the exposure. the button once turns the LCD The dial is divided between fully panel light on and pressing it again automatic Shooting modes such as turns it off. Otherwise, the light Portrait, Landscape, and Sports remains illuminated for six seconds modes, and semiautomatic, fully before turning off automatically. If manual, and customizable modes you are using a Bulb exposure, the such as Tv, Av, M, and C modes. light turns off automatically when you press the Shutter button fully. LCD Panel Illumination button Grip/Battery compartment Shutter button Main dial Mode dial ISO/Flash Exposure Compensation button Flash-sync contacts/Hot shoe Focal AF mode/Drive mode button plane Dioptric adjustment knob mark Metering mode/White Balance button 1.1 40D top camera controls, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:03 AM Page66Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D ✦ LCD Panel and buttons. Located you can also half-press the Shutter behind the Shutter button, the LCD button and dismiss camera menus, panel buttons and the LCD panel image playback, and recording to control and display frequently used the CF card. exposure and metering settings and options. Options you change on the Note Unless you use AutoExposure LCD panel are displayed only on Lock or the AF-ON button in the LCD panel, except for ISO and Creative Zone modes, focus andexposure are always linked to Flash Exposure Compensation the selected AF point. adjustments which are simultane- ously displayed in the viewfinder. See Chapter 8 for more infor- The settings you choose remain in mation on using Canon effect until you change them, even Speedlites with the 40D. after turning off the camera. Table 1.1 shows the LCD panel buttons, Rear camera controls options, and the dial that you use to change The back camera controls provide quick the settings. access to the menu, various playback and image deletion controls, Picture Styles, and See Chapter 4 to set Custom exposure information. They include: Functions. See Chapter 3 for details on setting the white balance. ✦ Menu button. Press the Menu but- ton to display camera menus. To ✦ Main dial. This dial selects a vari- move among tabs, you can turn the ety of settings and options. Turn Main dial or tilt the Multi-controller. the Main dial to select options ✦ Direct Print button. When the after pressing an LCD panel button, camera is connected with a to manually select an AF point after PictBridge, Canon CP Direct, or pressing the AF-point Selection/ Canon Bubble Jet Direct-enabled Enlarge button, to set the aperture printer and the camera is set to in Av and C modes, the shutter Print/PTP, the Direct Print button, in speed in Tv and Manual mode, and conjunction with the Playback but- to shift the exposure program in P ton, displays only JPEG images for mode. Additionally, you can use cropping, layout, and direct printing. the Main dial to scroll among Menu tabs. ✦ Playback button. Press the Playback button to display the last ✦ Shutter button. Pressing the captured image on the LCD. The Shutter button halfway sets the default single-image Playback dis- point of sharpest focus at the play includes a ribbon of shooting selected AF point in manual AF- information at the top of the dis- point Selection mode, and it simul- play. Pressing the Index/Reduce taneously sets the exposure based button on the top-right back of the on the ISO and selected Shooting camera during playback displays a mode. Focus remains locked for grid of images you can scroll approximately four seconds, after through using the Quick Control or which time you have to refocus on Main dials. Press the AF-point the subject. Pressing the Shutter Selection/Enlarge button to return completely makes the exposure. In to single-image display. any mode except Direct Printing,, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:03 AM Page 7

Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 7 Table 1.1 Using the Main and Quick Control Dials for LCD Panel Settings

Button Main Dial Quick Control Dial Metering/WB (Metering Metering Modes White Balance mode/White Balance) • Evaluative (35-zone TTL • Auto (3000-7000 K) full-aperture metering) • Daylight (5200 K) • Partial (9 percent at • Shade (7000 K) center frame) • Cloudy (6000 K) • Spot (3.8 percent at • Tungsten (3200 K) center frame) • White Fluorescent (4000 K) • Center-weighted • Flash (6000 K) Average • Custom (2000-10,000 K) • K (Kelvin Temperature, 2500-10,000 K) AF-Drive (Autofocus Autofocus Mode Drive Modes mode/Drive mode) • One-shot (locks focus • Single-shot with a half-press of the • High-speed Continuous Shutter button) (6.5 fps) • AI Focus AF (half-pressing • Low-speed Continuous (3 fps) the shutter initiates AF • Self-Timer (10 and 2 second) subject movement tracking using the center AF point) • AI Focus AF (monitors subject movement and switches to AI Servo if the camera detects subject movement) ISO-Flash Exposure ISO Options Flash Compensation Compensation • Auto Plus/minus 2 stops (EV) in • 100 1/3 or 1/2-stop increments • 125 (chosen using C.Fn I-1) • 160 • 200 • 250 • 320 • 400 • 500 • 640 • 800 • 1000 • 1250 • 1600 • H: 3200 (with C.Fn I-3 Expansion turned on), 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:03 AM Page88Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Menu Print/Share Multi-controller AF-ON button button button Viewfinder Eyecup AE Lock/FE Lock/ Mode dial Index/Reduce button AF-Point Selection/ Enlarge button Picture Set button Access lamp LCD Playback Jump Style monitor button button button Quick Control dial Erase Info Power/Quick Control button button dial switch 1.2 40D rear camera controls ✦ Erase button. Press the Erase but- display of images on the LCD dur- ton to display options for deleting ing Playback mode. You also use the current or all checked images. the Info button to activate Picture Style parameter controls to make Checkmarking images for batch adjustments. erasure is covered in Chapter 2. ✦ Picture Style button. Press the ✦ Jump button. When the camera Picture Style button to display the menu is displayed, pressing the Picture Styles menu where you can Jump button scrolls through menu change the picture style, modify tabs. In Playback mode, pressing the sharpness, contrast, saturation, this button enables jumping by 1, and color tone of an existing style, 10, or 100 images at a time; by or create and register up to three screen; or by shot date. When user-defined styles. jumping by multiple images, the ✦ On/Off switch. There are three camera overlays a scroll bar on the positions on the On/Off switch. Off LCD image to show relative turns the camera off. In the first On progress through the images position, the Quick Control dial has stored on the CF card. limited functionality. In the top- ✦ Info button. Press the Info button most On position, the Quick one or more times to change the Control dial is fully functional., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 9 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 9 ✦ Quick Control dial/Set button/access lamp. Turning the C.Fn is Canon’s abbreviation for Custom Functions, as detailed in Quick Control dial selects shooting- Chapter 4. For details on shoot- related settings on the LCD panel ing in Live View, see Chapter 5. and scrolls among menu options. Inset within this dial is the Set but- ✦ AE Lock/FE Lock/Index/Reduce ton that you use to select menu button. Pressing this button sets options and to confirm menu Auto Exposure (AE) or Flash selections. On the lower-right side Exposure (FE) lock, display Index of the Quick Control dial is an mode during image playback, or access light that glows red while reduces the size of an enlarged images are being read to or erased LCD image during image playback. from the CF card. ✦ AF-Point Selection/Enlarge but- ✦ Multi-controller. Above the Quick ton. Pressing this button activates Control dial is the eight-way Multi- the AF points in the viewfinder and controller that functions as a button on the LCD panel so you can man- when pressed and as a joystick ually select one or all AF points. when tilted in any direction. You can During image playback pressing use the Multi-controller to manually this button enlarges the image. select an AF point after pressing the Both this button and the AE Lock AF-point Selection/Enlarge button, button are press-and-hold buttons select White Balance correction, that are used in conjunction with scroll around an enlarged image in the Main, Quick Control, or Multi- Playback mode, or move the trim controller dials. frame when printing directly from the camera. You can use the Multi- ✦ Dioptric adjustment knob. controller to select camera menu Located beside the viewfinder, turn tabs by tilting it left and right, and this knob to adjust the sharpness of to move through menu options by the scene in the viewfinder to suit tilting it up or down. When using your eyesight. The range of dioptric the Multi-controller to manually adjustment is -3 to +1 diopters. A select an AF point, you can tilt the white mark in the center of the controller in one direction and tilt knob shows the movement within again to shift to automatic AF-Point the range. If you wear eyeglasses Selection mode. when shooting, be sure to wear them when you set the dioptric ✦ AF-ON. In Creative Zone shooting adjustment. To set the dioptric modes such as Tv, Av, and so on, adjustment, focus the lens by press- pressing the AF-ON button initiates ing the Shutter button halfway, and autofocusing and serves as an then turn the knob until the image alternative to half-pressing the in the viewfinder is sharp. Shutter button. In Live View shoot- ing, pressing the AF-ON button pauses Live View and drops down Front camera controls the reflex mirror to autofocus pro- The front of the camera is one view of the vided that C.Fn III-6 is enabled. camera that photographers seldom see. But Releasing the AF-ON button there are lamps and connections that you’ll resumes Live View. use often. The buttons and lamps, from left to right side, include the following:, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 10 10 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Red-eye Reduction/Self-Timer lamp EF Lens mount index Shutter button Flash button Lens Release Grip button Depth of Field Preview button DC Mirror Contacts Lens lock pin coupler cord hole Lens mount 1.3 40D front camera controls ✦ DC coupler cord hole. Lift up this field in the viewfinder. The larger rubber flap to access connectors the area of darkness in the including to connect the camera to viewfinder, the more extensive the household power using the depth of field will be. At the lens’s optional ACK-E2 AC adapter kit, maximum aperture, the Depth-of- which provides a coupling unit that Field Preview button cannot be inserts into the battery compart- depressed because the diaphragm ment. This power option comes in is fully open. The aperture cannot handy for extended studio shoot- be changed as long as the Depth- ing or in the unlikely event of bat- of-Field Preview button is tery failure. depressed. You can also preview Self-Timer lamp. depth of field when using the Live✦ This red lamp View function. flashes to count down the seconds to shutter release when the cam- ✦ Lens Release button. Press this era is set to either of the two Self- button to disengage the lens from Timer modes. the lens mount, and then turn the lens to the right to remove it. For more details on the Self- Timer modes, see Chapter 2. The 40D uses the Canon EF lens mount and is compatible with ✦ Depth of Field Preview button. all EF, EF-S, TS-E, and MP-E Press this button to stop down the lenses. For details on Canon EF lens diaphragm to the current lenses, see Chapter 6. aperture to preview the depth of, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 11 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 11 Camera terminals ✦ Video Out terminal. The Video On the side of the 40D are a set of terminals Out terminal enables you to con- under two rubber covers. Each cover is nect the camera to a television set using the video cable supplied in embossed with icons that identify the termi- the 40D box. nals underneath, which include: ✦ Digital terminal. The Digital ter- minal connects the camera to a Rubber terminal covers compatible printer or directly to a computer to download images. The cable for direct printing comes Video with the printer and must support PC Out PictBridge, PictBridge and CP terminal terminal Direct, PictBridge and Bubble Jet Direct, CP Direct only, or Bubble Jet Remote Digital Direct only. Control terminal terminal (N3-type) Side and bottom camera features On the opposite side of the terminals is the CF card slot and CF card eject button with 1.4 Camera terminals standard insertion and ejection functional- ity. The bottom of the camera includes the release latch for the battery compartment, ✦ PC terminal. This threaded termi- tripod socket, and the cover for the CR2016 nal is under the first cover closest lithium date and time battery. The estimated to the front of the camera body. life of the date and time battery is five years. The terminal connects a flash unit In addition, the bottom of the camera has that uses a flash sync cord. The an Extension system terminal used in con- maximum sync speed with non- junction with Canon’s Wireless File Canon flash units is 1/250 second. Transmitter, which is sold separately. This type of flash unit can be used in concert with a Speedlite attached to the camera’s hot shoe. Lens controls Use the PC Terminal to sync with a studio lighting system. All Canon lenses provide both autofocus and manual focusing functionality via the ✦ Remote Control terminal. This AF/MF (Autofocus/Manual Focus) switch on N3-type terminal, also located the side of the lens. If you choose MF, the under the first cover, connects with 40D provides focus assist, shown in the a remote control switch to fire the viewfinder, to confirm sharp focus. When camera to avoid camera shake sharp focus is achieved, the Focus confirma- with long lenses or for macro tion light in the viewfinder burns steadily shooting, or for Bulb exposures. and the camera emits a focus confirmation The optional Remote Switch RS-80N3 replicates Shutter button beep. functionality providing both half- and full depression of the shutter as well as a Shutter-release lock., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 12 12 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Extension system terminal Tripod socket Battery compartment cover 1.5 Bottom camera covers, compartments, and sockets Filter Focusing Distance Focusing distance range Zoom mounting ring scale selection switch ring thread Focus mode Image Image Tripod Orientation switch stabilizer stabilizer mount locking knob switch mode switch Lens mounting index 1.6 Lens controls, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 13 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 13 Depending on the lens, additional controls Viewfinder display may include the following: The 40D offers an eye-level pentaprism ✦ Focusing distance range selec- viewfinder that displays approximately 95 tion switch. This switch deter- percent of the vertical and horizontal cover- mines and limits the range that the age. Etched into the viewfinder are nine AF lens uses when seeking focus to points. When you manually change AF speed up autofocusing. The focus- points, the viewfinder highlights each AF ing distance range options vary by point in red after you press the AF-point lens. Selection/Enlarge button, and then tilt the ✦ Image stabilizer switch. This Multi-controller or turn the Main or Quick switch turns optical image stabi- Control dial. When you press the Shutter lization on or off. Optical Image button halfway down to focus, the selected Stabilization (IS) corrects vibrations AF point is shown in red in the viewfinder. at any angle when handholding The spot metering circle, which is approxi- the camera and lens. IS lenses typi- mately 3.8 percent of the viewfinder at cen- cally allow sharp handheld images ter, is also etched in the center of the up to two or more f-stops over the focusing screen. lens’s maximum aperture. ✦ Image stabilizer mode switch. The viewfinder displays exposure informa- Offered on some telephoto lenses, tion, as shown in figure 1.7. The amount of this switch has two modes: one information shown in the viewfinder mode for standard shooting and depends on the current camera settings. For one mode for vibration correction example, if you are not using the flash, then when panning at right angles to the Flash-ready icon isn’t seen in the the camera’s panning movement. viewfinder. ✦ Focusing ring and zoom ring. The lens focusing ring can be used Camera menus at any time regardless of focusing mode. On zoom lenses, the zoom While the LCD panel and the controls on the ring zooms the lens in or out to body of the 40D provide much of the func- the focal lengths marked on the tionality for standard shooting, other impor- ring. tant functions are offered in the camera ✦ Distance scale and infinity com- menus. For quick reference, Table 1.2 shows pensation mark. This shows the the menus and the options for each camera lens’s minimum focusing distance menu. to infinity. The infinity compensation mark compensates for shifting the The camera menus change based on the infinity focus point resulting from Shooting mode that you choose. In Basic changes in temperature. You can Zone modes such as Portrait, Landscape, set the distance scale slightly past Sports, and so on, not all of the menus are the infinity mark to compensate. available. In Creative Zone modes such as P, Tv, Av, M, and A-DEP, the full menus shown For more detailed information in Table 1.2 are available. on Canon lenses, see Chapter 6., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 14 14 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Focusing screen Spot metering circle AF points (Superimposed display) ISO speed -2112ISO WB H B/W Focus confirmation light AE lock/ Max. Burst AEB in-progress White balance correction WB-BKT Flash-ready Improper FE lock warning ISO speed H High-speed sync (FP flash) FE lock/FEB in-progress Monochrome shooting Flash exposure compensation Exposure level indicator Exposure compensation amount Shutter speed FE lock (FEL) Flash exposure compensation amount Busy (buSY) AEB range Built-in flash recycling ( buSY) Red-eye reduction lamp-on indicator Aperture CF card full warning (FuLL CF) CF card error warning (Err CF) No CF card warning (no CF) 1.7 40D viewfinder display Tip Become familiar with the cam- When you begin using the 40D, era menus to avoid spending the camera is set to the factory time hunting for a menu option default settings shown in Table while you are shooting. I think 2.4 in Chapter 2. As you use and of the Shooting 1 menu as basic reset the camera and shooting camera settings; Shooting 2 as settings, most settings are the exposure modification and retained until you change them. color menu; and so on. You can If you want to quickly return to set up My Menu to access your the camera defaults, you can most frequently used menu restore settings as detailed in options along with your favorite Chapter 2. For details on cus- Custom Functions. tomizing the 40D, see Chapter 4., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 15

Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 15 Table 1.2 Camera Menus

Menu Commands Options Shooting 1 Quality Large /Fine, Large /Normal, Medium /Fine, menu (Red) Medium /Normal, Small /Fine, Small /Normal, RAW, sRAW, sRAW and any of the JPEG image quality settings, or RAW + any one of the JPEG image quality settings Red-eye On/Off Off/On Beep On/Off Shoot without a card On/Off Review time Off, 2 sec., 4 sec., 8 sec., Hold Shooting 2 AEB (Auto Exposure 1/3-stop increments by default, up to menu (Red) Bracketing) plus/minus 2 stops White balance Auto (AWB), Daylight, Shade, Cloudy, Tungsten, White Fluorescent, Flash, Custom (2000 to 10000K), Color Temperature (2500 to 10000K) Custom WB Sets a manual white balance WB SHIFT/BKT White balance correction using Blue/Amber (White Balance (B/A) or Magenta/Green (M/G) color bias; shift/bracketing) white-balance bracketing using B/A and M/G bias, available at plus/minus 3 levels in one-level increments Color space sRGB, Adobe RGB Picture Style Standard, Portrait, Landscape, Neutral, Faithful, Monochrome, User Defined 1, 2, and 3 Dust Delete Data Locates and records dust on the image sensor so you can use the data in Canon’s Digital Photo Professional program to erase dust spots on images Playback 1 Protect images Protect images from being deleted Menu (Blue) Rotate Rotate vertical image from horizontal to vertical orientation only during image playback Erase Images Delete images one-by-one or deletes all check- marked images as a group Print Order Select images to be printed (Digital Print Order Format or DPOF) Continued, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 16 16 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Table 1.2 (continued)

Menu Commands Options Transfer order Select images to download to a computer as a group External media Available when the wireless transmitter backup accessory (WFT-E3A) Wireless Transmitter is used along with external media such as a storage device or computer. Allows images to be stored on external media Playback 2 Highlight alert Disabled/Enable. When enabled, Menu (Blue) overexposed highlights blink in all image- playback displays AF-point disp. Disabled/Enable. Superimposes the AF point that achieved focus on the image during playback Histogram Brightness, RGB. Brightness displays a tonal distribution histogram. RGB displays separate Red, Green, and Blue color channel histograms Auto play Hands-free slide-show playback of images on the


Set-up 1 Auto power off 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30 minutes, Off Menu (Yellow) File numbering Continuous, Auto reset, Manual reset Auto Rotate On for camera and computer, On for camera only, Off. Turns vertical images to upright orientation for the camera’s LCD and computer display, or only for the camera’s LCD display Info button Normal disp., Camera set, Shoot func. Normal displays the all camera settings. Camera set. displays only exposure settings. Shoot func. enables you to press and change any of the buttons above the LCD panel and set the AF point while watching the large-text LCD Format Initializes and erases images on CF card WFT Settings Displays the wireless file transfer settings when an accessory Canon WFT-E3A is in use Recording func.+ Displayed when external recording media such media select as a portable hard drive is used and the accessory Canon WFT-E3A attached to the camera Set-up 2 LCD brightness Seven adjustable levels of brightness Menu (Yellow) Date/Time Set the date (year/month/day) and time (hour/minute/second), 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 17

Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 17

Menu Commands Options Language Choose from 18 language options Video system NTSC/PAL Sensor Cleaning Auto cleaning, Clean now, Clean manually Live View function [Live View shoot] Disable/Enable settings [Grid display] On, Off [Silent shoot.] Mode 1, Mode 2, Disable [Metering timer] 4, 16, 30 sec., 1, 10, 30 min. Flash control Flash firing, Built-in flash func. setting, External flash func. setting, External flash C.Fn setting, Clear ext. flash C.Fn set Set-up 3 Camera user setting Save current camera settings to C1, C2, or C3, Menu (Yellow) and recall them by selecting that C mode on the Mode dial Clear all camera Restores the camera’s default settings. Does settings not restore Custom Function to their original default settings Firmware Ver. Displays the existing firmware version (Firmware Version) number, and enables you to update the firmware Custom C.Fn I: Exposure Displays Custom Functions related to exposure Functions such as exposure level increments, ISO, Menu bracketing sequence, ISO expansion to 3200, (Orange) safety shift, and flash sync speed in Av mode C.Fn II: Image Displays Custom Functions related to the image noise and tone including long exposure noise reduction, high ISO speed noise reduction, and highlight tone priority C.Fn III: Autofocus/ Displays Custom Functions related to Drive autofocus and drive operation including lens drive when AF is impossible, lens AF Stop button function, AF-point Selection method, superimposed display, AF-assist beam, AF during Live View shooting, and mirror lockup C.Fn IV: Operation/ Displays Custom Functions related to camera Others controls including Shutter button/AF-ON button, AF-ON/AE lock button switch, Set button during shooting, setting the dial direction for Tv and Av modes, changing to a different focusing screen, adding original data decision data, and Live View exposure simulation Continued, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 18 18 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Table 1.2 (continued)

Menu Commands Options Clear all Custom Restores all of the camera’s default Custom Func. (C.Fn) Function settings My Menu My Menu settings Save frequently used menus and Custom (Green) Functions

Setting the Date figures into everything from file naming andfile sorting on the computer, to file storage

and Time and backup schemes. Ensuring that the dateand time are set correctly goes a long way While setting the date and time seems like toward maintaining a smooth and consis- a basic task that photographers would do tent workflow. first when setting up the 40D, I include it here for those who want to begin setting up To set the date and time on the 40D, follow a standard workflow. If you’re new to digital these steps: photography, you may have heard the term 1. Press the Menu button on the workflow and wondered why it’s important. back of the camera, and then As the term suggests, workflow means set- press the Jump button until the ting up and sequencing your work so that Set-up 2 (yellow) menu appears. consistent standards are applied and so that all steps from shooting, through editing, 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to printing, and archiving are as efficient and highlight Date/Time, and then consistent as possible. Workflow consists of press the Set button. The camera many interrelated processes and setting the displays the date and time options date and time impacts your workflow in with the month option highlighted. numerous ways. The image date and time

Using Image Dates in the Workflow

When you set the date and time that data travels with each image file as part of the metadata. Metadata is a collection of all the information about an image that includes the filename, date created, size, resolution, color mode, camera make and model, exposure time, ISO, f-stop, shutter speed, lens data, and white balance setting. Metadata and EXIF, which is a particular form of metadata, are terms that are often used interchangeably. Because you have access to the metadata in Adobe Bridge, Photoshop, Canon Digital Photo Professional, and other editing programs, you can batch rename files to include the date in the filename. File-naming strategies vary by photographer, but most strate- gies incorporate the date in both folder and file naming., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 19 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 19 3. Press the Set button, and then level you choose determines not only the turn the Quick Control dial to number of images you can store on the change the month. Turning the media card but also the overall quality of Quick Control dial clockwise moves the images, and the sizes at which you can to a higher number, and vice versa. enlarge and print images. 4. Press the Set button to confirm the change. RAW versus JPEG format 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight the Day option, and If you are new to digital photography, or if then press the Set button. you’re familiar with digital photography but have always shot JPEG images, it’s worth- 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to while to summarize the differences change the day, and then press between JPEG and RAW capture. the Set button to confirm the change. Repeat Step 5 to change Note RAW and JPEG images are saved the year, minute, second, and using the same file number in date/time format options, and then the same folder. They are distin- press the Set button after each guished by the file extension. change. You can also choose to show the date as mm/dd/yy, JPEG capture dd/mm/yy, or yy/mm/dd by turn- JPEG, which stands for Joint Photographic ing the Quick Control dial to select mm/dd/yy, and then pressing the Experts Group, is a lossy file format, mean- Set button. Turn the Quick Control ing that it discards some image data during dial to scroll through the date/time the process of compressing image data to options, and then press the Set save space on the media card. In addition, button after selecting the option when you edit JPEG images on the com- you want. puter, each time you save the file during editing, some image data is discarded. As 7. When all options are set, turn the compression ratio increases, more of the Quick Control dial to select the original image data is discarded and the OK, and press the Set button. image quality degrades accordingly. On the 40D, compression ratios are denoted by Note If you travel to different time zones, you may want to change Fine and Normal settings. For example, the date and time to reflect Large/Fine means a low compression ratio those of the area where you are where less data is discarded, but the file size shooting. on the CF card is larger. Large/Normal denotes a higher compression ratio where more image data is discarded, but the file

Choose the File size on the CF card is smaller. The difference

between the Fine and Normal settings cuts

Format and Quality the file size almost in half. The Normal

option with higher compression enables The file format you choose determines you to get more images on the card, but it whether images are stored as JPEGs, in also means that more image data is being RAW, in sRAW, in both RAW and JPEG for- discarded during compression. mat, or as sRAW and JPEG. And the quality, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 20 20 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D In addition, when you shoot in JPEG mode, images are converted from 14-bit files with Note In Basic Zone modes, only JPEGimage-recording quality options 16,384 colors per channel to 8-bit files that are offered. RAW and sRAW offer a scant 256 colors per channel. Plus image-recording options are JPEG images are processed — essentially available only in Creative Zone pre-edited — inside the camera before they modes (P, Tv, Av, M, and A-DEP). are stored on the media card. As a result of the low bit depth and the preprocessing, RAW capture you have far less latitude in editing JPEG RAW files are in a proprietary format that images on the computer should you want to does not discard image data to save space make edits. However, the JPEG format on the CF card. Because the images are a enjoys universal acceptance, which means proprietary format, they can be viewed only that the images can be displayed on any in programs and on operating systems that computer, opened in any image-editing pro- support the file format. Unlike JPEG images, gram, and can be printed directly from the RAW capture saves the data that comes off camera or the computer. the image sensor with minimal internal camera processing. Many of the camera set- tings have been noted but not applied to

What Is Bit-Depth and Should You Care?

A digital picture is made up of many pixels. Each pixel is made up of a group of bits. A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can handle. In digital images, each bit stores information that when aggregated with other pixels and color infor- mation, provides an accurate representation of the picture. Since digital images are based on the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color model, an 8-bit digital image has eight bits of color information for red, eight bits for green, and eight bits for blue. This gives a total of 24 bits of data per pixel (8 bitsx3color channels). Because each bit can be one of two values, either 0 or 1, the total number of possi- ble values is 2 to the 8th power, or 256 per color channel. In the RGB color model, the range of colors is represented on a continuum from 0 (black) to 255 (white). On this continuum, an area of an image that is white (with no image detail) is represented by 255R, 255G, and 255B. An area of the image that is black (with no detail) is represented by 0R, 0G, 0B. An 8-bit file offers 256 possible colors per channel. A 14-bit file, offered with 40D RAW capture, provides 16,384 colors per channel. And then if you save the 14-bit RAW file as a 16-bit file during RAW conversion, the image provides 65,000 colors per channel. This is important because the higher the bit depth in the file, the finer the detail, the smoother the transition between tones, and the higher the dynamic range (the abil- ity of the camera to hold detail in both highlight and shadow areas) in the final con- verted and edited image. High-bit-depth images also provide much more latitude in editing images., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 21 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 21 the data in the camera, so you have the yourself whether to preserve or discard opportunity to make changes to key settings tonal levels that may be discarded with such as exposure, white balance, contrast, JPEG capture. and saturation after the capture is made. The only camera settings that are applied to sRAW capture RAW files in the camera are ISO, shutter The 40D also includes an sRAW image- speed, and aperture. recording quality option. sRAW is an apt This means that during RAW image conver- abbreviation for Small RAW. These files, sion, you can make significant adjustments to which are slightly larger than half the size of the image data. Plus, you take full advantage a standard RAW file, are approximately 7.1 of the 40D’s new 14-bit images by processing MB while a full-resolution RAW file is and saving images as 16-bit-per-channel TIFFs 12.4MB. But sRAW files offer all the conver- in conversion programs such as Canon’s Digital sion advantages that standard RAW files offer Photo Professional or Adobe Camera Raw. including the ability to change key settings such as adjusting brightness, white balance, Essentially, when you choose RAW capture, contrast, and saturation. You can also choose you postpone the processing of image data, to shoot sRAW along with any of the JPEG and you retain the ability to decide for image-recording quality options. 1.8 The EOS Digital Solution Disk includes Digital Photo Professional, shown here, that enables you to process RAW images and adjust brightness, contrast, saturation, and even to change the Picture Style after the image is captured., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 22 22 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D The choice of format is yours, of course, and your decision will doubtless include factors If you want to learn more aboutshooting and converting RAW such as convenience, image quality, the images, read Chapter 10. number of images you need in Burst mode, and the ability to make changes after cap- Table 1.3 shows the file format and quality turing the image. options that you can choose and the effect on images shot in Burst mode. 1.9 This and the next image show some of 1.10 By contrast, this image was taken in the differences between JPEG and RAW RAW capture. Using Canon’s Digital Photo capture. This is a JPEG image with the Professional, I was able to set the white camera set to Full Auto mode which uses balance by clicking on the white automatic white balance (AWB). The color is background so that the color accurately characteristically cool and the image reflects the actual light in the scene and the contrast is high. overall image brightness.

Table 1.3

40D File Quality and Burst Rate Approx. Maximum Burst Number Approximate of Shots High- Low- Image Quality File Sizes (1GB card) Speed Speed L (Large/Fine) 3.5 274 75 205 L (Large/Normal) 1.8 523 171 523 M (Medium/Fine) 2.1 454 140 454 M (Medium/Normal) 1.1 854 303 854 S (Small/Fine) 1.2 779 271 779 S (Small/Normal) 0.7 1451 625 1451, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 23

Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 23

Approx. Maximum Burst Number Approximate of Shots High- Low- Image Quality File Sizes (1GB card) Speed Speed RAW 12.4 1.1 76 17 20 RAW + L (Large/Fine) 12.4+3.5=15.9 59 14 16 L (Large/Normal) 12.4+1.8=14.2 66 14 16 M (Medium/Fine) 12.4+2.1=14.5 65 14 16 M (Medium/ 12.4+1.1=13.5 70 14 16 Normal) S (Small/Fine) 12.4+1.2=13.6 69 14 16 S (Small/Normal) 12.4+0.7=13.1 72 20 16 sRAW 7.1 135 17 34 sRAW + L (Large/Fine) 7.1+3.5=10.6 90 17 21 L (Large/Normal) 7.1+1.8=8.9 107 17 22 M (Medium/Fine) 7.1+2.1=9.2 103 17 22 M (Medium/ 7.1+1.1=8.2 116 17 23 Normal) S (Small/Fine) 7.1+1.2=8.3 115 17 24 S (Small/Normal) 7.1+0.7=7.8 124 17 25 Note Fine and Normal denote differ- Setting File ent levels of compression for JPEG images. A lower rate of Numbering compression is applied to Fine than to Normal. The lower the Many photographers use the Default option compression rate, the better the image quality and also the of continuous file numbering offered on the larger the file size. 40D. Like the date and time, continuous file numbers become an integral part of the Note If you’re shooting in image-naming scheme for filing, sorting, Monochrome Picture Style, and archiving images and help prevent hav- image file sizes are smaller than indicated in this table. ing duplicate filenames of the same file type on the computer. If, however, you prefer another naming scheme, the 40D enables you to reset file numbering automatically or manually., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 24 24 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D File numbering is assigned from 0001 to Auto Reset 9999. File names begin with the designa- tion IMG_ followed by the image number If you like to organize images by media card, and file extension: .jpg for JPEG files; or _MG_ Auto Reset may be a useful option. With followed by the image number and file exten- Auto Reset, file numbering restarts each sion .CR2 for RAW and sRAW images. time you insert a newly formatted CF card. Folder numbers begin with 100, and file numbering begins with 0001, unless the CF

Continuous numbering card contains a previous image, in which

With Continuous numbering, the default case, numbering begins with the highest file option on the 40D, images are numbered number in the highest numbered folder on sequentially using a unique four-digit num- the CF card. However, with the Auto Reset ber from 0001 to 9999. Unique filenames option, multiple images will have the same make managing and organizing images on filename. Because of duplicate filenames, the computer easy because it ensures that you must use scrupulous folder manage- images of the same file format do not have ment on the computer to avoid overwriting duplicate filenames. images with the same name. If you insert a CF card into the camera that already has images on it taken with the Manual Reset 40D, then the camera usually starts num- The third option is to manually reset file bering with the highest image number that numbering. With this option, a new folder is is either stored on the card or that was cap- automatically created with the next higher tured last. To ensure that file numbering folder number than the last, and file num- remains continuous when you insert a CF bering restarts with 0001. Subsequent card, it’s best to ensure that the CF card is images are saved in the new folder. After empty or has been formatted. the manual reset, whichever file-numbering method you previously used (Continuous or In addition to fitting nicely with my overall Auto Reset) takes effect when begin shoot- file-numbering scheme, I prefer continuous ing again. file numbering for two additional reasons: the unique filenames lessen the likelihood Unlike other EOS cameras, the 40D does of having duplicate filenames on the com- not offer a direct way to create multiple puter, which makes folder management on folders on the CF card. In the case of Manual the computer easier; and it tracks the num- Reset for file numbering, the camera auto- ber of images up to 9999 per folder, pro- matically creates a new folder. You could vided that a clean CF card is inserted each use this option simply to force the creation time. of new folders on the CF card. If you do this, the folders are numbered sequentially with Note The 40D shutter is rated at three digits beginning with 100 and contin- approximately 100,000 actua- uing through 999. Otherwise, the camera tions or cycles. This rating pro- vided by Canon is an indication uses a single folder to store images. of the life expectancy of the shut- ter mechanism of the camera. To change the file numbering method on the 40D, follow these steps:, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 25 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 25

The 999 and 9,999 Error Message

The maximum number for folders is 999, and the maximum number for images within a single folder is 9,999. This means that if the camera gets to folder number 999, or if image file numbers within any folder reach 9,999, you get an error message on the camera, and you cannot continue shooting. Getting this error message may sound innocuous, but it brings shooting to a stand- still. Recently, I was shooting a live event with another EOS camera. The camera reached the 9,999 image file number minutes after I had inserted an empty CF card into the camera. At image number 9,999, the camera stopped shooting. The last thing on my mind at that moment was the maximum file number. All I could think was that there was almost 2GB of space on a perfectly good CF card. As shots passed by, I finally remembered the numbering limit and replaced the card. I hope that you’ll keep this experience in mind so that when you reach image number 9,999, you’ll quickly remember to replace the CF card. 1. Press the Menu button, and to as Creative Zone modes In addition, the then press the Jump button 40D features three customizable Camera until the Set-up 1 (yellow) menu User setting modes, denoted as C1, C2, and appears. C3 on the Mode dial. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to Camera User Setting modes, or highlight File numbering, and C modes, are detailed in then press the Set button. The Chapter 4. camera displays the File numbering options with Continuous high- ✦ Basic Zone modes. These modes lighted as the default setting. set all exposure settings, the drive 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to mode, the AF point(s), and the highlight the option you want. built-in flash fires automatically for quick, point-and-shoot type pho- 4. Press the Set button. Except tography. Basic Zone modes are for Manual Reset, the option you Full Auto, Portrait, Landscape, set remains in effect until you Close-up, Sports, Night Portrait, change it. and Flash Off. Each mode is repre- sented by a pictorial icon on the Mode dial except for Full Auto,

Shooting Modes which is denoted by a green rectangle.

Central to using the 40D is understanding ✦ Creative Zone modes. These the shooting modes offered on the Mode modes offer either semiautomatic dial. The 40D offers both the basic point- or fully manual camera control so and-shoot modes, referred to as Basic Zone that you control one or all of the modes, as well as the traditional shooting exposure settings. In these modes, semiautomatic and manual modes, referred you can control the drive mode,, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 26 26 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D choose either automatic AF point you’re photographing a landscape, the or manual AF point selection, and Landscape mode automatically sets classic control the use of the built-in flash. exposure settings for this type of scene. The The Creative Zone modes are: advantage of these modes is that you don’t Program AE (P), Shutter-priority AE have to understand exposure or set any (Tv), Aperture-priority AE (Av), controls except the Mode dial. The down- Manual exposure (M), and side is that the camera takes full control, Automatic Depth of Field AE which means that you can’t set the focus (A-DEP). point where you want, you cannot change ✦ Camera User settings. Camera any exposure settings, and the camera auto- User settings are denoted as C1, matically fires the flash in some modes. C2, and C3 on the Mode dial. In These modes are a handy way to get started each of these Mode dial positions, using the 40D and get classic photographic you can set, register, and recall looks. your favorite camera settings to one or more of these modes. C For example, if you want a softly blurred modes provide unprecedented background for a portrait, select Portrait ability to save camera settings for mode. The camera sets a wide aperture specific shooting venues such as a (f-stop) to blur the background, selects the sports arena, a specific wedding Portrait Picture style to enhance skin tones, chapel, or a studio. and fires the flash automatically if it detects low light, among other settings. Chapter 4 details how to pro- gram the Camera User setting modes. In all Basic Zone modes, the camera auto- matically sets the image quality to JPEG, Note Throughout the book, I refer to although you can select the level of JPEG shooting modes using the des- quality. The camera also automatically ignations Basic Zone and selects the following: Creative Zone modes. ✦ ISO To switch to any of the shooting modes, turn the Mode dial to line up the mode you want ✦ sRGB color space with the white mark on the camera body ✦ Automatic AF point selection next to the dial. Unless you’ve registered camera settings for C1, C2, and C3, these ✦ White balance modes are programmed with the camera’s ✦ Evaluative metering default setting for image quality, metering, automatic ISO, and so on. To use these ✦ Automatic flash depending on the ambient light modes effectively, you must first register your favorite camera settings. Live View shooting is not available in any of the Basic Zone modes.

Basic Zone modes Live View shooting is detailed in

The Basic Zone modes are designed to be Chapter 5. quick and easy to use by choosing the type scene that you’re shooting. For example, if, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 27 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 27 Full Auto mode Also in Full Auto mode, the camera auto- In Full Auto mode, the camera automatically matically selects the Automatic AF point(s). sets the aperture, shutter speed, ISO, drive It may choose a single AF point—typically set mode, autofocus mode, white balance, and on an area of the subject that is closest to Picture Style. In short, Full Auto mode pro- the lens and that has readable contrast. Or vides point-and-shoot functionality. it may select two or more AF points. The camera displays the selected AF points in Because the camera sets everything, this red in the viewfinder so that you can see appears to be a good mode for quick snap- where the camera will set the point of shots. However, the camera defaults to sharpest focus. If the subject-to-camera dis- using the flash, even in scenes where you tance changes, the camera automatically may not want it. In addition, the camera too switches to AI Servo AF mode which main- often sets an unnecessarily aggressive ISO, tains focus by tracking subject movement. usually starting at ISO 400, even in bright Tip If the camera doesn’t set thelight. point of sharpest focus where you want, you can try to force it to choose a different AF point by moving the camera position slightly one or more times. If you want to control where the point of sharpest focus is set in the image, then it is better to switch to a Creative Zone mode and set the AF point manually. In Full Auto mode, the camera also sets Single-shot drive mode and Standard Picture Style. You can choose to use the 10- second Self-Timer drive mode. Chapter 3 details the preset Picture Styles as well as your options for customizing Picture Styles. Portrait mode In Portrait mode, the 40D sets a wide aper- ture that makes the subject stand out against a softly blurred background. The 40D also switches to Portrait Picture Style to enhance the subject’s skin tones. This mode 1.11 This image was taken in Full Auto mode. The camera fired the flash works well for quick portraits in good light. automatically and set the AF points putting In low-light scenes, the camera automati- the point of sharpest focus toward the cally fires the flash, which may or may not bottom of the keyboard. The camera’s be the effect you want in the portrait. While automatic exposure was ISO 400, f/4.0, 1/60 flash can create an unnatural and hard look sec. using an EF 100mm f/2.8 USM lens. for portraits, the flash performance on the, 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 28 28 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 40D is much improved over previous EOS In Portrait mode, the camera automatically models. The flash output typically balances selects the AF point(s). When the camera nicely with the ambient light to create a fill- chooses the AF point, it looks for several flash look rather than flooding the subject things such as points where lines are well with too much artificial-looking light. You defined, the object that is closest to the can optionally turn on Red-eye reduction. In lens, and the point of strongest contrast. Portrait mode, the camera automatically However, the subject’s eyes are where the selects Low-speed continuous drive mode point of sharpest focus should be in a por- at 3 fps. You can choose to use the 10-sec- trait and eyes often do not fit these criteria. ond Self-Timer drive mode. If you can’t force the camera to refocus on the eyes, choose a Creative Zone mode instead, such as Av, set a wide aperture, and then manually select the AF point that is over the subject’s eyes. Landscape mode In Landscape mode, the 40D chooses a nar- row aperture to ensure that background and foreground elements are acceptably sharp and that the fastest shutter speed possible, depending on the amount of light in the scene, is used. This mode works well not only for landscapes but also cityscapes, and for portraits of large groups of people. In lower light, the camera uses slower shut- ter speeds to maintain a narrow aperture for good depth of field and increases the ISO. As the light fades, watch the viewfinder or LCD panel to monitor the shutter speed. If the shutter speed is 1/30 second or slower, and if you’re using a telephoto lens, steady 1.12 This image was taken in Portrait the camera on a solid surface or use a tri- mode. The camera’s automatic exposure pod. In Landscape mode, the camera auto- was ISO 400, f/4.5, 1/750 sec. matically sets One-shot autofocus with automatic autofocus point (AF) selection, Single-shot drive mode, Flash-off mode, and As with other programmed modes, you can Landscape Picture Style. You can choose to use scene modes for a variety of other types use the 10-second Self-Timer drive mode. of subjects. For example, Portrait mode works well for nature and still-life photos indoors and outdoors., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 29 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 29 1.13 This image was taken in Landscape mode using the Landscape Picture Style. The camera’s automatic exposure was ISO 100, f/5.6 at 1/125 sec. using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. Close-up mode In Close-up mode, the camera automatically In Close-up mode, the 40D allows a close sets One-shot autofocus with automatic focusing distance and sets a wide aperture. autofocus point (AF) selection, Single-shot It chooses One-shot drive mode and the drive mode, Automatic flash with the option Standard Picture Style. You can enhance the to turn on red-eye reduction, and Standard close-up effect of a close-up image further Picture Style and Automatic White Balance. by using a macro lens. If you’re using a In this mode, you can choose to use the 10- zoom lens, zoom to the telephoto end of second Self-Timer drive mode. the lens when shooting in this mode. For the best images, focus at the lens’s mini- Sports mode mum focusing distance. The easiest way to In Sports mode, the 40D freezes subject determine the minimum focusing distance motion by setting as fast a shutter speed as is to listen for the beep that confirms sharp the ambient light allows. While this mode is focus or watch for the focus confirmation designed for action and sports photography, light in the viewfinder. If you don’t get con- you can use it in any scene where you want firmation, move back slightly, refocus, listen to freeze subject motion, such as the for the beep and watch for the focus confir- motion of a moving child or a pet. This can mation light. Repeat this process until the be a useful mode for shooting events and camera confirms that focus has been receptions. achieved., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 30 30 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 1.14 This image was taken in Close-up mode with the Standard Picture Style. The camera’s automatic settings were ISO 400, f/5.6 at 1/160 sec. using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L IS USM lens. In this mode, the 40D automatically focuses on the subject and tracks the subject’s movement until good focus is achieved, which is confirmed with a low beep. If you continue to hold the Shutter button down, the camera maintains focus for continuous shooting. In Sports mode, the camera auto- matically sets AI Servo AF mode with auto- matic autofocus point (AF) selection, High-speed continuous drive mode at 6.5 fps, Flash off, and Standard Picture Style. You can choose to use the 10-second Self- Timer drive mode. Night Portrait mode In Night Portrait mode, the 40D combines the flash to correctly expose the person with a slow sync speed to correctly expose the background. Because this mode uses a longer exposure, the subject should remain 1.15 This image was taken in Sports mode still during the entire exposure to avoid blur. using the Standard Picture Style. The Be sure to use a tripod to take night portraits. camera’s automatic settings were ISO 400, f/4.0 at 1/500 sec. using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 31 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 31 This mode is best used when people are in Live View shooting, detailed in Chapter 5, is the picture rather than for general night available in all Creative Zone modes. shots because the camera sets a wide aper- ture that softly blurs the background. In Program AE Night Portrait mode, the camera automati- Program AE mode, denoted as P on the cally sets One-shot autofocus with auto- Mode dial, is an automatic but shiftable matic autofocus point (AF) selection, mode. Shifting means that you can change Single-shot drive mode, automatic flash the aperture by turning the Main dial, and with the ability to turn on Red-eye reduc- the camera automatically sets the shutter tion, and Standard Picture Style. You can speed to an equivalent exposure. For exam- choose to use the 10-second Self-Timer ple, if the camera initially sets the exposure drive mode. at f/2.8 at 1/30 second, and you turn the Main dial one click to the left to shift the Flash Off mode program, the exposure shifts to f/3.2 at In Flash Off mode, the 40D does not fire the 1/20 second. Turning the Main dial to the built-in flash or an external Canon Speedlite right results in a shift to f/4.0 at 1/15 sec- regardless of how low the scene light is. ond, and so on. When you are using Flash-off mode in low- light scenes, be sure to use a tripod. This is An advantage of P mode is the ability to the mode to use in scenes where flash is pro- control the depth of field and/or shutter hibited and when the subject is out of range speed with a minimum of manual exposure of flash coverage. In Flash Off mode, the adjustments. When you shift the exposure camera automatically sets AI Focus AF with and make the picture, the camera then automatic autofocus point (AF) selection, automatically reverts back to the automatic and Single-shot drive mode. You can choose settings for the next image. Program AE to use the 10-second Self-Timer drive mode. can’t be used with the flash. In Program AE mode, you can set the image

Creative Zone modes quality, color space, ISO, White Balance, and

the Drive, Metering, and autofocus modes. Creative Zone modes offer semiautomatic or manual control over some or all exposure set- P mode is the mode that makes sense for tings. This zone includes two modes, Program grab shots at a wedding, event, and for per- AE and A-DEP, which offer a higher degree of sonal family snapshots. P mode offers the automation without sacrificing complete con- advantage of semi-automated shooting trol of the camera as Basic Zone modes do. and/or quickly shifting to a more desirable The other three Creative Zone modes, aperture. Plus, this mode supports RAW or Aperture-priority AE, Tv Shutter-priority AE, sRAW images, and your preferred color and Manual exposure mode, put full or partial space. creative control in your hands., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 32 32 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D to 30 seconds and Bulb. (Bulb keeps the shutter open as long as the Shutter button is depressed.) In Tv mode, you set the shutter speed by turning the Main dial. When you press the Shutter button halfway, the camera calcu- lates the required aperture based on the shutter speed, ISO, the light meter reading. 1.16 This image was taken in P mode using a Canon EF 85mm f/1.2L II USM lens with If the exposure falls outside of the 40D’s an extension tube. I wanted to capture the exposure range, the aperture value blinks in cross with a gentle blur, which is relatively the viewfinder and on the LCD panel letting easy using a super-wide aperture. Exposure: you know to set a different shutter speed to ISO 100, f/1.8 at 1/160 second with one avoid overexposure or underexposure. If the stop of exposure compensation to lens’s maximum aperture blinks, the image compensate for the extension tube. will be underexposed. Set a slower shutter speed by turning the Main dial. If the lens’s minimum aperture blinks, the image will be overexposed. Set a faster shutter speed. You can also set a higher or lower ISO setting, respectively. The 40D displays the shutter speed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. In Shutter-Priority AE mode, you have full control over the camera’s exposure controls, Picture Style, and the built-in or accessory 1.17 Using P mode allowed me to quickly flash use and settings. get an equivalent exposure at f/5.0 to increase the depth of field slightly. Shutter speed increments can be changed Exposure: ISO 100, f/5.0, 1/25 sec. with one from the default 1/3-stop to 1/2-stop incre- stop of exposure compensation. This image ments using C.Fn I-1. Flash sync speed is was made using primarily north light (with a 1/250 second or slower. bit of east light) that provides a singular glow and clarity to the subject. For details on setting Custom Functions, see Chapter 4. Shutter-Priority AE In the default 1/3-stop increments, shutter Shutter-Priority AE mode, denoted as Tv on speeds are: 1/8000, 1/6400, 1/5000, the Mode dial, is the semiautomatic mode 1/4000, 1/3200, 1/2500, 1/2000, 1/1600, that enables you to set the shutter speed 1/1250, 1/1000, 1/800, 1/640, 1/500, while the camera automatically sets the 1/400, 1/320, 1/250, 1/200, 1/160, 1/125, aperture. And with the 40D’s mechanical, 1/100, 1/80, 1/60, 1/50, 1/40, 1/30, 1/25, focal-plane shutter and electronic shutter 1/20, 1/15, 1/13, 1/10, 1/8, 1/6, 1/5, 1/4, speed control, you can choose from 1/8000 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 1.3, 1.6, 2, 2.5, 3.2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 20, 25, 30 sec., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 33

Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 33

When shutter speeds are shown using a zero, a double-quote mark, and a number, the quote mark designates a decimal point. So 0”3 is 0.3 seconds while 15” indicates 15.0 seconds. Note You can also select Bulb, which keeps the shutter open as long as the Shutter button is depressed. While Bulb is related to shutter speed, it cannot be accessed using Tv mode. Instead you have to switch to Manual mode to select Bulb.

Aperture-Priority AE

Aperture-Priority AE mode, denoted as Av on the Mode dial, is the semiautomatic mode that offers control over the aperture. In this mode, you control the aperture by turning the Main dial, and the camera auto- matically calculates the appropriate shutter speed based on the light meter reading, the 1.18 To show the motion of the water as a metering mode, and the ISO. blur, I used Tv mode and set the shutter speed to 1/13 sec. Exposure: ISO 100, f/22, If the exposure is outside the camera’s expo- using a Canon EF 25-105mm, f/2.8L IS USM sure range, the shutter speed value blinks in lens. the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. If “8000” blinks, the image will be overexposed. If “30” blinks, the image will be underex- For both Tv and Av modes, you posed. In either case, adjust to a smaller orNote can set C.Fn I-6 to enable a larger aperture, respectively, until the blinking safety shift in exposure. The stops or set a lower or higher ISO setting. The shift comes into play if the light- 40D displays the selected aperture in the ing on the subject changes viewfinder and on the LCD panel. enough to make the current shutter speed or aperture unsuitable. Enabling this func- Note You can preview the depth of tion causes the camera to auto- field by pressing the Depth-of- matically shift to a suitable Field Preview button on the exposure. front of the camera. When you press this button, the lens diaphragm stops down to the Shutter designations in the viewfinder and highlighted aperture so that you LCD panel are shown with the number rep- can preview the range of resenting the denominator of the fractional acceptable focus. value. For example, 8000 indicates 1/8000., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 34 34 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D The range of available apertures depends In 1/3-stop increments, and depending on on the lens you’re using. Aperture incre- the lens you use, available apertures are as ments can be set in the default 1/3 -stop or follows: f/1.0, 1.1, 1.2,1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 1/2-stop values by changing the setting for 2.5, 2.8, 3.2, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.6, 6.3, 7.1, C.Fn I-1. 8.0, 9.0, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29, 32, 36, 40, 45, 51, 57, 64, 72, 81, and 91. Practically speaking, however, the narrowest minimum aperture is f/45 on the Canon EF 75-300 f/4-5.6 lenses. In Aperture-Priority AE mode, you have full control over the camera’s exposure settings, Picture Style, and the built-in or accessory flash use and settings. For more information on Canon lenses, see Chapter 6. Manual mode Manual mode, denoted as M on the Mode dial, gives you full manual control. You set both the aperture and shutter speed based on the exposure level meter shown in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. This mode is useful in a variety of shooting scenarios including shooting fireworks, astral photog- raphy, for some studio shooting, when you want to intentionally underexpose or over- 1.19 Av mode controls the rendering of the expose the scene, or when you want a con- background in this Christian music concert sistent exposure across a series of photos image. I wanted the front vocalist to be in such as for a panoramic series. sharp focus with the other vocalist slightly blurred in the background so I chose f/2.8 In Manual mode, you set the exposure by to get a shallow depth of field. Exposure: turning the Main dial to select the shutter ISO 400, f/2.8, 1/40 sec., using an EF speed and the Quick Control dial to select 24-70mm, f/2.8L IS USM lens. the aperture. Pressing the Shutter button halfway, initi- ates the metering. The camera’s ideal expo- sure is indicated when the tick mark is at the center of the exposure level indicator shown in the viewfinder., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 35 Chapter 1 ✦ Exploring the Canon EOS 40D 35 Bulb Bulb keeps the shutter open as long as the Shutter button is fully depressed—up to 2.5 hours on a fully charged battery. To ensure stability during Bulb exposures, you can use the Remote Switch RS-80N3 or Timer Remote Controller TC-80N3 to keep the shutter open. Bulb is handy for low-light and night shoot- ing, fireworks, celestial shots, and other cre- ative long-exposure renderings. Bulb is accessible only in Manual mode. Because long exposures introduce digital noise and increase the appearance of grain, consider using the Long Exposure Noise Reduction option that is available with C.Fn II-1. To select Bulb, follow these steps: 1.20 Manual mode is great for shots such as this image of the moon where I know in 1. Set the Mode dial to M (Manual). advance what exposure settings would work best. Exposure: ISO 100, f/3.5, 1/40 2. Turn the Main dial counterclock- sec. using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM wise to select Bulb (the setting lens. past the 30-second option). 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to The exposure level meter also displays the set the aperture. You can use the amount of overexposure or underexposure accessory Timer Remote Switch RS- from the camera’s ideal exposure. If the 80N3 or Timer Remote Controller amount of under- or overexposure is +/- 2 TC-80N3 to set the exposure time, or you can watch the elapsed time Exposure Values (EV), the exposure level on the LCD panel for the length of indicator bar blinks to show the amount of exposure time that you want. In plus or minus EV in the viewfinder and on addition, you can use Mirror lockup the LCD panel. You can then adjust either (C.Fn III-7) to prevent vibration the aperture or shutter speed until the from the reflex mirror during long exposure level you want is displayed. exposures. In Manual mode, you have full control over the camera’s exposure controls, Picture Style, and the built-in or accessory flash use and settings., 04_260449 ch01.qxp 2/26/08 12:04 AM Page 36 36 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 1.21 You can use either Bulb or Manual mode for fireworks shots. Exposure: ISO 100, f/11, 1/7 sec. using an EF 70-200mm, f/2.8L IS USM lens., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 37

Working withCHAPTER

the Canon 2

EOS 40D ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

In This Chapter Understanding and

I using autofocusn this chapter, you get an overview in using the 40D on adaily basis — the most commonly used modes and func- Selecting a metering

tions such as autofocus, metering, exposure and exposure mode modifications, as well as evaluating images after capture from the core of everyday shooting tasks. This chapter not only Evaluating exposure explains how to set the camera controls, but it also provides insights into using the settings and getting the best results. Modifying exposure As explained in Chapter 1, mode selections are automatically About ISO settings made if you choose to shoot in a Basic Zone mode such as Portrait, Sports, Landscape, and so on. So to get the most Selecting a drive mode from the autofocus, metering, and drive modes, it’s best to use a Creative Zone mode such as Tv, Av, and so on. Viewing and playing back images Erasing images

Understanding and Using

Protecting images


Displaying images The speed and accuracy of focusing and the ease of manually on a TV selecting an Autofocus (AF) point are as critical to shooting as having a good onboard metering system. The 40D’s overall Restoring the camera’s autofocus performance is excellent, and the AF-point selec- default settings tion method is customizable. Getting tack-sharp focus, of course, depends on three factors: the resolving power of the Cleaning the image lens (its ability to render fine details sharply), the resolution sensor of the image sensor, and the resolution of the printer for printed images. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 38 38 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D While the resolution of printers is beyond The 40D offers three autofocus (AF) modes the scope of this book, the other two factors that are designed for different types of sub- can be addressed. The 40D certainly has jects: still subjects, moving subjects, and excellent image sensor resolution with fine subjects that start and stop moving. image details and good edge performance. While the details of lenses are covered in The three autofocus (AF) modes that you Chapter 6, the take-away concerning image can select in Creative Zone shooting modes sharpness is that you can expect excellent are as follows: autofocus performance from the 40D partic- ularly with high-quality lenses. ✦ One-Shot AF. This mode is designed for photographing a sta- tionary subject that is not likely to

About autofocus points move. In this mode, pressing the

and autofocus modes Shutter button halfway establishesand locks focus. In this focus The 40D sports a new autofocus (AF) sensor mode, you can manually select an with nine AF points etched in the AF point or have the camera auto- viewfinder. The selected AF point or points matically select one or more AF establish the point of sharpest focus in the points. image. ✦ AI Focus AF. This mode uses One- Shot AF but automatically switches Canon’s high-precision AF points are suited to AI Servo AF if the camera for use with fast lenses. These AF points are detects subject movement. A soft sensitive to vertical line detection and to beep alerts you that the camera is horizontal line detection, which is critical to switching to AI Servo AF, and the achieving sharp, accurate, fast focus. On the focus confirmation light in the 40D, all nine AF points are cross-type and AF viewfinder is no longer lit. Focus sensitivity is Exposure Value (EV) -0.5 to EV tracking is activated by pressing the 18 at f/5.6 or better with the center AF point Shutter button halfway. sensitive at f/2.8. Thus horizontal and verti- ✦ AI Servo AF. This mode is cal line detection is enhanced as is the abil- designed for photographing a mov- ity to focus on hard-to-focus subjects. ing subject. Focus is tracked Likewise, in all autofocus modes, focus fail- regardless of changes in focusing ure is reduced. distance from side to side or approaching or moving away from Note The AF point that establishes the camera. The camera sets the focus is also the point at which exposure at the moment the image the camera determines the is made. The camera uses either exposure for the scene. You can decouple focusing from meter- the manually selected AF point, or ing using Auto Exposure Lock in automatic AF selection, it uses detailed later in this chapter. the center AF point and tracks movement as long as the subject is within the other eight AF points in the viewfinder. In Creative Zone modes, you can also press the AF- ON button to focus., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 39

Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 39

1. Set the lens switch to AF, and Tip Because keeping the Shutter button pressed halfway shortens set the camera to a Creative battery life, anticipate the shot Zone shooting mode, P, Tv, Av, and press the Shutter button M, or A-DEP. halfway just before making the 2. Press the AF-Drive button picture to maximize battery life. located above the LCD panel, Table 2.1 shows how autofocus and drive and then turn the Main dial to select the autofocus mode you modes behave when used in combination. want. Each mode is represented by text displayed to the side of the To select an autofocus mode, follow these LCD panel. The selected autofocus steps: mode remains in effect until you change it.

Table 2.1 Autofocus and Drive Modes

Focus Mode Drive Mode One-Shot AF AI Focus AF AI Servo AF One-shot In One-Shot AF If the subject moves, The camera focuses on shooting mode, the camera the AF mode the subject and must confirm automatically switches maintains focus during accurate focus from One-shot AF to subject movement. The before you can take AI Servo AF to track exposure is set at the the picture. If you’re and focus on the moment the image is using Evaluative moving subject. captured. metering, exposure is also locked at the selected AF point. Continuous Same as above Same as above with Shooting during continuous autofocus continuing shooting. In during continuous continuous shooting, shooting at the focusing is not maximum of 6.5 fps executed when during High-speed shooting at 3 frames Continuous shooting. per second (fps) in Low-speed Continuous Shooting., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 40 40 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Interchangeable Focusing Screens

The 40D supports any of three focusing screens. Depending on your lenses and pref- erence for automatic or manual focusing, swapping out the focusing screen can make focusing clearer and brighter. Alternately, you can opt for a focusing screen with a grid that helps you square up lines during composition. The Standard Precision Matte screen comes installed on the camera, but you have two additional screen options that, as of this writing, cost approximately $35 each. The three focusing screens supported on the 40D are as follows: ✦ Ef-A: Standard Precision Matte. This focusing screen comes installed in the 40D. It offers good viewfinder brightness, accurate manual focusing, and it is optimized for use with EF f/5.6 and slower lenses. ✦ Ef-D: Precision Matte with grid. If you shoot architecture, interiors, or just want assistance keeping vertical and horizontal lines in the frame square, the matte screen with a grid is a good option. This screen features a 3-x-6-line grid to help you align horizontal and vertical lines during image composition. The grid is superimposed over the nine AF points in the viewfinder. This screen offers good viewfinder brightness and is optimized for use with EF f/5.6 or slower lenses. ✦ Ef-S: Super Precision Matte. This screen is optimized for manual focusing with f/2.8 or faster lenses. It offers finer microlenses than the other two screens, and it has a steeper parabola of focus to bring the image in and out of focus more vividly in the viewfinder — a benefit with very fast lenses such as the EF 85mm f/1.2 II. Because this screen is darker than the other two screens, it is not recommended for use with slower lenses or when using an extender on the lens. If you change focusing screens, you also have to specify the screen you’re using by setting C.Fn IV-5 to the proper option. The Ef-A screen is installed and set in C.Fn IV- 5 as option 0. To set the camera for the Ef-D screen, set the option to 1. For the Ef-S screen, set the option to 2. For details on setting Custom Functions, see Chapter 4.

Does focus-lock and Other Canon documents concede that at

distances within 15 feet of the camera recompose work? and when shooting with large apertures, According to Canon’s 40D manual, you can the focus-lock-and-recompose technique use the standard point-and-shoot technique increases the chances of back-focusing. of focus-lock and recompose. With this tech- Back-focusing is when the camera focuses nique, you lock focus on the subject, and behind where you set the AF point. Of then move the camera to recompose the course, the downside of not using the focus- image. However popular the technique, in lock-and-recompose technique is that my experience, the focus shifts slightly dur- you’re restricted to composing images using ing the recompose step regardless of which the nine AF points in the viewfinder. The AF point is selected. As a result, focus is not placement of the nine AF points isn’t the tack-sharp. most flexible arrangement nor the optimal, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 41 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 41 way to compose images. But manually focus in the appropriate spot, provided that selecting one of the nine AF points and not you don’t move the camera to recompose moving the camera to recompose is the way the image after setting focus. to ensure tack-sharp focus. Tip You can simplify the method for changing the AF point by select-

Selecting AF points ing among several alternativesoffered by C.Fn III-3. For exam-

In most Creative Zone modes, you can ple, you can choose to use only either manually choose a single AF point , or the Quick Control dial or theMulti-controller to select an AF you can let the camera automatically select point, which is much faster dur- the AF points. Each option has benefits and ing shooting. You can learn drawbacks. more about Custom Functions in Chapter 4. Note In A-DEP mode, the camera automatically selects the AF If you let the camera automatically select points to provide the optimal the AF point or points, the camera focuses depth of field, and you cannot manually select an AF point. on the subject or the part of the subject that is closest to the lens that has readable con- The advantage of setting the AF point man- trast. If you’re shooting a portrait, automatic ually is getting the point of sharpest focus AF will likely set the sharpest focus on the precisely where you want it to be in the subject’s nose rather than the subject’s image. Manual AF point selection takes a bit eyes. This method is faster in terms of more time than letting the camera set the shooting, but very often the point of AF points, but you’re assured of tack-sharp sharpest focus is not where it should be within the subject. 2.1 In this image, I used automatic AF-point selection, and the camera set the point of sharpest focus to the right side of center instead of on the center of the flower. For this reason, I use manual AF-point selection in all of my images. Exposure: ISO 100, f/2.8, 1/250 sec. using an EF 100mm f/2.8mm Macro USM lens., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 42 42 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Improving Autofocus Accuracy and Performance

Autofocus speed depends on factors including the size and design of the lens, the speed of the lens-focusing motor, the speed of the autofocus sensor in the camera, the amount of light in the scene, and the level of subject contrast. Given these vari- ables, it’s helpful to know how to get the speediest and sharpest focusing. Here are some tips for improving overall autofocus performance. ✦ Light. In low-light scenes, the autofocus performance depends in part on the lens speed and design. In general, the faster the lens, the faster the autofocus performance. Provided that there is enough light for the lens to focus without an AF-assist beam, then lenses with a rear-focus optical design, such as the EF 85mm f/1.8 USM, will focus faster than lenses that move their entire opti- cal system, such as the EF 85mm f/1.2L II USM. But regardless of the lens, the lower the light, the longer it takes for the system to focus. Low-contrast subjects and/or subjects in low-light slow down focusing speed and can cause autofocus failure. With a passive autofocus sysem, autofocus- ing depends on the sensitivity of the AF sensor. Thus, autofocusing perform- ance will always be faster in bright light than in low light, and this is true in both One-Shot and AI Servo AF modes. In low light, consider using the built- in flash or an accessory EX Speedlite’s AF-assist beam as a focusing aid using C.Fn III-5. The AF assist beam fires twice; first, a prefire to communicate focus- ing distance data to the camera, then a second beam to confirm that the sub- ject is in focus, and then the shutter fires. ✦ Focal length. The longer the lens, the longer the time to focus. This is true because the range of defocus is greater on telephoto lenses than on normal or wide-angle lenses. You can improve the focus time by manually setting the lens in the general focusing range, and then using autofocus to set the sharp focus. However, the 40D’s new AF sensor is better able to detect extreme defocus situations and performs better than previous models. ✦ AF-point selection. Manually selecting a single AF point provides faster auto- focus performance than using automatic AF-point selection because the cam- era doesn’t have to determine and select the AF point(s) to use first. ✦ Subject Contrast. Focusing on low-contrast subjects is slower than on high- contrast subjects. If the camera can’t focus, shift the camera position to an area of the subject that has higher contrast, such as a higher contrast edge. ✦ EF Extenders. Using an EF Extender reduces the speed of the lens-focusing drive. ✦ Wide-angle lenses and small apertures. Sharpness can be degraded by diffraction when you use small apertures with wide-angle or wide-angle zoom lenses. Diffraction happens when light waves pass around the edges of an object and enter the shadow area of the subject producing softening of fine detail. To avoid diffraction, avoid using apertures smaller than f/16 with wide- angle prime (single-focal length) and zoom lenses., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 43 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 43 To manually select an AF point or to choose automatic AF, follow these steps: Tip Manual focusing is available bysliding the switch on the side of the lens from the AF to MF posi- 1. Set the camera to a Creative tion. Alternately, you can use Zone mode except A-DEP, and full-time manual focusing by then press the Shutter button letting the camera automati- halfway. The currently selected AF cally set the focus, and then point or points light in red in the tweaking it by manually turning viewfinder and are displayed on the focusing ring on the lens. the LCD panel. It’s important to know that in normal shoot- 2. Press the AF-Point ing when you don’t use the AF-ON button to Selection/Enlarge button on the focus, the AF point that achieves focus is back top-right side of the cam- also the point where exposure is set. In era. The selected AF point lights in other words, whatever AF point you choose red in the viewfinder and is dis- is also the point where the camera meters played on the LCD panel. the scene light and determines the expo- 3. Turn the Main or Quick Control sure settings to use. dial or tilt the Multi-controller in the direction of the AF point But the AF-point location may or may not be you want to select and select the point of critical exposure. For example, if one AF point. Or to have the cam- you’re shooting a portrait and the model era automatically select the AF has a bright highlight on part of his or her point or points, turn the Main or face, the highlight is the point where you Quick Control dial or the Multi-con- want to set the exposure to ensure that troller until all the AF points are lit detail is retained in the bright highlight area. in red. If you’re using the Multi- Obviously, that isn’t where you want to set controller, you can also press the the point of sharpest focus. It’s necessary controller in the center to select then to decouple autofocus from metering the center AF point. by using Auto Exposure Lock, a technique 4. Press the Shutter button discussed later in this chapter. halfway to focus using the selected AF point or the cam- Tip If you’re shooting in a quiet era’s selected AF points. The venue such as a wedding cere- mony, you can silence the AF camera beeps when accurate focus confirmation beeper. Press the is achieved and the autofocus light Menu button. On the Shooting 1 in the viewfinder remains lit con- (red) menu, select Beep, and tinuously. If you don’t hear the then press the Set button. Select beep, focus on a higher contrast Off, and then press the Set but- area or use the built-in flash assist ton. You can verify when the beam (C.Fn III-5). camera has achieved sharpfocus by watching the focus 5. Press the Shutter button com- confirmation light on the far- pletely to make the picture. right bottom of the viewfinder., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 44 44 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Verifying sharp focus point), brightness, background, and

back or front lighting. Evaluative You can verify image sharpness by pressing metering produces excellent expo- the Playback button, and then pressing and sure in average scenes that include holding the AF-Point Selection/Enlarge but- an average distribution of light, ton on the back of the camera. Pressing the medium, and dark tones, and it AF-Point Selection/Enlarge button multiple functions well in back-lit scenes. times progressively zooms from 1.5x to 10x ✦ Partial. This mode calculates on the LCD monitor. To move around the exposure based on approximately image to check the point of sharpest focus, 9 percent of the viewfinder at the tilt and hold the Multi-controller in the center. This metering option direction you want to scroll. To check the weights metering data at the cen- sharpness of several images, turn the Quick ter of the viewfinder in slightly less Control dial to move through images while than twice the size of the spot maintaining the current zoom level. metering circle. This is a good metering option for strongly backlit To reduce the enlarged preview, press the or side-lit scenes where you want Reduce button, or lightly press the Shutter to ensure that the main subject is button to dismiss image playback. properly exposed. ✦ Spot. This mode calculates expo- sure from approximately 3.8 per-

Selecting a Metering cent of the viewfinder at thecenter. Spot metering is an excel- Mode lent mode when you need tometer for a critical subject-area

The 40D offers a full menu of metering such as skin highlights. To use Spot options with new algorithms for more con- metering, move close and fill the sistent exposure and high accuracy for frame with the subject’s face, and then meter on the skin. highly reflective subjects. The default mode is the 35-zone through-the-lens (TTL) full- ✦ Center-weighted Average. This aperture reflective metering system that is mode weights metering for the linked to the selected AF point or points. center of the frame, and then aver- Depending on your exposure needs, you ages for the entire scene to calcu- can also use Partial, Spot, Center-weighted late exposure. The center area Average metering modes. encompasses a slightly larger than the Partial metering area. Center- The 40D metering options, available only in weighted Average metering can be Creative Zone modes, are as follows: useful for quickly evaluating exist- ing light scenes. ✦ Evaluative. This mode calculates exposure based on data from 35 This next series of images was taken in each zones throughout the viewfinder of the metering modes. I set a custom white and is based on the subject posi- balance for all images in this series. tion (indicated by the selected AF, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 45 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 45 2.2 This image was taken using Evaluative metering. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1 sec., EF 24-70mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. 2.3 This image was taken in Partial metering mode. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1 sec. To set a metering mode, follow these steps. 2. Press the WB-Metering mode selection button above the LCD 1. Set the camera to a Creative panel. The camera activates the Zone shooting mode such as Tv, WB and Metering mode selections. Av, etc., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 46 46 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 3. Turn the Main dial to the right to white circle in a rectangle; Spot, a select the Metering mode you back dot in a rectangle, and Center- want. Each mode is represented by weighted Average, an empty rec- an icon: Evaluative, a black dot with tangle. The mode remains selected an outer black circle; Partial, a until you change it. 2.4 This image was taken in Spot metering mode. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/3 sec. 2.5 This image was taken using Center-weighted Average metering mode. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1 sec., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 47 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 47

Evaluating the 40D’s Dynamic Range

In general terms, dynamic range is the range of highlight to shadow tones as meas- ured in f-stops in a scene. That’s only one measure of dynamic range, however. In practice, you have to factor in the “usable” range by considering the effect of digital noise. If, for example, during image editing, you use a curve to bring up the details in the shadow areas, you also make digital noise (which is most prevalent in the shad- ows) more visible. In addition, the grain size of noise also impacts how noticeable the noise appears. So considering these factors, there is a point at which this noise becomes obnoxious and limits your ability to make high-quality enlargements from the image. Dave Etchells of published dynamic range tests on the 40D at ISO 100 and reports for JPEG capture a range of 11.2 (noise level was low) to 7.72 (noise level is high) f-stops. If you want to review the graphs and test results on the 40D’s dynamic range, be sure to read Dave’s excellent report at E40DIMATEST.HTM.

Evaluating Exposure or overexposed with a subsequent loss ofdetail in the shadows and highlights,

Following each exposure, you can evaluate respectively. the exposure by looking at the histogram. Some scenes cause a weighting of tonal val- The histogram is a bar graph that shows the ues more to one or the other side of the distribution of pixels in the image. The hori- graph. For example, in scenes that have pre- zontal axis shows the range of values and dominately light tones, the pixels are the vertical axis displays the number of pix- weighted toward the right side of the his- els at each location. The 40D offers two togram, and vice versa. But in average types of histograms, a Brightness (or lumi- scenes, good exposure is shown on the his- nance) histogram, and an RGB histogram. togram with highlight pixels just touching the right side of the histogram.

Brightness histogram

The goal is to avoid exposures that have pix- A Brightness histogram shows grayscale els stacked against the right edge of the brightness values in the image along the graph. If this occurs, it means that some horizontal axis of the graph. The tonal values highlight values are beyond the limit of the range from black (level 0 on the left of the sensor, and the pixels are blown; in other graph) to white (level 255 on the right of the words, they are at 255, or totally white with graph). This histogram shows you the expo- no detail. sure bias and the overall tonal reproduction of the image. If the histogram has pixels On the other hand, you want to avoid having crowded against the far left or right side of pixels crowded against the left edge of the the graph, then the image is underexposed histogram because that type of exposure indicates blocked shadows; in other words, pixels at 0, or totally black with no detail., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 48 48 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 2.6 This is a combined histogram from a RAW capture image in Adobe’s Camera Raw conversion program. In the camera, the histogram showed slight overexposure, but once on the computer, the highlights began just at the right side of the histogram, which is right on target for a good RAW conversion.

RGB histogram on the left or right side, then color informa-

tion is either lacking or oversaturated with An RGB histogram shows the distribution of no detail, respectively. brightness levels for each of the three color channels — Red, Green, and Blue. Each color Choosing the type of histogram to display channel is shown in a separate graph so you depends on the shooting situation and your can evaluate the color channel’s saturation, priority in that situation. For a fashion shoot gradation, and color bias. The horizontal where color reproduction is critical, the RGB axis shows how many pixels exist for each histogram is likely most useful. For a wed- color brightness level, while the vertical axis ding, outdoor shooting, and nature shooting, shows how many pixels exist at that level. the Brightness histogram can be most useful More pixels to the left indicate that the color for evaluating critical highlight exposure. is darker and more prominent, while more pixels to the right indicate that the color is The histogram is a very accurate tool to use brighter and less dense. If pixels are spiked in evaluating JPEG captures because the histogram is based on the JPEG image. If,, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 49 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 49 2.8 This is a Brightness histogram from a RAW capture image in Adobe’s Camera Raw 2.7 This is a combined histogram from a conversion program. This histogram reflects RAW capture image in Adobe’s Camera Raw the white seamless background with the conversion program. The graph reflects the highlight pixels spiking on the right side of dark shadow tones in the image but, with the graph showing that those pixels have the pixels crowded to the left edge, also no detail in them. shows that shadows are blocked. however, you shoot RAW or sRAW, the his- togram you see is based on the JPEG con- Tip If you’re shooting RAW capture,you can set the Picture Style set- version of the image. Due to the linear ting to a lower contrast and get nature of RAW data, it isn’t feasible to dis- a better overall sense of the play a RAW histogram. So if you shoot RAW, RAW histogram and reduce the remember that the histogram is showing a likelihood of clipping (or dis- less robust version of the image than you’ll carding image pixels). PictureStyles are detailed in Chapter 3. get during image conversion. For example, there will be more data in the highlights Histograms on the 40D are displayed during than the JPEG-based histogram indicates. image playback. Once you set the type of Despite the JPEG-based rendering, the his- histogram you prefer, it is displayed until togram is still a very useful tool to gauge you change it. You can set the type of his- exposure in the field. togram in all shooting modes., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 50 50 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D To set the type of histogram displayed dur- To display the histogram for a captured ing image playback, follow these steps: image, follow these steps: 1. Press the Menu button, and 1. Press the Playback button. The then press the Jump button to camera displays the most recently display the Playback 2 (blue) captured image. If you want to menu. check the histogram of a different 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to image, turn the Quick Control dial highlight Histogram, and then to select the image. press the Set button. The camera 2. Press the Info button twice if the displays the Brightness and RGB playback display is set to single- histogram options. image display to display the his- 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to togram. The camera displays the highlight the histogram option image thumbnail, the type of his- you want, and then press the togram you’ve chosen, and detailed Set button. exposure and file information for the image. You can press Info a third time to display both the Brightness and RGB histograms.

Differences in Exposing JPEG and RAW Images

For those new to digital photography or to RAW capture, it’s worthwhile to point out important differences in exposure techniques for JPEG and RAW capture. When you shoot JPEG images, you expose images as you would for slide film, by metering for the highlights. Just as you can’t recover detail that isn’t captured in a film image, you also can’t recover highlight detail that’s not recorded during a JPEG cap- ture. To ensure that images retain detail in the brightest highlights, you can use one of the exposure techniques described later in this chapter such as Auto Exposure Lock or Exposure Compensation. Conversely, for RAW capture, exposure is more akin to positive film in that you have a fair amount of latitude to overexpose the image and then pull back the highlight details during conversion of the RAW images in Canon’s Digital Photo Professional or Adobe Camera Raw. In fact, because CMOS sensors are linear devices in which each f-stop records half the light of the previous f-stop, the lion’s share of image data is recorded in the first f-stop of light. To be exact, fully half of the total image data is con- tained in the first f-stop in RAW capture. This fact alone underscores the importance of taking full advantage of the first f-stop by not underexposing the image. In the everyday world, that means weighting the exposure slightly toward the right side of the histogram, resulting in a histogram that has highlight pixels just touching, but not crowded against, the right edge of the histogram. With this type of exposure, the image preview on the LCD may look a bit light, but in a RAW conversion program, you can bring the exposure back slightly So for RAW exposure, be sure to expose with a slight bias toward the right side of the histogram to get the full first f-stop of image data., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 51 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 51 In addition to evaluating the histogram, you Automated Brightness can also display localized areas of overexpo- sure, or where the highlights are blown and Contrast Correction (they have no detail). The camera displays While the Automated Brightness and the blown highlights with a flashing display Contrast Correction is not a setting that you when you play back images. This is a way to can adjust manually, it’s worth mentioning quickly determine if you need to reshoot a along with exposure modification topics. picture because of overexposed highlights. This feature comes into play only when you’re shooting JPEG capture in Basic Zone To turn on Highlight alert that displays over- modes such as Portrait, Landscape, Sports exposed areas during image playback, fol- mode, and so on. The automatic correction low these steps: adjusts exposure to ensure that proper dark 1. Press the Menu button, and and highlight points are maintained along then press the Jump button to with acceptable contrast. display the Playback 2 (blue) menu. This feature is particularly useful in challeng- ing lighting and in scenes that might fool the 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to camera’s onboard light meter, such as snow highlight Highlight Alert, and scenes with large expanses of white where then press the Set button. The underexposure is likely. The automatic cor- camera displays the Disabled and rection also kicks in when the flash fails to Enabled options. adequately cover the scene, and in hazy, 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to overcast scenes with low contrast. highlight the option you want, and then press the Set button. If you select Enable, overexposed Highlight Tone Priority areas are displayed in flashing Highlight Tone Priority is designed to black and white on the image pre- view during playback. If you find improve or maintain highlight detail by the flashing display distracting, you extending the range between 18 percent can repeat these steps to turn off middle gray to the maximum highlight the display. tones, effectively increasing the dynamic range. Thus the gradation between grays and highlights is finer, and that reduces the

Modifying Exposure blown highlights. This option, however, lim-its the ISO range from 200 to 1600 and can

For average scenes, using the camera’s sug- increase noise in the shadow areas slightly. gested exposure produces a fine exposure. However, many scenes are not average, and Highlight Tone Priority takes advantage of that’s when you use any of the 40D’s expo- the higher ISO baseline so that the image sure modification options including sensor pixel wells do not fill, or saturate. Automated Brightness and Contrast Also with the 14-bit Analog/Digital conver- Correction, Highlight Tone Priority, Auto sion, the camera sets a tone curve that is rel- Exposure Lock, Auto Exposure Bracketing, atively flat at the top in the highlight area to and Exposure Compensation. These options compress highlight data. The tradeoff, how- are detailed in the following sections. ever, is a more abrupt move from deep, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 52 52 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D shadows to black. This increases shadow If you turn on this option, the viewfinder noise. The result is almost a full f-stop and LCD panel ISO display, and the Camera increase in dynamic range (the range of Shooting Information displays 0 (zero) in highlight to shadow tones as measured in the ISO setting in a smaller font size. For f-stops in a scene), disregarding, of course, example, 200 displays as 2oo. the increased shadow noise. Highlight Tone Priority is set Auto Exposure Lock using C.Fn II-3. See Chapter 4 for details on setting Custom As noted in earlier sections, Canon sets expo- Functions. sure to the AF point that you select. This approach is fine as long as the area of critical Tip Custom Functions are not avail- exposure falls within the point where you able in Basic Zone modes. To set and use Custom Functions, want sharpest focus. Often, however, that’s switch to a Creative Zone mode not the case. For example, if the light falling such as Tv or Av. on the model for a portrait has a bright spot 2.9 This image was taken without using AE 2.10 With AE Lock, the highlights retained Lock, and the brightest highlights went to much more detail in this image, but the white. Exposure: ISO 100, f/2.8, 1/125 sec., shadows went to black quickly. I realized EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. that this will happen and knew that I would need to bring up the shadow areas a bit during RAW image conversion, and again in Photoshop. Exposure: ISO 125, f/8, 1/50 sec., EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 53 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 53 of light on the forehead (called a hot spot), exposures, bracketing may be a better then that spot of brightness is a critical area technique), and to maintain detail in skin of exposure where you want to retain skin highlights in portraits. detail instead of getting blown-out highlights. The forehead, however, is not the place If you shoot JPEG capture, then AE Lock is where you want to set the point of sharpest the best way to ensure that the brightest focus. This and other scenes are when you highlights retain detail. There is a bit more want to decouple the exposure from the latitude in RAW capture because you can selected AF point, and Auto Exposure Lock recover varying amounts of highlight detail (AE Lock) is the way to do that. during image conversion. In fact, there are many times you’ll want to There are, however, some drawbacks for decouple metering from focusing. using AE Lock. First, it doesn’t work in Basic Conservatively, I’d say that I use AE Lock for Zone modes or, of course, in Manual mode. 98 percent of my outdoor photography and Also in Tv and Av modes, you have to use for at least half of my on-location portraits. Evaluative metering, manual AF-point selec- In practical use, I combine AE Lock with tion, and autofocusing rather than manual Evaluative metering and manual AF-point focusing (via the switch on the side of the selection when exposing to maintain lens). fine detail in a bride’s wedding dress, to retain highlight detail in macro and nature Table 2.2 shows the relationship of AE Lock shots (although, if you composite multiple to the various metering and autofocus modes on the 40D.

Table 2.2 AE Lock Behavior with Metering and AF-Point Selection

AF-Point Selection Manual AF-Point Automatic AF-Point (Lens switch is set Metering Mode Selection Selection to MF) Evaluative AE lock is set at AE Lock is set at AE Lock is set at the selected the AF point that the center AF point AF point achieves focus Partial AE Lock is set at the center AF point Spot AE Lock is set at the center AF point Center-Weighted AE Lock is set at Average the center AF point, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:06 AM Page 54 54 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D The following steps tell you how to set AE above the standard exposure, and one 1/3 Lock. Before you begin, ensure that the cam- f-stop below the standard exposure. This is era is set to the traditional technique for ensuring an acceptable exposure in scenes that have ✦ Av or Tv mode challenging and/or high-contrast lighting ✦ Evaluative metering and in scenes that are difficult to set up again or that can’t be reproduced. ✦ Manual AF-point selection with the lens focusing switch set to AF. But today, AEB is also used for image com- positing where you take three different 1. Select the AF point and point exposures of a high dynamic range scene, the camera to the part of the and composite them in an image-editing scene that you want to meter, program to produce a final image that offers and then press the Shutter but- ton halfway. the best of highlight detail, midtone, andFor example, if you want to retain detail in the high- shadow detail. Using this technique, pho- light area on a subject’s face, point tographers can produce a final image that the camera so that the selected AF exceeds the range of the camera’s sensor. point is on the brightest highlight Additionally, AEB is a mainstay of High- and press the Shutter button Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging, which halfway. merges three to seven or more bracketed exposures in Photoshop to create a 32-bit 2. Continue to hold the Shutter image with excellent rendering throughout button halfway as you press AE the tonal range. Lock button on the back right side of the camera. The AE Lock Note HDR imaging brackets expo- button has an asterisk above it. sures by shutter speed rather When you press the button, an than by aperture to avoid slight asterisk appears on the far left at shifts in focal length rendering. the bottom of the viewfinder indi- cating the exposure is locked. On the 40D, the default exposure bracketing level is 1/3 stop, although you can reset the 3. Release the Shutter button and increment to 1/2 stop using C.Fn I-1. move the camera to recompose the shot. Exposure level increments AEB captures upPress the Shutter button halfway to focus, and then make to plus/minus 2 stops. the picture. As long as you con- tinue holding the AE Lock button, Here are some things that you should know you can take additional images about AEB: using the locked exposure. When you release the AE Lock button, ✦ AEB is available in all Creative the exposure is reset when you Zone modes except Manual, and focus again. it cannot be used with a Bulb exposure or with the built-in or external EX Speedlight or third-

Auto Exposure Bracketing party flash unit.

✦ AEB settings remain in effect Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB) takes three until you turn off the camera exposures of the same scene: one exposure power switch or use the flash. at the recommended setting, one 1/3 f-stop, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 55 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 55 ✦ In Continuous drive modes, you must press and hold the Shutter For details on setting Custom Functions, see Chapter 4. button to make all three brack- eted exposures. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to ✦ In One-Shot AF mode, you must highlight AEB, and then press press the Shutter button three the Set button. The camera acti- separate times to make the vates the Exposure Level Meter bracketed sequence. display. ✦ In the 2- or 10-second drive 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to modes, the three bracketed the right to highlight the AEB shots are taken in succession amount that you want, and then after the timer interval has press the Set button. As you turn elapsed. the Quick Control dial to the right, the tick mark on the Exposure ✦ The order of bracketed expo- Level Meter separates into three sures begins with the standard marks indicating the bracketing exposure followed by decreased amount. You can set up to and increased exposures. You plus/minus 2 stops of bracketing. can change the order of bracketed The bracketing amount is also dis- exposures by setting C.Fn I-5. played on the LCD panel. AEB ✦ You can use AEB in combination remains in effect until you turn it with Exposure Compensation. off. To turn off AEB, repeat Steps 1 ✦ If C.Fn III-7 is set for mirror through 4, but in Step 4, turn the lockup, and you’re using AEB Quick Control dial to the left until and Continuous drive mode, the three tick marks merge into a only one of the bracketed shots single tick mark at the center of is taken at a time. the Exposure Level Meter.You press the Shutter button once to lock up the With AEB set, when you press the Shutter mirror and again to make the button to take the exposures, the bracketing exposure. In other words, a total of amount is displayed in the viewfinder and six presses of the Shutter button on the LCD panel Exposure level indicator as are required to complete three each shot is made. bracketed exposures. The exposure level indicator in the viewfinder flashes after each Shutter click until Exposure Compensation all bracketed images have been made. The third way to modify the standard expo- sure on the 40D is by using Exposure To set AEB, follow these steps: Compensation. Unlike Auto Exposure Lock and AEB, which serve well for specific shoot- 1. Set the Mode dial to P, Tv, or Av. ing scenarios, Exposure Compensation 2. Press the Menu button, and, if enables you to purposely and continuously necessary, press the Jump button modify the standard exposure by a specific to select the Shooting 2 (red) amount up to plus/minus 2 f-stops in 1/3- menu. stop increments or in 1/2-stop increments via C.Fn I-1., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 56 56 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Scenarios for using Exposure Compensation vary widely, but a common use is to over- ride the camera’s suggested ideal exposure in scenes that have large areas of white or black. In these types of scenes the camera’s onboard meter averages light or dark scenes to 18 percent gray to render large expanses of whites as gray and large expanses of black as gray. For example, a snow scene requires between +1 to +2 stops of com- pensation to render snow as white instead of dull middle gray. A scene with predomi- nately dark tones might require -1 to -2 stops of compensation to get true dark renderings. I’ve also used Exposure Compensation in conjunction with a handheld incident meter (a meter that measures the light falling on the subject rather than reflected from the subject) to set the 40D’s standard exposure to the incident meter reading when there is a difference in exposure between the 40D’s onboard meter and the incident meter read- 2.11 Snow scenes are a good time to use ing. This technique works well in scenes Exposure Compensation. In a scene like where the subject light remains constant this, Exposure Compensation of +1 helps over a series of images. ensure pure white snow and white in the clouds. Exposure: ISO 100, f/11, 1/350 sec., Occasionally, you may notice that the camera +1 Exposure Compensation with an EF 100mm f/2.8 USM lens. consistently overexposes or underexposes images, and in those cases, compensation enables you to modify the exposure accord- ✦ Exposure Compensation works ingly. Exposure Compensation is useful in in all Creative Zone modes other scenarios as well, such as when you except in Manual mode and want to intentionally overexpose skin tones during Bulb exposures. In Tv for specific rendering effects. mode, setting Exposure Compensation changes the aper- Tip If underexposure or overexpo- ture by the specified amount of sure is a consistent problem, it’s compensation. In Av mode, it a good idea to have the camera changes the shutter speed. In P checked by Canon. mode, compensation changes both the shutter speed and aperture by Here are some things that you should know the exposure amount you set. about Exposure Compensation:, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 57 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 57 ✦ The amount of Exposure You can cancel Exposure Compensation by Compensation you set remains repeating these steps, but in Step 3, adjust in effect until you reset it. This the tick mark on the Exposure Level applies whether you turn the cam- Indicator back to the center mark. era off and back on, change the CF card, or change the battery. ✦ It is annoyingly easy to inadver- tently set Exposure About ISO settings Compensation by turning the In general terms, ISO is the sensitivity of the Quick Control dial. To avoid this, sensor to light. As the sensitivity setting Canon recommends setting the On increases on a digital camera (a higher ISO switch to the first On position number), the output of the sensor is also rather than the topmost setting, but this limits the functionality of amplified. So while you have the option of the Quick Control dial. Because I’ve increasing the ISO sensitivity at any point in fallen victim to this many times, I shooting, the tradeoff in increased amplifi- find that the best way to avoid cation or the accumulation of an excessive unintentional Exposure charge on the pixels represents an increase Compensation is to keep the in digital noise seen as multicolored flecks power switch at the topmost posi- and grain that is similar to grain seen in film tion and always check the particularly in the shadow areas of an Exposure level meter in the image. And the result of digital noise, viewfinder before shooting and depending on the appearance and severity, reset it if necessary. is an overall loss of resolution and image quality. To set Exposure Compensation, follow these steps: Improvements in the semiconductor design and fabrication process and in the sensor 1. Set the On switch to the top- microlens combine to increase the light-col- most position. lecting efficiency for the 40D. These, plus 2. Set the Mode dial to a Creative advanced internal noise-reduction process- Zone mode except Manual (M). ing, result in a camera that is a top per- former at high sensitivity settings and in 3. Press and hold the Shutter but- low-light scenes. ton halfway, and watch in the viewfinder or on the LCD panel The 40D includes an Auto setting in both as you turn the Quick Control Creative and Basic Zone modes. Using this dial clockwise to set a positive option, the camera sets and displays the ISO amount of compensation or automatically when the exposure is deter- counterclockwise to set negative compensation. As you turn the mined by pressing the Shutter button Quick Control dial, the tick mark on halfway down. The automatic range the Exposure Level Meter moves to depends on the shooting mode. Table 2.3 the right or left in 1/3-stop incre- shows automatic ISO behavior. ments up to plus/minus 2 stops., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 58 58 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Table 2.3 Set-up 2 Menu (Yellow)

Shooting Mode Automatic ISO Speed Full Auto, Landscape, ISO 100-800 Portrait, Night Portrait, Flash Off Sports ISO 400-800 Portrait ISO 100 P, Av, A-DEP 400-800 depending on the ambient light. The speed is chosen to prevent blur from handholding the camera in low-light scenes. If ISO 400 would result in overexposure, the camera automatically lowers the setting. Tv Generally sets ISO 400, but the setting can range between 100-800 depending on the subject brightness. M ISO 400 Flash use ISO 400 in all modes including Portrait mode unless that speed would result in overexposure. If so, a lower ISO is set.

ISO Range, Expansion, and it is exposed for the same amount of

time as the first image. So if the initial expo- and C.Fn options sure is one second, then the noise reduction The 40D offers a default ISO range from 100 exposure is also one second. The camera to 1600 in 1/3-stop increments. You can also uses the dark frame to subtract noise from adjust the ISO in 1/2-stop increments using the first frame. Some noise reduction is C.Fn I-1. The ISO range can be expanded to applied at all ISO settings, but it is especially include ISO 3200 that is displayed as “H” in effective at high ISO settings. You can turn the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. on this method of noise reduction by choos- ing the On option for C.Fn II-1: Long exp. Note Manual ISO adjustments and noise reduction. using Custom Functions are available only in Creative Zone In addition, you can turn on High ISO speed shooting modes. noise reduction, which reduces the shadow noise in particular. This option is available With the 40D, you can choose to reduce or using C.Fn II-2. With this option enabled, the eliminate noise in long exposures by a dark maximum burst during continuous shooting frame. To totally or virtually eliminate noise, decreases to 8 regardless of image-quality the camera takes a second picture after the setting. first picture. The second picture, called a dark frame, is taken with the shutter closed,, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 59 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 59 typically print, and then evaluate how far and fast you want to take the 40D’s ISO settings. Note Noise reduction or suppression can give fine details, such as the detail in hair, a painted or water- color appearance. Details are flat, color definition becomes indistinct, and it looks as if an editing program filter has been applied to these areas. The 40D maintains a good level of fine detail even in areas of subtle contrast until the ISO is pushed to 1600 and 3200 (with expansion) when digital noise and suppres- sion become visible. At these levels, fine detail tends to blur and noise becomes apparent. However, I’ve gotten acceptable 8-×-10-inch prints at ISO 3200. 2.12 This image was taken in theater-type light at ISO 1600. During image editing, I used Curves in Photoshop CS3 to bring up the brightness. Brightening shadow areas is a recipe for revealing ugly noise, but this ISO 1600 image made a fine 8-×-10-inch print without objectionable levels of digital noise. Exposure: ISO 1600, f/2.8, 1/100 sec. using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. In practice, the most compelling benchmark in evaluating digital noise is the quality of the image at the final output size. If the dig- ital noise is visible and objectionable in an 8-×-10-inch or 11-×-14-inch print when viewed at a standard viewing distance of a foot or more, then the digital noise 2.13 This is a 100 percent crop of the degraded the quality to an unacceptable previous image to show the noise reduction level. It is worthwhile to test the camera by that was applied in the 40D for this ISO using all of the ISO settings, process and 1600 exposure. You can see some munging print enlargements at the size as you of fine detail in the hair, but the detail remains realistic., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 60 60 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Types of Digital Noise

As the signal output of the image sensor increases, digital noise increases as well. Digital noise is analogous to the hiss on an audio system turned to full volume. In a digital image, the hiss translates into random flecks of color in shadow areas as well as a grainy look much like you see with film. Three types of digital noise are common in digital photography: ✦ Random. This noise is common with short exposures at high ISO settings. Random noise appears on different pixels and looks like a colorful grain or speckles on a smooth surface. This type of noise increases with fast signal processing. Canon’s technology is designed to suppress random noise by hav- ing the sensor reset the photodiodes that store electrical charges while read- ing and holding the initial noise data. After the optical signal and noise data are read together, the initial noise data is used to remove the remaining noise from the photodiode and to suppress random noise. ✦ Fixed-pattern. This type of digital noise includes hot pixels that have an intensity beyond that of random noise fluctuations. Hot pixels, or very bright pixels, are minor manufacturing defects that result in unusually high dark-cur- rent levels. Fixed-pattern noise is caused by an uneven signal boost among different pixel amplifiers. This type of noise happens with long exposures and is worsened by high temperatures. Fixed-pattern noise gains its name because under the same exposure and temperature conditions, the noise pat- tern will show the same distribution. The 40D uses on-chip noise reduction technology that detects fixed-pattern noise and removes it. ✦ Banding. This type of noise is more camera-dependent and is introduced as the camera reads data from the image sensor. It becomes visible in the shadow areas of images made at high ISO settings. This type of noise is visi- ble when shadow tones are lightened during image editing. In addition, digital noise exhibits fluctuations in color and luminance. Color, or chroma, noise appears as bright speckles of unwanted color in the image shadow areas pri- marily. Luminance noise on the other hand takes on the appearance of film grain. Long exposures at high ISO settings tend to Setting the ISO and reveal hot pixels in images when the long exposure noise reduction is turned off. So if extended range ISO your shooting scenario lends itself to using With testing of the ISO settings on the 40D, the long exposure noise reduction option, I you’ll find the ISO range very versatile for a recommend setting the Long exposure wide range of shooting situations. To noise reduction and High ISO speed noise change the ISO setting on the 40D, follow reduction options to On using C.Fn II-1 and these steps: C.Fn II-2., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 61 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 61 1. With the camera in a Creative 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to Zone mode, press the ISO-Flash the right to highlight On, and Exposure Compensation button then press the Set button. You above the LCD panel. The camera can lightly press the Shutter button displays the current ISO setting on to dismiss the menu. the LCD panel and in the viewfinder. 2. Turn the Main dial clockwise to set a higher sensitivity or coun- Selecting a terclockwise to set a lower sen- sitivity. Drive ModeThe camera displays the ISO sensitivity settings as you turn In Creative Zone modes, you can choose the dial. The lowest setting is Auto, among three main drive-mode options on which is detailed in the previous the 40D: Single, Continuous Shooting, and section. If you have ISO Expansion Self-timer modes. You can choose a drive turned on using C.Fn I-3, then ISO mode in Creative Zone shooting modes. 3200 is displayed as H. The ISO option you select remains in effect Note In Basic Zone modes, the cam- until you change it again. era automatically chooses the drive mode, but in most modes, To turn on expanded ISO expansion, follow you can optionally choose the these steps. 10-second Self-timer mode. 1. Set the camera to a Creative Here is a summary of each mode: Zone mode such as Tv, Av, or M. ✦ Single Shooting. In this mode, 2. Press the Menu button, and one image is captured with each then press the Jump button press of the Shutter button for up until the Custom Functions to 3 frames per second (fps). (orange) tab is displayed. ✦ High-speed Continuous. In this 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to mode, you can keep the Shutter highlight C.FnI: Exposure, and button depressed for a conserva- then press the Set button. The tive burst rate of approximately 75 C.Fn I: Exposure, Exposure level Large/Fine JPEGs, 14 RAW+JPEG increments screen appears, and (Large/Fine), or 17 RAW files. The the C.Fn number control in the actual number of frames in a burst upper right is active. depends on the shutter speed, file 4. Turn the Quick Control dial size, and the space remaining on clockwise to highlight the C.Fn the CF card. number to 3, and then press the ✦ Low-speed Continuous. This Set button. The C.Fn I Exposure mode also delivers a maximum of ISO expansion screen is displayed 3 fps as you keep the Shutter but- with two options. The C.Fn options ton completely depressed. are activated., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 62 62 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D ✦ Self-timer modes (10- and 2-second). In Self-timer modes, Tip The maximum number of images you can capture during the camera delays making the pic- a burst of continuous shooting ture for 10 or 2 seconds after the depends on the image record- Shutter button is fully depressed. ing quality, ISO, Picture Style, In 10-second mode, the Self-timer and the size and speed of the lamp on the front blinks, a beep is CF card you use among other emitted slowly for 8 seconds, and factors. White-balance bracket- then the speed of the beep and ing lowers the maximum burst. the blinking increase for the final 2 seconds before the shutter Canon uses smart buffering to deliver large releases. The camera displays the bursts of images. The images are first deliv- countdown to firing on the LCD ered to the camera’s internal buffer. Then the panel as well. The 10-second camera immediately begins writing and mode is effective when you want offloading images to the CF card. The time to include yourself in a picture. required to empty the buffer depends on the This mode is useful in nature, land- speed of the card, the complexity of the scape, and close-up shooting, and image, and the ISO setting. JPEG images that can be combined with Mirror Lock- have a lot of fine detail and digital noise tend up (C.Fn III-7) to prevent any vibra- to take more time to compress than images tion from the reflex mirror action with less detail and low-frequency content. and from pressing the Shutter but- ton. You have to press the Shutter But the off-loading time can seem like an button once to lock the mirror, and eternity when the bride and groom are again to make the exposure. walking down the aisle toward you, and you

CF Card Types and Speed Ratings

Directly related to the speed of the camera is the speed of the CF card — how quickly images can be written from the camera to the card. Equally important is the speed of the card in transferring images from the card to the computer. Both factors are impor- tant to achieving a speedy and efficient workflow. The 40D accepts CompactFlash (CF) Type I and Type II media cards as well as micro- drives. And, because the 40D supports the FAT32 file system, you can use media cards with capacities of 2GB and larger. As you evaluate cards, remember that the type and speed of media you use affect the camera’s response times for tasks such as writing images to the media card and the ability to continue shooting during that process, the speed at which images are displayed on the LCD, and how long it takes to zoom images on the LCD. In addition, the file format that you choose also affects the speed of certain tasks — when writing images to the media card, for example. JPEG image files write to the card faster than RAW files or RAW+JPEG files. If speed is your main goal, then be sure to review Rob Galbraith’s test results on CF cards and microdrives. You can find the latest test results at Just click the CF/SD link at the upper left of the Web site., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 63

Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 63

need buffer space to continue shooting. Thanks to smart buffering, you can continue If you see Full CF displayed inthe viewfinder and on the LCD shooting in one, two, or three-image bursts panel, wait until the red access almost immediately after the buffer is filled lamp next to the Quick Control and offloading begins making buffer space dial stops blinking before open- available. In Continuous Shooting mode, ing the CF card door cover. the viewfinder displays a Busy message There is a warning to let youknow not to open the CF card when the buffer is full and the number of door cover while images are remaining images shown on the LCD panel being written to the card, but it blinks. You can press the Shutter button is good to get in the habit of halfway and look at the bottom right of the checking the red access light viewfinder to see the current number of status before opening the CFcard door. When the red lamp available shots in the maximum burst. goes out, remove the filled card and insert an empty CF card. 2.14 The 40D is speedy enough to capture sports and other action with no hiccups. Exposure: ISO 400, f/3.2, 1/400 sec., using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 64 64 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D The 40D is set to Single Shot drive mode by default. To switch to a different drive mode, Note If you haven’t already set thecamera so that it will not shoot follow these steps: if a CF card isn’t inserted, be sure to turn off this dubious fea- 1. Press the AF-Drive button above ture. Why anyone would want the LCD panel. The camera acti- to shoot without a CF card is vates Drive mode selection in the beyond me except maybe to LCD panel. The default drive mode capture Dust Delete Data (detailed later in this chapter), is SingleShot. In Basic Zone modes, but the 40D and other Canon Self-timer options are limited to digital SLRs continue to offer the 10-second mode. this option. To turn off the 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to option, press the Menu button,and then press the Jump button select a drive mode. Turning the until the Shooting 1 (red) menu Quick Control dial clockwise, the is displayed. Turn the Quick mode sequence begins with Control dial to select Shoot w/o SingleShot and sequences through card, and then press the Set High-speed continuous, Low-speed button. Select Off, and press the continuous, Self-timer 10 sec., and Set button. Self-timer 2-sec. The Drive mode remains in effect until you change it. In terms of image playback, one of the first things you’ll want to do is to change the default display time, which is initially set to 2 seconds and is hardly enough time to

Viewing and Playing move the camera from your eye to catch the

image preview. The display time is inten-

Back Images tionally set conservatively to maximize bat-

tery life, but given the excellent battery Viewing, or playing back, images goes performance except when shooting in Live beyond a quick glance to see if the image View mode, a display time of 4 to 8 seconds exposure and composition is acceptable. is more useful, and it doesn’t significantly Image review most often includes magnify- impact the battery performance. Also, if ing the LCD preview to check for sharpness, you’re showing an image on the LCD to a reviewing the brightness (luminance) his- subject or a client and you want the image togram for localized areas of overexposure, to stay displayed, you can set the display and/or reviewing the color histogram to time to Hold until you dismiss the display. check color saturation, gradation, and white-balance bias. To learn more about Live View shooting, see Chapter 5. And with this unprecedented ability to gauge exposure and composition on the To change the length of image playback spot, image evaluation can quickly solidify review time, follow these steps: the settings for a studio shooting session or alert you to the need for a quick exposure 1. Press the Menu button, and change for other settings. then press the Jump button until the Shooting 1 (red) menu appears., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 65 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 65 2. Turn the Quick Control dial with basic shooting information displayed at clockwise to highlight Review the top of the LCD. And if you set the time, and then press the Set options, then the display also includes flash- button to display the options. ing overexposed highlights and a superim- The camera displays the Review posed AF-point display showing the AF time options: Off, 2, 4, and 8 sec., point that achieved focus. and Hold. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to To cycle through multiple images on the CF highlight the Review time card, turn the Quick Control dial counter- option that you want, and then clockwise to view the next most recent press the Set button to confirm image, or clockwise to view the first image the option selection. If you select on the CF card. Hold, the picture is displayed until you press the Shutter button to For single-image playback, you can choose dismiss the display. Viewing four display formats as follows: images for a long time depletes the battery faster. The option you ✦ Single image with basic shoot- choose remains in effect until you ing information. This default change it. mode displays the image at a large size with the shutter speed, aper- The 40D offers several image playback ture, folder number-file number, options including Single-Image playback and media type (CF denoting CF with options for displaying or not displaying card). This is a good display option exposure information, Magnified View, to use when showing images to Index Display, or Auto (Slideshow) playback. subjects because it provides a You also can jump among images stored on clean, uncluttered view of the the CF card by groups. image. ✦ Single image display with basic

Single-Image playback shooting information and image

recording quality. With this and Magnified view option, basic shooting information appears as in the previous display, As the name suggests, in Single-Image play- but the camera also overlays a light back you see one image on the LCD at a gray box at the bottom left of the time. This is the default playback mode on LCD preview screen that shows the the 40D, and it’s accessed by pressing the recording quality and the image Playback (>) button on the back of the cam- number relative to the number of era. One of the things you’ll want to do is to images captured, for example, verify tack-sharp focus, and with the 40D in 10/11, or image 10 of 11 stored playback mode, you can magnify the image images. This display option is use- up to 10x and scroll through the image to ful to verify the image quality set- find the point of sharpest focus. ting, or to recall exposure settings for a previous image. When you press the Playback button, the most recently captured image is displayed, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 66 66 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D ✦ Single image with shooting achieved focus in One-Shot AF information and a histogram. mode is also displayed on the This is a more data-rich view that image preview. Or for AI Servo AF includes all the exposure and file mode, the AF points that achieved information, flash exposure, capture focus are displayed. time, the histogram you’ve selected, either brightness or RGB, Note If you want the AF point or and more. The image preview is points that achieved focus to necessarily reduced in size to about display during image playback,press the Menu button, and one-fourth of the full LCD preview then press the Jump button until size to accommodate all the infor- the Playback (blue) menu is dis- mation. Figure 2.15 shows this dis- played. Select the AF-points play option and identifies the data option, press the Set button, displayed. This option is invaluable select Display, then press the for checking the histogram, expo- Set button. The AF point or points that achieve focus in sure, color, and just about every either One-Shot AF or AI Servo other shooting setting that you AF mode are displayed as a red want to verify. If you set AF points square on LCD preview images. to be displayed, the AF point that Exposure compensation amount Protect Flash exposure compensation amount Folder number - File number CF card Aperture Shutter speed 1/320 14 -1/3 100-0006 CF Histogram (Brightness/RGB) Metering mode Picture Style settings Shooting mode P -11/3 ISO100 ISO speed Color temperature if 5200 K WBA5, G3 S 3, 0, 0, 0 K is set RAW L 2. 20MB sRGB Color space Image-recording quality 6/138 06/25/2007 11:39:21 Date and time File number/ Total images recorded Original decision (image verification) data appended White balance White balance correction File size 2.15 This is the single-image shooting information displayed during image playback., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 67 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 67 ✦ Single image with shooting the top-right side of the back of information and Brightness and the camera. The camera switches RGB histograms. This display to Single image display with basic option reduces the amount of shooting information and image shooting information to show both recording quality, and displaysaaBrightness histogram, and three square on the right to show rela- RGB color channel histograms. In tive magnification. addition to the ribbon at the top 2. Press and hold the AF-point that provides basic shooting infor- Selection/Enlarge button to mation, this view includes the magnify the image up to 10x. shooting and metering mode, white balance, file size, image 3. Tilt the Multi-controller to move recording quality, and the current around the image. If you set the image number relative to the total camera to display the AF point that number of shots on the CF card. achieved sharpest focus, the AF point unfortunately does not con- To change the display format in Single- tinue to display in Magnified mode. Image playback, follow these steps: At best, you can use it as a visual point of reference before you 1. Press the Playback button. If you begin magnifying and scrolling have not changed the default play- through the image. back display, the most recently 4. Press the AE Lock/Reduce but- captured image is displayed with ton to zoom out the image to basic shooting information at the thumbnail display size. When top of the display. This ribbon of you reduce the image completely, basic shooting information is com- the original playback display option mon to all Playback display is restored. options. 2. Press the Info button once to display basic shooting informa- Index display tion, twice to display full shoot- In addition to evaluating individual images, ing information with a histogram, or three times to dis- you can view multiple images on the CF play shooting information with card in an index display; essentially, this is a both RGB and Brightness his- miniature, electronic version of a contact tograms. Pressing the Info button sheet. Index display shows either four or simply cycles through the various nine thumbnails of images at a time. This Playback display options. display is handy when you need to verify that you’ve captured a picture of everyone To magnify an LCD preview image in any at a party or event or when you want to find display mode, follow these steps: a particular image quickly. You can use Index display regardless of which single- 1. Press the Playback button, and image display option you’re using. then press the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button on, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 68 68 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D To display images as an index, follow these 5. Press the AF-point Selection/ steps: Enlarge button to turn off the Index display and return to the 1. Press the Playback button. selected Single-Image display 2. Press the AE Lock/Reduce/ mode. Index button on the back of the Tip You can also use Auto Playback camera once to display a four- to show images as a slideshow image index page, or press it on the LCD. Just press the Menu twice to display a nine-image button, and then press the Jump page. The camera displays the last button until the Playback 2 images captured, and the selected (blue) menu appears. Turn the image is displayed with a green Quick Control dial to select Auto play, and then press the Set but- border. If the Index display shows ton. The images cycle through only one or a few images, turn the in the playback display mode Main dial counterclockwise to move you’ve selected. You can pause to the previous page of images. The and restart the slideshow by Index display includes basic shoot- pressing the Set button, or ing information for the selected lightly press the Shutter button image on the index display. to return to shooting. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to move one image at a time, or Jump quickly among turn the Main dial to jump by one or more pages at a time. If images you selected a Jump option such If you use a high-capacity CF card or simply as moving 100 images at a time, have a lot of images on the card, it’s chal- then turning the Main dial moves lenging to find a single image. To make through index pages at that inter- searching for a specific image or a series of val. Alternately, the Quick Control images easier, you can elect to jump through dial moves one image at a time. To images on the CF card by 1, 10, or 100 display the selected image in images at a time, by screen, or by shot date. Single-Image display, press the AF- point Selection/Enlarge button. You To change the jump criteria, follow these can press and hold this button to steps: magnify the image. To return to Index display, press and hold the 1. Press the Playback button, and AE Lock/Reduce button until the then press the Jump button. The Single-Image display is shown, and camera displays a scroll bar at the then press the AE Lock/Reduce bottom of the LCD display and acti- button again to return to Index dis- vates a control on the left for play. selecting jump numbers. 4. Press the Jump button to dis- 2. Turn the Quick Control dial clock- play a scrollbar, and then turn wise one or more clicks until the the Main dial to move among image-jump option you want is images in the Jump option displayed. As you turn the Quick you’ve set. Control dial, the option sequence is 1, 10, 100, Screen, Date., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 69 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 69 3. Press the Set button, and then multiple images and deleting all marked turn the Main dial to move images at once. among images using the option you set. As you move, the scroll bar If you want to erase a single image forever- shows the progress relative to the more, follow these steps: number of images stored on the CF card. If you choose to jump by shot 1. Press the Playback button. Turn date, turn the Quick Control dial to the Quick Control dial to navigate move to the previous or next date. to the image you want to delete. If there are multiple images taken Alternately, you can also use the on the same date, the camera dis- Main dial. plays the first image taken on that 2. Press the Erase button. Turn the date. The Jump option you choose Quick Control dial to highlight remains in effect when you turn the Erase if you want to delete the dis- Main dial to browse through played image. If you change your images. However, if you turn the mind, choose Cancel to not erase Quick Control dial, the browse the image. method is one image at a time. 3. Press the Set button to erase To exit Jump mode, press the Jump button. the image. The camera erases the image if it does not have protec- tion applied to it. The red access

Erasing Images button lights while the image isbeing erased. Note that if a series

of images shot in burst mode are Erasing images is a fine option, but it is an being written to the CF card when option to choose only when you know with- you choose Erase, these images out a doubt that you do not want the image are erased as well including you’re deleting. Use it with caution. From images that have not been experience, I know that some images that processed. appear to be mediocre on the LCD often can be salvaged with judicious editing on the Note It’s a good idea to periodically computer. Before you erase images, format the CF card and always format it in the camera, not on remember that you cannot recover them. the computer. Before formatting the card, be sure to download Remember also that even with the large all the images from the card to LCD monitor, you’re still looking at a tiny the computer. To format the CF version of your images. I find that it’s wiser card, press the Menu button, to look at images on a computer monitor to press the Jump button until theSet-up 1 (yellow) menu is dis- better evaluate the merits or demerits of played. Turn the Quick Control each before permanently deleting them. dial to select Format, and then press the Set button. The cam- Be sure to read on in this section to learn era displays a Format confirma- how to protect images from accidental era- tion screen. Turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to high- sure. light OK, and then press the Set button. The camera displays a The 40D offers two ways to delete images: progress screen as the card is one image at a time, or by checkmarking formatted., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 70 70 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D To select and erase multiple images at a 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to time, follow these steps: highlight the All images on the card option, and then press the 1. Press the Menu button, and Set button. The Erase images then press the Jump button screen appears asking you to con- until the Playback 1 (blue) menu firm that you want to delete all is displayed. except protected images. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight Erase Images, and highlight OK, and then press then press the Set button. The the Set button. The Erase images Erase images screen appears. screen appears, and images are 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to erased. highlight Select and erase images option, and press the Set button. The 40D displays the Protecting Images image playback screen with options at the top left of the LCD At the other end of the spectrum from eras- to checkmark the current image for ing images is the ability to ensure that deletion. images you want to keep are not acciden- tally deleted. To prevent accidental erasure, 4. Press the Set button to add a you can apply protection to one or more check mark to the current image, or turn the Quick Control images. Protection is much like setting a dial to move to the next image. document on the computer to read-only Continue selecting all of the status. When you download a protected images you want to mark for image, you’re asked to confirm that you deletion. want to move or copy one or more read- only files, which are the protected images. 5. Press the Erase button. The Erase images screen appears. Setting protection means that 6. protected images can’t beTurn the Quick Control dial to deleted using the Erase options highlight OK, and press the Set detailed in the previous section. button. The 40D erases the However, protected images are marked images, and the Erase erased by formatting the CF images screen appears. card. To replace all images on the card, follow You can apply protection to an image by fol- these steps: lowing these steps: 1. Press the Menu button, and 1. Press the Playback button. The then press the Jump button last image taken is displayed on until the Playback 1 (blue) menu the LCD. is displayed. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to move to the image you want to highlight Erase Images, and protect. then press the Set button. The Erase images screen appears., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 71 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 71 3. Press the Menu button, and You can display images stored on the CF then press the Jump button to card on a TV set by following these steps: select the Playback 1 (blue) menu. 1. Press the Menu button, and then press the Jump button 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to until the Set-up 2 (yellow) menu highlight Protect images, and is displayed. then press the Set button. A small key icon and “Set” appears at 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to the top left of the display. highlight Video system, and then press the Set button. The 5. Press the Set button again to camera displays the NTSC and PAL protect the displayed image. A options. NTSC is the default option. key icon appears in the informa- tion bar above the image to show Note NTSC is the analog television that it is protected. To protect addi- system in use in the United tional images, turn the Quick States, Canada, Japan, South Control dial to scroll to the image Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, you want to protect, and then and some other countries, press the Set button to add protec- mostly in the Americas. PAL is a tion. If you later decide that you color encoding system used inTV systems in parts of South want to erase a protected image, America, Africa, Europe, and you must remove protection by other countries. repeating Steps 1 to 5 and pressing the Set button to remove protec- 3. Turn the Quick Control dial if tion for each image. When protec- you want to highlight PAL tion is removed, the key icon in the instead of NTSC. top information bar is removed. 4. Turn off the TV set and the camera.

Displaying Images 5. Attach the video cable to thecamera’s Video Out terminal.

on a TV This terminal is under the terminalcover closest to the back of the camera and is the bottom terminal. Viewing images stored on the CF card on a Ensure that the cable is firmly TV is a convenient way to look at images at seated in the terminal. a large size, particularly when traveling. The video cable to connect the camera to a TV is 6. Connect the other end of the included in the 40D box. Before connecting video cable to the TV set’s Video the camera to the TV, you need to set the In terminal. Ensure that the cable video system format using the Setup menu is fully seated in the terminal. on the camera. 7. Turn on the TV set and then switch the TV’s input to Video In. Note When you display images on some TV sets, the corners may 8. Turn the camera’s power switch appear to be dark or part of the to the ON position. image may be cut off., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 72 72 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 9. Press the Playback button. In addition to the fresh-start advantage, I’ve Images are displayed on the TV but found that resetting default settings is also a not on the camera’s LCD monitor. quick way to resolve unexpected problems When you finish viewing images, with the camera, especially if the problems turn off the TV and the camera happen in the middle of a shooting session. before disconnecting the cables. Table 2.4 shows the default settings for the 40D.

Restoring the

If you customize the 40D and want to

Camera’s Default restore the default camera settings, follow

these steps:


1. Press the Menu button, and With all of the options for different settings then press the Jump button on the 40D, you may sometimes want to until the Set-up 3 (yellow) menu start fresh instead of backtracking to reset is displayed. individual settings. The 40D offers several 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to restore settings, including Clear all camera highlight the Clear all camera settings. This option is a good way to start settings option, and press the fresh, but be aware that it resets all shooting Set button. The Clear all camera and image quality settings back to the fac- settings screen appears. tory defaults.

Table 2.4 Clear All Camera Settings Defaults

Shooting Settings Image Recording Settings AF mode One-shot Quality Large/Fine AF-Point Selection Automatic ISO Auto Metering mode Evaluative Color space sRGB Drive mode Single-shooting White balance AWB Exposure Zero White-balance Off Compensation correction AEB Off White-balance Off bracketing Flash Exposure Zero Picture Style Standard Compensation Custom Functions Retains current settings, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 73 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 73 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to takes approximately 1 second. You highlight OK, and then press the can also manually run the self- Set button. A confirmation screen cleaning element through the cam- appears. era menu. Cleaning initiated via the 4. menu takes approximately 3.5 sec-Turn the Quick Control dial to onds. Automatic self-cleaning is highlight OK, and then press the enabled by default on the 40D. Set button. The settings are restored to the camera defaults. ✦ Clean now. You can also choose to clean the sensor by way of the Clean now option on the camera

Cleaning the Image menu in all shooting modes. Thiscleaning process is slightly longer Sensor than the cleaning that takes placewhen you power the camera on

and off. Few early digital photographers managed to escape tedious hours spent spotting images. ✦ Dust Delete Data collection and Regardless of how careful they were when application. Dust Delete Data is changing lenses, inevitably dust particles — designed to deal with larger, sticky some rivaling the size of digital meteors — dust particles. Capturing Dust Delete Data involves taking a pic- would quickly accumulate on the sensor. ture of a piece of white paper from which the camera identifies the Of course, dust still accumulates on image size and location of dust on the fil- sensors. The dust and spots come from ter. A tiny data file is appended external dust and clothing particles that fall to the image, and then you can into the chamber while changing lenses, use it in Canon’s Digital Photo and from dust or lubricants within the cam- Professional program to erase the era body that are dislodged by carrying the spots. The Dust Delete Data option camera and by changes in air pressure. is available only in Creative Zone modes. Regardless of the source, the task of clean- ing the image sensor is easier than ever ✦ Clean manually. Stubborn dust before, particularly with the 40D, which can be cleaned manually by setting offers four options for cleaning the sensor: an option on the camera menu to lock up the mirror and open the ✦ Automatic self-cleaning. An IR- shutter so that you can use a cut filter is installed in front of the blower or other cleaning method. CMOS sensor, and this filter has a The Clean manually option is avail- coating to resist dust by reducing able only in Creative Zone modes. static that attracts dust. When you To clean the sensor using the camera menu turn the camera on and off, the command, follow these steps: camera initiates an ultrasonic vibra- tion to loosen and shake off dust. 1. In any shooting mode, press the Then the dust is captured by mate- Menu button, and then press rial around the filter which prevents the Jump button to display the the dust from returning to the filter. Setup 2 (yellow) menu. The automatic cleaning process, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 74 74 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Manual Sensor Cleaning

For manual sensor cleaning, Canon recommends using a rubber blower such as those sold at drug stores. Certainly, this is the safest approach to cleaning. But other prod- ucts work very well too. I use the VisibleDust ( products, par- ticularly the brushes that you “charge” by blowing them with air before gently swiping them across the sensor. VisibleDust offers cleaning solutions, swabs, and state-of-the- art soft brushes designed to gently clean or lift dust and spots without damaging the sensitive sensor surface. VisibleDust also offers tutorials on how to clean the sensor using its products. But there are a variety of cleaning products available with a quick Google search. Never use canned air to clean the sensor because the force of the air on the sensor may damage it, and the gas propellant can freeze on the sensor. Also don’t use a blower with a brush attached because it can scratch the sensor. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to Obtaining Dust highlight Sensor cleaning, and press the Set button. The Sensor Delete Data cleaning screen appears. For larger, sticky dust particles, the camera 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to can determine the size and location of dust highlight the Clean now option. when you take a picture of a white piece of and then press the Set button. paper. Although you take a picture, no The Clean now screen appears. image is recorded to the CF card. Using the 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to picture of the white paper, the 40D maps highlight OK if it isn’t already the coordinates of dust particles that are selected, and then press the Set stuck to the filter and creates a very small button. The camera displays the data file that is appended to images. cleaning symbol, and the Sensor cleaning screen appears. To erase the dust, you use Canon’s Digital Photo Professional (included on the EOS Note If for some reason you want to Digital Solution Disk). Appending dust data turn off automatic sensor clean- does not increase the image file size, and it ing, you can disable it using the Set-up 2 (yellow) menu. Just does not affect the continuous shooting select Sensor cleaning, press speed or burst rate. Dust Delete Data can be the Set button, and then turn applied to JPEG, RAW, and sRAW images. the Quick Control dial to high- Also, it is a good practice to update the Dust light Auto cleaning. Then press Delete Data periodically. the Set button. On the Auto cleaning screen, turn the Quick Control dial to highlight Disable, and then press the Set button., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 75 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 75 Before you begin, ensure that you do the 4. With the camera approximately following: 1 foot from the white paper, and with the paper filling the ✦ Have a clean piece of white viewfinder, press the Shutter paper large enough to fill the button completely. The camera viewfinder when positioned automatically sets the exposure to approximately 1 foot from the f/22, 1/2 second or faster, ISO 800 lens. Ensure that the paper is solid in Av mode. The flash does not fire. white and that it is evenly lit by The camera captures the data and any light source. displays a confirmation message. Set the lens focal length to If the Data was obtained correctly,✦ 50mm or longer. On a zoom lens, a confirmation screen appears. the focal-length settings are dis- 5. Press the Set button to select played on the lens ring. Just turn OK. The Shooting 2 (red) menu the lens ring to a focal length that appears. reads 50mm or higher. 6. Lightly press the Shutter button ✦ Set the lens to manual focus by to return to shooting. sliding the switch on the side of the lens to MF. With the camera facing forward, Applying Dust ✦ set the focus to infinity by turn- Delete Data ing the lens focusing ring all the way to the left. On the lens dis- After acquiring the Dust Delete Data, you tance scale, the infinity symbol can use Canon’s Digital Photo Professional looks like an “8” lying on its side. program to apply the data to either JPEG or RAW images. Be sure that you’ve installed To obtain Dust Delete Data, follow these Digital Photo Professional from the Canon steps: EOS Digital Solution Disk included in the camera box. 1. Set the camra to a Creative Zone shooting mode, press the Menu To apply Dust Delete Data in Digital Photo button, and then press the Jump Professional, follow these steps. button to select the Shooting 2 (red) tab. 1. Start Digital Photo Professional, and then navigate to the folder 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to that contains images with Dust highlight Dust Delete Data, and Delete Data appended. If you just then press the Set button. The obtained the data, then images Dust Delete Data screen appears. you’ve taken since then will have 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to the data file appended. highlight OK, and press the Set 2. Select an image with Dust button. The camera raises the Delete Data appended, and then reflex mirror and displays a screen click the Edit image window in reminding you to completely press the toolbar. The image-editing the Shutter button when you are window appears. ready to obtain data., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 76 76 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 3. Choose Tools ➪ Start Stamp tool. ✦ Remove the lens and attach the A separate copy stamp window body cap until you’re ready to appears. begin. 4. Click Apply Dust Delete Data. When you’re ready, follow these steps to The data is applied to the image. You can check the erased dust clean the image sensor: spots individually by pressing 1. In a Creative Zone shooting Shift+F. To go to the previous spot, mode, press the Menu button, press Shift+B. and then press the Jump button 5. Click OK. The main Edit window until the Set-up 2 (yellow) menu appears. You can repeat these is displayed. steps to apply the Dust Delete Data 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to to remaining images in the folder. highlight Sensor cleaning, and then press the Set button. The

Cleaning the sensor Sensor cleaning screen appears.

manually 3. Turn the Quick Control dial tohighlight the Clean manually With the self-cleaning sensor combined option, and then press the Set with Dust Delete Data, the likelihood or button. The camera displays the need to manually clean the sensor drops Clean manually screen reminding dramatically. Occasionally, however, you you that the mirror will lock up (for may find it necessary to clean the sensor. cleaning) and to turn off the power switch when you finish. Once you have the product that you’ll use to 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to clean the sensor, do the following: highlight OK, and then press the Set button. The camera flips up ✦ Ensure that the camera battery and locks the mirror, and the shut- is fully charged. You can’t use the ter opens. Remove the body cap if optional battery grip with AA bat- you placed it on the camera during teries in it to clean the sensor. the preparation phase. “CLn” blinks ✦ Find a place indoors away from in the LCD panel. Do not do any- drifting lint, dust, pets, and so thing that would disrupt power to on, that has bright light so that the camera during cleaning. you can see the sensor as you 5. Use the rubber blower or a sen- clean it. sor brush to clean the sensor. If ✦ Read the cleaning steps before you use a sensor brush specifically you begin so you have a general designed for sensor cleaning, wipe idea of the task flow. in a single down, across, and upward motion. If you use a ✦ Assemble the products you’ll blower brush, turn the camera so use and prepare them before the lens mount faces down, and you begin. blow away dust., 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 77 Chapter 2 ✦ Working with the Canon EOS 40D 77 6. Turn the Power switch to the Off avoiding changing lenses in windy and/or position. The camera turns off, the dusty outdoor areas, keeping the rear optical shutter closes, and the reflex mirror element of lenses scrupulously clean, chang- flips back down. ing lenses with the lens mount pointed downward, and always keeping a lens To determine how well you cleaned the sen- mounted or putting the body cap on the lens sor, make and evaluate a few pictures of a mount when no lens is mounted. I also carry blue sky at a large aperture. large, unused plastic bags in my camera bag. If I’m in dusty outdoor areas, I put the cam- In many years of digital photography, I’ve not era body in the bag to change lenses. These found any surefire ways to avoid dust accu- precautions certainly help keep the sensor mulating on the image sensor other than clean, but none is fool-proof. common-sense approaches that include, 05_260449 ch02.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 78, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 79

Color andCHAPTER Picture Styles 3

✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

Never has the ability to get accurate color been as In This Chapteraccessible as it is with digital photography. Color

options begin in the camera by selecting a color space that About color spaces matches your workflow. In addition, Canon offers Picture Choosing a color space Styles that determine the default tonal curve, sharpness, color rendering, and saturation of images. A variety of Picture Styles Setting the white that replicate traditional film looks or render color in different balance ways can be applied in the camera for JPEG capture, and either in the camera or after capture for RAW capture. Choosing and customizing a In terms of color, the White Balance options on the 40D are Picture Style comprehensive and dependable, whether you prefer using the preset white balance settings, setting the color tempera- Registering a User- ture yourself, or setting a custom white balance. In this chap- Defined Picture Style ter, you learn how each option is useful in different shooting scenarios as well as some widely used techniques for ensur- Using the Picture ing accurate color. Style editor ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

About Color Spaces

A color space defines the range of colors that can be repro- duced and the way that a device such as a digital camera, a monitor, or a printer reproduces color. Of the two color space options offered on the 40D, the Adobe RGB color space is richer because it supports a wider gamut, or range, of colors than the sRGB color space option. And in digital photography, the more data captured, or, in this case, the more colors cap- tured by the camera, the richer and more robust the file. It fol- lows that the richer the file, the more bits that you have to work with whether you’re capturing RAW or JPEG images. And with the 40D’s new 14-bit Analog/Digital conversion, you get a whopping 16,384 colors per channel when you shoot in RAW capture., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 80 80 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 3.1 This RAW image, which was converted in Adobe Camera Raw and edited in Photoshop CS3, is the basis for the histograms in figures 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4. Exposure: ISO 250, f/8, 1/200 sec. space such as Adobe RGB or sRGB, the goal Note The same principle — getting the most that the 40D image sensor is to keep as much image as possible during offers — also holds true in conversion and for as long as possible dur- regard to image bit depth. ing Photoshop editing. The following histograms show the differ- ence that choosing a large color space makes during RAW image conversion. Spikes on the left and right of the histogram indicate colors that will be clipped, or dis- carded, from the image. For details on evaluating his- 3.2 Adobe Camera Raw histogram using tograms, see Chapter 1. ProPhoto RGB. Notice the additional headroom in the highlights (shown on the After evaluating these histograms, you can right side of the histogram) that this large see that much more image data is retained color space provides as well as the rich by using a wide color space such as amount of color in this histogram compared ProPhoto RGB. And while the image may to the following histograms. eventually be converted to a smaller color, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 81 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 81

What Is Bit Depth and Why Should I Care?

A digital picture is made up of many pixels that are each made up of a group of bits. A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can handle. In digital images, each bit stores information that when aggregated with other pixels and color infor- mation, provides an accurate representation of the picture. Digital images are based on the Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) color space. That means that an 8-bit JPEG image has 8 bits of color information for red, 8 bits for green, and 8 bits for blue. This gives a total of 24 bits of data per pixel (8 bitsx3color channels). Because each bit can be one of two values, either 0 or 1, the total number of possi- ble values is 2 to the 8th power, or 256 values per color channel. In the RGB color space, the range of colors is represented on a continuum from 0 (black) to 255 (white). On this continuum, an area of an image that is white is rep- resented by 255R, 255G, and 255B, and an area that is black is represented by 0R, 0G, and 0B. On the other hand, a 14-bit file, provides 16,384 colors per channel. High bit-depth images offer not only more colors but they also offer more subtle tonal gradations and a higher dynamic range than low bit-depth images. As a result, RAW images offer much greater latitude during conversion and editing than JPEG images. If your goal is to get the highest quality from your 40D images, then RAW capture, with its higher bit depth and significantly more colors per channel, is the best option. Choosing a color space and keeping it con- sistent throughout the workflow helps to ensure that colors are accurately repre- sented on devices including the computer monitor and the printer. Even if you convert RAW images using 3.3 Adobe Camera Raw histogram using Adobe RGB. Both the highlights and the ProPhoto RGB, eventually you’ll want to shadows clip as shown by the spikes on the convert the image to Adobe RGB, which is right and left sides of the histogram, the color space of choice for printing on respectively. both inkjet and commercial printers. And for images destined for online use in e-mail or Web display, sRGB provides the best online color display. While this may sound like a conflict in choosing color spaces, for most workflows it translates into using Adobe RGB for capture, editing, and printing. When an image is needed for online display, you make a copy of the image and convert it to 3.4 Adobe Camera Raw histogram using sRGB in an editing program such as sRGB. Here the shadow spike increases Photoshop CS3. noticeably., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 82 82 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Choosing a Color 3. If the Shooting 2 (red) menuisn’t displayed, press the Jump Space button until it appears.

4. Turn the Quick Control dial to The first step in managing color is to select highlight Color space, and then a color space for shooting on the 40D. In press the Set button. The camera Creative Zone shooting modes, you can displays the color space options. choose a color space, either Adobe RGB or 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to sRGB, and it applies to JPEG, RAW, and highlight the color space you sRAW files. In all Basic Zone modes, the want, either sRGB or Adobe camera automatically selects sRGB and RGB, and then press the Set JPEG capture. button. The color space remains in effect until you change it or switch If you choose Adobe RGB for Creative Zone to a Basic Zone mode. In Basic modes, image filenames are appended with Zone modes, the camera automati- _MG_. While the 40D does not embed the cally sets sRGB, and you don’t have color, or ICC, profile in the file, you can the option to change it. embed the profile using Photoshop 6.0 or later. Then the color space information can be read by other devices such as monitors and printers that support ICC profiles. Choosing White To set the color space on the 40D, follow Balance Options these steps: If you would rather spend your time shoot- 1. Set the Mode dial to a Creative ing instead of sitting at the computer color- Zone mode: P, Tv, Av, M, or correcting images, then learning about and A-DEP. using the 40D’s White Balance options are very important. Different shooting scenes, 2. Press the Menu button. the type and consistency of light, the

About ICC Profiles

ICC is an abbreviation for International Color Consortium, which promotes the use and adoption of open, vendor-neutral, cross-platform color management systems. This group introduced the standard device profile format used to characterize color devices. Photoshop and other applications that support ICC profiles, use the profiles to pro- duce colors more accurately, so that colors look consistent when printed or viewed on different devices. Photoshop also uses profiles to convert RGB values to CMYK (a color space used in commercial printing) and CMYK to RGB, to display photo CD image color more accurately, and to soft-proof an image at different settings so that you can see how the image will look., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 83 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 83 amount of time you have to set up the cam- On the 40D, White Balance options give you era before and during a shoot are some of a variety of ways to ensure color is accurately the factors that can influence which White rendered in the image. You can set the white Balance option you use. balance by choosing one of the seven preset options, by setting a specific color tempera- ture, or a custom white balance. 3.5 This image was captured using the Daylight White Balance setting and the Standard Picture Style. The colors are warm yet accurate. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/200 sec. 3.6 This image was captured using the Tungsten White Balance setting and the Standard Picture Style. The image has a noticeable yellow/green tint because the white balance setting did not match the light temperature in the scene., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 84 84 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Table 3.1 provides the White Balance Tip If you shoot RAW or sRAW images, you can set or adjust options, and the approximate color temper- the white balance in the RAW ature as measured in Kelvin. conversion program after the image is captured.

What Is White Balance?

Unlike a mechanical camera, the human eye automatically adjusts to the changing colors (temperatures) of light. For example, we see a white shirt as being white in tungsten, fluorescent, or daylight; in other words, regardless of the type of light in which we view a white object, it appears to be white. Digital image sensors are not as adaptable as the human eye, however, and sensors cannot distinguish white in dif- ferent types of light unless they are told what the light temperature is. And that’s what a white balance setting does — it tells the camera what the light temperature is in the scene so that the camera can accurately represent the colors in the scene in the image. Light temperature is measured on the Kelvin scale and is expressed in Kelvin (K). Once the camera knows the light temperature, it can render white as white. On the 40D, a preset White Balance option covers a range of light temperatures, so render- ing white is more approximate than specific; whereas, setting a custom white bal- ance, or setting a specific light temperature is more specific and typically renders more neutral (or accurate) color.

Table 3.1

40D White Balance Temperature Ranges EOS 40D Setting and Approximate Range in Corresponding Color White Balance Option Kelvin (K) Temperature (K) Auto (AWB) N/A 3000 to 7000 Daylight 5000 to 7000 5200 Shade 7000 Cloudy, twilight, sunset 6000 to 8000 6000 Tungsten 2500 to 3200 3200 White fluorescent 4300 4000 Flash 4500 to 6000 6000 Custom NA 2000 to 10,000 Color temperature NA 2500 to 10,000, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 85 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 85

Approaches to using white fluorescent light, the preset

white balance settings perform various White Balance nicely. In general, the preset white options balance settings have excellentcolor and hue accuracy and good Because the 40D offers three basic saturation. However, be aware that approaches to setting white balance, you the 40D tends to oversaturate may find that you use different approaches color almost exclusively in the reds, in different shooting scenarios. Following which can cause a loss of shape are examples for using each. and detail in certain subjects such as a close-up of a red flower, par- ✦ Using preset white balance set- ticularly when shooting at the tings. For outdoor shooting, espe- default Standard Picture Style. cially during clearly defined lighting (Picture Styles are detailed later in situations such as bright daylight, this chapter.) an overcast sky, or shooting in

Getting Accurate Color with RAW Images

If you are shooting RAW capture, a great way to ensure accurate color is to photo- graph a white or gray card that is in the same light as the subject, and then use it as a point of reference when processing the images on the computer. For example, if you’re taking a portrait, ask the subject to hold the gray card under or beside his or her face for the first shot, then continue shooting without the card in the scene. When you begin converting the RAW images on the computer, open the picture that you took with the card. Click the card with the white balance tool to cor- rect the color and then click Done to save the corrected white balance settings. If you’re using a RAW conversion program such as Adobe Camera RAW (ACR) or Canon’s Digital Photo Professional, you can copy the white balance settings from the image you just color balanced, select all of the images shot under the same light, and then paste the white balance settings to them. This technique is called click-balanc- ing. In a few seconds, you can color balance 10, 20, 50, or more images. Shooting a white or gray card is great when shooting a wedding, for example. During the wedding, the light changes from the bride’s dressing room, to the church sanctu- ary, and then again in the reception hall. So, instead of setting a custom white bal- ance for each type of light, you can take a picture of a white card in each of the different areas before, during, or even after the activities. Just be sure that the light on the card isn’t so bright that it registers as the brightest highlight. There are a number of white and gray card products you can use such as the WhiBal cards from ( or ExpoDisc from expoimaging ( to get a neutral ref- erence point. There are also small reflectors that do double duty by having one side in 18 percent gray and the other side in white or silver. The least expensive option, and one that works nicely, is a plain, white, unlined index card., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 86 86 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D ✦ Setting a specific color tempera- your workflow is time that you’ll save color- ture. With this option, you set the correcting images on the computer. specific light temperature on the camera. This is the fastest and To change to a preset White Balance option easiest option to use for studio such as Daylight, Tungsten, Shade, and so shooting when you know the tem- on, follow these steps: perature of the strobes or continu- ous lights. And if you happen to 1. Set the Mode dial to a Creative have a color temperature meter, Zone mode. In Basic Zone modes, this is a great option to use in non- the 40D automatically uses AWB, studio scenarios. In short, use the and you cannot change the white specific color temperature white balance setting. balance setting in any scene where you know the specific light 2. Press the Metering Mode-WB temperature. button above the LCD panel. ✦ Setting a custom white balance. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial until Setting a custom white balance is the White Balance option you an option that produces very accu- want is displayed on the LCD rate color because the white bal- panel. The white balance settings ance is set precisely for the light in are shown with icons that represent the scene. To use this option, you different types of lights. The custom shoot a white or gray card, select white balance setting is shown with the image, and the camera imports two triangles on their sides and a the color data and uses it to set solid black square between them. the image color. This works great The Kelvin temperature setting is for scenes where the light doesn’t shown as a “K” within a black back- change. But if the light changes, ground. The White Balance option you have to repeat the process to you set remains in effect until you set a new custom white balance. change it. Certainly for JPEG capture, this is an accurate technique that I highly recommend. For RAW capture, this Set a custom white and other techniques work well. balance Note Gray cards are specifically Mixed light scenes, such as tungsten and designed to render accurate daylight, can wreak havoc on getting accu- color by providing a neutral rate or visually pleasing image color. Two white balance reference point options work well to get neutral color that is later used during image editing to color balance images. quickly in mixed lighting scenes. If you’re Once an accurate gray point is shooting RAW or sRAW capture, one option established for the image in a is to shoot a gray or white card as described RAW conversion program, all in the earlier sidebar. The second option is other colors in the image auto- to set a custom white balance. Setting a cus- matically fall into place. tom white balance balances colors for the Whatever your approach to White Balance specific light used when you set the custom options, the time you spend using and under- setting. It is relatively easy to set, and it’s an standing them and how they can enhance excellent way to ensure accurate color., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:07 AM Page 87

Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 87

2. In the light that will be used for Tip For my work, I alternate between setting a custom white the subject, position a piece of balance and shooting a white unlined white paper so that it card for color balancing batches fills the center of the viewfinder of images during RAW conver- (the spot metering circle), and sion. Both techniques work in take a picture. If the camera can- the same general way, but they not focus, switch the lens to MF differ when you set the white (manual focusing) and focus on balance. With one, you set it on the site; with the other click-bal- the paper. Also ensure that the ance technique, you set it dur- exposure is neither underexposed ing image conversion. Both nor overexposed such as by having techniques involve roughly the Exposure Compensation set. same amount of time and effort. 3. Press the Menu button, and Another advantage to custom white balance then press the Jump button is that it works whether you’re shooting JPEG until the Shooting 2 (red) menu appears. or RAW capture in a Creative Zone mode. Just remember that if light changes, you have to 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to set a new custom white balance. highlight Custom WB, and then press the Set button. The camera To set a custom white balance, follow these displays the last image captured steps: (the white piece of paper) with a Custom White Balance icon in the 1. Set the camera to a Creative upper left of the display. If the Zone mode (P, Av, Tv, M, or image of the white paper is not A-DEP), and ensure that the displayed, rotate the Quick Control Picture Style is not set to dial until it is. Monochrome. To check the 5. Press the Set button again. The Picture Style, press the Picture Style 40D displays a confirmation screen button on the back of the camera. asking if you want to use the white The Picture Style screen is dis- balance data from this image for played. To change from the custom white balance. Monochrome (black and white), turn the Quick Control dial to 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to select another style, and then press highlight OK, and then press the the Set button. Set button. A second confirmation screen appears. Tip It’s best to have the white bal- ance set to anything except 7. Press the Set button one last Custom White Balance when time. The camera imports the you begin these steps. white balance data from the Occasionally, I’ve had the 40D selected image and returns to the refuse to import data from a Shooting 2 menu. white card shot when the white balance was already set to 8. Press the Shutter button to dis- Custom. miss the menu., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 88 88 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 3.7 This shot was taken using the Shade 3.8 This shot was taken after I set a custom White Balance setting. The image shows a white balance using a small white index green colorcast in the shadow areas and in card. The colors in the image reflect the the yellows of the top of the mushroom, colors in the scene as I recall them. neither of which is truly accurate to the Exposure is the same as the previous image. original scene colors. Exposure: ISO 100, f/3.5, 1/50 sec. When you finish shooting in the area for 9. Press the Metering Mode-WB which you set the custom white balance and button above the LCD panel, move to a different area or subject, remem- and then turn the Quick Control ber to reset the White Balance option. dial to select Custom White Balance. This is denoted by two triangles on their sides with a black Use White Balance Auto square between them. The custom Bracketing white balance remains in effect until you change it by setting Given the range of indoor tungsten, fluores- another white balance. All of the cent, and other types of lights that are avail- images you take will be balanced able, the preset White Balance options may for the custom setting. or may not be spot-on accurate. Alternately,, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 89 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 89 you may prefer a bit more of a green or blue bias to the overall image colors. With the 40D, you can use White Balance Auto Bracketing to get a set of three images each with +/- 3 levels in 1-step increments. White balance bracketing is handy when you don’t know which bias will give the most pleasing color, or when you don’t have time to set a manual white balance bias. The bracketed sequence gives you a set of three images from which to choose the most visually pleasing color. If you’re shoot- ing JPEG capture in Creative Zone modes and use the Standard, Portrait, or Landscape Picture Styles, bracketing can be a good choice to reduce color-correction time on the computer. White balance bracketing also reduces the maximum burst by one-third. To set white balance bracketing, follow these steps: 3.9 This image was taken in tungsten lighting using the standard Tungsten White Balance 1. Press the Menu button, and setting. Exposure: ISO 100, f/5.6, 1/8 sec. then press the Jump button until the Shooting 2 (red) menu appears. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to highlight WB SHIFT/BKT, and then press the Set button. The WB correction/WB bracketing screen appears. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to set Blue/Amber bias, or counterclockwise to set a Magenta/Green bias. As you turn the dial, three squares appear and the distance between them increases as you continue to turn the Quick Control dial. The dis- tance between the squares sets the amount of bias. On the right side of the screen, the camera indi- cates the bracketing direction and level under BKT. You can set up to plus/minus three levels of bias. 3.10 With the white balance bracketing, this is the blue-bias image., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 90 90 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Note You can combine White Balance Bracketing with Auto Exposure Bracketing. If you do this, a total of nine images are taken for each shot. Bracketing also slows the process of writing images to the CF card because three shots are being recorded. White balance bracketing continues in effect until it is cleared or the camera is turned off. To clear white balance bracketing, repeat Steps 1 and 2, and then press the Info but- ton to clear the bracketing. When you clear the white balance bracketing, the White Balance icon in the LCD panel stops flashing. Note You can change the sequence of White Balance Auto Bracketing by setting C.Fn I-5. For details on setting Custom Functions, see Chapter 4. 3.11 With the white balance bracketing, this is the amber-bias image.

Set a White Balance Shift

4. Press the Set button. The Similar to white balance bracketing, you can Shooting 2 (red) menu appears. manually set the color bias of images to a 5. Lightly press the Shutter button single bias setting by using White Balance to dismiss the menu. Shift. The color can be biased toward blue (B), amber (A), magenta (M), or green (G) 6. Press the Shutter button three in up to nine levels measured as mireds, or times in One-shot drive mode to densities. Each level of color correction that capture the bracketed images, you set is equivalent to five mireds of a or in Continuous drive mode, color-temperature conversion filter. When press and hold the Shutter but- you set a color shift or bias, it is used for all ton to capture the three brack- eted images. As you shoot, the images until you change the setting. White Balance icon on the LCD Note On the EOS 40D, color compen- panel flashes to remind you that sation is measured in mireds, a bracketing is in effect. With a measure of the density of a blue/amber bias, the standard color temperature conversion white balance is captured first, and filter, which is similar to densi- then the bluer and more amber ties of color-correction filters bias shots are captured. If that range from 0.025 to 0.5. Shifting one level of magenta/green bias is set, then blue/amber correction is equiv- the image-capture sequence is the alent to five mireds of a color- standard, then more magenta, then temperature conversion filter. more green., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 91 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 91 3.12 This image was taken in tungsten light using Tungsten White Balance. Exposure: ISO 100, f/7.1, 1/2 sec. 3.13 This is the same image shifting the white balance toward magenta and blue. This shift was B5, M6 and represents much more accurate color of the scene., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 92 92 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Tip The White Balance Shift tech- Note You can set C.Fn I-4 to retain nique is handy when you know both white balance bracketing that particular light needs cor- and shift settings even after the rection such as cooling down a camera is turned off. See tungsten light source or in the Chapter 4 for details on setting same way that you would use a Custom Functions. color-correction filter. To cancel the white balance correction, Tip Manipulating the White Balance repeat Steps 1 and 2, press the Info button, Shift and bracketing screen on the 40D can be confusing. The and then press the Set button. main difference is when you use the Multi-controller and the Quick Control dial. To set a Specify a color White Balance Shift, you use the Multi-controller to set the bias. temperature To set white balance bracketing, you use the Quick Control dial to Setting the white balance for a specific color set the bias. temperature is the easiest way to get neutral color in the least amount of time. The caveat, To set White Balance Shift, follow these steps: of course, is that you must know tempera- ture of the light to get good results. In most 1. Press the Menu button, and studios, the light temperature is known and then press the Jump button it can be easily dialed in to the 40D. And if until the Shooting 2 (red) menu you’re fortunate enough to have a color- appears. temperature meter, then you can use this 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to White Balance option with abandon. highlight WB SHIFT/BKT, and then press the Set button. The To set a specific color temperature, follow White Balance Auto these steps: Bracketing/White Balance Shift screen appears. 1. Press the Metering Mode-WB button above the LCD panel. 3. Tilt the Multi-controller in the direction you want to set the 2. Turn the Quick Control dial until bias; toward a blue, amber, the K option appears on the LCD magenta, or green shift. On the panel. right of the screen, the SHIFT panel 3. Press the Menu button. shows the bias and correction amount. For example, A2, G1 4. If the Shooting 2 (red) menu is shows a two-level amber correction not displayed, press the Jump with a one-level green correction. button until it appears. 4. Press the Set button to confirm 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to the changes. The color shift you highlight White Balance, and set remains in effect until you turn then press the Set button. The off the camera. White Balance/Color Temp screen with the K option activated appears., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 93 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 93

How Color Temperature Is Determined

Unlike air temperature that is measured in degrees Fahrenheit (or Celsius), light tem- perature is based on the spectrum of colors that is radiated when a black body radi- ator is heated. Visualize heating an iron bar. As the bar is heated, it glows red. As the heat intensifies, the metal color changes to yellow, and with even more heat, it glows blue-white. In this spectrum of light, color moves from red to blue as the tempera- ture increases. This concept can be confusing because “red hot” is often thought of as being signifi- cantly warmer than blue. But in the world of color temperature, blue is, in fact, a much higher temperature than red. That also means that the color temperature at noon on a clear day is higher (bluer) than the color temperature of a fiery red sun- set. And the reason that you should care about this is because it affects the color accuracy of your images. So as you use color temperatures, keep this general princi- ple in mind: The higher the color temperature is, the cooler (or bluer) the light; the lower the color temperature is, the warmer (or yellower/redder) the light. 6. Turn the Main dial to set the color temperature that you want. As you turn the Main dial, the temperature changes within the K option on the White Balance/Color Temp screen. You can set a temperature from 2500 to 10,000 Kelvin. 7. Press the Set button. The white balance setting and the color tem- perature remain in effect until you change them.

Choosing and Customizing a Picture Style

The name Picture Styles sounds like a mar- keting-motivated set of optional features for 3.14 When I work in my studio where I the 40D. Regardless of the naming, it’s know that the temperature of my studio important to realize that the 40D attaches a strobes is 5500K, setting a specific color Picture Style to every image that you shoot. temperature is the easiest option to use. In other words, Picture Styles form the foun- Exposure: ISO 100, f/22, 1/125 sec. dation of how the camera delivers tonal, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 94 94 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D curves, color rendering, color saturation, and sharpness, contrast, color saturation, and sharpness in the final image. color tone. By changing the settings, individ- ual Picture Styles mimic the look of films The 40D offers six Picture Styles, which are such as Fuji Velvia, for rendering landscape detailed in Table 3.2, and it uses the and nature shots with vivid color saturation, Standard Picture Style as the default style. or Kodak Portra, for rendering portraits with All Picture Styles have specific settings for warm, soft skin tones. You can also modify 3.15 This image uses the Standard Picture 3.17 This image uses the Landscape Picture Style. Exposure: ISO 100, f/22, 1/250 sec. Style that offers an obviously modified tonal curve and saturated colors, particularly green (and blue). 3.16 This image uses the Portrait Picture Style. The color saturation and sharpness 3.18 This image uses the Neutral Picture are much more subdued, but this style Style. Color is neutral with a lower overall leaves some latitude for RAW conversion contrast than the Standard Picture Style. tweaks and editing in Photoshop. This rendering, however, provides very pleasing color., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 95 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 95 the settings to suit your preferences, and Whether you customize an existing style or you can create up to three User Defined create a new style, you have lots of latitude Styles that are based on one of Canon’s in setting parameters. The 40D belongs to a Picture Styles. generation of Canon digital SLRs that offer the widest range of adjustments with nine levels of adjustment for contrast, saturation, and color tone, and eight adjustment levels for sharpness. Besides forming the basis of image render- ing, Picture Styles are designed to produce classic looks that need little or no post-pro- cessing so that you can print JPEG images directly from the CF card with prints that look sharp and colorful. If you shoot RAW capture, you can’t print directly from the CF card, but you can apply Picture Styles either in the camera or during conversion using Canon’s Digital Photo Professional conver- sion program. You can also use the new 3.19 This image uses the Faithful Picture Style, which is colorimetrically adjusted to Picture Style Editor to modify and save 5200K. changes to Picture Styles for captured images. The Picture Style Editor is included on Canon’s EOS Digital Solution Disk that comes with the camera. Regardless of whether you use direct print- ing, you can and should use Picture Styles for both JPEG and RAW capture. In Basic Zone modes, the camera automatically selects the Picture Style, which you cannot change. Choosing and customizing Picture Styles are how you get the kind of color results out of the camera that you need for your workflow, whether you prefer the contrasty, saturated- color look of the default Standard style, or 3.20 This is the same scene in the the more neutral color rendition that the Monochrome Picture Style with no filter Neutral and Faithful styles provide. effect applied. The Monochrome option Following are parameter adjustments that offers snappy contrast, but a nice overall you can modify for each Picture Style in tonal range. Creative Zone modes., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 96 96 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D ✦ Sharpness: 0 to 7. Level zero applies no sharpening and renders Note RAW images captured in Monochrome can be converted a very soft look (due largely to the to color using the software bun- anti-aliasing filter in front of the dled with the camera. However, image sensor that helps ward off in JPEG capture, Monochrome various problems including moiré, images cannot be converted to spectral highlights, and chromatic color. aberrations). Using a high range of sharpening can introduce sharpen- It seems logical that a zero setting for one ing halos, particularly if you also Picture Style setting would directly corre- sharpen after editing and sizing the spond to the same setting in another style. image in an editing program. For example, a zero Contrast setting on Contrast: -4 to +4. Standard would correspond to a zero setting✦ The important thing to know about contrast is that on the Portrait Style. But that’s not neces- the changes you make change the sarily true, and the differences in the tonal tonal curve. A negative adjustment curve are sometimes enough to result in produces a flatter look but helps to clipping. You can evaluate the effect of the maintain the dynamic range of the tonal curve on RAW images in the histogram data coming off the sensor. A posi- shown in Canon’s Digital Photo Professional tive setting increases the contrast program. and can stretch the tonal range. High settings can also lead to clip- Tip You can judge the effect of a Picture Style’s tonal curve by ping (discarding bright highlight checking the brightness his- tones or dark shadow tones). togram after making the picture ✦ Saturation: -4 to +4. This setting on the camera’s LCD. Or if you want to see if a color channel is affects the strength or intensity of being clipped, you can check the color with a negative setting the RGB histogram. To change producing low saturation and vice histogram displays, press the versa. The key to using this setting Menu button, and then press is to find the point at which indi- the Jump button until the vidual color channels do not clip. A Playback 2 (blue) menu is dis- +1 or +2 setting is adequate for played. Turn the Quick Control dial to select Histogram, and snappy JPEG images destined for then press the Set button. Turn direct printing. the Quick Control dial to select ✦ Color Tone: -4 to +4. Negative RGB, and then press the Set button. adjustments to color tone settings produce redder skin tones while You can choose a Picture Style by following positive settings produce more yel- these steps: low skin tones. 1. Press the Picture Styles button With the Monochrome Picture Style, only on the back of the camera. the sharpness and contrast parameters are adjustable, but you can add toning effects, 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to as detailed in Table 3.2. Default settings are highlight a Picture Style, and listed in order of sharpness, contrast, color then press the Set button. If you saturation, and color tone. choose Monochrome, also set an, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 97

Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 97 Table 3.2 EOS 40D Picture Styles

Picture Style Description Tonal Curve Color Saturation Default Settings Standard Vivid, sharp, Higher contrast Medium-high 3,0,0,0 crisp saturation Portrait Enhanced Higher contrast Medium 2,0,0,0 skin tones, saturation, soft texture rosy skin tones rendering, low sharpness Landscape Vivid blues Higher contrast High saturation 4,0,0,0 and greens, for greens/blues high sharpness Neutral Allows latitude Low, subdued Low saturation, 0,0,0,0 for conversion contrast neutral color and processing rendering with low saturation and contrast. Faithful True rendition Low, subdued Low saturation, 0,0,0,0 of colors with contrast colorimetrically no increase in accurate specific colors. No sharpness applied. Monochrome Black-and-white Higher contrast Yellow, orange, 3,0, NA, NA or toned images red, and green with slightly filter effects high sharpness available appropriate white balance setting channel using the Standard Picture Style, I for the best results in the black- switched to a modified Neutral Picture Style and-white image. that provides much better results for my work. Here are the settings I used when I After using, evaluating, and printing with dif- modified the Neutral Picture Style settings. ferent Picture Styles, you may want to change the default parameters to get the ✦ Sharpness. +3 rendition that you want. Additionally, you ✦ Contrast. +1 can create up to three Picture Styles that are based on an existing style. ✦ Saturation. +1 ✦ Color tone. 0 After much experimentation resulting from a characteristic oversaturation in the Red, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 98 98 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Tip It’s always a good idea to eval- uate the image settings in Digital Photo Professional, a program that offers a great degree of control over color management settings. To modify a Picture Style, follow these steps: 1. Press the Picture Styles button on the back of the camera. The Picture Style selection screen appears. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight the Picture Style you 3.21 This is an image using my modified want to modify, and then press settings that are based on the Neutral the Info button. The Detail Set Picture Style. screen for the selected style appears. These settings provide excellent skin tones 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to provided that the image isn’t underexposed highlight the parameter you and the lighting isn’t flat. You can try this want to adjust, and then press variation and modify it to suit your work. the Set button. The camera acti- vates the control.

Using Monochrome Filter and Toning Effects

You can customize the Monochrome Picture Style by following the previous steps, but only the Sharpness and Contrast parameters can be changed. However, you have the additional option of applying a variety of Filter and/or Toning effects. Monochrome Filter effects. Filter effects mimic the same types of color filters that photographers use when shooting black-and-white film. The Yellow filter makes skies look natural with clear white clouds. The Orange filter darkens the sky and adds bril- liance to sunsets. The Red filter further darkens a blue sky, and makes fall leaves look bright and crisp. The Green filter makes tree leaves look crisp and bright and renders skin tones realistically. Monochrome Toning effects. You can choose to apply a creative toning effect when shooting with the Monochrome Picture Style. The Toning effect options are None, Sepia (S), Blue (B), Purple (P), and Green (G). To apply a Filter or Toning effect, press the Picture Style button on the back of the camera. Turn the Quick Control dial to select Monochrome. Press the Info button, and then turn the Quick Control dial to highlight either Filter effect or Toning effect. Press the Set button. The camera displays options that you can choose. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight the option you want, and then press the Set button. The effect remains in effect until you change it., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 99 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 99 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to and color rendering that the custom style change the parameter, and then produces, then you can serve up direct-print press the Set button. The camera photos during the reception with confi- activates the control. Negative set- dence that the prints will be predictable and tings decrease sharpness, contrast, pleasing. and saturation, and positive set- tings provide higher sharpness, To create and register a User Defined Picture contrast, and saturation. Negative Style, follow these steps: color tone settings provide reddish tones, and positive settings provide 1. Press the Picture Style button yellowish skin tones. on the back of the camera. 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight the next parameter, highlight User Def. 1, and then and then press the Set button. press the Info button. The Detail 6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to change set. User Def. 1 screen appears additional settings. The Picture with the base Picture Style, Style changes remain in effect until Standard. you change them. 3. Press the Set button. The camera activates the base Picture Style control.

Registering a User 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to

highlight a base Picture Style,

Defined Picture and then press the Set button.

You can select any of the preset

Style Picture Styles such as Standard,

Portrait, and so on, as the base With an understanding of the settings you style. Each style represents not only can change with Picture Styles, you can cre- the parameters shown on the ate a Picture Style to suit your specific pref- screen but also a unique tonal erences and workflow needs. Each style that curve, which you cannot see on you create is based on one of Canon’s exist- the screen, but that you do see in ing styles, which you choose. And because the images you take using the you can create three User Defined Styles, Picture Style. there is latitude to set up styles for different 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to types of shooting venues. highlight a parameter, such as Sharpness, and then press the For example, to create a set of styles for Set button. The camera activates wedding shooting, one style could be a vari- the parameter’s control. ation of the portrait parameters that you use 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to for formal portraits. A second style, based set the level of change, and on the Neutral or Faithful style, could pro- then press the Set button. vide more latitude for post-processing, and a third style, based on the Standard Picture 7. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 to change Style, could provide a snappier, more the remaining settings. The saturated variation for the reception. And, if remaining parameters are Contrast, you first carefully evaluate the tonal curves Saturation, and Color tone., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 100 100 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 8. Press the Menu button to regis- the style: for example, color specifications ter the style. The Picture Style and minute adjustments to hue, saturation, selection screen appears. The base luminosity, and gamma (tonal curve) charac- Picture Style is displayed to the teristics. Up to 100 color points can be right of User Def. 1. If the base selected in the color specifications, and three Picture Style parameters were color display modes—HSL (Hue, Saturation, changed, then the Picture Style on Luminosity), Lab, and RGB—are available. the right of the screen is displayed You can also set the color work space display, in blue. This Picture Style remains such as Adobe RGB. A histogram display in effect until you change it. shows the distribution of luminance and 9. Press the Set button. color in the sample image, and the display can be switched to luminance, RGB, or R, G, You can repeat these steps to set up User and B. If you are familiar with Canon’s Digital Def. 2 and 3 styles. Photo Professional program, then the color tones will be familiar because the Picture Style Editor uses the same algorithms for

Using the Picture image processing. You can set up to 10points anywhere on the tone curve and Style Editor watch the effect of the change to the sampleimage in the main window.

One approach to getting Picture Styles that In addition, you can compare before and are exactly to your liking is to set or modify after adjustments in split windows with one of the styles provided in the camera. magnification from 12.5 to 200 percent. But that approach is experimental: You set the style, capture the image, and then Because the goal of working with the check the results on the computer until you Picture Style Editor is to create a Picture get the results you want. Style file that you can register in the camera, the adjustments that you make to the sam- With the 40D, Canon offers a more precise ple RAW image are not applied to the and certainly more efficient approach in the image. Rather, the adjustments are saved as new Picture Style Editor program, included a file with a .PF2 extension. However, you on the EOS Digital Solution Disk. Using a can apply the style in Digital Photo RAW image you’ve captured, you can apply Professional after saving the settings asaaPicture Style and make changes to the PF2 file. style while watching the effect of the changes as you work. Then you save the While the full details of using the Picture changes as a Picture Style file (.PF2), and Style Editor are beyond the scope of this use the EOS Utility to register the file in the book, I encourage you to read the Picture camera and apply it to images. Style Editor descriptions on the Canon Web site at The Picture Style Editor is deceptively simple, style/editor/index.html. but it offers powerful and exact control over, 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 101 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 101 Be sure you’ve installed the EOS Digital 4. At the bottom of the main win- Solution Disk programs before you begin. To dow, click one of the split start the Picture Style Editor, follow these screen icons to show the origi- steps. nal image and the image with the changes you make side by 1. Choose Start ➪ All Programs ➪ side. You can choose to split the Canon Utilities ➪ Picture Style screen horizontally or vertically. Or Editor. The Picture Style Editor if you want to switch back to a sin- main window appears. gle image display, click the icon at the far-left bottom of the window. 2. Drag a RAW, CR2 image onto the main window. You can also 5. Click Advanced in the Tool choose File ➪ Open Image, and palette to display the parame- navigate to a folder that contains ters for Sharpness, Contrast, RAW images, double-click a RAW Color saturation, and Color tone. file, and then click Open. When the These are the same settings that file opens, the Picture Style Editor you can change on the camera. displays the Tool palette. But with the Picture Style Editor, you can watch the effect of the 3. Click the arrow next to Base changes as you apply them. Picture Style to select a Picture Style other than Standard. 3.22 This is the Picture Style Editor and shows some of the many controls that it provides to modify a Picture Style., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 102 102 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 6. Make the changes you want, To save a custom Picture Style, follow these and then click OK. steps: 7. Adjust the color, tonal range, 1. Click the Save Picture Style File and curve using the palette icon at the top far right of the tools. A complete description of Picture Style Editor tool palette. the tools is beyond the scope of The Save Picture Style File dialog this book, but if you are familiar box appears. with image-editing programs, or with Digital Photo Professional, 2. Navigate to the folder where most of the tools will be familiar. you want to save the file. Additionally, you can go to the 3. To save a file to use in the 40D, Canon Web site at click the Disable subsequent imaging/picturestyle/ editing option at the bottom of editor/functions.html the dialog box. To save a file that for a detailed description of the you can edit again in the Picture functions. Style Editor, do not select this option. When you modify the style to your liking, you can save it and register it to use in the 4. Type a name for the file, and 40D. However, when you save the PF2 file, I then click Save. The file is saved recommend saving two versions of it. in the location you specified with a During the process of saving the file, you .PF2 file extension. can choose the Disable subsequent editing option, which prevents disclosing the To install the custom Picture Style on the adjustments that have been made in the 40D, follow these steps. Before you begin, Picture Style Editor as well as captions and ensure that you’ve installed the EOS Digital copyright information. This is the option to Solution Disk programs on your computer turn on when you save a style for use in the and have available the USB cable that came 40D and in the Digital Photo Professional with the camera. program. But by turning on that option, the style file no longer can be used in the 1. Connect the camera to the com- puter using the USB cable sup- Picture Style Editor. plied in the 40D box. For that reason, you likely want to save a 2. Choose Start ➪ All Programs ➪ second copy of the PF2 file without turning Canon Utilities ➪ EOS Utility. The on the Disable subsequent editing option in EOS Utility screen appears. the Save Picture Style File dialog box. That 3. Click Camera settings/Remote way, if you later decide to modify the style, shooting under the Connect you can use the Picture Style Editor to make Camera tab in the EOS Utility. adjustments to this copy of the PF2 file. The capture window appears. 4. Click the camera icon in the red tool bar, and then click Picture Style. The Picture Style window appears., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 103 Chapter 3 ✦ Color and Picture Styles 103 3.24 This is the Picture Style settings screen that allows you to change parameters much as you can do on the camera. 6. Click the arrow next to Picture Style, and then click User Defined 1, 2, or 3 from the drop- down menu that appears. If a Picture Style file was previously registered to this option, the new style overwrites the previous style. When you select User Defined, additional options appear. 7. Click Open. The Open dialog box appears. 8. Navigate to the folder where you saved the Picture Style file that you modified in the Picture 3.23 This is the EOS Utility control panel Style Editor, and click Open. The that is shown when the camera is Picture Style settings dialog box connected to the computer. appears with the User Defined Picture Style displaying the modi- fied style you opened. If necessary, 5. Click Detail set at the bottom of you can make further adjustments the Picture Style list. The Picture to the file before applying it. Style settings screen appears., 06_260449 ch03.qxp 2/26/08 12:08 AM Page 104 104 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 9. Click Apply. The modified style is In addition to creating your own styles, registered in 40D. It’s a good idea you can download additional Picture Styles to verify that the style was copied from Canon’s Web site at by pressing the Picture Style button imaing/picturestyle/index.html. As on the back of the 40D, and then of this writing, the site provides additional selecting the User Defined Style files including Nostalgia, Twilight, Autumn you registered to see if the settings Hues, Clear, and Emerald. You can down- are as you adjusted them. load these files, and then register them in the 40D using the steps detailed previously., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 105


the EOS 40D 4 ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

One of the first things most photographers do when In This Chaptersetting up a new camera is to customize it for their

personal shooting preferences. The EOS 40D offers rich Learning about Custom Functions options for customizing the operation of controls and buttons and the shooting functionality, both for everyday shooting and Registering Camera for shooting specific venues. User Settings The 40D offers three helpful features to customize the use Customizing My Menu and operation of the camera. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Custom Functions. These allow you to customize everything from how you select an autofocus point to increasing the chance of holding highlight detail in bright highlights. Grouping certain Custom Functions is a good way to set up the camera for both general and venue-specific shooting scenarios. Two examples of grouping are provided as a spring- board for using Custom Functions together. ✦ Register Camera User Settings. Otherwise known as the C1, C2, and C3 modes on the Mode dial, these modes enable you to save your favorite cam- era settings, including Custom Function settings, and quickly return to them by selecting the C mode to which you saved them. ✦ My Menu. This is a feature where you can place six of your most often used menu items in priority order on a single menu. Without question, these customization features used sepa- rately and in combination provide a great way to spend less time tweaking camera settings and more time shooting., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 106 106 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Learning about Custom Function Custom Functions groupings

Canon organized the 24 Custom Functions Custom Functions enable you to customize into four main groups denoted with Roman camera controls and operation to better suit numerals, all of which are listed on the your shooting style; as a result, they can save Custom Function (orange) camera menu. you significant time. For example, if you Most of the functions within the groupings grow weary of pressing the AF-point are intuitive except for the Operation/Others Selection/Enlarge button before manually group, which is a catch-all group and is less selecting an AF point, or using the Multi- intuitive. controller to manually select an AF point, Custom Function III-3 enables you to use the The following tables delineate the group- Quick Control dial to select an AF point. This ings and the C.Fn’s that fall within each function has saved me more time during group. It’s worthwhile to get familiar with shooting than any other Custom Function. the groupings because you must choose a group from the Custom Functions menu to Before you begin, you should know that find and change a specific function. Custom Functions can be set only in Creative Zone modes. Also, after you set a Custom ✦ Custom Function Group I: Function option, it remains in effect until you Exposure. This group is essentially change it. setting any function that has to do with exposure or flash sync speed. Note Canon refers to Custom Each bullet is the option number Functions using the abbreviation followed by the function name. C.Fn [group Roman numeral]- See Table 4.1. [function number]. For example, C.Fn II-3. ✦ Custom Function Group II: Image. I’m not sure that the group The 40D offers 24 Custom Functions. Some title “Image” is necessarily descrip- Custom Functions are broadly useful, and tive, but I think of this group as the others are useful for specific shooting spe- NR (noise reduction) and dynamic cialties or scenes. range group. See Table 4.2. ✦ Custom Function Group III: Be sure to remember how you have set the Custom Functions Autofocus/Drive. Here the group because some options change title is more descriptive and I think the behavior of the camera but- of the group as AF/Drive. See tons and controls and, in some Table 4.3. cases, they change the way that you control super-telephoto ✦ Custom Function Group IV: lenses. Operation/Others. I think of this group as “everything else.” If I can’t find what I want in the other groups, I choose this option on the Custom Function camera menu. See Table 4.4., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 107 Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 107

Table 4.1 Custom Function Group I: Exposure

Option Number Function Name 1 Exposure level increments 2 ISO speed setting increments 3 ISO expansion 4 Bracketing auto cancel 5 Bracketing sequence 6 Safety shift 7 Flash synchronization speed in Av mode

Table 4.2 Custom Function Group II: Image

Option Number Function Name 1 Long exposure noise reduction 2 High ISO speed noise reduction 3 Highlight tone priority

Table 4.3 Custom Function Group III: Autofocus/Drive

Option Number Function Name 1 Lens drive when AF impossible 2 Lens AF stop button function 3 AF-point Selection method 4 Superimposed display 5 AF-assist beam firing 6 AF during Live View shooting 7 Mirror lockup, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 108 108 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Table 4.4 Custom Function Group IV: Operation/Others

Option Number Function Name 1 Shutter button/AF-ON button 2 AF-ON/AE lock button switch 3 SET button when shooting 4 Dial direction during Tv/Av 5 Focusing screen 6 Add original decision data 7 Live View exposure simulation

Custom Functions Note If you set Custom Functions and

specifics later want to return to the cam-era defaults, you can do that In this section, I explain each of the Custom easily by using the Clear all Custom Func. (C.Fn) option on Functions and the options that you can set. the Custom Functions (orange) Think of Custom Functions one at a time camera menu. and consider how how you could use them to simplify or customize use of the camera. C.Fn I: Exposure You don’t have to set each option, and very likely you may find only a few that are truly All of the options for the Exposure Custom useful to you in the beginning. Functions are described in the following bullets. The specifics on option numbers But as you continue shooting, and as you and names along with a description can be read the examples for using Custom found in Table 4.5, for your quick and easy Functions as a set later in this chapter, you’ll reference. appreciate the power that they offer. ✦ C.Fn I-1 Exposure-level incre- Keep in mind that the functions are easy to ments. The options of this function find so that you can go back and reset them enable you to set the amount to if you don’t like the changes that you’ve use for shutter speed, aperture, made. I point this out as a way to encourage exposure compensation, and auto-exposure bracketing (AEB). you to use Custom Functions to the fullest The exposure increment you extent. I think that you will be pleasantly choose is displayed in the surprised at how much more you’ll enjoy viewfinder and on the LCD as the 40D after you customize it for your double marks at the bottom of shooting needs. the exposure-level indicator. If, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 109 Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 109 you often shoot bracketed expo- bracketing option, and you end up sures so that you can composite shooting with the bracketing inad- multiple images in an editing pro- vertently set. Unless you most gram, in my experience the half- often shoot with AEB and WB-BKT, stop option provides a good then I recommend using the exposure difference among images. default option 0. Both options are C.Fn I-2 ISO speed setting incre- described in the following table.✦ ments. The options of this function ✦ C.Fn I-5: Bracketing sequence. enable you to set the amount to The options of this function enable use for ISO adjustments from the you to change the sequence of default finer level of 1/3-stop to images that are bracketed by shut- 1/2-stop. ter speed or aperture. And it C.Fn I-3: ISO expansion. enables you to change the✦ The sequence for White Balance options of this function enable you Bracketing (WB-BKT). I find that to choose an additional ISO sensi- the Option 1 sequence makes it tivity setting of “H,” which is equiva- much easier to identify which lent to ISO 3200. In my experience, image is which in a series of brack- the 40D is trustworthy at very high eted images after I download them ISO settings producing above- to the computer. average image quality at 1600 and even 3200 ISO. However, as with For details on the White Balance any digital camera, you really must Bracketing sequence, see Table 4.6. shoot at high ISO settings, including ✦ C.Fn I-6: Safety shift. With this the expansion setting of 3200 and function enabled, the camera auto- examine the image to ensure that matically shifts the aperture or shut- you can get good prints with ter speed in both Shutter-priority AE acceptable noise levels at the size (Tv) and Aperture-priority AE (Av) you most often use to make prints. modes if there are sudden shifts in And even then, to always get the lighting that might cause an highest image quality in terms of improper exposure. While photog- color, fine detail, and smooth tones, raphers are watchful of sudden I recommend shooting at the low- lighting changes, this function est possible ISO setting possible could be very helpful in stage and given light, lens, and other factors. theater lighting venues where over- ✦ C.Fn I-4 Bracketing auto cancel. head spotlights can dramatically The options of this function enable shift as speakers or actors move you to choose when Auto around the stage in and out of Exposure Bracketing (AEB) and spot-lit areas. White Balance Bracketing (WB- ✦ C.Fn I-7: Flash sync speed in Av BKT) are cancelled. Very often, AEB mode. This function sets the flash and WB-BKT are specific to a sync speed automatically or sets it scene, and, therefore, not settings to a fixed 1/250 second in Av that you want to retain. It’s also mode. easy to forget that you’ve set either, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 110 110 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Table 4.5 C.Fn 1: Exposure

Option Number Option Name Description C.Fn I-1 Exposure-level increments 0 1/3 stop By default, the 40D uses 1/3 stop as the exposure-level increment for changes in shutter speed, aperture, exposure compensation, and auto-exposure bracketing. 1 1/2 stop Sets 1/2 stop as the exposure-level increment for shutter speed, aperture, exposure compensation, and auto-exposure bracketing changes. C.Fn I-2 ISO speed setting increments 0 1/3-stop By default, the 40D uses 1/3 stop as the ISO adjustment increment. With this option set, the ISO speeds are: Auto, 100, 125, 160, 200, 250, 320, 400, 500, 640, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, and H (3200) with C.Fn I-3 set to On. 1 1-stop Sets 1 f-stop as the ISO adjustment-level increment. With this option set, the ISO speeds are the traditional settings of: Auto, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and H (3200) with C.Fn I-3 set to On. C.Fn I-3 ISO expansion 0 Off At this default setting, you cannot choose ISO 3200 denoted as “H” in the viewfinder and LCD panel. 1 On Allows you to select and use the expanded ISO setting of 3200 (H). With this option, you can select H as an ISO option in the same way that you select other ISO settings. C.Fn I-4 Bracketing auto cancel 0 On Both AEB and WB-BKT are cancelled when you turn the camera power switch to Off, have the flash ready to fire, or if you clear camera settings. 1 Off Choosing this option retains AEB and WB-BKT settings even after you turn off the camera. On a flash-ready, the bracketing is cancelled, but the camera remembers the AEB amount., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 111

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 111

Option Number Option Name Description C.Fn I-5 Bracketing sequence 0 0, -, + This is the default setting that captures bracketed images beginning with the standard exposure or white balance, then the decreased exposure or white balance, and then the increased exposure or white balance. 1 -, 0, + This option changes the bracketed images sequence so that it begins with the decreased exposure or white balance, then the standard exposure or white balance, and then the increased exposure or white balance. C.Fn I-6 Safety shift 0 Disable Maintains the set exposure you’ve set regardless of subject brightness changes. 1 Enable In Shutter-priority AE (Tv) and Aperture-priority (Tv/Av) AE (Av) modes, the shutter speed or aperture automatically shifts if the subject brightness suddenly changes to provide an acceptable exposure. C.Fn I-7 Flash sync speed in Av mode 0 Auto Automatically syncs Speedlites at speeds 1/250 second or slower. 1 1/250 sec. Automatically sets the flash sync speed to (fixed) 1/250 second in Aperture-priority AE (Av) mode. If you use this sync speed against the night sky, the background goes dark.

Table 4.6 AEB, WB-BKT Bracketing Sequence

AEB WB Bracketing Blue/Amber bias Magenta/Green bias 0 : Standard exposure 0 : Standard white balance 0 : Standard white balance - : Decreased exposure - : More blue - : More magenta + : Increased exposure + : More amber + : More green, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 112 112 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D C.Fn II: Image and reducing shadow noise is All of the options for the Image Custom advantageous. But it pays to check Functions are described in the following bul- your images to ensure that a watercolor effect resulting from lets. The specifics on option numbers and noise reduction isn’t objectionable. names along with a description can be found in Table 4.7, for your quick and easy reference. ✦ C.Fn II-3 Highlight tone priority. One of the most interesting and ✦ C.Fn II-1: Long-exposure noise useful functions is Highlight Tone reduction. The options of this Priority which helps ensure good function enable you to turn noise detail in bright areas such as those reduction on, off, or to set it to on a bride’s gown. With the func- automatic for long exposures. With tion turned on, the high range of noise reduction on, the reduction the camera’s dynamic range (the process takes the same amount of range measured in f-stops between time as the original exposure. In deep shadows and highlights in a other words, if the original image scene) is extended from 18 per- exposure is 1.5 seconds, then noise cent gray (middle gray) to the reduction takes an additional 1.5 brightest highlights. Further, the seconds. This means that you can- gradation from middle gray tones not take another picture until the to highlights is smoother with this noise reduction process finishes. I option turned on. The downside of keep the 40D set to Option 1 to enabling this option is increased automatically perform noise reduc- digital noise in shadow areas. But tion if it is detected in long expo- if you’re shooting weddings or any sures, which I consider to be good other scene where it’s critical to insurance. retain highlight detail, then the tradeoff is worthwhile. If noise in Note If you’re using Live View and the shadow areas is objectionable, you have Option 2 set, then no you can apply noise reduction in image displays on the LCD dur- an editing program. ing the time that the camera performs the second noise- However, if you turn on Highlight reduction exposure. Tone Priority, ISO speed settings are reduced to 200 to1600 (rather ✦ C.Fn II-2 High ISO speed noise than 100 to1600 or 100 to 3200) reduction. This option applies even if you have ISO expansion more aggressive noise reduction to (C.Fn I-3) turned on. The ISO dis- shadow areas in particular when play in the viewfinder, on the LCD you’re shooting at high ISO speed panel, and in the Shooting infor- settings. (The camera applies some mation display uses a smaller char- noise reduction to all images.) If acter to indicate that this option is you turn this option on, noise in in effect. For example, instead of low-ISO images is further reduced. 200, the ISO will appear as 2oo. Because Canon has a good noise reduction algorithm, this setting is For more details on digital noise, less likely to munge fine details, see Chapter 2., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 113

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 113 Table 4.7 C.Fn II: Image

Option Number Option Name Description C.Fn II-1: Long-exposure noise reduction 0 Off No noise reduction is performed. 1 Auto The camera automatically performs noise reduction when it detects noise from 1-second or longer exposures. 2 On The camera automatically performs noise reduction on all exposures of 1 second or longer regardless of whether the camera detects noise. Obviously, the second exposure duration reduces the continuous shooting burst rate dramatically. This is a good option for night scenes low-light still-life subjects. C.Fn II-2 High ISO speed noise reduction 0 Off No noise reduction is performed. 1 On The camera performs noise reduction on high ISO images, as well as all images. C.Fn II-3 Highlight Tone Priority 0 Disable The default setting with no highlight tone expansion. 2 Enable This option turns on highlight tone priority, improving the detail in bright highlights and in gradation of detail from middle gray to the brightest highlights. It also reduces the ISO range to 200 to 1600 regardless of the C.Fn I-3 setting.

C.Fn III: Autofocus/Drive focus seemingly forever and goes

All of the options for the Autofocus/Drive far out of focus range while Custom Functions are described in the fol- attempting to find focus, particu- larly with telephoto and super-tele- lowing bullets. The specifics on option num- photo lenses. Setting this option bers and names along with a description can stops the lens from seeking to find be found in Table 4.8, for your quick and focus and going into an extensive easy reference. defocus range. ✦ C.Fn III-1 Lens drive when AF ✦ C.Fn III-2: Lens AF stop button impossible. This is a handy option function. For super-telephoto in scenes where the lens simply lenses that offer an AF stop button, cannot focus. You’ve likely been in the options of this function modify situations where the lens seeks the operation of the focusing, Auto, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 114 114 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D Exposure Lock, and Image autofocus, you focus using the AF- Stabilization. As of this writing, ON button on the back of the cam- lenses with the AF Stop button era. During Live View shooting, the include the EF 300mm f/2.8L IS reflex mirror is flipped up allowing USM, EF 400mm f/2.8L IS USM, EF the live view of the scene. For the 400mm f/4 DO IS USM, EF 500mm camera to autofocus, the mirror f/4L IS USM, and EF 600mm f/4L must come down long enough to IS USM lenses. On lenses that do establish focus by using the AF-ON not have an AF Stop button, chang- button. ing the options of this function has no effect. Several of these options Specific techniques for both enable you to control different manual and autofocusing are camera functions with the left and detailed in Chapter 5. right hands. ✦ C.Fn III-7: Mirror lockup. Option ✦ C.Fn III-3: AF-point Selection 1 for this function prevents blur method. The options of this func- that can be caused in close-up and tion enable you to choose which telephoto shots by the camera’s camera controls you use for select- reflex mirror flipping up at the ing the AF point. For anyone who beginning of an exposure. This has an aching thumb from pressing function is a point of contention the AF-point Selection/Enlarge but- among nature and landscape pho- ton and rotating the Main dial or tographers who often use mirror the Multi-controller to select an lockup, because the feature is AF point, this Custom Function is buried in Custom Functions. The priceless. easiest workaround is to add this C.Fn III-4: Superimposed dis- Custom Function to My Menu for✦ play. The options of this function easy access particularly because enable you to turn off the red light there are many times when you that flashes when an AF point is will want to disable this option. selected in the viewfinder. Customizing My Menu is detailed later in this chapter. ✦ C.Fn III-5: AF-assist beam firing. This function allows you to control Tip When you use Mirror Lockup whether the 40D’s built-in or an with bright subjects such as accessory EX Speedlite’s autofocus snow, bright sand, the sun, and so on, be sure to take the pic- assist light is used to help the cam- ture right away to prevent the era establish focus. The AF-assist camera curtains from being beam can be very helpful in speed- scorched by the bright light. ing up and in ensuring sharp focus in scenes where you want to use Tip If you use a Bulb exposure, mir- the flash. ror lockup, and a Self-Timer drive mode, keep pressing the ✦ C.Fn III-6: AF during Live View Shutter button completely long shooting. This function enables enough to cover the self-timer you to control whether you use delay and the Bulb exposure autofocus or manual focus when time. you use Live View shooting. To use, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 115

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 115 Table 4.8 C.Fn III: Autofocus/Drive

Option Number Option Name Description C.Fn III-1 Lens drive when AF impossible 0 Focus search The lens drive continues to function as the on camera seeks focus. 1 Focus search Stops the lens drive from going into extreme off defocus range and stops the lens from focusing. C.Fn III-2 Lens AF stop button function 0 AF Stop Provides normal functioning of the AF Stop button, which stops the lens from autofocusing when the button is pressed. This is a good option for nature and wildlife shooting, and action scenes where the subject is blocked temporarily by another object. 1 AF Start Focusing begins only while the AF stop button is pressed and AF operation with the camera is disabled. 2 AE lock Changes the AF stop button to function as AE Lock while the AF stop button is pressed. Like traditional AE Lock (described in Chapter 2), this option decouples metering from autofocusing via the use of the AF Stop button on the lens. 3 AF point: In Manual AF-point Selection, the camera switches M -> Auto/ to automatic AF-point Selection and selects the Auto -> ctr center AF point as long as the button remains pressed. This option is useful when you can’t track a subject when you’re using Manual AF-point Selection in the AI Servo AF mode. 4 One Shot Switches from One-Shot to AI Servo AF mode when <-> AI the button is held down. If you are in One-Shot AF Servo mode, pressing and holding the button switches to AI Servo AF as long as the button is held down. If you are in AI Servo AF, pressing and holding the button switches to One-Shot AF mode as long as the button is held down. This is convenient if the subject starts and stops moving frequently. 5 IS Start When the IS switch on the lens is turned on, IS works only while pressing the AF stop button. Autofocusing is initiated from the camera. With this option, you can use the left hand to control IS and your right hand to control AF-point Selection and releasing the Shutter button. Continued, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 116 116 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Table 4.8 (continued)

Option Number Option Name Description C.Fn III-3 AF-point selection method 0 Normal Press the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button, and then press the Multi-controller or Main dial to select the AF-point. 1 Multi- Multi-controller direct. Allows you to select the AF controller point by using only the Multi-controller. If you press direct the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button, the camera automatically switches to automatic AF-point Selection. This can be handy if you typically use automatic AF-point Selection for some of your routine shooting. If you don’t use automatic AF-point Selection, then having it switch to automatic AF-point Selection is annoying, especially if you are already in the habit of pressing the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button to manually select an AF point (per Option 1). 2 Quick Control Enables you to select the AF point using the Quick dial direct Control dial without first pressing the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button. From my perspective, this is by far the easiest and fastest method of selecting the AF point. Just be sure that the On switch is always set to the topmost position. If you choose this option, the Quick Control dial can’t be used to set exposure compensation. To set exposure compensation, you hold down the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button and turn the Main dial to set the amount of compensation. Because I choose an AF point far more often than I set exposure compensation, I prefer this option. C.Fn III-4 Superimposed display 0 On The AF point you select or that is selected by the camera in automatic AF selection or in AI Servo AF or AI Focus AF flashes with a red light in the viewfinder when the Shutter button is half-pressed. 1 Off Turns off the red light flashing when one or more AF points are selected in any AF mode. The AF point is highlighted in red when you manually select it, but when you half-press the Shutter button, no AF point lights. I find this option annoying and akin to flying blind. I want to know as I shoot where the point of sharpest focus will be set, so I don’t use this option., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 117

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 117

Option Number Option Name Description C.Fn III-5 AF-assist beam firing 0 Enable The camera uses the built-in flash or an accessory Canon EX Speedlite’s AF-assist beam to establish focus. This is especially helpful in low-light or low subject contrast situations where the AF system on the camera has difficulty establishing focus. The camera also fires the flash. 1 Disable The AF-assist beam isn’t used. 2 Only external Only the AF-assist beam of an accessory flash emits EX Speedlite is used to help establish focus. C.Fn III-6 AF during Live View shooting 0 Disable This is the default setting that assumes that you will focus manually using the lens focusing ring during Live View shooting. 1 Enable With this option, you to press the AF-ON button to autofocus during Live View shooting. When you press the AF-ON button, it temporarily suspends the Live View display and flips down the reflex mirror so that the camera can focus. C.Fn III-7 Mirror lockup 0 Disable Prevents the mirror from being locked up. 1 Enable Locks up the reflex mirror for close-up and telephoto images to prevent mirror reflex vibrations that can cause blur. When this option is enabled, you press the Shutter button once to swing up the mirror, and then press it again to make the exposure. With mirror lockup, the drive mode is automatically set to Single shot. The mirror remains locked for 30 seconds, or you can press the Shutter button to flip the mirror down. If you combine Mirror Lockup with either the 10- and 2-second Self-timer modes, the optional Timer Remote Controller TC80N3, and a tripod, you can ensure rock-solid shooting., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 118 118 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D C.Fn IV: Operation/Others not included if you Register All of the options for the Operation/Others Camera settings and recall them Custom Functions are described in the fol- by switching to one of the three C modes on the Mode dial. lowing bullets. The specifics on option num- bers and names along with a description can ✦ C.Fn IV-6: Add original decision be found in Table 4.9, for your quick and data. When this option is turned easy reference. on, data is appended to verify that the image is original and hasn’t ✦ C.Fn IV-1: Shutter button/AF-ON been changed. This is useful when button. This function changes the images are part of legal or court function of the Shutter button and proceedings. The optional Data the AF-ON button in starting and Verification Kit DVK-E2 is required. stopping autofocus and metering. ✦ C.Fn IV-7: Live View exposure ✦ C.Fn IV-2: AF-ON/AE lock button simulation. When this option is switch. This function swaps the turned on, the aperture, shutter function of the AF-ON button and speed, and other exposure ele- the AE Lock button. This may be ments are simulated during Live slightly handier in terms of which View shooting to give you a realis- button you use with the camera tic view at how the final image held to your eye. exposure will look. From my expe- rience, turning on Option 1 is the ✦ C.Fn IV-3: SET button when best choice. The simulation defi- shooting. This option enables you nitely makes a difference, and it is to change the function of the Set very close to what you get in the button. Although this function’s final image. Simulation does not options duplicate many of the but- appear to affect the smoothness of tons that are on the back of the the display. camera, the advantage to setting one of the options is that the Set Note You can also display the his- button is larger and easier to find togram, which updates as you than the small buttons on the but- move the camera during Live ton bar along the bottom of the View shooting. Displaying the camera or on the top left of the histogram is detailed in back of the camera. Chapter 5. ✦ C.Fn IV-4: Dial direction during Tv/Av. The option swaps the direc- Setting Custom Functions tion for setting shutter speed and aperture in Tv and Av modes, Depending on your shooting preferences respectively, when using the and needs, you may immediately recognize Main dial. functions and options that would make your shooting faster or more efficient. You may ✦ C.Fn IV-5: Focusing screen. Use also find that combinations of functions are this function only if you install one useful for specific shooting situations. of the two other interchangeable Whether used separately or together, Custom focusing screens. Note that this is Functions can significantly enhance your use the only Custom Function that is of the 40D., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 119

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 119 Table 4.9 C.Fn IV: Operations/Others

Option Number Option Name Description C.Fn IV-1 Shutter button/AF-ON button 0 Metering + Default operation where you press the Shutter AF start button halfway to lock focus and set exposure. 1 Metering + Allows you to press the AF-ON button to AF start/ suspend autofocusing. AF stop 2 Metering start/ In AI Servo AF mode, pressing the AF-ON button Metering + momentarily stops autofocusing to prevent the focus AF start from being thrown off when an object passes between the lens and the subject. Releasing the button resumes autofocusing. The camera sets exposure at the moment the shutter is released. 3 AE lock/ With this option, you can meter one part of the Metering + scene but focus on another part of the scene. You AF start press the AF-ON button to meter and autofocus, and then press the Shutter button halfway to set AE Lock. 4 Metering + Disables the use of the AF-ON button. AF start/disable C.Fn IV-2 AF-ON/AE lock button switch 0 Disable The buttons operate normally with AF-ON setting focus and AE Lock setting exposure on the area of the scene that you meter. 1 Enable The AF-ON button sets AE Lock on the area of the scene that you meter, and the AE Lock button initiates focusing. C.Fn IV-3 SET button when shooting 0 Normal Standard Set button function so that pressing the (disabled) button confirms choices and opens submenus. 1 Change quality Pressing the Set button while shooting displays the Image recording quality menu on the LCD. You can then change the image quality setting using the Quick Control dial. The Set button continues to perform its default functions with menus and submenus. If you often change the image quality, then this is a useful option to select. Continued, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 120 120 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

Table 4.9 (continued)

Option Number Option Name Description 2 Change Pressing the Set button displays the Picture Style picture style selection screen on the LCD. Then you can use the Quick Control dial to select the Picture Style and press the Set button to confirm the selection. This option is somewhat dubious given the Picture Style button on the back of the camera. Option 1 seems the most sensible use of this function to avoid redundancy with other back-of-the-camera buttons. 3 Menu display Pressing the Set button displays the camera menu on the LCD. This option duplicates the function of the Menu button but may be handier due to the size and location of the Set button. 4 Image replay Pressing the Set button starts image playback. This option duplicates the function of the Playback (>) button. Again, size and location of the Set button are the reasons to set this option. C.Fn IV-4 Dial direction during Tv/Av 0 Normal When you turn the Main dial clockwise in Tv or Av, the shutter speed or aperture increases. In Manual mode, the same changes occur using the Main and Quick Control dials for shutter speed and aperture, respectively. 1 Reverse The direction is reversed so that turning the Main direction dial clockwise in Tv or Av modes causes the shutter speed or aperture to decrease, respectively. In Manual mode, the direction is reversed for the Main and Quick Control dials except for setting exposure compensation. C.Fn IV-5 Focusing screen 0 Ee-A Standard Precision Matte. The installed focusing screen that offers good viewfinder brightness and good manual focusing. 1 Ee-D Precision Matte with grid. This screen features five vertical lines and three horizontal lines to help keep lines square during image composition., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 121

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 121

Option Number Option Name Description 2 Ee-S Super Precision Matte. Designed to make manual focusing easier with f/2.8 and faster lenses. The viewfinder is darker using this screen with slower lenses. C.Fn IV-6 Add original decision data 0 Off No verification data is appended. 1 On Appends data to verify that the image is original. During image playback, a lock icon denotes verification data. To verify the image originality, the optional Original Data Security Kit OSK-E3 is required. C.Fn IV-7 Live View exposure simulation 0 Disable (LCD This view shows the image normally with no auto adjust) exposure simulation. 1 Enable The Live View display on the LCD updates (simulates continuously to preview the actual exposure exposure) settings. The view is not as accurate in very bright and very low light, and it doesn’t work, of course, for flash and Bulb exposures. Simulation also works if you’re shooting Live View with the camera tethered (cabled) to a computer. To set a Custom Function, follow these steps: Set button. The Custom Functions screen with the function group that 1. Set the Mode dial to a Creative you selected appears. Zone mode. 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to 2. Press the Menu button, and highlight the Custom Function then press the Jump button number you want, and then until the Custom Functions press the Set button. The Custom (orange) menu is displayed. Function number is displayed in a 3. Turn the Quick Control dial small box to the upper right of the clockwise to highlight the screen. When you press the Set Custom Functions (C.Fn) group button, the Custom Function you want, and then press the option control is activated., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 122 122 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight the option you want, Note If you change the focusingscreen, be sure to set C.Fn IV-5 and then press the Set button. to match the screen that you You can refer to the previous tables install. The function you set in this section of the chapter to remains in effect until you man- select the function number that ually change it. you want. Repeat Steps 2 through 4 to select other Custom Function groups, functions, and options. Creating Custom 6. Press the Menu button to return Function sets to the Custom Functions (orange) menu, or lightly press As a starting point for thinking about specific the Shutter button to return to shooting situations and customizing the shooting. camera for your shooting preferences, I’ve provided a couple of sample Custom If you want to reset one of the Custom Function sets or combinations to show you Functions, repeat these steps to change it to how you can combine functions. another setting or the default setting. Unfortunately, you can’t save groups of If you want to restore the Custom Function Custom Functions and recall them as a options to the camera’s default settings group except when they are part of register- except C.Fn IV-5 for the focusing screen, fol- ing camera settings (which is explained later low these steps: in the chapter). But because setting or changing Custom Functions is relatively 1. Set the camera Mode dial to a quick, it’s worthwhile to consider creating Creative Zone mode such as P, job-specific Custom Function settings. Tv, Av, or M. 2. Press the Menu button, and Wedding set then press the Jump button until the Custom Functions The light and location for various weddings (orange) menu is displayed. activities change throughout the event rang- ing from the bridal dressing room, to the 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to wedding location, then to the reception highlight Clear all Custom Func. area. And throughout the event, the light, (C.Fn), and then press the Set pace of action, and the types of shots you’re button. The Clear all Custom Func. making can change dramatically. Table 4.10 (C.Fn) screen appears. suggests a combination of functions and 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to options that take these changing shooting highlight OK, and then press the situations into consideration. Set button. The Custom Functions screen appears. Press the Shutter button lightly to return to shooting., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 123

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 123 Table 4.10 Custom Functions: Wedding Set

C.Fn Group Option and Number Number Rationale I: ISO expansion On Because you can never predict how much light you’ll have, and the option of choosing ISO 3200 may trump the option for using C.Fn II-3, Highlight Tone Priority. Alternately, you can set both functions and register them as C1 and C2, and then use the C mode that you need depending on the light. Registering settings for C modes is detailed in the next section of this chapter. II-2: High ISO 1: On Given the rationale in the previous section, it makes speed noise sense to turn on this option as it could easily reduce reduction post-processing time. Unless you have a favorite noise-reduction program and have time to apply it to high-ISO images, this is a good option to use. III-3: AF-point 2: Quick If you always or most often manually select the AF Selection Control dial point, then this option saves the annoying method direct requirement of pressing the AF-point Selection/ Enlarge button to activate AF-point Selection. I prefer using the Quick Control dial because then I don’t have to reposition the camera as much when I’m looking through the viewfinder and want to change the AF point. If you choose Option 2, you can set exposure compensation by pressing the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button and turning the Main dial to set the compensation amount. IV-3: SET 1: Change When the wedding moves into the reception phase, button when quality you may want to switch from Large/Fine JPEG or RAW shooting to perhaps sRAW+JPEG for the images that are inevitably printed at smaller sizes. This option gives you quick access to the Quality menu to make that change., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 124 124 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 4.1 Setting up a Custom Function set for the ceremony segment of this wedding allowed me to concentrate on shooting instead of adjusting camera settings. Exposure: ISO 200, f/3.2, 1/25 sec., using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. Landscape and Nature set Registering Camera For full-time landscape and nature shooting, having the camera set up in advance for your User Settings favorite settings saves time and ensures that the camera is always ready for common The Camera User Settings, denoted as C1, shooting scenarios and for using bracketed C2, and C3 on the Mode dial, raises the images for composites, if that’s your prefer- level of 40D customization one notch ence. Table 4.11 suggests a combination of higher. C modes enable you to set up the functions and options for landscape and camera the way you want, then register vir- nature photography. tually all of the settings — from exposure set- tings and shooting mode to Custom As you work with Custom Functions, you Functions — and save them so you can use quickly learn which ones you want to set them by switching to the C1, C2, or C3 permanently for your everyday shooting, and mode on the Mode dial. And you’re not which are useful only in certain shooting sit- locked into the setting that you register, uations. When you combine Custom because you can still change the drive mode Function sets with the C1, C2, and C3 set- and menu settings. But, if you want to save tings on the Mode dial, which are detailed in the changes you make, you have to reregis- the next section, you can set up the camera ter the settings. for a variety of shooting scenarios., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 125

Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 125 Table 4.11 Custom Functions: Landscape and Nature Set

C.Fn-number Option Rationale I-1: Exposure- 0 or 1 If you often bracket images to later composite level increments different exposures, this option is handy for making multiple exposures. The increment you choose is really a matter of personal preference. Option 1 at 1/2-stop works for the composites that I make. I-4: Bracketing Off This option is purely personal preference, but if you auto cancel most often use AEB, then having it remain in effect even if the camera is turned off is a good option. I-5: bracketing 1: -, 0, + This sequence makes the bracketed images easier to sequence identify when I download images for review on the computer. II-1: Long 2: On Turning on this option for a second frame to subtract exposure noise digital noise from a long exposure is well worth the reduction wait and the excellent results. III-1: Lens drive 1: Focus This can keep a super-telephoto lens from going too when AF impossible search off far into defocus range. Typically, you can speed up autofocus by getting the lens back in range manually, and then focusing on an area of the subject that has better contrast. III-2: Lens AF 4: One-shot This is also a personal preference option depending stop button switch to on the scene and how you want the lens to operate. function AI Servo Option 4 is useful when shooting an animal or bird that is stationary but is likely to begin moving. III-3: AF-point 2: Quick If you always or most often manually select the AF Selection method Control point, then this function and option eliminate the dial direct need to press AF-point Selection/Enlarge button to activate AF-point Selection. If you choose Option 2, then you can set exposure compensation by pressing the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button and turning the Main dial to set the compensation amount. III-7: Mirror 1: Enable Prevents potential blur in super-telephoto, macro, lockup and long exposure shots caused by the action of the reflex mirror flipping up. If you choose this option, you have to press the Shutter button once to flip up the mirror, and press it a second time to make the exposure. IV-1: Shutter 2: Metering This option is useful for subjects that start and stop button/AF-ON start/ moving. You can press the AF-ON button to control button Metering + the AI Servo AF function. AF start, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 126 126 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 4.2 Having the camera preset for my most common shooting preferences allowed me to pull the car over when I saw this sunset, and have confidence that I could capture a bracketed set of images at 1/2-stop increments in case I needed to composite them for the final image. Exposure: ISO 125, f/8, 1/15 sec., using an EF 25-105mm f/4L IS USM lens. for specific venues — for example, if you Tip If you’ve forgotten what settings you registered for any of the C shoot weddings in the same church or modes, just press the Info but- chapel you can haveaCmode set for that ton to display the current cam- venue. Or you can use the mode on an ad era settings. hoc basis when you know that you will shoot a series of images using the same One approach to Registering Camera User group of settings, such as a series of images Settings is to group all the modes, options, of an interior, a series of portraits, and so on. and preferences that you ordinarily use in everyday shooting and register them as one Whichever scenario suits your work, there is of the three C mode settings. Then you can no question that being able to quickly move shoot using that C mode to have all of your to a preset group of settings saves signifi- choices applied simultaneously and instantly. cant time. Another approach is to use these modes for When you register camera settings, the fol- specific shooting venues such as portrait lowing settings are saved and recalled when work, weddings, indoor but non-studio you set the Mode dial to the C mode you shooting, and so on. One of the nice aspects registered them under. of the C mode is that you can plan its use, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 127 Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 127 4.3 Much of my shooting day to day is flower photography. By setting upaCmode for shooting flowers, I can begin shooting by simply switching to the C mode. Exposure: ISO 100, f/16, 1/100 sec. using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. ✦ Shooting settings. These shooting ✦ Menu settings. These menu set- settings can be saved inaCmode. tings can be saved inaCmode. • Shooting mode (any mode • Image quality except Basic Zone modes) • Beep on or off • Exposure Settings: ISO, aper- • Shoot with or without a CF card ture, shutter speed • AEB • AF mode • White Balance Shift/Bracketing • AF-point Selection mode • Custom White Balance • Metering mode • Color temperature • Drive mode • Color space • Exposure compensation • Picture Style • Flash exposure compensation • Review time • White Balance, 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 128 128 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D • AF points Set button. The Set-up 3 (yellow) • menu appears. The camera regis-Histogram ters the settings except for the My • Auto power off Menu settings. Lightly press the • Auto rotate Shutter button to dismiss the menu. • LCD brightness 7. Turn the Mode dial to the C1, • File numbering method C2, or C3 mode depending on • Custom Functions the option you selected in Step 5 to shoot with the registered To register camera user settings to C1, C2, or settings. When you shoot inaCC3 mode, follow these steps: mode, the Clear all camera settings on the Set-up 3 (yellow) menu, 1. Set the 40D to a Creative Zone and the Clear all custom Func. mode, and then set all of the (C.Fn) option on the Custom settings that you want to regis- Function menu cannot be used. To ter on the 40D. In addition to use these menu options, switch to shooting, exposure, and menu another Creative Zone mode first. settings, you can set Custom Functions for specific shooting If you want to clear the registered Camera scenarios as detailed previously user settings, follow these steps: in this chapter. 2. Press the Menu button, and 1. Set the camera to a Creative then press the Jump button Zone mode. until the Set-up 3 (yellow) 2. Press the Menu button, and then menu is displayed. press the Jump button until the 3. Turn the Quick Control dial Set-up 3 (yellow) menu is clockwise to highlight Camera displayed. user setting, and then press the 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to Set button. The Camera user set- highlight Camera user setting, ting screen appears. and then press the Set button. 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to The Camera user setting screen highlight Register, and then appears. press the Set button. The 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to Register screen appears. highlight Clear settings, and 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to then press the Set button. The highlight the Mode dial option Clear settings screen appears. you want: Mode dial : C1, Mode 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to dial : C2, or Mode dial : C3, and highlight the C mode that you then press the Set button. A sec- want to clear, and then press ond Register screen appears. the Set button. For example, 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to select Mode dial : C2 to clear the highligh OK, and then press the C2 Mode dial settings. The Clear settings screen appears., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 129 Chapter 4 ✦ Customizing the EOS 40D 129 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to To register camera Menu items and Custom highlight OK, and then press the Functions to My Menu, follow these steps: Set button. The camera displays a wait icon, and then returns to the 1. Set the camera to a Creative Set-up 3 (yellow) menu. The cam- Zone mode. era clears the registered settings 2. Press the Menu button, and for the C mode that you selected. then press the Jump button Lightly press the Shutter button to until My Menu (green) is dismiss the menu. displayed. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight My Menu settings, and

Customizing then press the Set button. The

My Menu settings screen appears.

My Menu 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to

Given the proliferation of menus on the 40D, highlight Register, and then and given that in an average day of shooting press the Set button. The My you may use four or five menus consistently, Menu registered item screen customizing the My Menu option is the eas- appears. This screen is a list of all menu items available on the iest way to get to the most frequently used camera. items quickly. Just as with the C mode regis- tration, My Menu lets you select and register 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to your most often used menu items and highlight the menu item you Custom Functions for easy access. want to register, and then press the Set button. In particular, as you become a fan of 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to Custom Functions, you can sidestep figuring highlight OK, and then press the out the Custom Function grouping structure Set button. The My Menu regis- on the Custom Functions menu, and just tered item screen reappears. put the C.Fns that you change most often on My Menu. Again, the payoff is time savings 7. Repeat Step 5 until all the menu items you want are registered. for you. To find individual Custom Functions, keep scrolling past the Plus, you can add and delete items to My C.Fn group names, and you’ll see Menu easily and quickly, and you can the individual Custom Functions by change the order of items by sorting the name only (the group and option items you register. You can also set the 40D numbers are not listed). to display My Menu first when you press the Menu button. The only drawback is that you 8. When you finish registering all can only register six items. So before you menu items you want to regis- begin registering, evaluate the menu items ter, press the Menu button. The and Custom Functions carefully choose your My Menu settings screen appears. six favorite items. If you want to sort your newly added items, from here jump to Step 4 in the following set of steps., 07_260449 ch04.qxp 2/26/08 12:10 AM Page 130 130 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D To sort your registered camera Menu items Control dial to the right to move and Custom Functions, follow these steps: the selected item down one item in the list. Or turn the Quick 1. Set the camera to a Creative Control dial to the left to move the Zone mode. item to the end of the list. 2. Press the Menu button, and 7. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 to move then press the Jump button other menu items in the order until My Menu (green) is dis- that you want. played. 8. Press the Menu button twice to 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to display your customized menu. highlight My Menu settings, and Or lightly press the Shutter button then press the Set button. The to dismiss the menu. My Menu settings screen appears. Note The My Menu settings item4. Turn the Quick Control dial to always appears at the bottom of highlight Sort, and then press the My Menu list. Selecting it the Set button. The Sort My Menu gives you access to the My Menu screen appears. settings screen where you can Register, Sort, Delete, Delete all 5. Press the Set button if you want items, and disable the display of to move the first menu item to a My Menu. different position in the list. The camera activates the sort control Without question, the 40D offers you the represented by scroll arrow to the maximum level of customizability. While the right side of the menu item. full complement of choices may initially 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to seem overwhelming, I recommend taking move the item’s placement each one in turn and building on it to set within the menu, and then press more custom settings until you get the cam- the Set button. Turn the Quick era set up for your shooting style., 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 131

UsingCHAPTER Live View 5 Shooting ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

In This Chapter About Live View

F shootingor any veteran digital SLR photographer, the notion ofshooting with a live view of the scene displayed on the Live View features and

LCD is not only foreign but also somewhat suspect. Certainly functions having a live view is a staple feature of point-and-shoot cam- eras, but on a digital SLR? The first questions an experienced Setting up for Live View photographer is likely to ask are, “Why, and when?” What shooting advantage is there to a live view, and in what shooting sce- narios would it be useful? Shooting in Live View The answers to these questions become clearer with use. The ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Live View feature in the EOS 40D offers more flexibility in fram- ing images, particularly when crouching down to examine the shot through the viewfinder requires unnatural body contor- tions; it offers a big view that can be magnified up to 10x to ensure tack-sharp automatic or manual focus; it offers a Silent mode that reduces shutter noise, which can spook wildlife; and it can simulate actual exposure settings on the LCD. The Live View shooting function is useful in specific shooting situations including macro work, when shooting tethered (where the camera is connected by a cable to a computer) or wireless in the studio, and for still-life shooting. In short, it is most useful in controlled and close-up shooting scenarios., 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 132 132 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D

About Live View 170 shots with 50 percent flashuse in 73-degree temperatures. In Shooting freezing temperatures, expect 140shots without flash use and 130

shots with 50 percent flash use per The concept of the camera being able to charge. With a fully charged bat- hold the shutter open to give you a real- tery, you’ll get approximately 30 time view of the scene and yet pause long minutes of continuous Live View enough to focus is impressive in terms of shooting before the battery is technology. And even more impressive is exhausted. the quality of the live view that the 40D pro- vides, which is smooth and detailed. ✦ High ambient temperatures, high ISO speeds, or long expo- To create this live view, Canon engineered sures can cause digital noise or an electronic first-curtain shutter that irregular color in images taken enables shooting while the mechanical using Live View. If you see a shutter is completely open. To give the warning icon on the LCD, discon- detailed view, the camera uses a high-speed tinue shooting and let the camera’s internal temperature cool down. If scanning and an electronic reset system that you disregard the warning, the mimics the high-speed mechanical shutter camera will eventually stop shoot- operation. The system then synchronizes ing until the internal temperature with the mechanical second-curtain shutter decreases. to create what Canon terms a slit exposure. This technology enables some very cool side features as well. For example, because the Live View Features first-curtain shutter is electronic, the shutter cocking noise can be reduced, and the 40D and Functions offers two modes for quiet or silent shoot- ing in either Continuous or Single Shot drive Just as real-time shooting is unusual for dig- modes. The caveat is that although Live ital SLR photography, so are some of the View shooting has an admittedly high “cool- functions and techniques for Live View ness” factor, it comes at a price. With con- shooting. Canon implemented some very tinual use of Live View shooting, the sensor helpful features including exposure simula- heats up quickly, and the battery life dimin- tion, but it’s important to understand what ishes markedly. changes during shooting. More specifically, here is what you can expect with Live View shooting: Live View using autofocusing ✦ Temperature affects the number of shots you can get using Live With Live View shooting, you can focus View. With a fully charged BP-511A either manually or by using the camera’s battery, you can expect 180 shots autofocus system. With autofocus, by neces- without flash use and approximately sity, the reflex mirror must remain locked up, 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 133 Chapter 5 ✦ Using Live View Shooting 133 while the camera is providing a live view. retains the current exposure. In controlled When you want to focus, the mirror must go light scenes, a longer meter time speeds up down momentarily. Autofocus is initiated by Live View shooting operation overall. pressing the AF-ON button on the back of the camera, provided that you enable it You can also use the Depth of Field Preview using Custom Function (C.Fn) III-6. This sus- button on the front of the camera. And if pends the live view until the AF-ON button you are tethered to the computer, the EOS is released. To make the picture, release the Utility Live View remote window also AF-ON button, wait for the Live View func- enables you to preview the depth of field tion to begin again, and then press the using the computer’s Live View controls. Shutter button to make the picture. You can use autofocus in Single Shot and AI Servo AF Optionally by using the Live View function modes. settings options on the Setup 2 (yellow) menu, you can choose to displaya3× 3 For details on focusing and grid in the viewfinder to help align vertical drive modes, see Chapter 2. and horizontal lines, which is handy. Another aspect that’s different is that you’re limited to using the center AF point for auto- Using a flash focusing, and no AF points are displayed during Live View shooting. If you’re using a When shooting in Live View with an EX- super-telephoto lens, the focus preset fea- series Speedlite using either Silent mode 1 ture also can’t be used. or 2 (detailed later in this chapter), the shooting sequence after fully pressing the Shutter button is for the reflex mirror to

Exposure simulation and drop to allow the camera to gather the pre-

metering flash data, and then the mirror moves upout of the optical path for the actual expo- Canon added new Custom Functions that sure. As a result, you hear two shutter clicks, support Live View shooting. Among them is but only one image is taken. C.Fn IV-07, which simulates what the final image will look like at the current shutter Here are some things you should know speed, aperture, and other exposure set- about using Live View shooting with a flash tings on the LCD during Live View display. unit. Another difference is that unlike traditional ✦ With an EX-series Speedlite, FE shooting modes, the exposure for Live View Lock, modeling flash, and test shooting is not linked to the AF point. firing cannot be used, and the Instead, the camera uses focusing frame- Speedlite’s Custom Functions cannot be set on the flash unit. linked evaluative metering. Another twist is that you can set the Live View Function ✦ With the 580EX II, the wireless Metering Timer from 4 seconds to 30 min- setting cannot be changed. utes to determine how long the camera, 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 134 134 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D ✦ Non-Canon flash units will not Live View shooting, display the grid in the fire in either Silent mode 1 or 2. LCD, set up silent modes, and set the meter- The Live View function on the Set- ing timer. up 2 (yellow) menu should be set to Disable. To set up the 40D for Live View shooting ✦ The LCD display may not reflect and to set your preferences, follow these very bright or low-light condi- steps: tions accurately, but the final image reflects the exposure set- 1. Set the Mode dial to a Creative tings. A bright light source such as Zone mode such as P, Tv, Av, the sun may appear black on the or M. LCD, but the final image shows the 2. Press the Menu button, and bright areas correctly. then press the Jump button until the Set-up 2 (yellow) menu is displayed.

Setting up for Live 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to

highlight Live View Function

View Shooting Settings, and then press the Set

button. The Live View Function Before you begin using Live View shooting, Settings screen appears with the decide how you want the camera to func- Live View shoot. option selected. tion for focusing and shooting, particularly 4. With the Live View shoot. option silent shooting. The settings on the camera highlighted, press the Set but- menus not only activate Live View shooting ton. The camera activates the Live but also enable you to set your preferences View shoot. options. for shooting in this mode. 5. Turn the Quick Control dial to It’s also a good idea to spend a few minutes highlight Enable, and then press the Set button. The Live View setting up Custom Functions, especially if Function Settings screen is you want to use autofocusing instead of displayed. focusing manually, and if you want to view the live view with simulated actual exposure 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to settings. Grid display, and then press the Set button. The Grid display For a detailed look at Custom options appear. Turning on the grid Functions and how to set them option displaysa3× 3 grid on the up, see Chapter 4. LCD that helps you square up hori- zontal and vertical lines during Live

Live View function View shooting.

settings Live View function settings are available on the camera’s Shooting 2 (yellow) menu. Use this menu and its options to activate, 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 135 Chapter 5 ✦ Using Live View Shooting 135

What You Should Know about Silent Shooting Mode and Continuous Shooting

Live View shooting offers two silent shooting modes, both of which are much quieter than normal shooting. Depending on the silent shooting mode that you choose, you can either shoot in High-Speed Continuous mode at 6 fps with quieter shooting than in non-Live View shooting, or you can choose to shoot one shot at a time and delay the shutter sound. In either mode, the shutter noise is decreased by roughly 50 per- cent. If you’re photographing birds, wildlife, or even a sleeping baby, silent shooting is far less likely to scare off the birds or animals or to wake the baby. Unfortunately, you can use the quieter modes only with Live View shooting. Also, keep in mind that the two silent shooting modes affect only the shutter noise but not the reflex mirror noise. So in Live View shooting, if you enable C.Fn III-6 to use autofocusing via the AF-ON button on the back of the camera, when you press the AF-ON button, the sound of the mirror flipping down is just as noisy as it is in non-Live View shooting. Alternately, if you opt to focus manually (C.Fn III-6-Disable), the reflex mirror does not flip down for focusing, so mirror noise is not an issue. Following is a summary of the two silent shooting modes and the Disable option that you can select when you set up Live View function settings. ✦ Mode 1. This mode enables High-speed continuous shooting at 6 fps by holding down the Shutter button completely. The shutter cocking noise is reduced by approximately half. ✦ Mode 2. This mode enables one-shot shooting when you fully press the Shutter button regardless of drive mode setting, and it delays the shutter noise to minimize disturbances. This mode is initially disconcerting, but it works nicely. ✦ Disable. If you’re using a tilt-and-shift (TS-E) lens and make vertical shift movement, or if you use an extension tube, then this is the setting to choose to avoid underexposure or overexposure. With a TS-E lens, Mode 1 or 2, and a shutter speed of 1/2000 second or faster, the slit created between the first- and second-curtain shutter is in the same orientation as the optical axis caus- ing incorrect exposures. 7. Turn the Quick Control dial to 8. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight On, and then press highlight Silent shoot., and then the Set button. The default setting press the Set button. The Silent is Off. If you do not want the grid shoot. options appear. displayed, leave the setting to Off, 9. Turn the Quick Control dial to and then press the Set button highlight the mode you want or without making any changes. The highlight Disable, and then Live View Function Settings screen press the Set button. Briefly, the is displayed. Silent shooting options are:, 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 136 136 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D • Mode 1 reduces shooting noise Custom Function III-6 and enables High-speed contin- C.Fn III-6 determines whether you use auto- uous shooting at 6 fps. focusing during Live View shooting. If you • Mode 2 delays shooting noise. choose to turn on this Custom Function, • Disable should be used if then you can use the AF-ON button on the you’re using a TS-E lens or back of the camera to interrupt Live View to extension tubes. autofocus. The function is set to Disable by default. The camera returns to the Live View Function Settings screen. To set this function so that you can auto- focus during Live View shooting, follow Note Be sure to read the previous sidebar for more details on these steps: each silent shooting mode. 1. Set the camera to a Creative Zone 10. Turn the Quick Control dial to mode, such as P, Tv, Av, or M. highlight Metering timer, and 2. Press the Menu button, and then press the Set button. The then press the Jump button Metering timer options appear. The until the Custom Functions option that you choose determines (orange) menu is displayed. how long the camera retains the most recent metered exposure. If 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to you’re shooting in unchanging highlight C.Fn III: Auto light, you can set a long metering focus/Drive, and then press the time, but if the light changes, set it Set button. The C.Fn III: Auto to a short duration. focus/Drive screen appears. The function number control located at 11. Turn the Quick Control dial to the top right of the screen is active. highlight a timer option, and then press the Set button. The 4. Turn the Quick Control dial until Live View Function Settings screen the Custom Function number 6 appears. is displayed in the control. The AF during Live View shooting 12. Lightly press the Shutter button options are displayed. to dismiss the menu. 5. Press the Set button. The camera activates the C.Fn III-6 options.

Custom Functions for Live 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to View shooting highlight 1:Enable, and then

press the Set button. While Chapter 4 details setting Custom Functions (C.Fn), there are one or two func- 7. Lightly press the Shutter button to dismiss the screen. tions you should set before you begin using Live View shooting. For the sake of conven- ience, they are covered here., 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 137 Chapter 5 ✦ Using Live View Shooting 137 Custom Function IV-7 7. Lightly press the Shutter button C.Fn IV-7, Live View Function exposure sim- to dismiss the screen. ulation, enables you to see the LCD Live View simulated to show actual exposure settings including shutter speed and aper- Shooting in Live ture. Also, when you enable this function and you have the Playback option set to dis- View play the histogram, you can watch a live his- togram as you move or reposition the Once you have the options and functions camera during Live View shooting. set up for Live View, then you can begin shooting. As mentioned earlier, this Live See Chapter 2 for details on View is best suited for macro or still-life selecting the type of histogram displayed. shooting. With this type of shooting, you will likely want to use manual focusing or auto- To turn on Live View exposure simulation, focusing with manual tweaking. During follow these steps. focusing, you can enlarge the view up to 10x to ensure tack-sharp focus. 1. Set the camera to a Creative Zone mode, such as P, Tv, Av, or M. The second-best option is to use Live View in a studio tethered to a computer or wire- 2. Press the Menu button, and lessly with a file transmitter or wireless- then press the Jump button enabled battery grip. With the tethered until the Custom Functions option, you connect the camera to the com- (orange) appears. puter using the supplied USB cable, and you 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to control the camera using the supplied EOS highlight C.FnIV: Utility program. You can view the scene on Operation/Others, and then the computer monitor in real time. press the Set button. The C.FnIV: Operation/Others Shutter Either way, just a few minutes of watching button/AF-ON screen appears. The the real-time view convinces you that a tri- function number control located at pod is necessary for Live View shooting. With the top right of the screen is active. any focal length approaching telephoto, Live 4. Turn the Quick Control dial until View provides a real-time gauge of just how the Custom Function number 7 steady or unsteady your hands are. is displayed in the control. The Live View exposure simulation options are displayed. Using autofocus or 5. Press the Set button. The camera manual focus activates the C.Fn IV-7 function The operation of the camera during Live options. View shooting differs from traditional still 6. Turn the Quick Control dial to view shooting, but the following steps guide highlight 1:Enable (simulates you through the controls and operation of exposure), and press the Set button., 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 138 138 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D the camera. Before you begin, make sure view to 5x, and a second press that you’ve read the previous sections on enlarges the view to 10x. The mag- setting up the camera Live View functions nifications are shown on the LCD and Custom Functions so that you get the as X5 and X10. performance you want. To shoot in Live 5. Press the AF-ON button to View using autofocus, follow these steps: focus. When you press the AF-ON button, you can hear the sound of 1. With the camera set to a the reflex mirror dropping down to Creative Zone mode, set the ISO, focus. During focusing, Live View is aperture, and/or shutter speed. suspended. Your settings depend on the shoot- ing mode you chose. You can also 6. Press the Shutter button com- use AEB, choose a Picture Style, pletely to make the picture. The set the white balance, and use shutter fires to make the picture, AE Lock in Live View shooting. the image playback is displayed, Remember that no AF points are and then the Live View resumes. shown in the viewfinder during 7. Press the Set button to go back Live View shooting, and focus is to standard shooting mode. If best established using the center you do not do this step, the cam- AF point. era automatically closes the shutter when the camera Auto Power Off If you are new to using Creative Zone modes, review Chapter 2. (Shooting 1 menu) delay elapses. 2. Press the Set button. The shutter To shoot in Live View using manual focus, opens and the Live View display follow these steps, but first ensure that C.Fn begins. A white rectangle in the III-6 is set to 0:Disable. center of the LCD indicates the focusing frame. 1. With the camera in a Creative Zone mode, set the ISO, aper- 3. Compose the image as you want ture, and/or shutter speed. Your by moving the camera or the settings will depend on the shoot- subject. Notice that as you move ing mode you chose. You can also the camera, the exposure changes use AEB, choose a Picture Style, set and is displayed in the bottom bar the white balance, and use AE under the Live View display. This Lock in Live View shooting. AE Lock differs from standard shooting, is applied to the full-view which links exposure to the exposure. selected AF point. In Live View, however, the camera uses focusing 2. Press the Set button. The shutter frame-linked evaluative metering. opens and the Live View display begins. 4. Press the AF-point Selection/Enlarge button on the 3. Compose the image as you want top far-right corner of the cam- by moving the camera. You can era to magnify the view. The first press the Depth of Field Preview press of the button enlarges the button on the front of the camera to gauge the depth of field., 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 139 Chapter 5 ✦ Using Live View Shooting 139 4. Press the Multi-controller to the computer to which you are connecting move the focusing frame when the camera. To shoot in Live View with the you are using the full LCD view. 40D tethered to the computer, follow these If you want to move the focusing steps: frame back to the center quickly, press the Multi-controller in the 1. Turn off the camera, and attach center. the USB cord to the Digital ter- 5. Press the AF-point Selection/ minal located under the termi- Enlarge button on the top far- nal covers on the side of the right corner of the camera to camera. Be sure that the icon on magnify the view. The first press the cable connector faces the front of the button enlarges the view to side of the camera. 5x, and a second press enlarges 2. Connect the other end of the the view to 10x. These magnifica- USB cable to a USB terminal on tions are shown on the LCD as X5 the computer. and X10. 3. Turn on the power switch on the 6. Turn the lens focusing ring to camera. The computer installs the focus. device driver software and identi- 7. Press the Shutter button com- fies the camera. If you’re using pletely to make the picture. The Windows Vista, the AutoPlay dialog shutter fires to make the picture, box appears. Click Downloads the image playback is displayed, images from EOS camera using and the Live View resumes. EOS Utility. The EOS Utility – EOS 40D dialog box appears. If a cam- era model selection screen

Using tethered or appears, select the EOS 40D.

wireless connection 4. Click Camera settings/Remoteshooting in the EOS Utility win- One of the most useful ways to use Live dow. The EOS 40D control panel View shooting is for studio work, particularly appears. You can use the panel to when you’re shooting still-life subjects such control exposure settings, set the as products, food, stock shots, and so on. white balance, set the Picture Style, and set White-Balance Shift in this You can set up with the 40D connected to a panel. To set exposure, double- computer using the USB cable supplied click the aperture, ISO, and so on, with the camera. The extra-long cord allows and use the controls to adjust the a decent range of movement, particularly if settings. the computer is on a wheeled or swivel Tip Now is a good time to clicktable. You can also shoot with the optional Preferences and set the options wireless file transmitter, such as the Wireless you want such as choosing the File Transmitter WFT-E3/WFT-E3A. For this destination folder in which to section, we’ll use the supplied USB cable. save captured images, and whether to save the images Before you begin, ensure that you have both on the computer and onthe CF card. installed the EOS Digital Solution Disk on, 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 140 140 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 5. Click the Remote Live View Shooting button at the bottom right of the Remote Shooting control panel. The Remote Live View window appears. In this win- dow, you can set the white point by clicking a white area or neutral gray area in the scene, use the controls to set the focus, preview the depth of field by clicking the On button, and switch between the Brightness and RGB histograms as well as monitor the histogram as the camera moves or as lighting changes. 6. When the exposure and compo- sition is set, you can magnify the view, and then focus using the AF-ON button on the camera or manually using the lens focusing ring, depending on your setting for C.Fn III-6. 7. Press the Shutter button com- pletely to take the picture. The Digital Photo Professional main window opens with the image selected. 5.2 The Remote Live View Shooting button, which is not labeled in the control panel 5.1 The EOS Utility Remote Shooting but does have rollover control panel text to identify it., 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 141

Chapter 5 ✦ Using Live View Shooting 141

5.3 The Remote Live View window. The controls are self-explanatory and easy to use by clicking or double-clicking the option that you want to change. 8. When you finish, turn off the bracketed shots using either camera and disconnect the USB aperture or shutter speed, the cable from the camera. ability to capture time-lapse sequences, fade back for over- If you want to focus remotely lays and alignment for DSLRTip from the computer in Live View, stop-action animations or be sure to check out Breeze panoramic stitching, append Systems DSLR Remote Pro V. 1.5 IPTC data, and more. For more that offers remote-controlled information, visit the Breeze autofocus for Windows systems. Systems Web site at This program offers additional features including up to 15 RemotePro/index.htm., 08_260449 ch05.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 142 142 Part I ✦ Using the Canon EOS 40D 5.4 You can change exposure using the control panel, as shown here, and you can set the Picture Style, click within the real-time view to balance the color and then apply it to the picture, and much more. 5.5 The final image taken in Live View shooting. Exposure: ISO 100, f/7.1, 1/2 sec., using an EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens., 09_260449 pp02.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 143

Getting thePART Most from

the Canon II

EOS 40D ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦In This Part

Chapter 6 Selecting and Using Lenses Chapter 7 Working with Light Chapter 8 Using Flash Chapter 9 In the Field with the EOS 40D ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦, 09_260449 pp02.qxp 2/26/08 12:11 AM Page 144, 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 145

Selecting andCHAPTER Using Lenses 6

✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

The lens is the eye of the camera, so don’t underesti- In This Chaptermate the importance of quality lenses. With a high-

quality lens, pictures have stunning detail, high resolution, Understanding the focal length multiplication and snappy contrast. Conversely, low-quality optics produce factor marginal picture quality. And as most photographers know, over time your investment in lenses far exceeds the money Lens choices invested in the camera body. For these reasons, making stud- ied decisions on lens purchases pays off for years to come in Zoom versus prime getting great image sharpness and quality. lenses This chapter looks at the lenses available to help you make Canon lens terminology decisions about lenses you can add to your system to enhance the type of photography you most enjoy. Using wide-angle lenses Using telephoto lenses

Understanding the Focal Using normal lenses Length Multiplication Factor Using macro lenses

The 40D image sensor is 1.6 times smaller than a traditional Using tilt-and-shift 35mm film frame. It is important to know the sensor size lenses because it not only determines the size of the image but also affects the angle of view of the lenses you use. A lens’s angle Using Image-Stabilized of view is how much of the scene, side-to-side and top-to- lenses bottom, that the lens includes in the image. Exploring lens The angle of view for all lenses you use on the 40D is reduced accessories by a factor of 1.6 times at any given focal length, giving an image equal to that of a lens with 1.6 times the focal length. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ That means that a 100mm lens on a 35mm film camera becomes the equivalent to a 160mm on the 40D. Likewise, a 50mm normal lens becomes the equivalent of an 80mm lens, which is equivalent to a short telephoto lens on a full-35mm- frame size., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 146 146 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D The focal length multiplication factor works Tip EF-S lenses are usable only on the cropped-frame cameras, to your disadvantage with a wide-angle lens including the 40D, due to a because the sensor sees less of the scene redesigned rear element that when the focal length is magnified by 1.6. protrudes back into the camera But, because wide-angle lenses tend to be body. less expensive than telephoto lenses, you can buy an ultrawide 14mm lens to get the This focal length multiplication factor works equivalent of an angle of view of 22mm. to your advantage with a telephoto lens because it effectively increases the lens’s Because telephoto lenses provide a shallow focal length (although technically the focal depth of field, it seems reasonable to length doesn’t change). And because tele- assume that the conversion factor would photo lenses tend to be more expensive produce the same depth-of-field results on than other lenses, you can buy a shorter and the 40D that a longer lens gives. That isn’t less expensive telephoto lens and get 1.6 the case, however. Although an 85mm lens times more magnification at no extra cost. 6.1 This image shows the approximate difference in image size between a 35mm film frame and the 40D. The smaller image size represents the 40D’s image size., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 147 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 147 on a full 35mm-frame camera is equivalent angle, normal, and telephoto. There are also to a 136mm lens on the 40D, the depth of macro lenses that serve double-duty as field on the 40D matches the 85mm lens, either normal or telephoto lenses and offer not the 136mm lens. macro capability. This depth-of-field principle holds true for enlargements. The depth of field in the print Wide angle is shallower for the longer lens on a full- Wide-angle lenses offer a wide view of a frame camera than it is for the 40D. scene. Lenses shorter than 50mm are com- monly considered wide angle on full-frame 35mm image sensors. For example, 16mm

Lens Choices and 24mm lenses are wide angle. A wide-

angle lens also offers sharp detail from fore- Lenses range in focal lengths (the amount ground to background, especially at narrow of the scene included in the frame) from apertures such as f/22. The amount of rea- fisheye to super-telephoto and are generally sonably sharp focus front to back in an grouped into three main categories: wide image is referred to as depth of field. 6.2 As a result of the focal length multiplication factor on the 40D, less of the scene is included than would be on a full-frame camera, and the distortion of the wide-angle lens is evident. Exposure: ISO 100, f/10, 1/250 sec. using a Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM lens., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 148 148 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Normal Telephoto lenses offer shallow depth of field

and provide a softly blurred background, Normal lenses offer an angle of view and per- particularly at wide apertures, and a closer spective very much as your eyes see the view of distant scenes and subjects. scene. On full 35mm-frame cameras, 50mm to 55mm lenses are considered normal lenses. Normal lenses provide extensive Macro depth of field (particularly at narrow aper- Macro lenses are designed to provide a tures) and are compact in size and versatile. closer lens-to-subject focusing distance than non-macro lenses. Depending on the lens,

Telephoto the magnification ranges from half-life size

(0.5x) to 5x magnification. Thus, objects as Telephoto lenses offer a narrow angle of small as a penny or a postage stamp can fill view, enabling close-ups of distant scenes. the frame, while nature macro shots can On full 35mm-frame cameras, lenses with reveal breathtaking details that are com- focal lengths longer than 50mm are consid- monly overlooked or are not visible to the ered telephoto lenses. For example, 80mm human eye. By contrast, non-macro lenses and 200mm lenses are telephoto lenses. typically allow maximum magnifications of 6.3 A normal lens captures the size relationships of various items in the scene much as you would see them. Exposure: ISO 1000, f/4, 1/15 sec. at 50mm., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 149 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 149 6.4 The Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM telephoto zoom lens enables a close-up view of this hot-air balloon landing. Exposure: ISO 160, f/4.5, 1/80 sec. about one-tenth life size (0.1x). Macro About zoom lenses lenses are single focal-length lenses that come in normal and telephoto focal lengths. Zoom lenses, with their variable focal length, are versatile because they offer mul- tiple and variable focal lengths in a single

Zoom Versus lens. Zoom lenses, which are available inwide-angle and telephoto ranges, are able Prime Lenses to maintain focus during zooming. To keepthe lens size compact, and to compensate

for aberrations with fewer lens elements, In addition to the basic focal-length lens cat- most zoom lenses use a multi-group zoom egories, you can also choose between zoom with three or more movable lens groups. and prime (also called single focal-length) lenses. The most basic difference between Some zoom lenses are slower than single zoom and prime lenses is that zoom lenses focal length lenses, and getting a fast zoom offer a range of focal lengths in a single lens lens usually comes at a higher price. In addi- while prime lenses offer a fixed, or single, tion, some zoom lenses have a variable focal length. There are additional distinc- aperture, which means that the minimum tions that come into play as you evaluate aperture changes at different zoom settings which type of lens is best for your shooting (discussed in the following sections). needs., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 150 150 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D Zoom lens advantages The obvious advantage of a zoom lens is the ability to quickly change focal lengths and image composition without changing lenses. In addition, only two or three zoom lenses are needed to encompass the focal range you use most often for everyday shooting. For example, carrying a Canon EF- S 17-55mm IS USM lens and a Canon EF 55-200mm f/4.5-5.6 II USM lens, or a simi- lar combination of L-series lenses, provides the focal range needed for most everyday shooting. A zoom lens also offers the creative freedom of changing image composition with the turn of the zoom ring — all without changing your shooting position or changing lenses and most mid-priced and more expensive zoom lenses offer high-quality optics that 6.5 Wide-angle zoom lenses such as the produce sharp images with excellent con- Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM lens, trast. As with all Canon lenses, full-time shown on the right, are ideal for the manual focusing is available by switching smaller sensor size of the 40D. the button on the side of the lens to MF (Manual Focusing). the focal range, the maximum aperture is f/5.6. In practical terms, this limits the versa- Zoom lens disadvantages tility of the lens at the longest focal length for Although zoom lenses allow you to carry shooting in all but bright light unless you set around fewer lenses, they tend to be heavier a high ISO. And unless you use a tripod or than their single focal-length counterparts. your subject is stone still, your ability to get a Mid-priced, fixed-aperture zoom lenses tend crisp picture in lower light at f/5.6 will be to be slow, meaning that with maximum questionable. apertures of only f/4.5 or f/5.6, they call for slower shutter speeds that limit your ability More expensive zoom lenses offer a fixed to get sharp images when handholding the and fast maximum aperture, meaning that camera. with maximum apertures of f/2.8, they allow faster shutter speeds that enhance your abil- Some zoom lenses have variable apertures. A ity to get sharp images when handholding variable-aperture lens of f/4.5 to f/5.6 means the camera. But the lens speed comes at a that at the widest focal length, the maximum price: the faster the lens, the higher the price. aperture is f/4.5 and at the telephoto end of, 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 151 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 151

About prime lenses

Long the mainstay of photographers, prime, or single focal-length, lenses offer a fixed focal length. Prime lenses such as Canon’s venerable EF 50mm f/1.4 USM lens, EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM are only two of a full lineup of Canon prime lenses. With a prime lens, you must move closer to or far- ther from your subject, or change lenses to change image composition. Single focal- length lenses generally have a brighter max- imum aperture than zoom lenses which offer a broader range of creative expressive- ness. Although prime lenses do not offer Image Stabilization (IS), they produce excel- lent sharpness and contrast. 6.6 Although zoom lenses are versatile, single focal-length lenses are often smaller and lighter. The Canon EF 50mm f/1.4 lens Prime lens advantages is one of the lightest and still most versatile Unlike zoom lenses, prime lenses tend to be lenses in Canon’s lineup. fast with maximum apertures of f/2.8 or wider. Wide apertures allow fast shutter speeds, and that combination allows you to Canon Lens handhold the camera in lower light and still get a sharp image. Compared to zoom Terminology lenses, single focal-length lenses are lighter and smaller. Canon uses several designations and lens construction technologies that are helpful to In addition, many photographers believe become familiar with. Understanding the that single focal-length lenses are sharper terminology comes in handy when you eval- and provide better image quality overall than uate lenses that you add to your system. zoom lenses. ✦ EF lens mount. The designation EF identifies the type of mount that Prime lens disadvantages the lens has. The EF lens mount Most prime lenses are lightweight, but you provides not only quick mounting need more of them to cover the range of and removal of lenses, but it also focal lengths needed for everyday photogra- provides the communication chan- phy, although some famous photographers nel between the lens and the cam- used only one prime lens. Prime lenses also era body. The EF mount is fully limit the options for on-the-fly composition electronic and resists abrasion, changes that are possible with zoom lenses. shock, play, and needs no lubrica- tion of other lens mounts. The EF, 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 152 152 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D system does a self-test using a • UD/Fluorite elements. built-in microcomputer so that Ultralow Dispersion (UD) glass you’re alerted of possible malfunc- elements help minimize color tions of the lens via the camera’s fringing or chromatic aberration. LCD display. In addition, if you use This glass also provides lens extenders, the exposure improved contrast and sharp- compensation is automatically ness. UD elements are used, for calculated. example, in the EF 70-200mm USM. f/2.8L IS USM and EF 300mm✦ When you see USM it indi- f/4L IS USM lenses. On the cates the lens features an ultrasonic other hand, Fluorite elements, motor. A USM lens has an ultra- which are used in super- sonic and very quiet focusing mech- telephoto L-series lenses, anism (motor) that is built in. The reduce chromatic aberration. motor is powered by the camera; Lenses with UD or Fluorite however, because the lens has its elements are designated as own focusing motor you get excep- CaF , UD, and/or S-UD. tionally fast focus. USM lenses use 2 electronic vibrations created by • Aspherical elements. This piezoelectric ceramic elements to technology is designed to help provide quick and quiet focusing counteract spherical aberration action with near instantaneous that happens when wide-angle starts and stops. and fast normal lenses cannot resolve light rays coming into In addition, lenses with a ring-type the lens from the center with ultrasonic motor offer full-time light rays coming into the lens manual focusing without the need from the edge into a sharp to first switch the lens to manual point of focus. The result is a focus. This design is offered in the blurred image. An aspherical large-aperture and super-telephoto element uses a varying curved lenses. A second design, the micro surface to ensure that the entire ultrasonic motor, provides the image plane appears focused. advantages of this technology in These types of optics help cor- the less expensive EF lenses. rect curvilinear distortion in ✦ L-series lenses. Canon’s L-series ultra-wide-angle lenses as well. lenses feature a distinctive red ring Lenses with aspherical ele- on the outer barrel, or in the case ments are designated as AL. of telephoto and super-telephoto • Dust, water-resistant con- lenses, are distinguished by struction. For any photogra- Canon’s well-known white barrel. pher who shoots in inclement The distinguishing characteristics of weather, whether it’s a wed- L-series lenses, in addition to their ding, editorial assignment, or sobering price tags, are a combina- sports event, having a lens with tion of technologies that provide adequate weather sealing is outstanding optical performance. critical. The L-series EF tele- L-series lenses include one or more photo lenses have rubber seals of the following technologies and at the switch panels, exterior features., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 153 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 153 seams, drop-in filter compart- EF 85mm f/1.8 USM, focus faster ments, and lens mounts to than lenses that move their entire make them both dust and optical system, such as the EF water resistant. Moving parts 85mm f/1.2L II USM. including the focusing ring and ✦ Floating System. Canon lenses switches are also designed to use a floating system that dynami- keep out environmental cally varies the gap between key contaminants. lens elements based on the focus- ✦ Image Stabilization. Lenses ing distance. As a result, optical labeled as IS lenses offer image aberrations are reduced or sup- stabilization, which is detailed later pressed through the entire focus- in this chapter. IS lenses allow you ing range. In comparison, optical to handhold the camera at light aberrations in non-floating system levels that normally require a tri- lenses are corrected only at com- pod. The amount of handholding monly used focusing distances. At latitude varies by lens and the pho- other focusing distances, particu- tographer’s ability to hold the lens larly at close focusing distances, steady, but you can generally count the aberrations appear and reduce on one to four more f-stops of sta- image quality. bility with an IS lens than with a ✦ AF Stop. The AF Stop button non-IS lens. allows you to temporarily suspend ✦ Macro. Macro lenses, which are autofocusing of the lens. For exam- covered in detail later in this chap- ple, you can press the AF Stop but- ter, enable close-up focusing with ton to stop focusing when an subject magnification of one-half to obstruction comes between the life-size and a maximum aperture lens and the subject to prevent the of f/25. focusing from being thrown off. Full-time manual focusing. Once the obstruction passes by the✦ An subject, the focus remains on the advantage of Canon lenses is the subject provided that the subject ability to use autofocus, and then hasn’t moved so that you can tweak focus manually using the resume shooting. The AF Stop but- lens’s focusing ring without switch- ton is available on several EF IS ing out of autofocus mode or super-telephoto lenses. changing the switch on the lens from the AF to MF setting. Full-time ✦ Focus preset. This feature lets you manual focusing comes in very program a focusing distance into handy, for example, with macro the camera’s memory. For exam- shots and when using extension ple, if you shoot a bicycle race near tubes. the finish line, you can preset focus Inner and Rear Focusing. on the finish line and then shoot✦ Lenses’ normally as riders approach. When focusing groups can be located in the racers near the finish line, you front or behind the diaphragm, both can turn a ring on the lens to of which allow for compact optical instantly return to the preset focus- systems with fast AF. Lenses with ing distance, which is on the finish rear optical focusing such as the line., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 154 154 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Evaluating Bokeh Characteristics

The quality of the out-of-focus area in a wide-aperture image is called bokeh, originally from the Japanese word boke, pronounced bo-keh, which means fuzzy. In photogra- phy, bokeh reflects the shape and number of diaphragm blades in the lens, and that determines, in part, the way that out-of-focus point of lights are rendered in the image. Bokeh is also a result of spherical aberration that affects how the light is collected. Although subject to controversy, photographers often judge bokeh as being either good or bad. Good bokeh renders the out-of-focus areas as smooth, uniform, and generally circular shapes with nicely blurred edges. Bad bokeh, on the other hand, renders out-of-focus areas with polygonal shapes, hard edges, and with illumination that creates a brighter area at the outside of the disc shape. Also, if the disc has sharper edges, then either points of light or lines in the background become more distinct when, in fact, they are better rendered blurred. As you are considering lenses, bokeh may be one consideration. In general, lenses with normal aperture diaphragms create polygonal shapes in the background. On the other hand, circular-aperture diaphragms optimize the shape of the blades to create circular blur because the point source is circular. Canon lenses that feature circular- aperture diaphragms use curved blades to create a rounded opening when the lens is stopped down and maintains the circular appearance even in continuous shooting burst mode. Ken Rockwell provides an article on bokeh with excellent examples at www.ken ✦ Diffractive optics. Diffractive optics (DO) bonds diffractive coat- Using Wide-Angle ings to the surfaces of two or more lens elements. The elements are Lenses then combined to form a single A wide-angle lens is great for capturing multilayer DO element designed to cancel chromatic aberrations at var- scenes ranging from large groups of people ious wavelengths when combined to sweeping landscapes and underwater with conventional glass optics. subjects, as well as for taking pictures in Diffractive optics result in smaller places where space is cramped. The distin- and shorter telephoto lenses with- guishing characteristic of wide-angle lenses out compromising image quality. is the range of the angle of view. Within the For example, the EF 70-300mm Canon lens lineup, you can choose angles of f/4.5-5.6 DO IS USM lens is 28 per- view ranging from the fisheye lens, which cent shorter than the EF 70-300mm offers a 180-degree angle of view, to the f/4.5-5.6 IS USM lens. 35mm, which offers a 63-degree angle of view, not counting the 1.6X focal length mul- tiplication factor., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 155 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 155 6.7 Early-morning fog and frost were just dissipating when I captured this image with an EF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM lens. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/80 sec. When you shoot with a wide-angle lens, ✦ Distortion. Wide-angle lenses can keep these lens characteristics in mind: distort lines and objects in a scene, especially if you tilt the camera up ✦ Extensive depth of field. or down when shooting. For exam- Particularly at small apertures from ple, if you tilt the camera up to f/11 to f/32, the entire scene, front photograph a group of skyscrapers, to back, will be in acceptably sharp the lines of the buildings tend to focus. This characteristic gives you converge and the buildings appear slightly more latitude for less-than- to fall backward (also called perfectly focused pictures. keystoning). You can use this wide- Narrow, fast apertures. angle lens characteristic to cre-✦ Wide- atively enhance a composition, or angle lenses tend to be faster you can move back from the sub- (meaning they have wider aper- ject and keep the camera parallel tures) than telephoto lenses. As a to the main subject to help avoid result, these lenses are good the distortion. choices for everyday shooting when the lighting conditions are not optimal., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 156 156 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D ✦ Perspective. Wide-angle lenses make objects close to the camera Using Telephoto appear disproportionately large. You can use this characteristic to Lenses move the closest object farther for- Choose a telephoto lens to take portraits and ward in the image, or you can move back from the closest object to capture distant subjects such as birds, to reduce the effect. Wide-angle buildings, wildlife, and landscapes. Telephoto lenses are popular for portraits, but lenses such as 85mm and 100mm are ideal if you use a wide-angle lens for for portraits, while longer lenses (300mm to close-up portraiture, keep in mind 800mm) allow you to photograph distant that the lens exaggerates the size birds, wildlife, and athletes. When photo- of facial features closest to the graphing wildlife, these lenses also allow you lens, which is unflattering. to keep a safe distance. Tip If you’re shopping for a wide- When you shoot with a telephoto lens, keep angle lens, look for aspherical these lens characteristics in mind: lenses. These lenses include a nonspherical element that helps reduce or eliminate optical flaws to produce better edge-to- edge sharpness and reduce distortions. 6.8 Telephoto lenses are larger and heavier than other lenses, but a sharp and versatile telephoto zoom lens is indispensable. This 70-200mm lens also features Image Stabilization, that helps counteract camera shake when handholding the camera., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 157 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 157 ✦ Shallow depth of field. Telephoto lenses magnify subjects and pro- Using Normal vide a limited range of sharp focus. At wide apertures, such as f/4, you Lenses can reduce the background toaAnormal, or 50-55mm, lens is perhaps the soft blur. Because of the extremely shallow depth of field, it’s impor- most often overlooked lens in the focal range tant to get tack-sharp focus. Canon of lenses. This lens, long the primary or only lenses include full-time manual lens that photography greats of past decades focusing that you can use to fine- used, remains a classic lens that provides tune the camera’s autofocus. outstanding sharpness and contrast. On a 35mm film camera, a normal lens is 50mm, ✦ Narrow coverage of a scene. but on the 40D, a 35mm lens is closer to nor- Because the angle of view is nar- mal when the focal-length conversion factor row with a telephoto lens, much is considered. Normal lenses are small, light, less of the scene is included in the some are affordably priced, and offer fast and image. You can use this character- super-fast apertures such as f/1.4 and faster. istic to exclude distracting scene elements from the image. When you shoot with a normal lens, keep ✦ Slow speed. Mid-priced telephoto these lens characteristics in mind: lenses tend to be slow; the widest aperture is often f/4.5 or f/5.6, ✦ Natural angle of view. A 50mm which limits the ability to get sharp lens closely replicates the sense of images without a tripod in all but distance and perspective of the the brightest light unless they also human eye. This means the final feature Image Stabilization And image will look much as you because of the magnification fac- remember seeing it when you tor, even the slightest movement is made the picture. exaggerated. ✦ Little distortion. Given the natural ✦ Perspective. Telephoto lenses angle of view, the 50mm lens tend to compress perspective, retains a normal sense of distance, making objects in the scene especially when you balance the appear stacked together. subject distance, perspective, and aperture. If you’re shopping for a telephoto lens, look for those with UD glass or Fluorite elements that improve contrast and sharpness. Image Stabilization counteracts blur caused by handholding the camera., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 158 158 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D 6.9 A normal lens, used for this image, is small and light, and provides an angle of view similar to that of the human eye. The Canon 50mm, f/1.4 USM lens also provides excellent contrast. Exposure: ISO 400, f/22, 1/125 sec. ✦ Creative expression. With plan- ning and a good understanding of Using Macro Lenses the 50mm lens, you can use it to Macro lenses open a new world of photo- simulate both wide-angle and medium telephoto lens effects. For graphic possibilities by offering an extreme example, by shooting at a narrow level of magnification. In addition, the aperture and at a low- or high- reduced focusing distance allows beautiful, angle shooting position, you can moderate close-ups as well as extreme create the dynamic feeling of a close-ups of flowers and plants, animals, wide-angle lens but without the raindrops, and everyday objects. The closest distortion. On the other hand, a focusing distance can be further reduced by large aperture and a conventional using extension tubes. shooting angle create results similar to that of a medium-telephoto lens. Normal and telephoto lenses offer macro capability. Because these lenses can be used both at their normal focal length as well as for macro photography, they do double-duty. Macro lenses offer one-half or life-size magnification., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 159 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 159 6.10 Canon offers several macro lenses including the EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM (left) that offers 1x (life-size) magnification and a minimum focusing distance of 0.48m/1.6 ft. Also shown here is the Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. If you’re buying a macro lens, you can choose lenses by focal length or by magnification. If you want to photograph moving subjects such as insects, choose a telephoto lens with macro capability. Moving subjects require special techniques and much practice. Based on focal length and magnification, choose the lens that best suits the kinds of subjects you want to photograph. I find that the 100mm, f/2.8 Macro USM lens is a won- derful walk-around lens for my photography which tends to telephoto and macro work. I appreciate the ability to capture a wide variety of scenes with this lens and have the ability to do excellent macro work without changing lenses. Other photographers would never think of using a prime lens as a walk-around lens, but for me, the 100mm is ideal. 6.11 The EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM lens, used to make this picture of a summer rose, is very sharp with excellent contrast. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/400 sec., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 160 160 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Using Tilt-and-Shift All Canon’s TS-E lenses are manual focusonly. These lenses, depending on the focal Lenses length, are excellent for architectural, interior,merchandise, nature, and food photography.

Referred to as TS-E, tilt-and-shift lenses allow you to alter the angle of the plane of focus between the lens and sensor plane to Using Image provide a broad depth of field even at wide apertures and to correct or alter perspective Stabilized Lenses at almost any angle. In short, TS-E lenses allow you to correct perspective distortion Image Stabilization (IS) is a technology that and control focusing range. These types of counteracts motion blur from handholding movements were previously possible only the camera. Whether IS belongs in the lens with medium and large format cameras. or in the camera is a matter of debate. But for Canon, the argument is that stabilization Tilt movements allow you to bring an entire belongs in the lens because different lenses scene into focus even at maximum aper- have different stabilization needs. If you’ve tures. By tilting the lens barrel, you can shopped for lenses lately, you know that IS adjust the lens so that the plane of focus is comes at a premium price, but IS is often uniform on the focal plane, thus changing worth the extra money because in practice the normally perpendicular relationship you gain from one to four f-stops of stability— between the lens’s optical axis and the cam- and that means that you may be able to era’s focal plane. Alternately, reversing the leave the tripod at home. tilt has the opposite effect of greatly reduc- ing the range of focusing. The rule of thumb for handholding the cam- era is 1/[focal length]. For example, the Shift movements avoid the trapezoidal slowest shutter speed at which you can effect that results from using wide-angle handhold a 200mm lens and avoid motion lenses pointed up to take a picture of a blur is 1/200 second. If the handholding building, for example. Keeping the camera limit is pushed, then shake from handhold- so that the focal plane is parallel to the sur- ing the camera bends light rays coming face of a wall and then shifting the TS-E lens from the subject into the lens relative to the to raise the lens results in an image with the optical axis, and the result is a blurry image. perpendicular lines of the structure being rendered perpendicular and with the struc- With an IS lens, miniature sensors and a ture being rendered with a rectangular high-speed microcomputer built into the appearance. lens analyze vibrations and apply correction via a stabilizing lens group that shifts the TS-E lenses revolve within a range of image parallel to the focal plane to cancel plus/minus 90 degrees making horizontal camera shake. The lens detects camera shift possible, useful in shooting a series of motion via two gyro sensors — one for yaw panoramic images. You can also use shifting and one for pitch. The sensors detect the to prevent having reflections of the camera angle and speed of shake. Then the lens or yourself in images that include reflective shifts the IS lens group to suit the degree of surfaces, such as windows, car surfaces, and shake to steady the light rays reaching the other similar surfaces. focal plane., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 161

Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 161

6.12 Image Stabilization provided a level of insurance for sharpness in this scene where I handheld an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens zoomed to 200mm. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/200 sec.

Table 6.1 Canon EF Wide, Standard, and Medium Telephoto Lenses

Standard Telephoto Standard and Ultrawide Zoom Wide-Angle Zoom Zoom Medium Telephoto EF16-35mm EF 14mm EF-S 17-55mm EF 55-200mm EF 50mm f/2.8L II USM f/2.8L II USM f/2.8 IS USM f/4.5-5.6 II USM f/1.2L USM EF-S 10-22mm EF 14mm EF-S 17-85mm EF 70-200mm EF 50mm f/3.5-4.5 USM f/2.8L USM f/4-5.6 IS USM f/2.8L IS USM f/1.4 USM EF 17-40mm EF 15mm EF-S 18-55mm EF 70-200mm EF 50mm f/4L USM f/2.8 Fisheye f/3.5-5.6 USM f/2.8L USM f/1.8 II EF 20-35mm EF 20mm EF-S 18-55mm EF 70-200mm EF 85mm f/3.5-4.5 USM f/2.8 USM f/3.5-5.6 IS f/4L IS USM f/1.2L II USM Continued, 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 162 162 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 6.1 (continued)

Standard Telephoto Standard and Ultrawide Zoom Wide-Angle Zoom Zoom Medium Telephoto EF 24mm EF 24-70mm EF 70-200mm EF 85mm f/1.4L USM f/2.8L USM f/4L USM f/1.8 USM EF 24mm EF 24-85mm EF 70-300mm EF 100mm f/2.8 f/3.5-4.5 USM f/4-5.6 IS USM f/2 USM EF 28mm EF 28-105mm EF 70-300mm f/2.8 f/3.5-4.5 II f/4.5-5.6 DO IS USM USM EF 35mm EF 28-105mm EF 80-200mm f/1.4L USM f/4.0-5.6 USM f/4.5-5.6 II EF 35mm f/2 EF 24-105mm EF 75-300mm f/4L IS USM f/4-5.6 III USM EF 28mm EF 28-135mm EF75-300mm f/1.8 USM f/3.5-5.6 IS f/4-5.6 III


EF 28-200mm EF100-300mm f/3.5-5.6 USM f/4.5-5.6 USM EF 28-300mm EF 100-400mm f/3.5-5.6L IS f/4.5-5.6L IS USM USM EF 28-80mm f/3.5-5.6 II EF 28-90mm f/4-5.6 II USM

Table 6.2 Canon EF Telephoto, Super-Telephoto, Macro, and TS-E Lenses

Telephoto SuperTelephoto Macro Tilt-Shift EF 135mm EF 300mm EF 50mm TS-E 24mm f/2L USM f/2.8L IS USM f/2.5 Compact f/3.5L Macro—Life-Size Converter EF, 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 163 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 163 Telephoto SuperTelephoto Macro Tilt-Shift EF 135mm EF 400mm EF-S 60mm TS-E 45mm f/2.8 with f/2.8L IS USM f/2.8 Macro f/2.8 Soft focus USM EF 200mm f/2L IS USM EF 200mm EF 400mm MP-E 65mm TS-E 90mm f/2.8L II USM f/4 DO IS USM f/2.8 1-5x f/2.8 Macro Photo EF 300mm EF 400mm EF 100mm f/4L IS USM f/5.6L USM f/2.8 Macro


EF 500mm f/4L EF 180mm IS USM f/3.5L Macro


EF 600mm f/4L IS USM EF 800mm f/5.6L IS USM Stabilization is particularly important with long lenses, where the effect of shake Note You may wonder whetherImage Stabilization is worth the increases as the focal length increases. As a premium prices for these lenses. result, the correction needed to cancel cam- Comparing the Canon EF era shake increases proportionately. 70-200mm f/2.8L USM lens and the EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS IS lenses come at a higher price, but they USM, the price difference runs roughly $400 for an IS lens ver- are very effective for close-up shots, low- sus a non-IS lens. From my light scenes, and telephoto shooting. experience, IS is worth the price, particularly in low-light scenes But what about when you want to pan or such as weddings and music move the camera with the motion of a sub- concerts where tripods aren’t ject? Predictably, IS detects panning as cam- practical. era shake and the stabilization then interferes with framing the subject. To cor- rect this, Canon offers two modes on IS Exploring Lens lenses. Mode 1 is designed for stationary subjects. Mode 2 shuts off image stabiliza- Accessories tion in the direction of movement when the lens detects large movements for a preset There are a variety of ways to increase the amount of time. So when panning horizon- focal range and decrease the focusing dis- tally, horizontal IS stops but vertical IS con- tance to provide flexibility for the lenses you tinues to correct any vertical shake during already own. These accessories are not only the panning movement. economical, but they extend the range and, 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 164 164 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D creative options of existing and new lenses. 1.4x and 2x, that are compatible only with Accessories can be as simple as a lens hood L-series Canon lenses. Extenders can also be to avoid flare, adding a tripod mount to combined to get even greater magnification. quickly change between vertical and hori- zontal positions without changing the opti- For example, using the Canon EF 2x II exten- cal axis, or the geometrical center of the der with a 600mm lens doubles the lens’s lens, or adding a drop-in or adapter-type focal length to 1200mm before applying gelatin filter holder. Other options include 1.6x. Using the Canon EF 1.4x II extender using extension tubes, extenders, and close- increases a 600mm lens to 840mm. up lenses. Extenders generally do not change camera operation in any way, but they do reduce

Lens extenders the light reaching the sensor. The EF 1.4x II

extender decreases the light by one f-stop, For relatively little cost, you can increase the and the EF 2x II extender decreases the light focal length of any lens by using an exten- by two f-stops. In addition to being fairly der. An extender is a lens set in a small ring lightweight, the obvious advantage of exten- mounted between the camera body and a ders is that they can reduce the number of regular lens. Canon offers two extenders, a telephoto lenses you carry. 6.13 Extenders, such as this Canon EF 1.4x II mounted between the camera body and the lens, extend the range of L-series lenses. They increase the focal length by a factor of 1.4x, in addition to the 1.6x focal-length conversion factor inherent in the camera., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 165 Chapter 6 ✦ Selecting and Using Lenses 165

Extension tubes and

close-up lenses Extension tubes are close-up accessories that provide magnification from approxi- mately 0.3 to 0.7 and can be used on many EF lenses, though there are exceptions. Extension tubes are placed between the camera body and lens and connect to the camera via eight electronic contact points. The function of the camera and lens is unchanged, and extension tubes can be combined for greater magnification. Canon offers two extension tubes, the E 12 II and the EF 25 II. Magnification differs by lens, but with the EF12 II and standard zoom lenses, it is approximately 0.3 to 0.5. With the EF 25 II, magnification is 0.7. When combin- ing tubes, you may need to focus manually. 6.14 A 12mm Kenko extension tube Extension tube EF 25 II is not compatible allowed closer focusing for this image made with the EF 15mm f/2.8 fisheye, EF 14mm with an EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. f/2.8L USM, EF 20mm f/2.8 USM, EF 24mm Exposure: ISO 100, f/14, 1/250 sec. with f/1.4L USM, EF 20-35mm f/3.5-4.5 USM, EF +1 compensation. 24-70mm f/2.8L USM, MP-E 65mm f/2.8 1-5x Macro Photo, TS-E 45mm f/2.8, and The 1.4x extender can be used with fixed EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 (at wide angles). focal-length lenses 135mm and longer (except the 135mm f/2.8 Softfocus lens), Additionally, you can use screw-in close-up and the 70-200mm f/2.8L, 70-200mm lenses. Canon offers three lenses that pro- f/2.8L IS, 70-200mm f/4.0L, 70-200mm vide enhanced close-up photography. The f/4.0L IS USM, and 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L 250D/500D series uses a double-element IS zoom lenses. With the EF 2x II, autofocus design for enhanced optical performance. is possible if the lens has an f/2.8 or faster The 500D series features single-element maximum aperture and compatible Image construction for economy. The working dis- Stabilization lenses continue to provide tance from the end of the lens is 25cm for stabilization. the 250D, and 50cm for the 500D., 10_260449 ch06.qxp 2/26/08 12:12 AM Page 166, 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 167


with Light 7 ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

L ight has fascinated photographers since the inception In This Chapterof photography, and the fascination is no less com-

pelling today than it was then. One of the key characteristics Understanding color temperature that sets images apart is the light — the quality, color, angle, and direction. Waiting for the magical light of sunrise or sun- The colors of light set in an outdoor scene, or setting up evocative studio light- ing spells the difference between a run-of-the mill image and Metering light and a spectacular image. Using the qualities of light, you can set reflected light the mood; control the viewer’s emotional response to the subject; reveal or subdue the subject’s shape, form, texture, Additional and detail, and render scene colors vibrant or subdued. characteristics of light To get stunningly lit images, it’s important to understand the ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ basic characteristics of light and how you can use it to your advantage. This chapter provides a basic foundation for exploring and using the characteristics of light.

Understanding Color Temperature

Few people think of light as having color until the color becomes obvious, such as at sunrise and sunset when the sun’s low angle causes light to pass through more of the earth’s atmosphere, creating visible and often dramatic color. However, regardless of the time of day, natural light has a color temperature, and each color, or hue, of sunlight renders subjects differently. Likewise, household bulbs, candlelight, flashlights, and electronic flashes all have distinctive color temperatures., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 168 168 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D However, the human eye automatically Kelvin temperature scale and is expressed in adjusts to the changing colors of light so degrees, abbreviated simply as “K.” So for that white appears white, regardless of the the camera to render color accurately, the type of light in which we view it. Digital White Balance setting must match the spe- image sensors are not, however, as adapt- cific light in the scene. For example, sunlight able as the human eye. For example, when on a clear day is considered to be between the EOS 40D is set to Daylight, it renders 5200 and 5500K, so the Daylight White color in a scene most accurately in the light Balance setting will render colors accurately at noon on a sunny cloudless day. But at the in this light. same setting, it does not render color as accurately at sunset or sunrise because the When learning about color temperatures, temperature of the light has changed. keep in mind this general principle: The higher the color temperature is, the bluer the Color temperature is important to under- light; the lower the color temperature is, the stand because different times of day and yellower/redder the light. However, there is different light sources have different color a distinction between the actual color tem- temperatures, and to get accurate color in perature and how color hues are talked images, the camera must be set to match about. Blue hues are referred to as being the temperature of the light in the scene. cool and red/yellow hues as being warm. Color temperature is measured on the 7.1 This amazing and unique sunset sets the sky ablaze with dramatic colors that run the gamut. Exposure: ISO 125, f/8, 1/15 sec. using an EF 24-105, f/4L IS USM lens., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 169 Chapter 7 ✦ Working with Light 169 Table 7.1 shows Kelvin scale ranges for a variety of different lights. These are, of Note If you use RAW capture, you canadjust the color temperature pre- course, general measures. The color tem- cisely using Canon’s Digital Photo perature of natural light is affected by Professional RAW conversion pro- atmospheric conditions such as pollution gram. See Chapter 10 for details and clouds. on using this program.

Table 7.1 Selected Artificial Light Color Temperatures

Light Source Color Temperature (Kelvin) Sunrise 3100 to 4300 Midday 5000 to 7000 Overcast/Cloudy sky 6000 to 8000 Sunset 2500 to 31000 Studio Strobes 4500 to 6000 Fluorescent (daylight) 6500 Fluorescent (cool white) 4300 Photoflood 3400 Tungsten-halogen 3200 Fluorescent (warm white) 3000 Household lamps 2500 to 2900 Candle flame 2000

Color Temperature Isn’t Atmospheric Temperature

Unlike air temperature that is measured in degrees Fahrenheit (or Celsius), light tem- perature is based on the spectrum of colors that is radiated when a black body radi- ator is heated. Visualize heating an iron bar. As the bar is heated, it glows red. As the heat intensifies, the metal changes to yellow, and with even more heat, it glows blue- white. In this spectrum of light, color moves from red to blue as the temperature increases. Thus color temperature becomes confusing because you likely think of “red hot” as being significantly warmer than someone who has turned “blue” by being exposed to cold temperatures. But in the world of color temperature, blue is, in fact, a much higher temperature than red. That also means that the color temperature at noon on a clear day is higher (bluer) than the color temperature during a fiery red sunset. And the rea- son that you care about this is because it affects the color accuracy of your pictures., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 170 170 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D On the 40D, setting the White Balance tells course, to use color creatively to create strik- the camera the general range of color tem- ing photos. Studio and flash light also have perature of the light so that it can render color and are used in similar ways to natu- white as white, or neutral, in the final image. ral light. The more faithful you are in setting the cor- rect White Balance setting or using a custom Sunrise White Balance, the less color correction you In predawn hours, the cobalt and purple have to do on the computer later. hues of the night sky dominate. But as the sun inches over the horizon, the landscape begins to reflect the warm gold and red

The Colors of Light hues of the low-angled sunlight. During this

time of day, the green color of grass, tree Like an artist’s palette, the color tempera- leaves, and other foliage is enhanced, while ture of natural light changes throughout the earth tones take on a cool hue. Landscape, day. By knowing the predominant color fashion, and portrait photographers often temperature shifts throughout the day, you use the light available during and immedi- can adjust settings to ensure accurate color, ately after sunrise. to enhance the predominant color, and, of 7.2 Front lighting and a shaded background rendered the background as black in this image. Exposure: ISO 100, f/2.8, 1/60 sec. using an EF 100mm, f/2.8 Macro lens., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 171 Chapter 7 ✦ Working with Light 171 Although you can use the AWB setting, you flower petals and plant leaves made translu- get better color if you set a custom White cent against the sun, and images of natural Balance, which is detailed in Chapter 3. If and man-made structures. you are shooting RAW images, you also can adjust the color temperature precisely in For midday pictures, the Daylight White Canon’s Digital Photo Professional RAW Balance setting on the 40D is a reliable conversion program. choice. If you take portraits during this time of day, use the built-in flash or an accessory Midday flash to fill dark shadows. You can set flash exposure compensation in 1/3- or 1/2-stop During midday hours, the warm and cool increments to get just the right amount of hues of light equalize to create a light the fill light using either the built-in flash or an human eye sees as white or neutral. On a accessory Speedlite. cloudless day, midday light often is con- sidered too harsh and contrasty for many For more details on flash types of photography, such as portraiture. exposure compensation, see However, midday light is effective for photo- Chapter 8. graphing images of graphic shadow patterns, 7.3 Hard midday light creates deep, sharp-edged shadows as shown in this image. Exposure: ISO 100, f/16, 1/80 sec. using an EF 24-70mm, f/2.8L USM lens., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 172 172 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D Sunset Because diffuse light is particularly flattering During the time just before, during, and just for portraits, you can create diffuse light after sunset, the warmest and most intense even on a brightly lit day by using a scrim, a color hues of natural light occurs. The pre- panel of cloth such as muslin or other fab- dominantly red, yellow, and gold hues cre- ric, stretched tightly across a frame. The ates vibrant colors, while the low angle of scrim is held between the light source (the the sun creates soft contrasts that define sun or a studio or household light) and the and enhance textures and shapes. Sunset subject to diffuse the light. colors create rich landscape, cityscape, and wildlife photographs. Because overcast and cloudy conditions commonly are between 6000 and 8000 K, For sunset pictures, the Cloudy White the cloudy, twilight, sunset White Balance Balance setting is a good choice. If you are setting on the 40D works adequately for shooting RAW images, you also can adjust overcast and cloudy conditions. the color temperature precisely in Canon’s Note To learn more about light, visit Digital Photo Professional or another RAW Canon’s Web site at www. conversion program. labo/light/003/01.html See Chapter 10 for details on using the Digital Photo Professional RAW conversion Electronic flash program. Most on-camera electronic flashes are bal- anced for the neutral color of midday light, Diffused light or 5500 to 6000 K. Because the light from On overcast or foggy days, the light is dif- an electronic flash is neutral, it reproduces fused and tends toward cool color hues. colors accurately. Diffusion spreads light over a larger area, making it softer and usually reducing or Flash obviously is useful in low-light situa- eliminating shadows. Light can be diffused tions, but it is also handy outdoors where by clouds; an overcast sky; atmospheric flash can be used to fill in and eliminate conditions including fog, mist, dust, pollu- shadow areas caused by strong top lighting tion, and haze; or objects such as awnings and provide detail in shadow areas for back- or shade from trees or vegetation. lit subjects. Diffused light renders colors as rich and sat- On the 40D, the Flash White Balance setting, urated, and it creates subdued highlights which is set to 6000 K, is the best option and soft-edged shadows. because it reproduces colors accurately., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 173 Chapter 7 ✦ Working with Light 173 with reasonable accuracy. If you want neu- tral colors without the warm hue of tungsten, then set a custom White Balance. Alternately, if you know the color tempera- ture of the bulbs, you can set the tempera- ture using the K White Balance option. Fluorescent and other light Commonly found in offices and public places, fluorescent light ranges from a yel- low to a blue-green hue. Fluorescent light produces a green cast in photos when the White Balance is set to Daylight or Auto. Other types of lighting include mercury-vapor and sodium-vapor lights found in public are- nas and auditoriums that have a green/yel- low cast in unfiltered/uncorrected photos. You should set a custom White Balance on the 40D in this type of light or shoot a white or gray card so you can balance to neutral during RAW-image conversion. 7.4 Electronic strobes provided the light for Note You can learn more about set- this pet portrait. Exposure: ISO 400, f/32, ting custom White Balance and 1/250 sec. using an EF 100mm. f/2.8 Macro using white or gray cards at USM lens. www.cambridgeincolour. com/tutorials/white- balance.htm. Tungsten light Tungsten is the light commonly found in Under fluorescent light, set the camera to household lights and lamps. This light has a the White fluorescent light setting (4000 K). warmer hue than daylight and produces a In stadiums, parking lots, and similar types yellow/orange cast in photos. In some of light, you may want to set a custom White cases, the distinct yellow hue is valued for Balance. the warm feeling it lends to images. Light from fire and candles creates a Setting the 40D to the Tungsten White red/orange/yellow color hue. In most cases, Balance setting retains a hint of the warm the color hue is warm and inviting and hue of tungsten light while rendering colors can be modified to suit your taste on the computer., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 174 174 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Metering Light and However, in non-average scenes with largeexpanses of snow, white sand, and black Reflected Light objects, the camera still averages the tones to18-percent gray. That’s why you get pictures

A camera’s reflective light meter sees only with gray snow that should have been white gray, and it measures light that is reflected or gray graduation gowns that should have back to the camera from the subject. As the been black. It’s in scenes such as this that the meter looks at a scene, it sees tones ranging 40D’s exposure compensation feature comes from black to white and all shades of gray in handy. You can use exposure compensa- between. The meter measures how much tion to fool the camera meter into correcting light these shades of gray, black, and white non-average scene exposures. For example, reflect back to it. Objects that are neutral in a snow scene, the camera tries to make the gray, which is an even mix of black and snow an average tonality, or 18-percent gray. white, reflect 18 percent of the light falling To render the snow as white, you set expo- on them and absorb the rest of the light. In sure compensation to a positive value, such the black-and-white world of a camera’s as +1 or +2 Exposure Values (EVs) to increase light meter, objects that are white reflect 72 the exposure and render the snow as white in to 90 percent of the light and absorb the the image. For scenes with large, dark remainder. Objects that are black absorb vir- expanses, you use a negative exposure com- tually all of the light. Since the camera’s light pensation to get true dark tones in the image. meter sees only monotone, you may won- der how that translates to color. Simply In addition to understanding how the cam- stated, all of the colors that you see in a era meters light, photographers must also scene map to a percentage or shade of take into account reflected light in a scene. gray. Predictably, intermediate percentages Given that surfaces other than pure black between black and white reflect and absorb are reflective, they reflect their color onto different amounts of light. the subject. For example, if you photograph a person in a grassy area, some of the green In color scenes, the light and dark values of color from the grass reflects onto the sub- color correspond to the swatches of gray on ject. The closer the subject is to the grass, the grayscale. A shade of red, for example, the more green is reflected on the subject. has a corresponding shade of gray on a Similarly, photographing a subject under an grayscale. The lighter the color’s shade, the awning or near a colored wall also results in more light it reflects. color from the surface reflecting onto the subject. The amount of reflectance depends In addition, the camera’s reflective light on the proximity of the subject to the col- meter expects to see an average scene, one ored surface, the intensity of the color, and that contains a balance of dark and light the reflectance of the surface. tones that average out to 18-percent reflectance. Because the meter is calibrated Reflected color, of course, can make getting for average scenes, the camera’s meter correct color in the image difficult. To avoid produces an accurate rendition of what the or minimize corrections, you can move the human eye sees as long as the scene has subject away from the surface that is reflect- average reflectance. ing onto the subject. If you want neutral, 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 175 Chapter 7 ✦ Working with Light 175 color in the image, set a custom White with soft edges. There are traditional uses for Balance. Alternatively, if you’re shooting each type of light. Understanding the effect RAW capture, you can shoot a gray or white of each type of light before you begin shoot- card to make color correction easier during ing is the key to using both types of light, and image conversion. variations in between, effectively.

Additional Hard light

Hard light is created when a distant light

Characteristics source produces a concentrated spotlight

effect — such as light from the sun in a of Light cloudless sky at midday, an electronic flash, or a bare light bulb. Hard light creates dark, Photographers often describe light as hard or sharp-edged shadows as well as a loss of soft. Hard light creates shadows with well- detail in highlights and shadows. defined edges. Soft light creates shadows For example, portraits taken in harsh over- head light create dark, unattractive shadows under the eyes, nose, and chin. This type of light also is called contrasty light. Contrast is measured by the difference in exposure readings (f-stops) between highlight and shadow areas: the greater the difference, the higher the contrast. Because hard light is contrasty, it produces well-defined textures and bright colors. Hard light is best suited for subjects with simple shapes and bold colors. To soften hard light, you can add or modify light on the subject by using a fill flash or a reflector to bounce more light into shadow areas. In addition, you can move the subject to a shady area or place a scrim (diffusion panel) between the light and the subject. For landscape photos, you can use a gradu- ated neutral density filter to help compen- sate for the difference in contrast between the darker foreground and brighter sky. 7.5 Before a music concert, I captured this image of a violin in theater-type lighting. Exposure: ISO 1600, f/2.8, 1/60 sec. using an EF 24-70mm, f/2.8L USM lens., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 176 176 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Soft light When working in soft light, consider using a

telephoto lens and/or a flash to help create Soft light is created when a light source is separation between the subject and the diffused. In the outdoors, clouds or other background. Soft light is usually well suited atmospheric conditions diffuse a light for portraits and macro shots, but soft light source, such as the sun, or you can diffuse from an overcast sky is less than ideal for bright light to soften it by using a scrim. travel and landscape photography. In these Diffusion not only reduces the intensity cases, look for strong details and bold col- (quantity) of light, but it also spreads the ors, and avoid including an overcast sky in light over a larger area (quality). In soft light, the photo. shadow edges soften and transition gradu- ally, texture definition is less distinct, colors are less vibrant than in hard light, detail is Directional light apparent in both highlights and shadow Whether natural or artificial, the direction of areas of the picture, and overall contrast is light can determine the shadows in the reduced. scene. You can use both the type and direc- tion of light to reveal or hide detail, add or reduce texture and volume, and help create the mood of the image. ✦ Front lighting. Front lighting is light that strikes the subject straight on. This lighting approach produces a flat effect with little tex- ture detail and with shadows behind the subject, as seen in many snapshots taken with an on- camera flash. ✦ Side lighting. Side lighting places the main light to the side of and at the same height as the subject. One side of the subject is brightly lit, and the other side is in medium or deep shadow, depending on the lighting setup. This technique is often effective for portraits of men, but it is usually considered unflat- 7.6 Mixed tungsten and diffused window tering for portraits of women. light as well as backlighting all combined to However, a variation of side light- softly light Chelsie for this image. Exposure: ing is high-side lighting, a classic ISO 160, f/2.5,1/200sec. using an EF portrait lighting technique where a 50mm, f/1.4 USM lens. light is placed to the side of and higher than the subject., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 177 Chapter 7 ✦ Working with Light 177 7.7 Early sunset light with its low angle gives the balloon color a soft warm hue and soft- edged shadows on the right side of the balloon. Exposure: ISO 160, f/4.5, 1/500sec. using an EF 70-200mm, f/2.8L IS USM lens. ✦ Top lighting. Top lighting, as the ✦ Backlighting. Backlighting is light term implies, is light illuminating that is positioned behind the sub- the subject from the top, such as ject. This technique creates a clas- you find at midday on a sunny, sic silhouette and, depending on cloudless day. This lighting pro- the angle, also can create a thin duces strong, deep, hard-edged halo of light that outlines the sub- shadows. This lighting direction is ject’s form. Although a silhouette suitable for some subjects, but it can be dramatic, the contrast oblit- usually is not appropriate for por- erates details in both the back- traits. However, for studio portraits, ground and subject. A fill flash can a variation on top lighting is butter- be used to show detail in the sub- fly or Paramount lighting, a tech- ject. In addition, backlighting often nique popularized by classic produces lens flare displayed as Hollywood starlet portraits. bright, repeating spots or shapes in Butterfly lighting places the key the image. Flare also can show up light high, in front of, and parallel in the image as a dull haze or to the vertical line of the subject’s unwanted rainbow-like colors. To nose to create a symmetrical, but- avoid lens flare, use a lens hood to terfly-like shadow under the nose. help prevent stray light from strik- ing the lens, or change your shoot- ing position., 11_260449 ch07.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 178 178 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D • Move the subject Tip Although you may not be able to control the light, especially • Change your position natural outdoor light, consider • Use a reflector or scrim these items that may improve your shot: • Wait for better light or a light color that enhances the sub- ject or message of the picture, 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 179CHAPTER

Using Flash 8 C ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ountless scenes, whether lit from the top, side, back, orbarely lit at all, open the door for using flash—either In This Chapter

the EOS 40D’s onboard flash unit or one or more accessory Canon EX-series Speedlites. And on the creative front, flash Exploring flash technology offers opportunities for capturing everything from a drip of water to stroboscopic motion. Using onboard flash This chapter explores flash technology, details the use of the Modifying flash 40D’s onboard flash, and the menu options for the built-in exposure flash and for accessory EX-series Speedlites. This chapter is not an exhaustive look at all the ways in which you can use Using flash control the onboard or accessory flash units. Rather, the focus of this options chapter is on fundamental flash techniques and ideas for using flash for both practical situations and creative effect. Using one or more accessory Speedlites

Exploring Flash Technology ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

Both the onboard flash and Canon’s EX-series Speedlites employ E-TTL II technology. E-TTL stands for Evaluative Through-the-Lens flash exposure control. E-TTL II is a flash technology that receives information from the camera includ- ing the focal length of the lens, distance from the subject, exposure settings including aperture, and the camera’s built- in evaluative metering system to balance subject exposure with the ambient light. In more technical terms, with E-TTL II, the camera’s meter reads through the lens, but not off the focal plane. After the Shutter button is fully pressed but before the reflex mirror goes up, the flash fires a preflash beam. Information from this preflash is combined with data from the evaluative metering system to analyze and compare ambient light exposure values with the amount of light needed to make a good exposure., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 180 180 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D Then the camera calculates and stores the 4. The reflex mirror flips up, the first flash output needed to illuminate the sub- shutter curtain opens and the flash ject while maintaining a natural-looking bal- fires exposing the image on the ance with the ambient light in the sensor, the second shutter curtain background. closes, and then the reflex mirror goes back down. In a step-by-step fashion, here is the general sequence the 40D uses when you make a In addition, the flash automatically figures in flash picture. the angle of view for the 40D given its cropped image sensor size. Thus, regardless 1. Pressing the Shutter button of the focal length of the lens being used, halfway sets focus on the subject the built-in and EX-series Speedlites auto- and determines the exposure matically adjust the flash zoom mechanism needed given the amount of ambi- for the best flash angle and to illuminate ent light. only key areas of the scene, which con- 2. Pressing the Shutter button com- serves power. Altogether, this technology pletely fires a preflash so that the makes the flash very handy for fill light in amount of light reflected off the standard lighting and especially for backlit subject can be measured. subjects. 3. Very quickly, the camera compares With either the built-in flash or a Speedlite, and evaluates both the ambient you can use all of the camera’s Creative and preflash readings and deter- Zone modes knowing that the exposure set- mines the proper subject and tings are taken into account during expo- background exposure. sure given the maximum sync speed for the flash.

Why Flash Sync Speed Matters

Flash sync speed matters because if it isn’t set correctly, only part of the image sen- sor has enough time to receive light while the shutter is open. The result is an unevenly exposed image. When using a flash, the 40D doesn’t allow you to set a shut- ter speed faster than 1/250 second, but in some modes you can set a slower flash sync speed, as shown in Table 8.1. Using Custom Function C.Fn I-7, you can set whether the 40D sets the flash sync speed automatically (option 0) or always uses 1/250 second (option 1) when you shoot in Av mode., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 181

Chapter 8 ✦ Using Flash 181

8.1 This image was made with the built-in flash capturing the motion of water dripping into a water glass. A slight blur of the water droplet moving upward provided the light streaks of motion. Exposure: ISO 1000, f/2.8, 1/250 sec., using an EF 100mm, f/2.8 Macro USM lens. when shooting a backlit subject to create a Note In Basic Zone modes except Landscape, Sports, and Flash- lovely blur to the background while shooting Off, the camera automatically at faster than X-sync shutter speeds. fires the flash when it deter- mines the light level is too low Tip Normally, flash is synchronized to produce a sharp handheld for firing the moment when the image. first curtain finishes traveling but before the second curtain E-TTL II technology also enables high-speed starts traveling. However, withhigh-speed sync, the flash dura- sync flash with accessory Speedlites that tion is extended to make syn- allows you to sync at a shutter speed faster chronization possible using fast than the camera’s flash sync speed of 1/250 shutter speeds by forming a slit second. As a result, you can open up the lens between the first and second curtains as the curtains travel., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 182 182 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D When shooting with accessory Speedlites, flash emits. The relationship between the Canon’s flash technology allows wireless, aperture and the flash-to-subject distance is multiple flash photography where you can Guide Number ÷ Aperture = Distance for simulate studio lighting in both placement optimal exposure and Guide Number ÷ and light ratios (the relative intensity of each Distance = Aperture for optimal exposure. flash unit). You can use up to three groups of Speedlites and designate a master, or The built-in flash offers good versatility fea- main flash, and slave units that fire in turing many of the same overrides that response to the master flash unit. you find in EX-series Speedlites including Flash Exposure Compensation (FEC) and Flash Tip The Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX Exposure Lock (FE Lock). In addition, flash and Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX options can be set on the camera’s can also serve as master flash units. Flash Control menu when you shoot in Creative Zone modes. Note While E-TTL II works with all lenses, some Canon lenses, Menu options include the ability to turn off such as those without full-time firing of the built-in flash and an accessory manual focus, art form motors, flash, shutter sync with first or second cur- and tilt-and-shift lenses, do not properly communicate distance tain, Evaluative or Average metering, and information. Red-Eye Reduction. The 40D also allows you to set Custom Functions for an accessory EX-series Speedlite through the Set-up 2

Using Onboard Flash (yellow) camera menu — a very handy fea-ture given that the size and brightness of the

camera menu is bigger and easier to read The onboard flash unit on the 40D offers a than the LCD on a Speedlite. handy complement to ambient-light shoot- ing. The unit offers flash coverage for lenses Table 8.1 shows the behavior of the flash in as wide as 17mm (equivalent to 27mm in each of the Creative Zone modes. Table 8.2 full 35mm frame shooting). The flash recy- and Table 8.3 show the approximate, effec- cles in approximately 3 seconds; however, tive range of the flash with the EF 18-55mm from my experience, the unit continues to lenses. provide excellent and even illumination even when shooting in High-Speed Tip When you use the built-in flash, Continuous Drive mode where the flash be sure to remove the lens hood doesn’t have a full 3 seconds to recycle. to prevent obstruction of the flash coverage. And if you use a fast, super-telephoto lens, the The built-in flash guide number is 43 built-in flash coverage may also (feet)/13 (meters) at ISO 100. A guide num- be obstructed. ber indicates the amount of light that the, 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 183

Chapter 8 ✦ Using Flash 183 Table 8.1 Using the Built-in Flash in Creative Zone Modes

Mode Shutter Speed Automatic Exposure Setting Tv 30 sec. to 1/250 sec. You set the shutter speed, and the camera automatically sets the appropriate aperture. Av 30 sec. to 1/250 sec. You set the aperture, and the camera automatically sets the shutter speed. M (Manual) 30 sec. to 1/250 sec. You set both the aperture and the shutter speed. Flash exposure is set automatically. A-DEP (and P) 1/60 sec. to 1/250 sec. Both the aperture and the shutter speed are set automatically by the camera.

Table 8.2

40D Built-in Flash Range with the EF-S 18-55mm Lens ISO 18mm 55mm 100 1 to 3.7m (3.3 to 12.1 ft.) 1 to 2.3m (3.3 to 7.5 ft.) 200 1 to 5.3m (3.3 to 17.4 ft.) 1 to 3.3m (3.3 to 10.8 ft.) 400 1 to 7.4m (3.3-24.3 ft.) 1 to 4.6m (3.3 to 15.1 ft.) 800 1 to 10.5m (3.3 to 34.4 ft.) 1 to 6.6m (3.3 to 21.7 ft.) 1600 1 to 14.9m (3.3 to 48.9 ft.) 1 to 9.3m (3.3 to 30.5 ft.) H (3200) 1 to 21m (3.3 to 68.9 ft.) 1 to 13.1m (3.3 to 43 ft.)

Table 8.3

40D Built-in Flash Range with the EF-S 17-85mm Lens ISO 17mm 85mm 100 1 to 3.3m (3.3 to 10.8 ft.) 1 to 2.3m (3.3 to 7.5 ft.) 200 1 to 4.6m (3.3 to 15.1 ft.) 1 to 3.3m (3.3 to 10.8 ft.) 400 1 to 6.5m (3.3-21.3 ft.) 1 to 4.6m (3.3 to 15.1 ft.) 800 1 to 9.2m (3.3 to 30.2 ft.) 1 to 6.6m (3.3 to 21.7 ft.) 1600 1 to 13m (3.3 to 42.7 ft.) 1 to 9.3m (3.3 to 30.5 ft.) H (3200) 1 to 18.4m (3.3 to 60.4 ft.) 1 to 13.1m (3.3 to 43 ft.), 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 184 184 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Disabling the flash but the camera will use the flash’s aut-

ofocus assist beam to establish enabling the flash’s focus in low-light scenes. For the autofocus assist beam camera to use the flash’s autofocusassist beam, either pop up the In some low-light scenes, you may want to built-in flash by pressing the Flash shoot using ambient light without using the button on the front of the camera, flash. However, the camera may have trou- or mount an accessory EX-series ble establishing good focus due to the low Speedlite. When you halfway light. The autofocus assist beam from the press the Shutter button, the flash is invaluable in these situations to help flash’s autofocus assist beam fires the camera establish focus. In these kinds of to help the camera establish focus. scenes, you can disable the flash firing and still use the flash’s autofocus assist beam to Also, with Custom Function C.Fn III-5, you help the camera to establish focus. can choose whether the AF-assist beam is fired by the camera’s built-in flash or by an To enable or disable flash firing but still accessory Speedlite. If this function is set to allow the camera to use the flash’s auto- Disable, the autofocus assist beam is not focus assist beam for focusing, follow these used. If you’ve set the Custom Function on steps. the Speedlite for autofocus assist beam fir- ing to Disable, the autofocus assist beam is 1. Press the Menu button, and not used. In short, be sure that the Custom then press the Jump button Functions on both the 40D and on the until the Set-up 2 (yellow) menu accessory Speedlite are not in conflict with is displayed. each other. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to For details on Custom Functions, highlight Flash control, and then see Chapter 4. press the Set button. The Flash control screen appears. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to Red-eye reduction highlight Flash firing, and then Certainly, a disadvantage of flash exposure press the Set button. Two options in people and pet portraits is unattractive appear. red in the subject’s eyes.. There is no sure fix 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to that prevents red eye, but a few steps help highlight either Enable or reduce it. First, before making the picture, Disable, and then press the Set have the subject look at the Red-Eye button. If you choose Disable, nei- Reduction lamp on the front of the camera ther the built-in flash nor an acces- when it fires. Also have the room well lit. sory Speedlite will fire. However,, 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 185 Chapter 8 ✦ Using Flash 185 Then be sure to turn on Red-Eye Reduction on the 40D. This option is set to Off by Modifying Flash default. Exposure Before you begin, ensure that the Flash Regardless of the sophisticated technology Firing is set to Enable on the Setup 2 (yel- behind E-TTL II, there are doubtless times low menu). To turn on Red-Eye Reduction, when the output of the flash will not be follow these steps. what you envisioned. Most often, the output 1. is stronger than desired, creating an unnat-Press the Menu button, and then press the Jump button to urally bright illumination on the subject. The select the Camera 1 (red) menu. 40D offers two options for modifying the flash output: Flash Exposure Compensation 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to and Flash Exposure Lock for both the built- highlight Red-Eye On/Off, and in and one or more accessory Speedlites. then press the Set button. Two options are displayed. 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to Flash Exposure highlight On, and then press the Compensation Set button. The setting you choose applies to both Basic and Flash Exposure Compensation is much like Creative Zone modes. Auto Exposure Compensation in that you can set compensation for exposure up to 4. Press the Flash button on the plus/minus two stops in 1/3-stop incre- front of the camera to pop up the built-in flash. ments. A positive compensation increases the flash output and a negative compensa- 5. Focus on the subject by pressing tion decreases the flash output. Flash the Shutter button halfway, and Exposure Compensation can help reduce then watch the timer display at shadows in the background and balance the bottom center of the unevenly lit scenes. viewfinder. When the viewfinder timer display turns off, press the For the purpose of comparison, I have used Shutter button completely to make the same simple image set up for figures 8.2 the picture. through 8.7 to illustrate how the flash and flash exposure modifications change the image. The scene is lit by a tungsten chan- delier with diffuse window light coming in to camera right., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 186 186 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D 8.2 This image was taken without using a 8.3 This image is lit by the onboard flash flash. Exposure: ISO 125, f/5.6, 1/3 sec., set to E-TTL with no exposure modification, auto White Balance, using an EF 25-105mm, the distracting background shadows are f/4L IS USM lens. predictable. However, the flash cools down the strong yellow cast of the tungsten lighting. A custom White Balance is the ticket to solve menu. If you set compensation on both the the colorcast, of course, but the combination Speedlite and the camera, the Speedlite set- of tungsten and flash light creates the warm ting overrides what you set on the camera. appearance that I envisioned, as shown in So the take-away is to set compensation figure 8.7 at the end of this chapter. either on the Speedlite or on the camera, but not both. Unless you shoot with the If you use an accessory Speedlite, you can Speedlite on multiple EOS camera bodies, I set Flash Exposure Compensation either on think setting compensation on the camera the camera or on the Speedlite. However, is handier simply because the camera’s LCD the compensation that you set on the is easier to see and change than it is on the Speedlite overrides any compensation that Speedlite’s display. you set on the 40D’s Setup 2 (yellow) camera, 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 187 Chapter 8 ✦ Using Flash 187 To set Flash Exposure Compensation for either the built-in flash or an accessory Speedlite, follow these steps: 1. Set the camera to a Creative Zone mode, and then press the ISO-Flash Compensation button above the LCD panel. The Exposure Level indicator meter is activated. 2. Turn the Quick Control dial to the left to set negative compen- sation (lower flash output) or to the right to set positive flash output (increased flash output) in 1/3-stop increments. As you turn the Quick Control dial, a tick mark under the Exposure Level meter moves to indicate the amount of Flash Exposure Compensation. The Flash Exposure Compensation is displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel when you press the Shutter button halfway. The Flash Exposure Compensation you set on the cam- era remains in effect until you 8.4 This image is lit with onboard flash change it. exposure set to -1. The lowered flash exposure reduces the appearance of the To remove Flash Exposure Compensation, background shadows, but the yellow cast of repeat these steps but in Step 2, move the the tungsten light is evident again. tick mark on the Exposure Level meter back to the center point. Flash Exposure Compensation can be com- bined with Exposure Compensation. If Flash Exposure Lock you’re shooting a scene where one part of the scene is brightly lit and another part of The second way to modify flash output is by the scene is much darker — for example an using Flash Exposure Lock (FE Lock). Much interior room with a view to the outdoors — like Auto Exposure Lock (AE Lock), FE Lock then you can set Exposure Compensation to allows you to meter and set the flash output -1 and set the Flash Exposure Compensation on any part, typically the point of critical to -1 to make the transition between the exposure, of the subject. In figure 8.5, I photo- two differently lit areas more natural. graphed the same scene as shown in figures 8.2, 8.3, and 8.4, only here I used FE lock., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 188 188 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D average area of the scene that doesn’t include the reflective surface. Including the reflective surface can result in flash under- exposure. When you press the Shutter but- ton halfway to set the FE Lock, the camera fires a preflash that evaluates the scene. The camera calculates the exposure needed for the subject taking into account the flash meter reading. As you evaluate the subject for flash expo- sure, be sure to evaluate the scene using whatever accessories you’ll use for the final image. In other words, if you plan to use a reflector, evaluate the subject with the reflector in place and take the meter reading with the reflector in place as well. The more standard technique is to identify the critical midtone exposure area in the scene, and then lock the flash exposure for that area. In a food setup, the critical exposure is on the dish as opposed to the background, so FE Lock is set on the area of the food. The cam- era then balances the exposure with back- ground ambient light. Regardless of the approach, FE Lock is a technique that you 8.5 The flash exposure is locked on the want to add to your arsenal for flash images. highlight to the left of the bottle just under the top wrapper resulting in a darker Like AE Lock, FE Lock is one of the best fea- exposure but with more detail retained in tures you can use for both the built-in and the highlights. Exposure: ISO 100, f/5.6, accessory flash. 1/6 sec. To set FE Lock, follow these steps: One way to use FE Lock is to prevent under- exposure of the highlights. With this approach, 1. Set the camera to a Creative you evaluate the subject in ambient light and Zone mode, and then press the lock the flash exposure on a midtone area in Flash button to raise the built-in flash or mount the accessory the scene. If there are reflective surfaces in the Speedlite. The flash icon appears scene such as a mirror or metal, be sure to in the viewfinder. take the flash exposure reading from an, 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 189 Chapter 8 ✦ Using Flash 189 Note If the flash icon in the view- Using Flash Control finder blinks, you are too far from the subject for the flash Options range. Move closer to the sub- ject and repeat Step 2. With the 40D, many of the onboard and 2. accessory flash settings are available on thePoint the selected AE point over the midtone area of the subject camera menus. The Set-up 2 (yellow) menu where you want to lock the offers onboard flash settings including the flash exposure, press the first or second curtain shutter sync, Flash Shutter button halfway, and Exposure Compensation, and E-TTL II or then press the AE/FE Lock but- Average exposure metering. ton on the back right side of the camera. This button has an aster- When an accessory Speedlite is mounted, isk above it. The camera fires a you can use the Set-up 2 (yellow) menu to preflash. FEL is displayed momen- set Flash Exposure Compensation and tarily in the viewfinder, and the choose between Evaluative or Average flash icon in the viewfinder dis- metering. In addition, you can change or plays an asterisk beside it to indi- clear the Custom Function (C.Fn) settings for cate that flash exposure is locked. compatible Speedlites such as the 580 EX II. The camera retains the flash out- If the Speedlite functions cannot be set with put in memory. the camera, these options display a message 3. Move the camera to compose notifying you that the flash is incompatible the image, press the Shutter with this option. In that case, set the options button halfway to focus on the you want on the Speedlite itself. subject, and then completely press the Shutter button to To change settings for the onboard or com- make the image. patible accessory EX-series Speedlites, fol- low these steps: Note You can take additional pictures at this flash output as long as 1. Set the camera to a Creative you continue to hold the AE/FE Zone mode. If you’re using an Lock button. accessory Speedlite, mount it on the camera and turn it on. FE Lock is a practical technique to use when shooting individual images. But if you’re 2. Press the Menu button, and shooting a series of images under unchang- then press the Jump button ing ambient light, then Flash Exposure until the Set-up 2 (yellow) menu Compensation is more efficient and practical. is displayed., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 190 190 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D 3. Turn the Quick Control dial to 4. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight Flash Control, and highlight the option you want, then press the Set button. The and then press the Set button. Flash Control screen appears Choose a control option from the with options for the built-in and Flash Control menu and press the external flash. Set button. Table 8.4 lists the menu settings, options, and sub- options that you can choose from to control the flash. 8.7 Using the same set up from previous 8.6 For this image, using the same set up images, here I used two EX-series as the last few images, I set the flash Speedlites, a 580 EX Speedlite mounted on metering to Average rather than Evaluative the camera and bounced off the ceiling, and metering as used in the previous images. a 550 EX Speedlite set up on a table behind the wine and glasses. The 550 was set up as a slave and fired wirelessly from the 580. Notice how the backlight illuminates the center of the bottle and the glasses and adds depth to the scene. Exposure: ISO 100, f/5.6, 1/5 sec., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 191

Chapter 8 ✦ Using Flash 191 Table 8.4 Flash Control Menu Options

Setting Option(s) Suboptions/Notes Built-in flash Flash mode (Cannot be changed from E-TTL II) func. setting Shutter Sync 1st curtain: Flash fires immediately after the exposure begins. 2nd curtain: Flash fires just before the exposure ends. Can be used with slow-sync speed to create light trails behind the subject. Flash exp. Press the Set button to activate the Exposure Level Comp meter, and then turn the Quick Control dial to set positive or negative compensation. E-TTL II Evaluative (default) Sets exposure based on an evaluation of the entire scene. Average: Flash exposure is metered and averaged for the entire scene. Results in brighter output on the subject and less balancing of ambient background light. External flash Flash mode E-TTL II func. setting Shutter sync Hi-speed 1st curtain: Flash fires immediately after the exposure begins. 2nd curtain: Flash fires just before the exposure ends. Can be used with slow-sync speed to create light trails behind the subject. FEB (Flash Press the Set button to activate the Exposure Level Exposure meter, and then turn the Quick Control dial to set the Bracketing) bracketing amount. Flash exp. comp Press the Set button to activate the Exposure Level meter, and then turn the Quick Control dial to set positive or negative compensation. E-TTL II Evaluative Average External flash C.Fn setting Clear ext. flash C.Fn set., 12_260449 ch08.qxp 2/26/08 12:13 AM Page 192 192 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Using One or More One or more Speedlites provide an excel-lent portable studio for location shooting, Accessory Speedlites such as environmental portraits. And youcan add light stands, light modifiers such

With one or more accessory flash units, a as umbrellas and/or softboxes, and use a new level of lighting options opens up rang- variety of reflectors to produce images that ing from simple techniques such as bounce either replicate studio lighting results or flash and fill flash to controlled lighting enhance existing light. ratios with up to three groups of accessory flash units. With E-TTL II metering, you have I really encourage you to explore the the option of using one or more flash units options that multiple Speedlites offer. For as either the main or an auxiliary light detailed information on using Canon source to balance ambient light with flash to Speedlites, be sure to check out the Canon provide even and natural illumination and Speedlite System Digital Field Guide by balance among light sources. J. Dennis Thomas (Wiley)., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 193

In the FieldCHAPTER

with the 9

EOS 40D ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

In This Chapter Action and sports

I photographyn this chapter, we explore a wide variety of photographyspecialty areas with images that show EOS 40D perform- Architectural and

ance in the field with each subject. In addition to the exam- interior photography ples, I offer shooting notes based on my experience with the camera, as well as alternate shooting methods, and ideas that Business photography I hope will inspire you in thinking about photographing these subjects. After writing and shooting this chapter, I was even Editorial photography more impressed with the overall versatility and performance of the 40D than when I first began shooting with it. Whether Macro photography you shoot all or only some of these subjects, I think that you’ll gain a full appreciation of the speed and image quality that Nature and landscape the 40D delivers. photography Night and low-light photography

Action and Sports

Pet and wildlife

Photography photography

Anyone who shoots action and sports events knows that a fast Portrait photography camera is essential for capturing the energy and critical moments of the action. With a burst rate of approximately 75 Stock photography JPEG and 17 RAW frames in High-Speed Continuous Drive mode combined with smart buffering, the 40D delivers beau- Travel photography tifully for action shooting. The focal length multiplication factor of 1.6x brings the action in close with telephoto lenses. For Wedding photography example, using the Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens effectively provides a 112-320mm equivalent focal length. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 194 194 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D Canon’s separate motors for shutter and When you shoot action and sports scenes, mirror operation help give the 40D excep- the best images are those that capture the tionally speedy performance. And with shut- moment of peak action. That moment may ter speeds ranging from 1/8000 to 30 sec., be a runner crossing the finish line, a pole- the camera offers ample opportunity to vaulter at the height of a vault, or a race car freeze or show action, or to create intriguing getting the checkered flag. But other panned shots. moments are equally compelling such as © Rob Kleine / 9.1 Capturing images that tell a story is the goal of Rob Kleine, a seasoned soccer photographer. Exposure: ISO 400, f/4, 1/500 sec. using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens with a Canon 1.4x teleconverter., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 195 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 195 when an athlete takes a spill, the look of disappointment when an athlete comes in second, third, or last in a race — in short, moments of high emotion. As much as any other area of photography, sports and action photography offers you the opportu- nity to tell the rich and compelling stories of the person and event, and there are no more challenging assignments than that. If you have a passion for sports and action shooting, one way to hone your skills and earn money is by shooting local events and posting the images on a Web site where athletes and family can purchase prints. There are a number of Web sites set up specifically for this type of business, and they offer password-protected albums and a commission from the sale of prints.


As you take sports and action photos, mix things up by using the techniques of freez- ing or showing motion as a blur to capture 9.2 At this Christian music concert, the the emotion and give the sense of being in enthusiasm of a hand gesture is rendered the moment. When shooting sports and as motion blur. Exposure: ISO 400, f/2.8, action events, try shooting a sequence of 1/30 sec. using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS images that tell the story of a part or all of USM lens. an event or of one athlete. One of the best example of pictorial story- Action photography and the techniques telling is Brian Storm’s Emmy-winning Web used for it are by no means limited to site at Most of sports. Any event that has energy and the stories are photojournalism-related, but motion is an opportunity to apply sports they provide a look at the sense and flow of and action shooting techniques. telling stories with pictures. Tip For ongoing inspiration, I rec- ommend MSNBC’s The Week in Sports Pictures at www.msnbc., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 196 196 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Taking action and sports photographs

© Rob Kleine / 9.3 In this image, all eyes are on the ball, anticipating where the imminent kick will transport it. The EF 300/4L lens has a focal length that reaches deep onto the playing field. That reach, combined with its lightning-fast AF, is perfect for capturing midfield action like this., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 197

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 197 Table 9.1 Action and Sports Photography

Setup In the Field: The image in figure 9.3 is one of a series taken during a soccer game. The super-fast autofocus on the 40D is perfect for capturing midfield action such as this. Additional Considerations: At sports events, find a good shooting position with a colorful, non-distracting background. If you’re shooting JPEGs and the light is bright, setting a negative exposure compensation can help avoid blowing detail from highlight areas in the image. I also recommend shooting in RAW capture mode where exposure compensation may not be necessary because you can recover one or more f-stops of highlight detail during image conversion. Lighting In the Field: To best leverage the available cloud-diffused, directional, low-angle fall sun, Rob positioned himself at the south end of the field so the players were pleasingly front-lit. Additional Considerations: Moderate light is ideal for showing motion blur, although motion blur can be shown in brightly lit scenes as well. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 300 f/4L IS USM lens. Additional Considerations: The lens you choose depends on the subject you’re shooting and your shooting distance from the action. Regardless, a telephoto lens offers the advantage of blurring distracting backgrounds often found at sports events A telephoto lens also adds to the background blur if you’re panning. Camera Settings In the Field: RAW capture, Aperture-priority AE mode with the White Balance set to Cloudy. Additional Considerations: Particularly when shooting in low light, you want to control the shutter speed, and that makes Shutter-priority AE (Tv) mode a good choice. If you want to use shutter speed to avoid blur from handholding the camera and lens, then set the shutter speed to 1/60 second or faster unless you’re using a telephoto lens, in which case, use the reciprocal-of-the-focal-length rule detailed in Chapter 6. Also, in mixed-light situations, try using AWB or setting a custom White Balance for venues you shoot in frequently (such as stadiums). You can also shoot a gray card for RAW capture and balance the image series from the gray card later in the computer. Exposure In the Field: ISO 800, f/4, 1/2000 sec., Aperture-priority AE mode. Additional Considerations: If you want to show motion blur, you may need to experiment to get the shutter speed that shows motion blur and the f-stop that gives you the depth of field you want. You can generally show motion blur at 1/30 second and slower shutter speeds. Accessories At slower shutter speeds and when using a telephoto lens or zoom setting, it’s really important to use a tripod or monopod to ensure you get a tack-sharp image. Rob used a monopod for this shot to ensure maximum sharpness., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 198 198 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Action and sports change the exposure, find the

best-lit spot on the playing field photography tips or court, set the exposure for that lighting, and then wait for ✦ Capture the thrill. Regardless of the action to move into that the technique you choose to shoot area. This technique works well in action photos, set a goal of show- a low-lit indoor stadium as well. ing the emotion, thrill, speed, or You can also prefocus on this spot excitement of the scene in your and wait for the athlete or action pictures. You want the kind of pic- to move into the area. ture where people look at it and say, “Wow!” ✦ Experiment with shutter speeds. To obtain a variety of action pic- ✦ Take a high shooting position. tures, vary the shutter speed for Move back to the fourth or fifth different renderings. At slower row at sporting events, and use the shutter speeds, part of the subject additional height to your advan- will show motion, such as a tage. Leave room for your mono- player’s arm swinging, while the pod or tripod. If you have a lens rest of the subject’s motion will be extender, take a few test shots with stopped. and without the extender to see whether the loss of light is worth ✦ Shoot locally. If you’re new to the extended focal length (for shooting sports photos, consider example, a 2x extender costs you photographing high school and two f-stops). This loss of light may local amateur events. These are mean that you can’t get a fast good places to hone your reflexes enough shutter speed to freeze and composition. And usually you motion. will be under fewer restrictions, be able to get closer to the athletes, ✦ If lighting varies dramatically and have fewer fans to contend across the sports field and you with. find it difficult to continually

Wide-Angle Distortion

Wide-angle lenses are a staple in architectural photography. When you use a wide- angle lens at close shooting ranges, and especially when the camera is tilted upward, the vertical lines of buildings converge toward the top of the frame. You can correct the distortion in an image-editing program, or you can use a tilt-and-shift lens, such as the Canon TS-E24mm f/3.5L, that corrects perspective distortion and controls focusing range. Shifting raises the lens parallel to its optical axis and can correct the wide-angle distortion that causes the converging lines. Tilting the lens allows greater depth of focus by changing the normally perpendicular relationship between the lens’s optical axis and the camera’s sensor. To use a tilt-and-shift lens, set the camera so the focal plane is parallel to the surface of the building’s wall. As the lens is shifted upward, it causes the image of the wall’s surface to rise vertically, thus keeping the building’s shape rectangular. For details on tilt-and-shift lenses, see Chapter 6., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 199 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 199

Architectural and Interior Photography

Styles of architecture mirror the culture and sensibilities of each generation. New archi- tecture reflects the hopeful aspirations of the times, while older structures reflect ear- lier cultural norms and sensibilities. For pho- tographers, photographing both new and old architecture provides rich photo oppor- tunities to document changes in culture and urban development. Architectural photography is about captur- ing a sense of place and space. The chal- lenge with the 40D, given the sensor size, is capturing the full scope of exterior and inte- rior spaces. Canon offers a range of wide- angle lenses, including the ultrawide EF14mm f/2.8L USM lens, which gives the equivalent of approximately 22mm on the 40D, to wide-angle zoom lenses such as the EF-S 10-22mm f/3.5-4.5 USM, which is designed for the smaller sensor size, to the L-series 16-35mm f/2.8 USM, which is equivalent to 25-56mm on the 40D. Edge sharpness is important to watch for, so if you routinely frame images with extra space on the left and right edges so you can crop edges that are less than tack sharp, then the 9.4 The planned open spaces around widest angle prime and zoom lenses are the modern buildings provide good foreground detail for this high-rise office building. best choices for architectural and interior Capturing the fall color also helps alleviate photography. what would have been a scene with a primarily blue and white color palette. Tip When foreground elements mir- ror the architecture, be sure to Exposure: ISO 100, f/9, 1/200 sec. using an include them in the composi- EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM lens. tion. For example, if a nearby metal sculpture echoes the glass and steel design of the If you’re new to architectural shooting, building, include all or part of choose a building that interests you photo- the sculpture to add foreground graphically, and then study how light at dif- interest and context. ferent times of the day transforms the sense, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 200 200 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

High Dynamic Range Images

From shooting on assignment for real estate companies to shooting commercial assignment, the demand for and popularity of high dynamic range (HDR) images is growing. HDR images fully capture high-contrast scenes to maintain detail in the shadows and highlights. Shooting HDR images involves shooting a series of three to seven shutter-speed bracketed images. Then the images are merged Photoshop CS3, and contrast and tonal adjustments are made. In architectural photography, HDR gives a true “view” and sense of the interior or exterior by showing fine detail in bright window views to the outside — detail that would be sacrificed as very bright or blown highlights in single-shot photographs. And the same is true for showing detail in deep shadows. Because HDR captures a full stop of information in every tonal range via the multiple exposures, HDR delivers true- to-life and almost surreal renderings that are not possible in single images, or in dou- ble-processed RAW image composites. and character of the building. Look for struc- Inspiration tural details and visual spaces that create interesting shadow patterns as they interact To get a true sense of the structure’s charac- with other subsections of the structure. If ter, it’s important to explore the exterior and you’re shooting on assignment, be sure to interior of the building. Look for interior sync-up with the client’s marketing and design elements that echo the exterior design teams so you can deliver images that design. As you shoot, study how the build- visually communicate the client’s message ing interacts with surrounding structures. and goal about the structure or interior. See if you can use juxtapositions for visual comparisons and contrasts. Or find old and Most buildings are built for people, and new buildings that were designed for the people contribute to the character of the same purposes — courthouses, barns, cafes building. In a compositional sense, people and restaurants, libraries, or train stations, provide a sense of scale in architectural for example. Create a photo story that photography, but more importantly, they shows how design and use have changed imbue the building with a sense of life, over time. motion, energy, and emotion. As you consider buildings and interiors, The umbrella of architectural photography always try to verbalize what makes the includes interior photography of both com- space distinctive. When you can talk about mercial and private buildings and homes. the space, then you’re better able to trans- Lighting plays a crucial role in communicat- late your verbal description into visual ing the style and ambience of the space. It’s terms. Many new structures include distinc- certainly possible to get pleasing interior tive elements such as imported stone, crys- shots by using existing room lighting and tal abstract displays, and so on that reflect window lighting, but portable strobes or the architect’s vision for the structure. Be multiple wireless flash units add a kiss of sure to play up the unique elements of exte- light and reveal details that might be lost riors and interiors. Very often, you can use using ambient-only light. these features as a theme that runs throughout a photo story., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 201 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 201 9.5 A nearby symbol of a busy metro bus stop provides an easy reference point for the location of this building in a downtown area of Bellevue, Washington. The mirrored exterior also provides an opportunity to capture cloud detail. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/60 sec. using an EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 202 202 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Taking architectural and interior photographs

9.6 For this image, I wanted to capture acceptable shadow detail and maintain detail in the brighter window area, so I combined a negative exposure compensation with two EX-series Speedlite units to help balance the differences in lighting.

Table 9.2 Architectural and Interior Photography

Setup In the Field: Whether you are shooting photos for a real estate company or shooting photos so you can sell your own home, it’s important to plan the lighting setup carefully and present a clean, appealing shot that captures the spirit of the space. The goal in figure 9.6 was a clean shot that conveys the spaciousness of this master bedroom. Removing clutter and keeping accessories in the room to a minimum helps create a clean and spacious sense to the room. My shooting position was limited by the configuration of the entry doors to the room, but this limitation also meant that I was able to exclude an unattractive dresser on the left wall. Additional Considerations: Study the building or space and look for the best details. Will details be best pictured straight on or from the side? If you’re shooting interiors or exteriors, can you isolate repeating patterns that define the style? Consider contrasting ultramodern buildings with older, nearby buildings. Frame architectural images carefully to include only the detail or structures that matter in the image., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 203

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 203

Lighting In the Field: Three types of light combined in this shot: tungsten overhead lighting, diffuse window light, and two Canon EX-series Speedlites — an EX 550 to camera left bounced off the ceiling and an EX 580 to camera right. I also used the great Canon ST-E2 Speedlite Transmitter with the light ratio set to 2:1. Additional Considerations: If you’re shooting outdoors, wait for golden late-afternoon light when photographing old structures, but with modern buildings, you can take advantage of sunny weather to show off the bold details and angular design. For mirrored buildings, reflections cast by nearby sculptures, passing clouds, and passing people can add interest. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM lens set to 16mm. Here I was careful to have the camera at “eye level” with the middle of the wall and not tilt the camera up or down to help minimize wide-angle lens distortion. In this image, the frame edges maintained good detail despite the minimum zoom setting on the lens. Additional Considerations: Zoom lenses are helpful in isolating only the architectural details you want while excluding extraneous objects such as street signs. If you use a wide-angle lens and want to avoid distortion, keep the camera on a level plane with the building and avoid tilting the camera up or down. Alternately, you can use a tilt-and- shift lens, or you can correct lens distortion in Adobe Photoshop. Very often with interior shots, you may have limited space to move back. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture-priority AE (Av) mode RAW capture, with a custom white balance. Additional Considerations: With mixed lighting, setting a custom white balance is my preference because it makes color correction during RAW image conversion easier and faster. Architectural shooting is one area where the 40D’s 14-bit images deliver stunning detail with fine tonal gradation. To take full advantage of the 40Ds 14-bit images, shoot RAW images. Exposure In the Field: ISO 100, f/11, 1.3 sec., -1 exposure compensation, The negative exposure compensation on the camera balanced the exposure to maintain good details in the view through the window while the two Speedlites opened up shadow areas nicely. Additional Considerations: In high-contrast range scenes, try multiple exposures using either bracketing or by metering and capturing separate exposures for highlights, midtones, and shadows, and then composite the images in Photoshop to get a greater dynamic range than the sensor can provide. If you use this technique, be sure to use a tripod and keep the camera in exactly the same position throughout the bracketed shots. Otherwise, the images will not register when you composite them in Photoshop. Accessories A polarizing filter is an excellent way to reduce or eliminate glare from glass and mirrored building surfaces. In addition, it also enhances color contrast., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 204 204 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Architectural buildings from an angle that puts

them in a stair-stepped arrange- photography tips ment, use A-DEP mode to get the optimal depth of field. ✦ Emphasize color and lines. If the building you’re photographing fea- ✦ For low-light and night exterior tures strong, vivid colors, empha- and interior shots, turn on size the colors by shooting in Long-exposure noise reduction bright midday sunlight. Find a using C.Fn II-1. Immediately after shooting position that allows you the initial exposure, the camera to show off the dynamic lines and creates a dark frame to reduce shapes of the building or interior. noise. Using this feature slows down the shooting process, but it ✦ Use surrounding elements to provides the best insurance against underscore the sense of place objectionable levels of digital noise and space. For example, a univer- in images. If you’re shooting at a sity building’s design that incorpo- high ISO, you can also turn on rates gentle arches might be High ISO speed noise reduction photographed through an archway using C.Fn II-2. leading up to the entrance. Or, if the area is known for something For details on setting Custom such as an abundance of dogwood Functions, see Chapter 4. trees, try including a graceful branch of blossoms at the top and ✦ Check out the American Society side of the image to partially frame of Media Photographers (ASMP) the structure. Keep surrounding Web site at The elements to a minimum to avoid ASMP has a special interest group distracting from the subject. for architectural photography that ✦ Try A-DEP mode. If your photo- includes a guide for working with graph shows a succession of architectural photographers.

Business Pictures also are often used for businesslogos which can be used in a variety of ways Photography on business documents and carry over thebusiness identity to Web sites and corporate

When given a choice between reading a publications. Photoshop offers a wide range business document that is a solid block of of processing options to stylize image ren- text or reading a business document that derings for logo and corporate-identity includes illustrative photos, most people images. Popular renderings include hand- choose the document with photos, and for coloring, sketch-type filters, and other artis- good reason. Well-placed photos not only tic renderings. illustrate and explain the text, but they also lend credibility and interest., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 205 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 205 9.7 Simple, graphic images, such as this image of colored pencils, can become the basis for logos and letterheads for designers or graphic artists. Exposure: ISO 100, f/18, 1/125 sec., using an EF 100mm f/2.8 USM lens with four Photogenic studio lights — two lighting the background, two strobes to camera left, and a large silver reflector to camera right. Photography for businesses is not restricted may be looking for promotional images to to representing the company’s branding, but build its own company name and brand. it can also be used to communicate the per- This is an excellent opportunity to help the sonality and tenor of the business itself. company build its image and brand through With this application, the communication imagery that you provide. Again, the key is to goals of the business or the art director work with the principals in the company to must be clearly stated to produce successful clearly define the kinds of images that com- images. For example, if a business prides municate the company’s values and market- itself on honesty and integrity, then the pho- ing thrust. tography should communicate and under- score these values. The area of business photography has a self-interest aspect as well. If you’re just If you want to break into professional busi- starting your photography studio or busi- ness photography, new and emerging com- ness, the images you make and choose to panies offer great opportunities for paid represent yourself are a good training assignments. For example, if you know a ground and self-promotion for business company that subcontracts to a larger, estab- photography. lished-name company, the subcontractor, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 206 206 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Inspiration Important aspects of business photography

include getting clean, uncluttered images If you work for a large company, then you that show the subject, whether it is a person can offer your services to photograph new or a product, in compelling light. For small employees; employee milestone events object backgrounds, you can use folding such as anniversaries and retirements; com- poster boards available at a craft store and pany parties and events; products or proj- set them up on a desk or conference table. ects for internal or external newsletters; and For images of people and large objects, find new business or internal project proposals. a neutral-color wall with enough space to You can also use pictures to illustrate move the subject 5 to 6 feet away from the employee-training materials. wall. This helps lessen dark background shadows if you use the built-in flash. Or, If you are in sales, you can photograph cus- consider using a portable studio with multi- tomers with a product they purchased, and ple Canon EX-series Speedlites, light stands, then use the image in thank-you promotion and light modifiers, such as small softboxes pieces such as calendars or cards. Small and umbrellas. businesses can use and reuse product images for print and Web promotions, as well as for documenting processes such as product manufacturing. 9.8 This antique camera is the cornerstone of my photography business identity. I’ve used a similar image with a white background on business cards, letterhead, and in my e-mail signature. Exposure: ISO 100, f/11, 1/125 sec., using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. Four Photogenic studio lights lit the scene with two strobes lighting the back- ground, two strobes to camera left, and a large silver reflector to camera right., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 207

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 207 Taking business photographs

9.9 The owner of a company that painted my home wanted new imagery for his business emphasizing clean, quality work. This is one of several conceptual images taken for the project.

Table 9.3 Business Photography

Setup In the Field: When this project for a local painting company began, I researched the company’s current imagery which was a stylized paint roller. Instead of replicating their existing image, I chose to use clean brushes with different bristle colors and a silver, reflective sweep for the base of the image to add reflections and depth to the image shown in figure 9.9. Additional Considerations: Simple setups and compositions are the best place to start with business images. You can’t go wrong with white, black, silver, or gray backgrounds for small objects. Be sure to ask your clients if they need space at the top, bottom, or sides of the frame to insert text and other graphics, and then shoot accordingly. Continued, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 208 208 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 9.3 (continued)

Lighting In the Field: Four Photogenic studio lights lit the scene with two strobes lighting the background, two strobes to camera left, and a large silver reflector to camera right. I dialed down the strobe output due to the reflective silver sweep used for the background. The silver reflective surface echoes the metallic colors of the brush wrappings. Additional Considerations: Watch for lighting that is contrasty and soften it by using a softbox on the main light. For a warmer effect, a gold umbrella or gold reflector on the right would be effective. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. I started out using a 24-70mm lens, but couldn’t get the composition that I wanted, particularly with reflections from the ceiling showing up on the silver background material. So I switched to the macro lens so that I could focus closely on the brushes and work around the overhead reflections. Additional Considerations: Your lens choice depends on the subject. For small objects, a normal lens is a good choice, such as the EF-S 60mm f/2.8 Macro USM. To control background detail, use telephoto to soften the background or a wide-angle lens for sharper details. If you photograph a group of objects or a production process, consider a medium wide-angle lens such as the Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. For portraits, a short telephoto lens such as the Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM is a good choice. Camera Settings In the Field: RAW capture, Manual mode with a custom White Balance. Additional Considerations: In the studio, you want to control the depth of field, so choose Aperture-priority AE mode and set the White Balance to match the temperature of the strobes. Exposure In the Field: ISO 100, f/18, 1/125 sec. Additional Considerations: In the studio, Manual mode and a flash meter provide the correct exposure settings, or you may already have a standard exposure for studio product shots that you can use. Outside the studio, set a narrow aperture, such as f/8 or f/16, if you want front- to-back sharpness for a scene of a manufacturing operation, for example. If the background is distracting, use a wider aperture such as f/5.6 or f/4. Given the excellent results through the ISO range on the 40D, you have flexibility in setting the ISO as the light demands. Accessories Silver reflectors are invaluable both in the studio and on location, especially if you have limited options for controlling existing light. Affordable silver reflectors come in a variety of sizes and fold up to fit in a small carrying pouch. My experience is that you can’t have too many reflectors in the camera bag., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 209 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 209

Business photography tips for the subject or use a neutral-col-

ored background such as a white ✦ Fill shadows. If you’re making a wall or a poster board. head-and-shoulders shot of a per- son, such as a new employee or a ✦ Turn off the flash. If you’re photo- company executive, ask the subject graphing small objects, turn off the to hold a silver reflector at waist built-in flash. It is very difficult to level and tilt it to throw light maintain highlight detail at close upward slightly to fill in shadows working ranges using a flash. You created by overhead lighting. Ask can supplement light on the object the subject to adjust the reflector with a desk lamp or an off-camera position slightly as you watch for EX-series Speedlite, if necessary. the position that best fills shadow areas under the person’s eyes, nose, and chin. Editorial ✦ Adjust the setup for the photo- graph based on its intended Photography use. For example, if you’re taking photos to use on a Web site, keep Many people think of editorial shooting as the composition and the back- photojournalism and as a specialty that is ground simple to create a photo reserved for working journalists. But the that is easy to read visually when it genre of editorial photography has been the is used in small image sizes on the style du jour for other specialties including Web. It’s often necessary to weddings and high school senior photogra- brighten these small-size images phy for several years, although the style is slightly in an image-editing pro- evolving. The appeal lies in the documen- gram for use on the Web. tary aspect of capturing life and events as ✦ Maintain the same perspective they unfold. Editorial shooting has the in a series. In a series of photos, essential element of the narrative — visually keep the perspective consistent telling the story as it unfolds in real time throughout. For example, if you are with no posing, props, or fabrications. photographing several products, set up the products on a long table Editorial style includes elements from other and use the same lens and shoot- types of photography, including environ- ing position for each shot. Also mental portraiture, street, action and sports, keep lighting consistent through and documentary, but with an emphasis on the series of shots. a visual narrative that often supports accom- Look at the colors as a group. As panying text.✦ you set up a photo, consider all the colors in the image. If they do Unlike with most photojournalism, editorial not work well together, change assignments can be planned, scouted ahead backgrounds or locations to find a of time, and shot at a measured pace. better background color scheme Editorial shooting ranges from photographing, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 210 210 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D 9.10 The images in figures 9.10, 9.11, and 9.12 were shot for a cover and liner for a Christian music CD featuring Jessie Butterworth and the Overlake Christian Church worship team. The goal was to capture the spirit and energy of the concert for the cover and illustrate the concert experience with images for the liner. This is an establishing shot of the overall concert stage with vocalists and musicians. Exposure: ISO 400, f/2.8, 1/20 sec., using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens. people, celebrities, concerts, and events to and details, the 40D proves capable in virtu- creating illustrative concept shots for feature ally any light of giving fast response and fine articles on general interest topics, book cov- image quality. If you’re shooting on assign- ers, CD covers and liners, posters, and photo ment, and if you post proofs on a Web site, illustrations. The goal is to make images that then setting a RAW+JPEG capture option define the spirit and character of the person can save time by having ready-made JPEGs or event — all without posing or staging the for Web posting. scene. To get defining shots, you need to understand the event or person, which Also for editorial shooting, I modify the means you need to be there, in position, Neutral Picture Style to parameters that I and ready to shoot when each defining know will deliver good skin tones, a moder- moment happens. ate tonal curve, and allow good latitude in processing RAW images and editing them in Editorial photographers may be assigned to Photoshop. My settings are: +3 Sharpness; produce the classic photo story comprised +1 Contrast, and +1 Saturation. of a series of photos that tells the story of the person or event, or they may be asked If you’re new to editorial shooting and want to distill the essence of the story in one or to pursue this area, local newspapers and two shots. Regardless of the assignment magazines are a good starting point. Also, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 211 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 211 check the Photographer’s Market, a book your storytelling skills. Approach the shoot- published annually that lists contacts for ing with the idea of giving viewers an inside magazines, book publishers, and stock look at the subject or event to make them agencies, for contact names and other edi- feel what you felt and saw. Editorial shooting torial shooting opportunities. is closely related to documentary shooting, so look for subjects that reflect the times and The 40D is a durable camera, the culture, and then tell that story. but it does not have the weather-sealing found in some higher-end cameras. Use cau- Many photographers have broken into this tion when using the 40D field by spending hours of their personal repeatedly in inclement time developing photo stories on subjects weather. However, if precau- about which they are passionate with the tions are taken to keep it dry, hope they can later sell the photo story to a the 40D will serve the editorial photographer well. publication. Tip For the best of photographic

Inspiration storytelling, be sure to visitBrian Storm’s Web site at

Look for opportunities to hone your editorial Brianand his team won an Emmy for shooting skills at local rallies, political gath- their compelling multimedia erings, conventions, concerts, events, presentations of photographic marches, protests, and elections. Often, you storytelling. can find local events that allow you to polish 9.11 As with sports photography, editorial photography centers on telling a story that includes capturing the moment of high emotion, such as this moment of worship. Exposure: ISO 800, f/2.8, 1/60 sec., using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 212 212 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Taking editorial photographs

9.12 Another in the series of images with Jessie leading the music concert. Exposure: ISO 400, f/2.8, 1/50 sec., using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens.

Table 9.4 Editorial Photography

Setup In the Field: Shooting live events, such as the concert shown in figure 9.12, presents a unique set of challenges. I went to the rehearsal to make test shots and to talk to Jessie and the crew about their goals for the concert images. During the concert, access to the stage and dealing with variable stage lighting presented one set of challenges. Another challenge was working with three videographers who were shooting the live concert. I had to constantly check to see which video camera’s red light was on, and then adjust my shooting positions so I wasn’t featured in the video. Additional Considerations: For editorial shots, the goal is to accurately represent the subject and allowing enough time for subjects to overcome self-consciousness in having a camera pointed at them., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 213

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 213

Lighting In the Field: Stage lighting for this concert included overhead spot lights, gelled stage floor lights, and a panel of multicolored stage lights to the left and right of the stage. The twinkles in the background are the strings of twinkle lights that are the stage setup for the Illuminate service at Overlake Christian Church. The twinkle lights make a lovely backdrop and worked to my advantage. Additional Considerations: In low-light scenes or indoors, if you’re within the flash’s range, you can use the built-in or an accessory flash (provided that flash photography is allowed and does not disrupt the proceedings). I’ve found that bounce flash with an accessory EX-series Speedlite is the most flattering light. If the ceiling is too high to produce a good exposure, you can bounce the flash off a nearby neutral-colored wall or off a silver reflector. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. During the concert, I alternated between this and the 70-200mm lens. No question about it, you have to take an adequate range of lenses for the assignment, so do careful advance planning and scouting. Additional Considerations: A fast telephoto zoom lens, such as the Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM, is ideal for editorial shooting along with a wide-angle lens such as the EF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM or the EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM. With a telephoto and wide-angle zoom lens, you can make portraits and get the overall context of the event or environment. For weather-related editorial pictures, a wide-angle lens is ideal so you can include the context of bad weather surrounding a person or group coping with the weather. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture-priority AE (Av) using RAW capture. Because I was shooting RAW files, I could set the White Balance during RAW image conversion by clicking a white element in the photo. At concerts in particular, I find that the color of the stage lighting is best left pretty much as is; in other words, balancing the color to neutral takes away from the ambience of the event. Additional Considerations: Always shoot at the highest resolution setting on the camera and maintain high resolution through the editing process so the image maintains maximum quality if the editor or client wants to use it in a large size. Exposure In the Field: ISO 100, f/2.8, 1/50 sec. Additional Considerations: Use wide apertures of f/3.5 or f/2.8 to blur distracting backgrounds. If the background adds context to the scene, stop down to f/8 or f/11 if the ambient light levels allow. Be thankful for the 40D’s outstanding performance through the range of ISO settings because in low-light venues, the only exposure options are to shoot wide open with a fast lens and crank up the ISO., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 214 214 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Editorial photography tips reason, I recommend buying the

accessory battery grip so you have ✦ If you’re new to editorial shoot- battery power to last the duration ing, study current feature-article and having several spare CF cards. images to get a feel for editorial I also have two CF card holders of shooting styles and flow. Take different colors. As I fill cards from time to carefully study photos in the green holder, I move them into newspapers, news and consumer a black CF card holder knowing magazines, CD covers, posters, and that black means exposed in my Web photo stories to see how pho- system. tographers encapsulate the defin- ing moments details of photo ✦ Get permission. Be very cautious stories. when photographing private events, and always ask the event ✦ Shoot for the publication’s for- organizers for permission to photo- mat. Many magazines and publica- graph the event. Never assume tions run text and headlines across anything. A photographer in Seattle the image. Leave space at the top, was arrested and detained for pho- bottom, and to one or the other tographing police arresting a man side of the image so the designer on the street. Police later released can easily insert headlines, sub- him, but only after the ACLU got heads, and text. If your work is for involved. The photographer was a print publication, shooting in a later awarded compensation for vertical format is a essential. the wrongful arrest. ✦ Capture the decisive and/or high-emotion moments. Before you begin, think about what the decisive moment might be in the Macro Photography scene that you’re shooting. Of Many people think about shooting flowers course, as the scene develops, the when they think macro photography. decisive or iconic shot may change. Certainly, few photographers can resist the Be prepared and anticipate events temptation to photograph flowers, exotic so you can be in a good position plants, and gardens. But macro photography to capture the decisive moments. applications are much broader than subjects ✦ Have plenty of power and stor- offered in nature. With any of Canon’s macro age. Often, you can’t tell how long lenses, you have the opportunity to make an editorial shoot will last. For this stunning close-up images of everything from, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 215 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 215 The enticements of macro subject composi- tion include colors, the allure of symmetry and textures, intricate design variations, and descriptive details found in objects and the human form. To explore these small worlds, a fine lineup of Canon macro lenses offer 1/2 , life-size, 5X magnifications. Each lens offers a different working distance from the subject, and with a good set of extension tubes, you can reduce the focusing distance of any lens to create dynamic close-up images. In addition, the Canon’s Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX and the Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX provide versa- tile lighting options for small subjects. Chapter 6 details Canon’s macro lens line-up as well as extension tubes. Regardless of the subject, focus is critical in macro work. And at 1:1 magnification, the depth of field is very narrow. For my work, I 9.13 The possibilities for close-up maximize depth of field as much as possible photography expand exponentially when by using a narrow aperture of f/16 to f/32, you add an extension tube to any lens. This and, of course, a tripod and tripod head. In shot was taken in early sunset light with an outdoor shooting, light can vary from bright 85mm f/1.2L II USM lens combined with a to very low. This is where the Canon macro 12mm Kenko extension tube. Exposure: ISO Speedlights come in handy and they also 100, f/2, 1/500 sec. allow a low ISO which you need to get the finest detail and clarity. Macro focusing can stamps and water drops to jewelry and the be frustrating, so I often set the lens to the weathered hands of a grandmother. At its maximum focusing distance and move my best, macro photography is a journey in position back or forward to achieve tack- discovering worlds of subjects that are over- sharp focus. looked or invisible in non-macro photography., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 216 216 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Inspiration example, a picture of an insect coming

straight at the lens at eye-level foreshortens If you’re shooting flowers, take the idea of the body and blurs the back of the body cre- anthropomorphism a step further by ascrib- ating a sense of power that is dispropor- ing human characteristics to flowers, and tionate to the creature’s size. see where it leads creatively. For example, asking questions such as how flowers han- Macro lenses reveal the hidden structures dle the problem of overcrowding? For any and beauty of everything from flowers and macro subject, ask yourself how the subject insects to the wrinkles on a farmer’s weath- relates to its surroundings, and consider ered face or hands. A single drop of water how you can provide just a touch of envi- bouncing up from a pool, or the reflections ronmental context in the shot given the very of a garden in a water droplet on a flower limited depth of field. Experiment with how petal, provide endless creative opportunities you render the depth of field and use it in for macro images. combination with subject position. For 9.14 For this image, I used the power of the EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens to come in close on the ring. At this focusing level, every flaw in the subject is evident, as well as every detail. Exposure: ISO 125, f/18, 1/250 sec. A Photogenic strobe lit the background, and a second strobe placed low and to camera left lit the ring. A silver reflector to camera right provided fill light., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 217 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 217

Taking macro photographs

9.15 This pinecone offered an opportunity to capture the repetitive patterns that occur so often in nature., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 218 218 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 9.5 Macro Photography

Setup In the Field: The type of image shown in figure 9.15 works well in either an outdoor setting or in the studio. Given bad weather, this image was made in the studio with an eye toward setting the lighting to emphasize the patterns. Additional Considerations: Flowers, plants, insects, and other natural subject in outdoor light usually offer ready-made setup and lighting. If you don’t have a garden, local nurseries and greenhouses offer plentiful subjects. Outdoors, you can take a low shooting position, and then shoot upward to use the blue sky as a beautiful backdrop. For indoor shooting of people, musical instrument details, and so on, side window light is often bright enough for shooting on a tripod. Otherwise, a Speedlite or studio system is a good option. Lighting In the Field: With small objects such as this pinecone, I used two Photogenic strobes: one to camera left, and another angled slightly behind and pointing toward the subject. My standard silver reflector filled shadows on the right. Additional Considerations: Outdoor light ranging from overcast conditions to bright sunshine are suitable for photos. Try using reflectors to direct light toward a small group or blossom. Macro Speedlites are a great option as well. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. Additional Considerations: As detailed in Chapter 6, Canon offers excellent Macro lenses including the EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM, the EF-S 60mm f/2.8 Macro USM, and the venerable EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture-priority AE (Av) and RAW capture. Additional Considerations: Decide on the extent of the depth of field you want for the scene you’re shooting, and then use Aperture-priority AE mode, camera-to-subject distance, and the lens choice to get the effect you envision. Exposure In the Field: ISO 100, f/14, 1/125 sec. Additional Considerations: Unless you want to use selective focusing, set a narrow aperture such as f/16 or f/22 to ensure maximum sharpness throughout the image when you’re shooting close to the subject and use a tripod, beanbag, or mini-pod to stabilize the camera. This is also the time to use Mirror Lockup to prevent the slap of the reflex mirror from spoiling tack-sharp focus. Mirror Lockup can be used by enabling it in C.Fn III-7. Accessories A tripod is always a good precaution when you’re taking macro shots and when using a telephoto lens. You can also buy plant holders to hold plants steady. These holders do not damage the plant and are inexpensive and small., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 219 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 219

Macro photography tips the frame, especially for small

objects, shoot on a plane that is ✦ Enhance visual interest. When level with the subject. Any tilt of photographing subjects with pat- the lens will create blur quickly. terns, use a position that creates a strong diagonal line to create direc- ✦ Watch the background. The tion and motion in the composition. viewer’s eye is drawn to the bright- est area in the image, so it’s impor- ✦ Make the most of lighting. If you tant to avoid bright background want to emphasize depth in tex- highlights that distract from the tured subjects, use strong side light subject. Some photographers use a that rakes across the subject. Or if handheld incident light meter to you want controlled, focused light, get precise exposure, although the you can fashion a modifier to Spot meter on the 40D is equally reduce the breadth of light from a useful. Speedlite. For example, one pho- tographer fashioned a narrow ✦ Take advantage of backlighting. “snoot” by using black electrical Many flower petals and plant tape on a Speedlite to concentrate leaves are transparent, and with the light in a very specific, narrow backlighting, the delicate veins are beam for tiny subjects. visible. Watch for backlighting to create compelling and very graphic ✦ Maximize the area of acceptable images of flowers and plants. focus. To get the maximum acceptable sharpness throughout

Nature and Photographing landscapes and naturerequires high levels of both creative and Landscape technical skills to create compositions thatare dynamic and evocative of the mood of Photography the scene, and that adequately capture theextremes of light and shadow.

With breathtaking vistas of forests, moun- Speaking of exposure, the tains, and expanse of sky, God’s handiwork Tip image histogram is a great tool remains an awesome wealth of photo- for evaluating whether the cam- graphic material for photographers. From era has successfully captured dawn to dusk and sometimes beyond, detail in both light and dark nature provides an endless source of inspi- areas. If the histogram shows pixels crowded against the left, ration for lovely images. And you don’t have right, or both sides of the his- to go far to find the next image. You can togram, the camera wasn’t able choose a single location and return week to maintain detail in one or after week to take entirely different pictures. both areas. Filters, such as a Seasonal changes to flora and fauna, pass- graduated neutral-density (NDGrad) filter, can help bal- ing wildlife, rain, sunshine, fog, and snow all ance the exposure for bright sky contribute to nature’s ever-changing canvas. areas and darker foreground areas allowing the sensor to hold detail in both areas., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 220 220 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D 9.16 From the simple to the complex, the 9.17 Be inspired not only by the myriad of exploration of nature is a lifelong journey of subjects in nature, but also by amazing light. inspiration. I was struck by the simplicity Watch for the kind of light that spotlights and peace of this single blossom in early the subject and defines highlights and fall. Exposure: ISO 100, f/4, 1/1600 sec., shadows in a way that creates depth within using an EF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM lens. the image. Exposure: ISO 160, f/5.6, 1/500 sec. using a Canon EF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM lens. The challenge of outdoor photography is in capturing and conveying to the viewer the also take advantage of the full range of essence of a scene without the aid of chirp- atmospheric conditions, such as fog, which ing birds, the smell of clover, and the warm adds a sense of mystery; overcast light that breeze of a late spring day. Compositional enriches colors; and rain and dew that dap- techniques including identifying a center of ples foliage with fascinating patterns of interest, using leading lines, framing, and water droplets. other classic techniques help to convey the sense of grandeur and beauty that originally For landscapes, you may want to try the caught your eye. Landscape Picture Style, which delivers vivid blues and greens and boosts image contrast The quality of light plays a starring role in and sharpness. If you’re shooting JPEG nature photography. At sunrise and sunset images, the Picture Style is applied in the you get singularly rich color, and the low camera, but you can adjust the sharpness, angles of the sun create long shadows that contrast, color saturation, and color tone. If add a sense of depth to landscapes. But you’re shooting RAW, you can apply the, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 221 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 221 Picture Style when you convert the image in of peace. As you take pictures, look both at Canon’s Digital Photo Professional program. the overall scene and the components that However, many photographers find that the make it compelling. Isolate subscenes that Landscape Picture Style is over the top. I rec- make independent compositions or can be ommend using the Picture Style Editor with used as a center of interest for the overall a sample RAW image; setting the color tone, scene. saturation, and sharpness to your liking, and then registering the Picture Style in the As you look around, ask yourself questions camera. such as whether including more or less of the sky will enhance the scene and the For details on using and composition. Generally, a gray, cloudless sky modifying Picture Styles, see adds no value to the image; in these condi- Chapter 3. tions, including less of the sky is a better choice. Stormy skies, on the other hand, can

Inspiration add drama as well as beautiful color to out-

door images. Choose a place that gives you a unique visual or emotional sense. For example, if Watch for naturally occurring elements, such you find a scene that exudes tranquility, try as an old wooden fence, a winding road, different positions, focal lengths, and fore- or a decaying archway to create classic ground elements to help convey the sense compositions.

Taking nature and landscape photographs

9.18 Atmospheric conditions such as fog redefine the landscape lending a sense of both mystery and discovery., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 222 222 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 9.6 Nature and Landscape Photography

Setup In the Field: In figure 9.18, patches of fog inspired me to capture this scene. I took the window screen off the window and hung out of an upstairs window to capture this foggy forest scene. Additional Considerations: Because such a wide variety of scenes is possible with landscapes and nature, the best advice is to trust your eye to set up and compose images. Try to exclude distracting utility wires, road signs, and trash within the scene. Shoot from a variety of low, high, and eye-level positions. For sweeping scenes, include a foreground object such as a person, a rock, or a fence to give a sense of scale. As you look through the viewfinder, consider how the elements in the frame will direct the viewer’s eye in the final picture. Lighting In the Field: The late-afternoon overcast lighting reduced the dynamic range of this scene enough that the camera could capture detail in the highlights. During RAW conversion, I opened up shadows. Additional Considerations: A variety of lighting conditions is inherent in landscape and nature photography. Inevitably, the best light is during and just after or before sunrise and dawn when the low angle of the sun creates long shadows and enhances the colors of flora and fauna. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens. Additional Considerations: Both wide-angle and telephoto zoom lenses are good choices for landscape and nature photography. For distant scenes, a wide-angle lens renders some elements too small in the frame. Use a telephoto lens to bring them closer. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture-priority AE (Av) mode with white balance set to Cloudy, and then adjusted during RAW conversion. Additional Considerations: Because some landscape images look better with deeper color, you can set Exposure Compensation to -1/2 or -1/3 stop if you’re shooting JPEGs. Just press the ISO-Exposure Compensation button on the LCD panel, and turn the Quick Control dial to set the amount of compensation you want. Exposure In the Field: ISO 100, f/8, 1/13 sec., using Image Stabilization on the 70-200mm lens. Additional Considerations: Use the lowest ISO possible to avoid digital noise. In most landscape and nature photos, extensive depth of field is the best choice. Meter for the most important element in the scene, and bracket to ensure the best overall exposure or to composite multiple images in an image-editing program., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:14 AM Page 223 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 223

Nature and landscape ✦ Look for details that underscore

the sense of the place. A dilapi- photography tips dated fence or a rusted watering trough in a peaceful shot of a ✦ Position yourself to take advan- prairie helps convey how the land tage of the sky as a backdrop. was used. For pictures of foliage, flowers, and colorful seasonal trees, use a low ✦ Look for interesting light. For shooting position and shoot example, when you shoot in a for- upward if you have a deep blue est or shaded area, look to include sky as the backdrop for the subject. streaming shafts of light coming through the trees or illuminating a ✦ Get extensive depth of field. To single plant. get extensive depth of field, set the 40D to Aperture-priority AE mode, ✦ Use Exposure compensation in and choose a narrow aperture scenes with large areas of light such as f/16 or narrower depend- colors. Large areas of light or ing on the ambient light and white such as snow scenes or whether you’re using a tripod. white sandy beaches can fool the Then focus the camera one-third of camera meter into underexposing the way into the scene, lock the the image. To ensure that the snow focus, recompose, and take the or sand appears white in the final picture. image, set Exposure compensation on the 40D to +1 or +2. ✦ Don’t always default to using a wide-angle lens. Many people ✦ Look for different ways to frame associate landscape photography the scene. Try using a tree as a with wide-angle lenses. However, frame along one side of the frame telephoto lenses are indispensable or a break in the foliage that pro- in all types of outdoor photogra- vides a natural window that reveals phy, and they are very useful for a longer view of the scene. isolating a center of interest in a wide-ranging vista. ✦ When you shoot landscapes, Night and Low-Light include a person or a fore- ground object to help provide Photography scale. For example, to bring home the massive size of an imposing If you’re ready to challenge your photogra- mountain range, include a hiker in phy skills, shooting low-light and nighttime the foreground or midground to images is a great way to do it. Night and give the viewer a scale. low-light images not only expand your, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 224 224 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D understanding of exposure, but they also open a new world of creative challenge, enjoyment, and the potential for lovely results. Some event assignments and stock photography also require you to shoot in low-light scenes and at nighttime, so having a good understanding of how to get good results without excessive digital noise is important. Sunset and twilight are magical photogra- phy times for shooting of subjects such as city skylines, harbors, and downtown build- ings. During twilight, the artificial lights in the landscape, such as street and office lights, and the light from the sky reach approximately the same intensity. This crossover lighting time offers a unique opportunity to capture detail in a landscape or city skyline, as well as the sky. Low-light and night photos also offer a great opportunity to use Manual mode on the 40D. Sample starting exposure recom- mendations are provided in Table 9.7. 9.19 The great high ISO performance of the 40D opens the door to making dynamic low-light images with much less concern about obnoxious digital noise. Plus you can capture the play of light and raise the level of shadows without having to apply heavy noise reduction during image processing. Exposure: ISO 400, f/2.8, 1/45 sec., using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens.

Table 9.7 Ideal Night and Low-Light Exposures

Subject ISO Aperture Shutter Speed City skylines (shortly after sunset) 100 to 400 f/4 to f/8 1/30 second Full moon 100 f/11 1/125 second Campfires 100 f/2.8 1/15 to 1/30 second Fairs, amusement parks 100 to 400 f/2.8 1/8 to 1/60 second, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 225 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 225 Subject ISO Aperture Shutter Speed Lightning 100 f/5.6 to f/8 Bulb; keep shutter open for several lightning flashes Night sports games 400 to 800 f/2.8 1/250 second Candlelit scenes 100 to 200 f/2.8 to f/4 1/4 second Neon signs 100 to 200 f/5.6 1/15 to 1/30 second Freeway lights 100 f/16 1/40 second

Inspiration and diners; gasoline stations; widely spaced

lights on a lonely stretch of an evening high- Try shooting city skyline shots in stormy way; the light of a ship coming into a har- weather at dusk when enough light remains bor; or an outdoor fountain or waterfall that to capture compelling colors and the fear- is lit by nearby streetlights are all potential some look of the sky. Busy downtown subjects for dramatic pictures, as are indoor streets as people walk to restaurants, cafés, events such as concerts and recitals. 9.20 Sunset and sunrise qualify as low light, and certainly some of the most spectacular light of the day. This is one in a series of images made during a spectacular sunset on a Sunday evening while driving home. Exposure: ISO 125, f/4, 1/60 sec., using an EF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 226 226 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Taking night and low-light photographs

9.21 The play of light across the stage spotlighted this guitar, and the background guitar repeats the theme of music., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 227

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 227 Table 9.8 Night and Low-Light Photography

Setup In the Field: The primary setup for figure 9.21 was simply to see the picture and then find a shooting position to give depth to the foreground guitar while having the background guitar at a dynamic angle to the foreground guitar. Additional Considerations: If you are photographing a busy outdoor area, find a location that is away from pedestrian traffic and is unaffected by the vibration of passing cars. Ensure your composition has a clear subject and isn’t visually confusing by including too much in the frame. Be aware that passing cars and nearby lights can influence the camera’s meter reading. You may need to wait for cars to pass, use the Spot meter, or use a handheld incident meter. Lighting In the Field: This image was taken in stage lighting with the guitar on the front edge of a spotlight. The placement of the guitar relative to the light allows light on the front of the instrument and behind to create a background spotlight. Additional Considerations: If you’re shooting scenes with floodlit buildings, bridges, or other night scenes, begin shooting just after sunset so the buildings stand out from the surroundings. Check the image histogram on the LCD by pressing the INFO button twice or three times to display the histogram if you’re in single-image playback mode. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. Additional Considerations: A wide-angle zoom lens set to 18mm or 24mm allows you to get a broad expanse of night and evening scenes. Telephoto lenses, of course, are great for bringing distant scenes closer, but at late sunset and at night, a tripod is a requirement especially if you use a long lens. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture-priority AE with White Balance set to auto (AWB). Additional Considerations: Aperture-priority AE mode gives you control over the depth of field. If you can’t stabilize the camera, you may want to use Tv mode and get a reasonable handholding shutter speed and make necessary adjustments to the ISO to achieve it. Low- light scenes are also an opportunity to use Mirror Lockup which you can enable using C.Fn III-7 and one of the Self-timer modes or a remote cable release. For outdoor low-light and night shooting, I also turn on Long Exposure Noise Reduction using C.Fn II-1. Continued, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 228 228 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 9.8 (continued)

Exposure In the Field: ISO 400, f/2.8, 1/15 sec. (handheld) Additional Considerations: Just past sunset, you can usually rely on the meter to give a good exposure, but you may choose to bracket exposures at 1/2-stop intervals. However, if bright lights surround the scene, the meter can be thrown off. Use a lens hood and check the image histograms often in the LCD. To keep exposure time down, you can increase the ISO. Accessories A tripod or setting the camera on a solid surface is essential in low-light scenes.

Night and low-light flashlight before you take the pic-

ture. You can also use the autofo- photography tips cus assist beam from the built-in flash without firing the flash using ✦ Be safe and use common sense. C.Fn III-5. Night shooting presents its own set of photography challenges, includ- ✦ Use a level when using a tripod. ing maintaining your personal A small bubble level designed to fit safety. Always follow safety precau- on the hot shoe mount is an tions when shooting during night- indispensable piece of equipment time. Be sure to wear reflective for avoiding tilted horizon shots. tape or clothing, carry a flashlight, ✦ Try the Self-timer mode. You can, and carry a charged cell phone of course, negate the advantage of with you. using a tripod by pressing the ✦ Use a flashlight to focus. If the Shutter button with your finger camera has trouble focusing, train causing camera shake and a your flashlight on the subject long noticeable loss of sharpness. A bet- enough to focus manually or auto- ter solution is to use the Self-timer matically, and then turn off the mode and Mirror Lockup.

Fireworks Photography

If you want to capture the rocket’s red glare, you can use lenses in the range of 28-100mm. Choose an ISO from 200 to 400. Because the camera may have trouble focusing on distant bursts of light, you can prefocus manually on infinity and get good results. I also recommend using a tripod or setting the camera on a solid surface to ensure sharp images. If you want to keep it simple, you can set the camera to Full Auto and then just point and shoot., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 229 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 229 If you want to have more creative control, you should know that capturing fireworks is an inexact science at best. I usually set the camera to ISO 200, use Manual mode, set the aperture to f/11 or f/16, and set the shutter on Bulb, which allows you to keep the shutter open as long as the shutter button is depressed. You can experiment to find the best time, usually between one and two seconds. Check the results on the LCD and adjust the time as necessary. The goal is to get a long enough exposure to record the full burst without washing out the brightest colors. The different bursts of fireworks composited here were taken at ISO 200, f/11, 1/3 sec., with the Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens and a tripod. I merged them using Adobe Photoshop CS2. Don’t worry if you miss some good displays at the beginning of the fireworks show because the finale usually offers the best photo opportunities. During the early part of the display, get your timing perfected and be ready to capture the finale., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 230 230 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Pet and Wildlife actions. In the wild, capturing animals inter-acting or in their environment going about Photography their daily activities deliver the strongestimages.

Nothing gets an “awww” quicker than a cute Note When you photograph pets andpet or animal photo. Next to photographing animals, keep the welfare of the people, pets and wildlife are some of the animal in mind. Never put the most appealing subjects in photography animal in danger or expect and can be a lucrative specialty area. And more of the animal than it is as with people photography, the goal is to capable of or willing to give. convey the personality of the pet or animal. If you’re photographing pets, young, Of course, a major difference is that few if untrained pets and animals provide lots of any pets and animals smile, so conveying appeal, but they are more challenging to the animal’s mood hinges on eliciting its work with because they don’t respond to natural curiosity and interest, and then cap- verbal commands. In these situations, give turing the mood in the animal’s eyes and 9.22 There are few areas of photography more fun than pet photography. Photos can range from formal to comical. This is my miniature schnauzer who grew up in front of the lens and remains my best model. Exposure: ISO 100, f/11, 1/125 sec., using an EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 231 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 231 their response is less predictable when you’re photographing them. They can’t see your face when it’s behind the camera. Instead, establish eye contact with the pet as you set up the camera and talk to the ani- mal, be patient, and offer rewards and ver- bal encouragement. Animal preserves, zoos, and, of course, nature treks provide excellent wildlife shoot- ing opportunities. If you go to a preserve, call the facility first because they can give useful tips on the best times to capture the animals. For example, a northwest animal preserve recommends visiting during over- cast or rainy weather because the animals are out in the open more often than in sunny weather. Many preserves also have bird habitats including eagle and exotic bird areas. Resort hotels also often have animal and aquatic exhibits as well. 9.23 Whether you’re shooting birds or animals in the wild or in a more controlled Inspiration setting such as this open area at a Las Vegas hotel, the 40D provides a wide dynamic Photo opportunities with pets include any range, which means there is more latitude new experiences for the animal such as get- even in contrasty light such as this to retain ting acquainted with another pet, the ani- more highlight detail as well as good mal sleeping in odd positions or curled up shadow detail. In addition to telephoto lens, with other pets, a pet watching out the win- medium-range zoom lenses such as the EF dow for kids to come home from school, 24-70mm and the EF 24-105mm used for racing after a ball or Frisbee, or performing this image come in handy for animal and in an arena. Local photo clubs and groups of wildlife photography. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/60 sec. photographers often organize annual trips during the best times to capture wildlife and birds such as eagles in your area. Check the pet a large but confined area and go with a local camera store or on the Web to with the flow, using props, toys, and find upcoming treks and river trips. Also, rewards to entice the behavior you want. providing plants, feeders, bird baths, and Even with older pets that normally respond open area in your yard can attract a variety to verbal commands, don’t be surprised if of birds for ongoing photo ops., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 232 232 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Taking pet and wildlife photographs

9.24 The challenge with this pet portrait was to maintain good separation between the black-and-silver miniature schnauzer and the black crinkle background., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 233

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 233 Table 9.9 Pet and Wildlife Photography

Setup In the Field: I set up black crinkle fabric on background stands in figure 9.24 and positioned the miniature schnauzer on the table about a foot in front of the background. Additional Considerations: Indoor pictures are relatively easy to set up for small pets and animals. If you include a favorite toy, be sure that it doesn’t obscure the pet’s face. For outdoor wildlife shots, find open areas where grass or natural foliage can be the background. Be sure to focus on the animal’s eyes. Lighting In the Field: Four studio lights were used for this image: two lights to light the background, a light in front of the schnauzer, and one to the left shooting into a silver umbrella. A large silver reflector to the right of the dog reflected light into the shadow side of the dog. Additional Considerations: Indoors, you can use the basic lighting setup just described, or you can use the light from a nearby window. Outdoors, late-afternoon, and sunset light provide beautiful light for animal pictures. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM. This lens offers excellent contrast and sharpness. Additional Considerations: Your lens choice depends in part on whether you’re taking a portrait or full-body picture and the size of the pet or animal. For large animals, the Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM or the EF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM lens is a good choice. For wildlife shooting, super-telephoto lenses are favored. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture priority AE (Av), RAW capture, with a custom White Balance setting. Additional Considerations: For outdoor pet portraits, Av mode allows you to control the depth of field, but in lower light and if the animal is fidgety, Shutter priority AE (Tv) mode may be the best choice to ensure the shutter speed is fast enough to prevent blur. If you’re using a super- telephoto IS lens for bird or wildlife photography, be sure to study C.Fn III-2 options to setup the AF Stop button functions that best suit your shooting. Exposure In the Field: ISO 100, f/16, 1/125 sec. Additional Considerations: If you use Aperture-priority AE (Av) mode, watch the shutter speed in the viewfinder to ensure it isn’t slower than 1/30 second to avoid motion blur if the animal moves. In general, try to keep the shutter speed at 1/60 second or faster. If you fear the animal will move, increase the intensity of the lights or add more lights so you can use a faster shutter speed. Or you can increase the ISO to 200, or use a wider aperture, such as f/5.6. Accessories For more traditional portraits of pets indoors, use a tripod. Outdoors, a tripod may not be practical, so be sure the shutter speed is fast enough to prevent motion blur., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 234 234 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Pet and wildlife Once you know the path they reg-

ularly take, set up the camera so photography tips that you blend with the back- ground as much as possible, and ✦ In most cases, shoot from the with lighting that will fall on the pet’s eye level. Occasionally, a animal and the background in high shooting position is effective mind. Then wait patiently for the to show a young animal’s small animals to approach your area. Use size, but generally you’ll get the a super-telephoto lens to isolate most expression when you are on the subject while maintaining a the same eye level with the animal. sense of the natural context. ✦ Do research. If you’re interested in ✦ Use an extender. If you don’t photographing specific birds or have a super-telephoto lens, you wildlife, learn all you can about can extend the range of your tele- their habits and habitats, including photo lens by adding an extender feeding and mating behavior. For as detailed in Chapter 6 to extend example, know what time of year the focal length of your telephoto that the birds are in breeding lens by 1.4 or 2X. plumes. The more you know, the better prepared you are to capture ✦ Try other techniques. Use the unique shots and to maintain your techniques described in the earlier safety. sections that cover action and sports photography to photograph ✦ Be patient. It may take one or two animals in action. days in an area to observe the habits of the indigenous wildlife.

Portrait Photography Lens choices

For head and head-and-shoulders portraits, Portraiture is likely the most popular of pho- normal to medium telephoto lenses ranging tographic specialties, and people photogra- from 35mm to 100mm are excellent phy of all types can provide a steady source choices. With an inherently shallow depth of of revenue for professional photographers field, telephoto lenses provide a lovely back- and aspiring professionals. Every photogra- ground blur that brings the subject forward pher is ultimately drawn to a particular pho- in the image. For full-length and environ- tographic specialty. For me, it’s portraiture. mental portraits, a moderate wide-angle Just as with the process of discovery lens is a good choice, provided the subject involved in nature shooting, the process of is not close to the lens. Especially for envi- discovering the spirit and spark of people ronmental portraits, a wide-angle lens and conveying it in images is a compelling allows you to include the context of the and challenging endeavor. That doesn’t environment while still making a good por- mean that portraiture is easy, but it does trait of the subject. mean that it is ultimately very rewarding. The following sections detail some of the key considerations involved in portraiture., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 235 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 235 as f/4 or f/2.8 and moving the subject well away from the background. Conversely, some portraits benefit by having more back- ground context. For example, when taking high school senior portraits, backgrounds and props that help show the student’s areas of interest are especially popular. More extensive depth of field is the ticket for showing a star football player in the context of a football field. Formal portraiture often incorporates more elaborate backgrounds and props particu- larly in studio settings. However, if you are just starting out, remember that a simple background and few or no props create fine portraits as well. Just remember the image is not about the background or the props. The image is first and always about the subject.


Lighting patterns and ratios differ for por- 9.25 This assignment image was made in traits of men and women. For men and an office with Phil in front of a bookcase. boys, strong, directional daylight can be The lighting included diffuse window light from the front as well as an accessory 580 used to emphasize strong masculine facial EX flash shooting into an umbrella to features. For women and girls, soft, diffuse camera right. An assistant held a medium light streaming from a nearby window or silver reflector low and to the left of the the light on an overcast day is flattering. To subject to lighten shadows on the left. control light, you can use a variety of acces- Exposure: ISO 200, f/2.8, 1/15 sec., using a sories including reflectors to bounce light 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens. into shadow areas and diffusion panels to reduce the intensity of bright sunlight. These

Backgrounds and props accessories are equally handy when usingthe built-in or an accessory flash for por-

traits. For the best exposure, take a meter In all portraits, the subject is the center of reading from the highlight area of the sub- attention, and that’s why a non-distracting ject’s face, use Exposure Lock, and then or softly blurred background is important. recompose and take the picture. In the stu- Even if you have trouble finding a good dio, a flash meter serves well to determine background, you can de-emphasize the the exposure under multiple strobes. background by using a wide aperture such, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 236 236 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Flash Photography

The 40D’s built-in flash offers good flash metering for both indoor and outdoor pic- tures particularly when set to E-TTL II with Evaluative metering. Even in backlit scenes, the FE Lock feature ensures the subject is not overexposed. The distance covered by the flash increases as the ISO increases. In other words, if you set the camera to ISO 200, the flash distance is greater than at ISO 100. Using the built-in flash is detailed in Chapter 8. If you use an accessory flash, such as the Canon Speedlite 580EX II, buy a sync cord or flash bracket so you can position the flash unit farther away from the lens. With an accessory flash unit, you can also point the flash head toward a neutral color (or white) ceiling or wall to bounce the flash. The bounced light is diffused producing a much softer and more flattering light. You can use an accessory flash unit to fill shad- ows, stop action in lower-light scenes, and add a point of sharpness in panned shots.

Accessory flash is preferable because it emphasizes the sub-

ject’s irises (the color part of the eye), mak- You often have more flexibility with lighting ing the eyes more attractive. when you use an accessory flash. With accessory flash units, you can soften the light by bouncing it off a nearby wall or ceil- Posing ing. You can also mount one or more acces- Entire books are written on posing tech- sory flash units on light stands and point the niques for portraits. A quick guideline is that flash into an umbrella to create studio-like the best pose is the one that makes the sub- lighting results on location. Inexpensive ject look comfortable, relaxed, and natural. flash attachments such as diffusers and soft- In practice, this means posing the subject in box-like attachments are also a great option a comfortable position and in a way that for creating nice portrait lighting. emphasizes the attractive features while Use flash exposure compensa- minimizing less-attractive features. Key linesTip tion to dial back to the amount are the structural lines that form the portrait. of light from the flash you want. Posing the subject so that diagonal and tri- angular lines are formed by the legs, arms, The subject’s eyes should have catchlights, or and shoulders creates more dynamic poses. small, white reflections of the main light Also, placing the subject’s body at an angle source—a 2 o’clock or 10 o’clock catchlight to the camera is more flattering and position is classic. Light also affects the size dynamic than a static pose with the head of the subject’s pupils— the brighter the light, and shoulders squared off to the camera. the smaller the pupil size. A smaller pupil size, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 237 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 237


Even if you light and pose the subject per- fectly, a portrait can easily fail if you haven’t connected with the subject. Your connec- tion with the subject is mirrored in the sub- ject’s eyes. Every minute you spend building a good relationship with the subject pays big dividends in the final images. In short, building a relationship with the subject is the single most important step in creating meaningful portraits.


Portrait subjects are most often self-con- scious in front of a camera. Even the most sparking personalities can freeze up when the lens is pointed in their direction. To ease their anxiety, you have to be a consummate director, calming them, gently guiding them into the spirit of the session, and providing positive feedback on their performance. 9.26 I had a fan set to a low setting Very often instead of describing how I want blowing toward Chelsie. The direction of her a person to sit or stand, I step onto the set arm and hair, and the tilt of her head help and demonstrate what I have in mind. to create a sense of energy. Diffuse window Subjects catch on immediately and add light lit the left side of the face. An assistant their own interpretation. held a silver platter (a makeshift reflector) to subject right to fill shadows and add catchlights to the eyes. Exposure: ISO 160,

Inspiration f/2.8, 1/30 sec., using an EF 50mm f/1.4

USM lens. Before you begin, talk to the subject about his or her interests. Then see if you can cre- ate setups or poses that play off of what you When photographing younger subjects, be learn. Consider having a prop that the sub- sure you’re up on the latest fashion shoot- ject can use for inspiration and improvisa- ing trends and styles. For inspiration and tion. Alternately, play off the subject’s ideas, browse the latest newsstand maga- characteristics. For example, with a very mas- zines and music CD covers. culine subject, use angular props or a rocky natural setting that reflects masculinity., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 238 238 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Taking portrait photographs

9.27 Portraits such as this put the subject in the context of their environment. In this case, Chelsie is a first-year college student, so having her in the context of studying was natural., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 239

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 239 Table 9.10 Portrait Photography

Setup In the Field: For figure 9.27, Chelsie is studying for an exam in a well-lit game room of a home. The backlighting from the door glass behind the subject was problematic. I knew when I was shooting that I’d have to process the RAW image twice and composite the two to maintain detail in the bright door window glass. Additional Considerations: Uncluttered and simple backgrounds are effective for making the subject stand out from the background. If you don’t have white paper or a large white poster board, use a plain, neutral-color wall, and move the subject four to six feet from the background. In a studio setting or with unmodified flash, moving the subject away from the background and lighting the background separately helps reduce or eliminate background shadows. Keep poses simple and straightforward; allow the subject to assume a natural position, and then tweak the pose for the best effect. Lighting In the Field: The lighting consisted of indirect light from a large window across the room and in front of the subject and backlighting from double doors behind the subject. There was also overhead tungsten light. Additional Considerations: If you do location shooting, you can use multiple accessory flash units and a wireless transmitter to simulate studio or natural light effects. Otherwise, you can use window light alone or in combination with a silver reflector or two; for example, use one reflector to reflect window light onto shadow areas of the background and one to fill shadows on the subject. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens set to 58mm. Additional Considerations: Most photographers prefer a focal length of 85mm to 105mm for portraits. Canon offers a variety of zoom lenses that offer a short telephoto focal length, such as the EF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM and the EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lenses. Another lens to consider for excellent contrast in portraits is the renowned Canon EF 50mm f/1.4 USM lens (equivalent to 80mm on the EOS 40D). Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture Priority AE (Av) mode with a custom White Balance. Additional Considerations: In the field, you want to control depth of field for portraits, and Aperture-priority AE mode gives you the most control. Continued, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 240 240 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 9.10 (continued)

Exposure In the Field: ISO 160, f/1.4, 1/250 sec. To recover highlight detail in the background door glass, I processed the image twice — once for the highlight detail and once for the subject. Then I composited the images in Photoshop. The super-wide aperture brings the eyes to the forefront and gives a gentle softness to the skin and hair. Additional Considerations: Avoid digital noise in shadow areas, particularly on portraits — choose the lowest ISO possible. To get a depth of field that ensures facial features that are reasonably sharp, set the aperture to f/5.6 or f/8, depending on your distance from the subject and the ambient light. Accessories A tripod is a necessity for many portraits, although it limits your ability to move around the subject quickly to get different angles. If the light permits, shooting off the tripod frees you to try more creative angles and shooting positions.

Portrait photography tips ✦ Frame the subject. As a general

rule, keep the subject’s head in the ✦ Prepare a list of poses or setups upper one-third of the frame. ahead of time. People often feel uncomfortable posing for the cam- ✦ Focus on the eyes. Always focus era. Having a list of poses or on the subject’s eye that is nearest setups minimizes setup changes, to the camera. and you can move through the ✦ Always be ready to take a shot. pose list with good speed. When a good rapport is estab- ✦ Flatter the subject. For adults, ask lished between you and the sub- the subject to lift his or her head ject, be ready to shoot and move it forward slightly to spontaneously even if the setup reduce the appearance of lines and isn’t perfect. A natural, sponta- wrinkles. Watch the change to see neous expression from the subject if the wrinkles are minimized. If is much more important than futz- not, adjust the pose further. ing to get a perfect setting. ✦ Use natural facial expressions. ✦ Take several frames of key It’s always nice if the subject poses. It’s entirely possible that smiles, but portraits in which the something will be amiss with one subject has a contemplative, or more frames. If you take only peaceful, or pleasant look can be one picture, you won’t have a equally effective. backup shot of important poses. ✦ Pay attention to hands. If the ✦ Keep up the chitchat. Keep up a shot includes the subject’s hands, steady stream of conversation that you can minimize the appearance includes friendly directions for of veins by asking the subject to adjusting poses. Friendly chitchat hold the hands with the fingers helps put the subject at ease and pointed up for a few minutes allows a natural way for you to pro- before you begin shooting. vide direction during the session., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 241 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 241

Stock Photography With more than 1,000 stock photographyagencies and organizations to choose from—

At some point, almost everyone who has ranging from the leaders such as Getty and more than a passing interest in photography Corbis to grass-roots organizations such as toys with the idea of making money from Photographers Direct — it stands to reason his or her images. And for those who do, that you can tap into additional income their short list of ideas includes stock pho- ranging from a few hundred or a few thou- tography near the top. Stock photos fill the sand dollars a year to a six-figure income. pages of popular newsstand magazines and Stock agencies market the work of many brochures and grace posters in public photographers. It negotiates with and final- places and billboards along the highways. izes licensing rights with clients, collects pay- Stock photography refers to existing images ment, and subsequently pays the available for licensing by clients including photographer a percentage of the licensing advertising agencies, corporations, maga- price. The percentage split between the pho- zines, book publishers, and others. Stock tographer and the agency varies, but a com- images can be marketed by individual pho- mon split is 50/50: 50 percent to the tographers, photographer cooperatives, or photographer and 50 percent for the agency. by stock photo agencies. In turn, the agency takes over marketing and licensing tasks which gives photographers 9.28 Cultural themes such as the graying of America and the lifestyle of that segment of the population are good fodder for stock images such as this couple waiting for Sunday church services to begin. Exposure: ISO 400, f/2.8, 1/20 sec., using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 242 242 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D more time to make pictures. And with the Inspiration potential to license a single image multiple times, a photo marketed by an agency or Over the years, major stock agencies have cooperative can provide a continuing source acquired thousands of images, which of income for months or even years. means they now have more specific subject needs. For photographers shooting on Stock represents a potentially lucrative way assignment or for pleasure, it pays to con- to reuse existing imagery and a creative way sider potential stock use as you work. For to market new imagery. Currently, the example, if you’re shooting landscape hottest trends in stock photography are for images, you may veer slightly to shoot roads lifestyle images that run the gamut of sub- leading up to the area because advertising ject areas from dining to outdoor activities agencies often look for scenic road shots and sports. into which they can drop the car of their client later. Many agencies have a minimum resolution for stock images and ranges from 8” ×10” at Conceptual shooting is also a good area to 300 dpi to 11” × 14” at 300 dpi. Some stock consider. Themes such as single, breaking agencies allow for upsampling to increase up, and the tranquility of a spa are exam- native resolution of images to larger printing ples of recent stock requests for existing sizes. If you’re new to stock shooting, check imagery. the agency requirements for resolution. 9.29 Simple, everyday subjects, such as this egg in a carton, are often overlooked as good subjects for stock photography. Exposure: ISO 100, f/2.8, 1/80 sec., using an EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 243

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 243 Taking stock photographs

9.30 Images like this one can be used to illustrate concepts such as the hurried pace of everyday life, time, speed, or a metropolitan theme.

Table 9.11 Stock Photography

Setup In the Field: For the image in figure 9.30, the only setup I used was to be in place to capture the bus as it entered the scene near the clock on the building. Additional Considerations: For stock studio shots, white backgrounds are useful because clients often need to replace the background with a color or other background that fits their needs. Leaving space in the image composition for buyers to insert text and other graphics is also advisable. Lighting In the Field: This image was taken in late-afternoon light. The mirrored surface of the building and the shaded area combine to give the image an overall cool palette, which also fits the concept of speed and a rushed schedule. Additional Considerations: Bright, clean images are preferred by buyers, although stylistic variations can set your images apart from the multitudes of stock images. Continued, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 244 244 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 9.11 (continued)

Lens In the Field: Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM lens. Additional Considerations: Your lens choice depends on the scene you’re shooting and your distance from it. Use a telephoto zoom lens to bring distant scenes closer and a wide-angle lens to capture breathtaking sweeps of landscape. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture Priority AE (Av) mode, RAW capture mode using Daylight White Balance. Additional Considerations: Control the depth of field by choosing Aperture-priority AE mode. If the light is low, switch to Shutter-priority AE (Tv) mode. Be sure to set the White Balance to match the type of light in the scene. Exposure In the Field: ISO 100, f/10, 1/20 sec. The slow shutter speed allowed me to capture the blurred motion of the bus entering the scene, which is what I wanted. Additional Considerations: Shoot many variations of stock images including some with extensive depth of field and some with selective focus.

Stock photography tips ✦ Build a sizable portfolio. Most

stock photo agencies expect poten- ✦ Study existing styles. The quality tial photographers to have a sub- of stock imagery is some of the stantial body of work — images best available on the market. numbering in the hundreds if not Minimum expectations are excel- thousands. lent exposure, composition, and subject matter. Agencies look for a ✦ Image content and marketabil- personal style that sets imagery ity. Agencies look for a creative apart from the mass of images edge, if not creative genius, that they have on hand. Study the makes images stand out. The images offered by top stock agen- standout quality is, of course, cies, and determine how well you judged through the dispassionate can match and do better than eye of a photo editor — someone what’s currently being offered. who reviews hundreds of images from polished photographers every ✦ Captions and keywords. day and can quickly cull pedestrian Photographers are responsible for images from star performers. Make providing clear and accurate cap- your images stand out technically tions. In fact, some buyers and and creatively. photo researchers make go and no-go decisions based on caption accuracy and completeness., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 245 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 245

Travel Photography Tip Be sure to check the latest

Transportation Security The 40D is lightweight, small, fast, and Administration (TSA) regula- extremely versatile, making it ideal for use tions on how many spare cam- era batteries that you’re when traveling. With a set of compact zoom allowed to carry. The regula- lenses and plenty of memory cards, you’ll tions recently changed for have everything you need to take high-qual- lithium batteries. Spare batter- ity shots to document your travels. ies must be placed in see- through, sealable bags, and Before you begin a trip, clean your lenses, carried in carry-on luggage. For more information, check the check that the image sensor is free of dust, TSA Web site at and ensure the camera is in good working travelers/airtravel/ass condition. Have spare batteries and memory istant/batteries.shtm. cards. If you’re traveling by air, check the carry-on guidelines on the airline’s Web site Another pre-trip task is to research the des- and determine if you can carry the camera tination by studying brochures and books to separately or as part of your carry-on find not only the typical tourist sites, but allowance. An advantage of being a digital also favorite spots of local residents. When photographer is there’s no worry about film you arrive, you can also ask the hotel being fogged by the X-ray machines. concierge for directions to popular local spots. The off-the-beaten-path locations will likely be where you get some of your best pictures. ©Peter Bryant 9.31 Color is a primary draw for this shot of an alley in Puerto Rico, and the scene is enhanced with careful and effective composition techniques. Exposure: ISO 200, f/9, 1/125 sec., using an EF 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6L IS USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 246 246 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D Here are some additional tips for getting ✦ Waiting for the best light pays great travel pictures: big dividends. Sometimes this means you must return to a loca- ✦ Research existing photos of the tion several times until the weather area. At your destination, check or the light is just right. Once the out the postcard racks to see what light is right, take many photos the often-photographed sites are. from various positions and angles. Determine how you can take shots that offer a different or unique look at the site. Inspiration Include people in your pictures. If the area turns out to have a distinctive✦ To gain cooperation of people, color in the scenery or in architecture, try always be considerate, establish a using the color as a thematic element that friendly rapport, and show respect unifies the images you take in that area. For for individuals and their culture. If example, the deep burnt-orange colors of you do not speak the language, the southwest U.S. can make a strong unify- you can often use hand gestures to ing color for vacation images. indicate that you’d like to take a person’s picture, and then wait for Watch for details and juxtapositions of peo- their positive or negative response. ple, bicycles, and objects with backgrounds such as murals and billboards. Also watch for comical or light-hearted encounters that are effective in showing the spirit of a place. 9.32 If the weather fails to cooperate, include other elements in the image that help define the characteristics of the location. For example, Seattle is known for its abundance of large and beautiful lakes. This image shows the skyline from across Lake Washington with people enjoying a stroll across the pier with seagulls surrounding them. Exposure: ISO 100, f/8, 1/60 sec., using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 247

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 247 Taking travel photographs

©Peter Bryant 9.33 Architecture is a compelling component of travel images such as the lovely tower shown here in Puerto Rico.

Table 9.12 Travel Photography

Setup In the Field: For the picture shown in figure 9.33, the objective was to find a shooting position that allowed the photographer to capture the tower and the street lamps that are characteristic of the area. Additional Considerations: In many cases, you want to choose locations that are iconic, or classic, and try different positions, angles, or framing to show the location to give a fresh perspective on a well- photographed area. Include people in your images to provide an essence of the location. Narrow the scope of your image so that you present a clear story or message. Always ask permission to photograph local people. Continued, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 248 248 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Table 9.12 (continued)

Lighting In the Field: The photographer made great use of a sparkling blue sky as the backdrop for the pastel colors in this scene showing the local architecture. Additional Considerations: Inherently, light for travel photos runs the full range. The trick is to know when to shoot and when not to shoot. Ask yourself if the existing light is suited for the subject. If it isn’t, wait for the light to change or come back at a different time of day when the light is more appealing. If there isn’t a chance of waiting for better light, then minimize the amount of sky in the frame and include iconic foreground elements that define the locale. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 28-300mm f/f/3.5-5.6L IS USM lens. Additional Considerations: Your lens choice depends on the scene you’re shooting and your distance from it. Use a telephoto zoom lens to bring distant scenes closer and a wide-angle lens to capture large scenes such as festivals and fairs or to include environmental context for people shots. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture-priority AE (Av) mode. The White Balance was set to Daylight. Additional Considerations: To control the depth of field, choose Aperture-priority AE mode and set the White Balance to the type of light in the scene. Exposure In the Field: ISO 200, f/8, 1/400 sec. Additional Considerations: Set the ISO as low as possible given the existing light. If you’re photographing people of the area and they are the subject of the image, then use a wide aperture such as f/5.6 to blur the background without making it unreadable. Watch the shutter speed in the viewfinder to make sure it isn’t so slow that subject or hand motion doesn’t spoil the picture.

Travel photography tips adding light to shadow areas.

Reflectors take little space and ✦ Guard your equipment. Digital are lightweight. cameras are a target for thieves. Be sure to keep the camera strap ✦ Carry only the equipment you around your neck or shoulder and need. You want to ensure you never set it down and step away. have the gear you need and still This sounds like common sense, have your camera bag pass airline but you can quickly get caught up requirements for carry-on luggage. in activities and forget to keep an A good multipurpose lens, such as eye on the camera. the EF 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6L IS USM lens or the EF 100-400mm ✦ Use reflectors. Small, collapsible f/4.5-5.6L IS USM are ideal for reflectors come in white, silver, and travel. gold, and they are convenient for, 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 249 Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 249

Wedding heart-stopping disaster that can happen inphotography from malfunctioning gear to a Photography missing or inebriated bride or groom.

Today’s wedding photographer is likely to Despite any wedding or equipment snafus, be an ace at applying a photojournalistic the wedding photographer has to put on a shooting style coupled with a dash of fash- smiling face and roll with the flow. And the ion and glamour shooting — all mixed with a bulk of wedding work for the photographer little traditional portraiture for good meas- happens after the couple has flown away to ure. For some of the top wedding photogra- an exotic location for their honeymoon. It’s phers, the goal of every wedding is to then that the images are processed and produce fine-art imagery that will stand on edited, the first-cut selections are created, their own years from now as classic photos. and the proof books are compiled. Many wedding photographers laugh when people Creating time-tested, artistic photos is a lofty assume they work only on weekends goal for a shooting specialty that can be because they know that not only do they marked with the height of human stress put in 6- to 12-hour days every weekend, compressed in a small but charged con- but they also spend days and weeks after- tainer of time and space. Wedding photog- ward sorting and preparing images for the raphy holds the potential for every couple to review. 9.34 Ceremony images are often the most treasured in the wedding album. Getting a good shooting position where you can capture the emotion without disrupting the ceremony is vital. Exposure: ISO 200, f/2.8, 1/50 sec., using a Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM lens., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 250 250 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Inspiration alone. As with other specialty areas, when it

comes to wedding photography, you want Following the advice of top wedding pho- to think through your photographic voice tographers such as Meg Smith, you want to and style. You also want to come up with make every wedding image strong — not just ways you can incorporate themes into the as a wedding image in the traditional sense, wedding that tie in with the decorations or but as a strong photograph that can stand the couple’s interests. 9.35 Wedding post- celebration events offer the opportunity for capturing lots of candid moments, such as this couple as they relax after the ceremony and begin the reception festivities. Exposure: ISO 250, f/2.8, 1/350 sec., using an EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM lens.

Taking wedding photographs

9.36 While not every wedding photographer shoots wedding formal portraits, many brides expect and want formal shots such as this one of the entire wedding party., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 251

Chapter 9 ✦ In the Field with the EOS 40D 251 Table 9.13 Wedding Photography

Setup In the Field: Figure 9.36 is one of the formal shots where color helps form the lines created in the image to provide good eye direction and movement through the subjects. Additional Considerations: Before the ceremony begins, scout out shooting positions and leave a note or object on a seat to reserve it. Some couples do not want the ceremony photographed and others want it photographed but without the use of flash. Be sure you know the couple’s wishes and requirements before the ceremony begins. After the ceremony, ensure that you or the wedding coordinator rounds up the wedding party and family members for pictures before they leave for the reception. Lighting In the Field: Interior stage lighting with a variety of spotlights and floodlights provided the light for the images taken inside the church at this wedding. Additional Considerations: Work out in advance which areas are large enough and well-lit enough to accommodate the entire wedding party and family shots. Outdoor receptions can be a challenge, particularly with dappled light filtering through trees. Just watch the light falling on the subjects’ faces and move as necessary to avoid hot spots, especially on the face. Lens In the Field: Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM. Additional Considerations: Your lens choice depends on the scene you’re shooting and your distance from it. At a minimum, have a sharp, fast telephoto and wide-angle lens with at least two 40Ds or another backup camera body. Camera Settings In the Field: Aperture-priority AE (Av) mode using RAW capture. Additional Considerations: You want to control the depth of field, so choose Aperture-priority AE mode and set the White Balance to the type light in the scene. Exposure In the Field: ISO 200, f/3.5, 1/50 sec. Additional Considerations: In some wedding venues, sections of the wedding — such as the ceremony, the dinner, and the dance — occur in lighting that is constant for the duration of the event. As a result, you can often set the exposure and shoot with it throughout the event, unless you want to change the depth of field for specific images. Accessories Having a tripod handy is a good idea for wedding photos, but a tripod limits your ability to move quickly, and it requires more shooting space that may not be readily available. A monopod is another good option. And with the 40D, you can increase the ISO to 400 or higher and still get images without objectionable digital noise., 13_260449 ch09.qxp 2/26/08 12:15 AM Page 252 252 Part II ✦ Getting the Most from the Canon EOS 40D

Wedding photography tips lenses, flash units, and tripods is

often the most economical strategy ✦ Look at the big picture, and for new wedding photographers. understand what you are get- ting into. If you’re new to wed- ✦ Plan for the worst. Ask exhaus- ding photography, it’s important to tive questions ahead of time such understand that the wedding day as whether the church or location requires almost constant shooting allows flash or whether the couple in a variety of areas and with a wants flash for certain parts of the wide variety of people. The work wedding festivities. If the wedding continues long after the wedding is is outdoors, ask what alternate over; you spend a considerable location the couple will use if the amount of time processing and weather turns bad, and plan for selecting images and making prints lighting in both locations. The list and albums. In short, wedding of questions is almost endless, but photography is a huge job and an preplanning pays big dividends on equally huge responsibility. the day of the ceremony. Always have backup gear. At a ✦ Hone your amateur psychologist✦ minimum, two camera bodies are skills. You may need to be a good necessary. Some wedding photog- amateur psychologist as well as a raphers also carry duplicate lenses good photographer, especially and flash units so they can keep when dealing with disgruntled or shooting regardless of breakdowns. divorced parents or an unhappy Renting spare camera bodies, bride., 14_260449 pp03.qxp 2/26/08 12:16 AM Page 253


the Picture III ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ In This Part Chapter 10 Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware Appendix A Image Sensors and the Canon DIGIC Processor Appendix B EOS 40D Specifications Appendix C Professional Resources Glossary ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦, 14_260449 pp03.qxp 2/26/08 12:16 AM Page 254, 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 255

Working withCHAPTER RAW Capture 10

and Updating ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

Firmware In This ChapterCharacteristics of

RAW images Choosing a RAW

M conversion programost digital photographers are familiar with RAWcapture, but for those who aren’t, the advantages Sample RAW image

of RAW capture can’t be overstated. RAW capture is the gold conversion standard for creating images that provide all that the 40D image sensor offers. Equally important, RAW capture is the Creating an efficient gateway to greater creative expression and control over the workflow final image. Updating the 40D firmware

Characteristics of RAW ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Images

RAW capture allows you to save the data that comes off the image sensor with virtually no internal camera processing. Because the camera settings have been noted but not applied in the camera, you have the opportunity to make changes to key settings such as image brightness, white balance, con- trast, and saturation after the image is captured. The only camera settings that the camera applies to a RAW image are ISO, shutter speed, and aperture. During RAW image conver- sion, you can make significant adjustments to exposure, color, and contrast. In addition to the RAW image data, the RAW file also includes information, called metadata, about how the image was shot, the camera and lens used, and other descrip- tion fields., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 256 256 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture RAW capture mode offers advantages that highlight detail. Table 10.1 illustrates the are akin to traditional film photography. For general differences in file richness between example, in some cases, you can push digi- a RAW image and a JPEG image from a typ- tal RAW exposures during shooting with a ical digital SLR camera. Note that Table 10.1 slight overexposure, and then recover high- assumes a 5-stop dynamic range, the differ- light detail during RAW conversion. The abil- ence between the lightest and darkest val- ity to push an exposure can, of course, make ues in an image, for an exposure. a noticeable difference in low-light shooting when you need to handhold the camera. These differences translate directly to edit- ing leeway. And having a good amount of An important characteristic of RAW capture editing leeway is important because all is that it offers more latitude and file stabil- image editing after RAW conversion is ity in making edits than is possible with a destructive. JPEG file. With JPEG images, large amounts of image data are discarded when the Proper exposure is important with any images are converted to 8-bit mode, and image, and it is no less so with RAW images. then the image data is further reduced With RAW images, exposure is important in when JPEG algorithms compress image files part because it pertains to the distribution to reduce the size. As a result, the image of brightness levels in the linear capture. leaves precious little, if any, wiggle room to Linear capture can be contrasted with how correct tonal range, white balance, contrast, the human eye adjusts to differences in light and saturation during image editing. levels. When we go from one room to Ultimately, this means that if the highlights another room that is twice as bright, our are blown, then they’re blown for good. If eyes automatically compress the differences the shadows are blocked up, then they will in light so we don’t perceive the difference likely stay blocked up. It may be possible to to be twice as bright, but only brighter. The make improvements in Photoshop, but the camera is linear — it makes no such distinc- edits make the final image susceptible to tions and does not compress differences. posterization or banding that occurs from Rather, the camera works in linear fashion stretching a tonal range causing gaps by simply counting photons hitting the sen- between tonal levels. sor. It records the tonal levels exactly according to the number of photons cap- See Chapter 1 for a more tured. If a camera uses 14-bits to encode detailed explanation of bit the captured image to produce 16,384 tonal depth. levels, then level 8,192 is half the total num- On the other hand, RAW images with rich ber of photons recorded. The levels corre- data depth allow far more image data to spond exactly to the number of photons work with during conversion and subse- captured. Stated another way, linear capture quent image editing. In addition, RAW files represents a one-to-one correspondence, are more forgiving if you need to recover whereas nonlinear human vision does not represent a one-to-one correspondence., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 257 Chapter 10 ✦ Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware 257 A good RAW image exposure ensures that Visualize this process as a rubber band the camera captures the maximum number being stretched. As the band is stretched, of brightness levels that the 40D can deliver. small holes analogous to breaks between During conversion, tonal mapping, or tonal levels appear. This stretching creates gamma encoding, assigns linear tonal levels gaps between tonal levels that show up as to perceived brightness — resulting in an posterization in the final print. In addition, image that resembles what we saw with our underexposure magnifies noise in the eyes. Without going into detail of gamma shadow areas. This is shown on a histogram encoding, it’s important to know that digital in Photoshop as gaps between tonal levels capture devotes a relatively large number of resembling a comb. When tonal levels are image pixels to highlights and far fewer to compressed, the histogram shows them as shadows, as shown in Table 10.1. As you spikes. can see, the first f-stop of brightness accounts for half of all the tonal levels in the The general rule for RAW capture is to image. expose for the highlights and develop for the shadows. The common technique is to This characteristic has implications for tradi- expose to the right so that the highlight pix- tional exposure guidelines. For example els just touch the right side of the his- exposing for the shadows sacrifices half or togram. Thus, when tonal mapping is more of the possible levels of brightness applied during conversion, the file has sig- that the camera can capture. At the same nificantly more bits that can be redistributed time, underexposure captures relatively few to the midtones and darker tones where the dark levels. If you subsequently brighten the human eye is most sensitive to changes. If image during editing, the limited number of highlights are overexposed, programs such levels must be redistributed across the tonal as Adobe Camera Raw can recover one or spectrum. more f-stops of highlight detail.

Table 10.1 Comparison of Brightness Levels

F-stop Brightness Levels Available 12-bit RAW file 8-bit JPEG file First f-stop (brightest tones) 2048 69 Second f-stop (bright tones) 1024 50 Third f-stop (midtones) 512 37 Fourth f-stop (dark tones) 256 27 Fifth f-stop (darkest tones) 128 20, 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 258 258 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture

Choosing a RAW Unlike TIFF and JPEG files, RAW files cannotbe moved from computer to computer with Conversion Program the assurance that any operating system candisplay them. That means you must first

RAW image data is stored in proprietary for- convert RAW files to a more universal file mat, which means that the RAW images can format or verify that clients have an operat- be viewed and converted using the camera ing system and conversion program that manufacturer’s RAW conversion program, allows them to display RAW images before such as Canon’s Digital Professional Pro you hand off images to clients or customers. conversion program, or a third-party RAW RAW image handoff is gradually becoming a conversion program such as Adobe’s part of the handoff. Camera Raw plug-in or Adobe Lightroom, or Images captured in RAW mode Aperture. Tip include unique filename exten- sions such as .CR2 for Canon 40D RAW files. 10.1 This figure shows Canon’s Digital Photo Professional’s main window with the toolbar for quick access to commonly accessed tasks., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 259 Chapter 10 ✦ Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware 259 10.2 Adobe presents images in Bridge, and from Bridge or Photoshop you can open RAW images in Adobe Camera Raw for conversion. Although RAW conversion programs con- updates to it are offered free. Third-party tinue to offer more image-editing tools with programs, however, often have a lag time each new release, you won’t find some between the time the camera is available familiar image-editing tools in RAW conver- for sale and the time the program supports sion programs, such as healing, history the new camera. For example, there was a brushes, or the ability to work with layers in lag time of several weeks between when the traditional sense. Most conversion pro- the 40D was available and the time when grams rightly focus on basic image conver- Adobe Camera Raw was updated to support sion tasks, including white balance, 40D files. In the interim, photographers use exposure, shadow control, brightness, con- the Canon conversion program. trast, saturation, sharpness, noise reduction, and so on. Note Canon also includes a Picture Style Editor on the disk that comes with the camera. This Choosing a RAW conversion program is a program is a great way to set matter of personal preference in many up a Picture Style that works cases. Canon’s Digital Photo Professional well for RAW capture. For details (DPP) is included with the 40D, and on the Picture Style Editor, see Chapter 3., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 260 260 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture Arguments can be made for using either the Assuming there is parity in image-conver- manufacturer’s or a third-party program. The sion quality, the choice of conversion pro- most often cited argument for using grams boils down to which program offers Canon’s program is that because Canon the ease of use and features that you want knows the image data best, it is most likely and need. Certainly Adobe has years of to provide the highest quality RAW conver- experience building feature-rich programs sion. On the other hand, many photogra- for photographers within an interface that is phers have tested the conversion results familiar and relatively easy to use. Canon, from Canon’s program and Adobe’s Camera on the other hand, has less experience in Raw plug-in, and they report little difference designing features and user interfaces for in conversion quality. software. 10.3 This figure shows the RAW image adjustment controls in Canon’s Digital Photo Professional. Note that you can apply a Picture Style after capture., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 261 Chapter 10 ✦ Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware 261 Because both programs are free (provided allows you to apply conversion settings from you have Photoshop CS3), you should try one photo to others in the folder, as does both programs and any other conversion Adobe Camera Raw. software that offers free trials. Then decide which one best suits your needs. I often Whatever conversion program you choose, switch between using Canon’s DPP pro- be sure to explore the full capabilities of the gram and Adobe Camera Raw. When I want program. Remember also that one of the to apply a Picture Style from Canon to a advantages of RAW conversion is that as the RAW image, I use DPP. For most everyday conversion programs improve, you have the processing, however, I use Adobe Camera opportunity to go back to previous RAW Raw as a matter of personal preference. image files and reconvert them using the improved conversion program. Another consideration when you are choos- ing a program is which program offers the most and best batch features. Canon’s DPP 10.4 This figure shows the Adobe Camera Raw dialog box opened to the Adjust tab where color, exposure, tone, contrast, and saturation adjustments are made., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 262 262 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture 10.5 This figure shows adjusting the black point in Canon’s Digital Photo Professional RAW conversion window.

Sample RAW Image 1. Start Digital Photo Professional.The program opens. If no images Conversion are displayed, you can select adirectory and folder using the left-

Although RAW image conversion adds a hand panel. RAW images are marked with a camera icon and step to the processing workflow, this impor- the word RAW in the lower left of tant step is well worth the time spent pro- the thumbnail. cessing images. To illustrate the process, here is a high-level task flow for converting 2. Double-click the image you a 40D RAW image using Digital Photo want to process. The RAW image Professional. adjustment tool palette opens to the right of the image preview. In this mode, you can:, 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 263 Chapter 10 ✦ Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware 263 • Drag the Brightness slider to dragging it to the left increases tweak the brightness to a the magenta tone. Dragging the negative or positive setting. Color saturation to the right • increases the saturation andUse the White Balance adjust- vice versa. Dragging the ment controls to adjust color. Sharpness slider to the right You can click the Eyedropper increases the sharpness. button, and then click an area that is white in the image to set 3. Click the RGB image adjustment White Balance, choose one of tab. Here you can apply a more the preset White Balance set- traditional RGB curve and apply tings from the Shot Setting separate curves in each of the drop-down menu, or click the three color channels: Red, Green, Tune button to adjust the White and Blue. You can also adjust the Balance using a color wheel. following: • Choose a different Picture Style • Drag the Brightness slider to by clicking the down arrow next the left to darken the image or to Standard and selecting a to the right to brighten the Picture Style from the list. The image. The changes you make Picture Styles are the same as are shown on the RGB his- those offered on the menu on togram as you make them. the 40D. When you change the • Drag the Contrast slider to the Picture Style in DPP, the thumb- left to decrease contrast or to nail updates to show the the right to increase contrast. change. You can adjust the curve, color tone, saturation, • Drag the Color tone, Color satu- and sharpness. If you don’t like ration, and Sharpness sliders to the results, you can click Reset make the appropriate adjust- to change back to the original ments. Picture Style. 4. In the Preview window, choose • Adjust the black and white File ➪ Convert and Save. The points on the image histogram Convert and Save dialog box by dragging the bars at the far appears. In the dialog box, you can left and right of the histogram set the bit depth at which you toward the center. By dragging want to save the image, set the the slider under the histogram, Output resolution, choose to you can adjust the tonal curve. embed the color profile, or resize the image. You can also click the • Adjust the Color tone, Color sat- down arrow next to Save as type uration, and Sharpness by drag- and choose 16-bit TIFF or TIFF 16- ging the sliders. Dragging the bit and Exif-JPEG format, or you Color tone slider to the right can choose 8-bit Exif-JPEG and TIFF increases the green tone and formats., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 264 264 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture 10.6 This figure shows adjusting the brightness in Canon’s Digital Photo Professional RAW conversion window. one at a time or several at a time. Since Tip The File menu also enables you to save the current image’s con- then, however, the concept of workflow has version settings as a recipe. expanded to include the process from Then you can apply the recipe image capture to client handoff, often to other images in the folder. including prepress settings, that ensures image quality and consistent settings that 5. Click Save. DPP displays the meet the client’s needs and specifications. Digital Photo Professional dialog box until the file is converted. DPP While workflow varies depending on your saves the image in the location needs or the requirements of the client, and format that you choose. here are some general steps to consider as you create your workflow strategy.

Creating an Efficient ✦ The first workflow step for manyphotographers is backing up origi- Workflow nal images to a separate hard driveor to a DVD. Whether you do this

When workflow became a buzzword several step now or later, it’s a critical aspect of any workflow. years ago, it typically encompassed the process of converting and editing images, 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 265 Chapter 10 ✦ Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware 265 ✦ Batch file renaming allows you to ✦ If your workflow includes client identify groups of images by sub- selection, you can create subfold- ject, assignment, location, date, or ers for selected images and move all of these elements. Programs unselected images to a subfolder. such as DPP and Adobe Bridge If you maintain a main database of offer tools for batch renaming that your images, this is a good time to save time in the workflow. add JPEG versions of the images to the database. A good practice is to ✦ Create a standard IPTC template maintain tracking sheets of images that has your name, address, that you update during each stage phone number, and other impor- of the process of handing off tant information about the image images to clients, or for your own that is appended to the image records for personal images. metadata. Then you can choose Tools ➪ Append Metadata in Adobe ✦ Registering images with the Bridge to apply the template to all Copyright Office protects the copy- the images in a folder. right to your images and is an important part of the workflow. ✦ Select images and name files con- You can createa4× 6-inch contact sistently. Regardless of whether sheet with approximately 12 you’re shooting RAW or JPEG images per sheet of the images images, programs such as Adobe that you want to register. Be sure Bridge and Digital Photo to leave space on the contact sheet Professional provide tools to rate to add your name and contact images and then sort them to dis- information. play top-rated images to process. ✦ If you’re processing RAW images, Tip The copyright gives you the you can open the selected images right to control use of your in groups or all at once for conver- images for your lifetime plus 70 years. The annual fee for bulk sion, depending on the RAW con- image registration is provided version program you’re using. In on the Copyright Web site at some programs, you can selectwww. copyright. gov/ similar images, process one image, register/visual.html. For and then apply all or part of that additional information on regis- image’s conversion settings to sim- tering copyrights visit www. ilar images. Then you can save the images or open them in Photoshop for additional editing. ✦ With the final selections made, you ✦ If you create JPEG versions of the can do the final image processing images for client selection on your in Photoshop according to the Web site, you can use a batch client’s specifications. action in Photoshop to make and automatically size images for the Web and save the images in a sep- arate subfolder., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 266 266 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture ✦ When the final images are ready, Getting the latest you can burn a DVD or send the images by FTP to the client. Also firmware and software create a DVD for your personal archives. Having a fire-safe and Before you begin, check the current flood-safe place to archive hard firmware version installed on your camera drives and DVDs is important. and then write down the version number. To Some photographers have a safety check the installed firmware version num- deposit box or other off-site loca- ber, follow these steps: tion for storage. 1. Press the Menu button. The steps you incorporate into your work- 2. Press the Jump button to access flow often depend on whether you’re shoot- the Set-up 3 menu. ing for clients or for personal work, but 3. Rotate the Quick Control dial these broad suggestions provide an until you see the Firmware Ver., overview of steps that you can consider for and then write down the num- your workflow. ber. If the firmware installed on your camera is older than the firmware offered on the Web site,

Updating the 40D then your camera needs thefirmware update. Firmware Now you can check to see if the latest

One of the greatest advantages of owning a firmware version available on the Canon digital camera such as the 40D is that Web site is more current than the version Canon often posts updates to the firmware installed on your 40D. To check Canon’s (the internal instructions) for the camera to latest firmware, go to its Web site. New firmware releases can add consumer/controller?act=ModelInfoAct& improved functionality to existing features tabact=DownloadDetailTabAct& and, in some cases, fix reported problems fcategoryid=314&modelid=15653. Scroll with the camera. down to the Firmware section and compare the version number with the version number New firmware along with ever-improving installed on your 40D. If the Canon version software keeps your camera and your ability number is higher than what’s installed in to process images current as technology your 40D, you need to update the firmware. improves. To determine if you need to update firmware, just compare the firmware Tip Canon does not publicallyannounce new firmware version number installed on your 40D to the releases on its Web site. But latest release from Canon on its Web site. Rob Galbraith does make announcements when new firmware is released. You can check www.robgalbraith. com periodically for the latest firmware update announcements., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 267 Chapter 10 ✦ Working with RAW Capture and Updating Firmware 267 Before you begin installing a firmware 5. Click the firmware version text update, be sure that you have the following: link. At this writing, the text link reads, eos40d-firmware-e.html. A ✦ A fully charged camera battery license agreement appears. installed in the camera. 6. Click I Agree — Begin Download. Alternately, you can use the AC The EOS 40D Digital Web site Adapter Kit ACK-E2 to power the opens in a separate window with camera. If the camera loses power descriptions of what improvements during the firmware update, it can the new firmware version includes, become inoperable. along with firmware installation ✦ A freshly formatted instructions. CompactFlash (CF) card on 7. Scroll to the bottom of the page which to copy the firmware and click the I agree and down- update. Alternately, you can con- load button. nect the camera to your computer with a USB cable, and then copy 8. Under Files for Firmware the firmware file onto the CF card Update, click the link that in the camera. matches your computer’s oper- ating system. To download updated firmware and install it 9. Click Run if a File Security dia- on the 40D, follow these steps: log box appears. If a window appears saying that Publisher 1. Insert the CF card in a card cannot be verified, click Run. A reader attached to your window appears notifying you that computer. this is a self-extracting file. 2. On your computer, go to the 10. Click OK. A self-extracting archive Canon download site at window appears. controller?act=ModelInfoAct& 11. Click Browse, navigate to the CF tabact=DownloadDetailTabAct& card location, and then click OK. fcategoryid=314&modelid= The self-extracting archive window 15653. is displayed again. 3. Click the arrow next to Select 12. Click OK. A progress window OS, and select your computer’s appears with the firmware file operating system. name displayed. On the CF card, the firmware appears at the top 4. Scroll to Firmware, and then level as file with a .fir extension. verify that the version available on the Web site is newer than 13. Insert the CF card into the cam- the version installed on your era and close the CF card door. 40D. If the firmware version num- 14. Press the Menu button, and then ber listed on the Canon Web site is press the Jump button until the newer, continue to the next step. Setup 3 (yellow) menu appears., 15_260449 ch10.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 268 268 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture 15. Turn the Quick Control dial to 18. Turn the Quick Control dial to highlight Firmware Ver., and highlight OK, and then press the then press the Set button. The Set button. The screen updates to Firmware update screen appears. display a progress bar. Do not 16. Turn the Quick Control dial to press any buttons, turn off the highlight OK, and then press the camera, or open the CF Card Slot Set button. door during installation. When theThe Firmware update update is complete, a Firmware program screen appears. Then a update program screen appears Replace Firmware screen appears saying the update is complete. listing the new firmware version number. 19. Press the Set button to com- 17. Press the Set button. plete the firmware update. TheA Firmware LCD goes black, and the camera is update program confirmation ready for shooting. screen appears. The screen dis- plays the currently installed firmware version number and the new version number., 16_260449 bapp01.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 269

ImageAPPENDIX Sensors A

and the ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

Canon DIGIC In This AppendixSensor technology Processor DIGIC III imageprocessor

✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

A s Canon’s ongoing research and development contin-ues to refine camera features, Canon has progres-

sively applied new and improved technologies throughout its camera lineup. As a result, photographers can rely on a con- sistently high level of quality, and this is certainly true in the EOS 40D. An understanding of both the sensor technology and the internal processor is beneficial to better understand the cam- era and the image files that it produces.

Sensor Technology

The 40D features a Canon-produced CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) image sensor. While Canon isn’t the only camera manufacturer that uses CMOS sensors, it is the only company, at the time of this writing, that produces and markets full-frame, 35mm-size image sensors. Canon is also one of the few companies that designs and manufac- tures its sensors in-house for all of its digital SLRs., 16_260449 bapp01.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 270 270 Appendix A Sensors, of course, lie at the heart of digital mal power. In addition, because the signal is photography. Digital cameras use either amplified at each photodiode, the rows of CMOS or Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) photodiodes can be read separately and image sensors. CCDs were the norm for multiple channels of data can quickly be early digital photography image sensors. read out simultaneously — all of which CCDs offer low image noise, but they are results in high-speed image processing. The inherently limited in the speed of processing CMOS sensor’s lower power consumption and by greater power requirements as com- also means that battery packs are smaller, pared to CMOS image sensors. CCDs are recharge time is quicker, and batteries main- comprised of a matrix of photodiodes that tain their working voltages longer. accumulate an electrical charge in direct pro- portion to the amount of light striking them. While CMOS offers the advantages of low The photodiodes convert light into electrons power consumption and high speed, the that are stored in a charge well and are sub- technology has inherent disadvantages sequently transferred off in a sequential, including fixed-pattern and random noise — bucket-brigade fashion down the rows of problems that Canon has, over the course of photodiodes to the edge of the CCD, and several years, developed technologies to then off to the amplifier. suppress. While CMOS sensors are also semiconduc- CMOS sensors also have a multilayer low- tor light sensors and also contain rows of pass filter positioned in front of the sensor photodiodes, the CMOS photodiodes also to isolate false colors, or colors outside the have individual amplifiers to increase the visible portion of the electromagnetic spec- electrical signal and a converter to convert trum, detected by the sensor. Then the the charge to voltage. Transferring voltage, DIGIC II Image Processor eliminates these as compared to transferring the charge of colors while retaining image detail. each photodiode on a CCD, requires mini-

Fixed Pattern Noise

Fixed-pattern noise appears on the same pixels at different times when images are taken. Canon developed on-chip noise-reduction circuitry that records the noise of each photo- diode before exposure and automatically subtracts the noise when the image is captured. Random noise appears on different pixels at different times and is caused by flickering light or thermal effects. Several Canon technologies address this to produce clean images at high ISO settings and during long exposures. To learn more, visit Canon’s Digital Learning Center at reduction.html., 16_260449 bapp01.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 271 Appendix A ✦ Image Sensors and the Canon DIGIC Processor 271

DIGIC III Image finer gradations. If you shoot RAW capture,you can then use a conversion program Processor such as Canon’s Digital Photo Professional,Adobe Lightroom, or Adobe Camera Raw to

Between the capture and recording stages is process and save images as 16-bit TIFF image processing that determines how the images to get the maximum range of colors signals from the sensor are translated into a offered with 14-bit processing. In addition, if viewable image. The processing function is you shoot JPEG capture, the 8-bit files are performed by the DIGIC III Image Processor. rendered from the 14-bit RAW data resulting The speed comes from the combination of in fewer blown highlights and finer grada- the new DIGIC III processor, DDR SDRAM tion. With highly saturated subject or high- (double data rate, synchronous dynamic contrast subjects that have clear light and random access memory) high-speed mem- dark feature differences, the color reproduc- ory, four-channels per line sensor readout, tion and tonal rendition from highlights to and two separate motors for shutter and shadows is improved with the 40D. Finally, mirror operation. DIGIC III’s signal process- Highlight Tone Priority offered via C.Fn II-3, ing speed is 1.7 times faster than DIGIC II provides finer gradation from grays to high- processors. lights and reduces the likelihood of blown highlights particularly in bright subjects such The analog output signal from the image as a bride’s wedding gown. sensor is converted to a 14-bit signal with 16,284 colors per channel. Compared to The combination of Canon’s CMOS sensor previous 12-bit signals that offered only technology and the DIGIC III processor 4,096 colors per channel, the EOS 40D pro- place the 40D firmly in the new generation vides image files with stunning color and of Canon digital SLRs., 16_260449 bapp01.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 272, 17_260449 bapp02.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 273

EOS 40DAPPENDIX Specifications B

✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Type of camera Type: Digital AF/AE SLR Recording media: CF Card Type I and II and external media (USB v.2.0 hard drive, via optional Wireless File Transmitter WFT-E3A) Image sensor size: 0.87 x 0.58 in./22.2 x 14.8mm (APS-C size sensor) Canon EF, EF-S, TS-E, and MP-E lenses Lens mount: Canon EF mount Lens focal length conversion factor: 1.6x Image sensor Type: High-sensitivity, high-resolution, single-plate CMOS sensor Effective pixels: Approx. 10.10 megapixels Total pixels: Approx. 10.50 megapixels Aspect ratio: 3:2 (Horizontal : Vertical) Color filter system: RGB primary color filters Low-pass filter: Fixed position in front of the CMOS sensor Dust delete feature: (1) Self-Cleaning Sensor Unit, (2) Dust Delete Data, (3) Manual Sensor Cleaning Recording system Recording format: DCF 2.0 (Exif 2.21): JPEG, RAW, and RAW+JPEG simultaneous recording possible. Multiple options for recording images on a memory card, and onto compatible external USB hard drives (via optional Wireless File Transmitter WFT-E3A) File size on CF card: (1) JPEG/Large: Approx. 3.5MB (3888 x 2592), (2) JPEG/Medium: Approx. 2.1MB (2816 x 1880), (3) JPEG/Small: Approx. 1.2MB (1936 x 1288), (4) RAW: Approx. 12.4MB (3888 x 2592), (5) sRAW: Approx. 7.1MB (1936 x 1288), 17_260449 bapp02.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 274 274 Appendix B File numbering: (1) Continuous number- compensation, high-speed sync, FE lock, ing (2) Auto reset (3) Manual reset (the red-eye reduction light), Image (mono- image numbering is reset to 0001, a chrome shooting, maximum burst, white new folder is created and selected balance correction, CF card information) automatically) Depth-of-field preview: Enabled with Color space: Selectable between sRGB depth-of-field preview button; possible in and Adobe RGB Live View Function Picture Style: Six preset Picture Style settings plus three user-defined custom Autofocus Picture Style settings with individual adjust- Type: TTL-CT-SIR AF-dedicated ments for Sharpness, Contrast, Saturation, CMOS sensor Color tone; Filter effect, Toning effect for AF points: 9 cross-type AF points (f/2.8 black and white images at center) AF working range: EV -1 ~18 (ISO 100 at White balance 73°F/23°C) Settings: Auto, Daylight, Shade, Cloudy, Focusing modes: Autofocus (One-Shot AF, Tungsten Light, White Fluorescent Light, Predictive AI Servo AF, AI Focus AF), Manual Flash, Custom WB setting, user-set Color Focus (MF) Temperature (2500~10,000K) Auto White AF-point selection: Automatic selection, Balance: Auto white balance, taken from Manual AF-point selection imaging sensor AF-assist beam: Intermittent firing of Color temperature compensation: White built-in flash balance bracketing: Three consecutive files written from one exposure: Up to +/- 3 Exposure control levels in 1-step increments; White balance Metering modes: 35-zone TTL full aper- shift: blue/amber bias and/or magenta/ ture metering: (1) Evaluative metering green bias +/- 9 levels; manually set by (linked to all AF points), (2) Partial meter- user ing (approx. 9% of viewfinder), (3) Spot metering (approx. 3.8% of viewfinder), Viewfinder (4) Center-weighted average metering Type: Eye-level SLR with fixed pentaprism Metering range: EV 0–20 (ISO 100 at Coverage: Approx. 95% horizontally and 73°F/23°C with EF 50mm f/1.4 USM lens, vertically ISO 100) Magnification: 0.95x (-1 dpt with 50mm Exposure control systems: Program AE lens at infinity) (shiftable), Shutter-priority AE, Aperture- Eyepoint: Approx. 22mm priority AE, Auto Depth-of-field AE (non- Dioptric adjustment correction: -3.0 to shiftable), Full auto (non-shiftable), +1.0 diopter Programmed image control modes, Manual Mirror: Quick-return half mirror exposure, E-TTL II autoflash program AE (Transmission: reflection ratio of 40:60) ISO speed range: Equivalent to ISO Viewfinder information: AF (AF points, 100–1600* (in 1/3-stop or whole-stop focus confirmation light), Exposure (shutter increments), ISO speed can be expanded speed, aperture, ISO speed, AE lock, expo- to ISO 3200 (* Standard output sensitivity. sure level, spot metering circle, exposure Recommended exposure index) warning), Flash (flash ready, flash exposure, 17_260449 bapp02.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 275 Appendix B ✦ EOS 40D Specifications 275 Exposure compensation: Exposure Max. burst during continuous shooting: Compensation (user-set): +/-3 stops in JPEG: approx. 75 frames (Large/Fine); 1/3- or 1/2-stop increments RAW: approx. 17 frames (both during AE lock: Auto: Applied in One-Shot AF high-speed continuous shooting) mode with evaluative metering when focus is achieved; Manual (user-set): By AE lock LCD monitor button in all metering modes Type: TFT color, liquid-crystal monitor Monitor size: 3.0 in. Shutter Pixels: Approx. 230,000 pixels Type: Vertical-travel, mechanical, focal- Coverage: Approx. 100% plane shutter with all speeds electronically Brightness control: 7 levels provided controlled Shutter speeds: 1/8000 to 30 sec. (1/3- Playback stop increments), X-sync at 1/250 sec. Image display format: Single image, Shutter release: Soft-touch electromag- 4-image index, 9-image index, Jump, netic release Magnified zoom (approx. 1.5x to 10x), Self-timer: 10 sec. delay, 2 sec. delay Histogram, AF-point display, Auto rotate, Remote control: Canon N3 type terminal Rotate Live View function: View image before Built-in flash shooting on LCD monitor; live histogram Type: Auto pop-up, retractable, built-in and live simulation of exposure level flash in the pentaprism possible with C.Fn IV-7-1 Guide Number: 43 (feet)/13 (meters) at Highlight alert: In the single image dis- ISO 100 play and (INFO) display, overexposed Recycling time: Approx. 3 sec. highlight areas will blink Flash-ready indicator: Flash-ready indica- tor lights in viewfinder Image protection and erase Flash coverage: 17mm lens focal length Protection: Single image or all images in (equivalent to 27mm in 35mm format) the memory card can be protected or Flash metering system: E-TTL II autoflash cancel the image protection Flash exposure compensation: +/-2 stops Erase: Single image, select images, all in 1/3- and 1/2-stop increments images in a CF card or unprotected images Direct printing from the camera: Drive system Enabled with the Print/Share button Drive modes: Single, silent, high-speed Compatible printers: CP and SELPHY continuous (approx. 6.5 fps), low-speed Compact Photo Printers, PIXMA Photo continuous (approx. 3 fps), 10- or 2-sec. Printers and PictBridge compatible printers self-timer (via USB Interface Cable IFC-200U, Continuous shooting speed: Approx. included with camera kit) 6.5 fps (in One-Shot AF and AI Servo Settings: Print quantity, style (image, AF modes) paper size, paper type, printing effects, lay- out), trimming, tilt correction, 17_260449 bapp02.qxp 2/26/08 12:17 AM Page 276 276 Appendix B Menus 950 shots (approx. 700 shots with 50% Menu categories: (1) Shooting flash use) at 32°F/0°C. Tests comply with (2) Playback (3) Setup (4) Custom CIPA test standards. function/My Menu Battery check: Automatic LCD monitor languages: 18 (English, Power saving: Provided. Power turns off German, French, Dutch, Danish, after 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30 min. Portuguese, Finnish, Italian, Norwegian, Backup battery: One CR2016 lithium Swedish, Spanish, Greek, Russian, Polish, battery. Battery life approx. 5 years Simplified/Traditional Chinese, Korean, Japanese) Dimensions and weight Dimensions (W) × (H) × (D): 5.7 × 4.2 × Power source 2.9 in./145.5 × 107.8 × 73.5mm Battery: One dedicated Battery Pack BP- Weight (body only): 26.1 oz./740g 511A; AC power can be supplied via the optional AC Adapter Kit ACK-E2 Operating conditions Number of possible shots: Normal shoot- Operating temperature range: 32–104°F/ ing: approx. 1,100 shots (approx. 800 shots 0–40°C with 50% flash use) at 73°F/23°C; Approx. Operating humidity range: 85% or less, 18_260449 bapp03.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 277

Professional A PCPENDIXResources

✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

Awealth of valuable information is available for pho- In This Appendixtographers. This appendix is a handy resource to help

you learn more about the EOS 40D and about photography Internet resources in general. Photography publications and Web sites

Internet Resources Professional

organizations Canon Digital Learning Center The Canon Digital Learning Center Web site (www.usa. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ is a rich resource that includes an introduction to and information on the EOS 40D. Canon When you want to access the technical specifications for the camera or if you want to register your camera online, visit the Canon Web site at controller?act=ModelInfoAct&fcategoryid=139& modelid=15653. EOS SLR To learn more about the EOS SLR systems, visit the Canon Advantage page at controller?act=CanonAdvantageCatIndexAct&f categoryid=111. Firmware Visit this site to download new firmware updates for the Canon EOS 40D, and click the Drivers & Downloads tab. On the Canon site, the Download Library includes an option to download the setup guide and camera manual in English,, 18_260449 bapp03.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 278 278 Appendix C Spanish, French, or Chinese. You can visit The Digital Journalist. http://digital the Download Library at com/consumer/controller?act=Model InfoAct&fcategoryid=139&model DP Review. id=15653#DownloadDetailAct. Look at the Firmware section on this page for a link Imaging Resource. www.imaging- to the license agreement and latest firmware. Popular Photography & Imaging. Accessories When you want accessories for the 40D, the Shutterbug. Canon Accessory Annex offers everything from AC adapters, battery grips, and battery Digital Image Café. www.digitalimage packs to macro ring lights. You can find the Accessory Annex at www.estore.usa. PC Photo. Lenses Digital Photographer. www.digiphoto You can get information on Canon lenses at controller?act=ProductCatIndexAct&f Outdoor Photographer. www.outdoor categoryid=111. Rob Galbraith. http://robgalbraith. com/bins/index.asp


Steve’s Digicams. www.steves-


and Web Sites Some of the popular photography Web sites Professional and print magazines offer informative pho- tography articles. Here are a few of the ven- Organizations erable photography Web sites. A variety of professional organizations offer Photo District News. support and training for photographers. Here is a selection of some of the most Communication Arts. www.commarts. respected organizations by category. com/CA/ Commercial Digital Photo Pro. www.digitalphoto Advertising Photographers of America., 18_260449 bapp03.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 279 Appendix C ✦ Professional Resources 279 Editorial/Photojournalism Photoshop American Society of Media Adobe Design Center. Photographers. Editorial Photographers. www.editorial Photoshop Support. www.photoshop National Press Photographers The National Association of Photoshop Association. Professionals. Fine art Software Cinema. College Art Association. Portrait/Wedding Photo Imaging Educators Association. Wedding & Portrait Photographers International. Society for Photographic Education. Society of Wedding & Portrait Photographers (UK). General Stock Professional Photographers of America Stock Artists Alliance. (PPA). Association of Photographers (UK). Workshops Anderson Ranch Arts Center. Professional Photographers of Canada Inc. Ansel Adams Gallery Workshops. The American Society of Picture Professionals. Brooks Institute Weekend Workshops. Nature and wildlife Lepp Photo. Eddie Adams Workshop. www.eddie Nature Photographers Network. The Lepp Institute. www.leppinstitute. com North American Nature Photography Association. The Workshops., 18_260449 bapp03.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 280 280 Appendix C Mentor Series. Rocky Mountain Photo Adventures. www.rockymountainphotoadventures. Missouri Photo Workshop. www.mophoto com Santa Fe Workshops. www.santafework Mountain Workshops. www.mountain Toscana Photographic Workshop. Palm Beach Photographic Centre Workshops. The Center for Photography at Photography at the Summit. Woodstock., www.photographyatthe, 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 281

Glossary GGLOSSLA R Y A-DEP (Automatic Depth of Field AE) The cameramode that automatically calculates sufficient depth of ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

field for near and far subjects within the coverage of the seven AF focusing points, such as when several people are sitting at various distances from the camera. AE Automatic exposure. AE lock Automatic exposure lock. A camera control that lets the photographer lock the exposure from a meter reading. After the exposure is locked, the photographer can then recompose the image. AF lock Autofocus lock. A camera control that locks the focus on a subject and allows the photographer to recompose the image without the focus changing. Usually activated by press- ing the Shutter button halfway down. ambient light The natural or artificial light within a scene. Also called available light. angle of view The amount or area seen by a lens or viewfinder, measured in degrees. Shorter or wide-angle lenses and zoom settings have a greater angle of view. Longer or telephoto lenses and zoom settings have a narrower angle of view. aperture The lens opening through which light passes. Aperture size is adjusted by opening or closing the diaphragm. Aperture is expressed in f-numbers such as f/8, f/5.6, and so on. aperture priority (Av Aperture-Priority AE) A semiautomatic camera mode in which the photographer sets the aperture (f-stop), and the camera automatically sets the shutter speed for correct exposure., 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 282 282 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture artifact An unintentional or unwanted ele- them on different planes. Axial chromatic ment in an image caused by an imaging aberration shows up as color blur or flare. device or as a byproduct of software pro- cessing such as compression, flaws from backlighting Light that is behind and point- compression, color flecks, and digital noise. ing to the back of the subject. artificial light The light from an electric barrel distortion A lens aberration result- light or flash unit. The opposite of natural ing in a bowing of straight lines outward light. from the center. autofocus A function of Basic Zone modes bit depth The number of bits (the smallest or a Focus mode selection where the cam- unit of information used by computers) era automatically focuses on the subject used to represent each pixel in an image using the autofocus point or points shown that determines the image’s color and tonal in the viewfinder, or tracks a subject in range. motion and creates a picture with the sub- ject in sharp focus. Pressing the Shutter but- blocked up Describes areas of an image ton halfway down activates autofocus. lacking detail due to excess contrast. automatic exposure A function of Basic blooming Bright edges or halos in digital Zone modes where the camera sets all expo- images around light sources, and bright sure elements automatically. The camera reflections caused by an oversaturation of meters the light in the scene and automati- image sensor photosites. cally sets the shutter speed, ISO, and aper- ture necessary to make a properly exposed bokeh The shape and illumination charac- picture. teristics of the out-of-focus area in an image. automatic flash A function of Basic Zone bounce light Light that is directed toward modes where the camera determines that an object such as a wall or ceiling so that it the existing light is too low to get either a reflects (or bounces) light back onto the good exposure or a sharp image, it auto- subject. matically fires the built-in flash unit. bracket To make multiple exposures, some Av (aperture value) Indicates aperture above and some below the average expo- (f-stop). Also used to indicate the Aperture- sure calculated by the light meter for the Priority shooting mode on the Mode dial. scene. Some digital cameras can also bracket white balance to produce variations AWB (Automatic White Balance) A white from the average white balance calculated balance setting where the camera deter- by the camera. mines the color temperature of the light source automatically. brightness The perception of the light reflected or emitted by a source. The light- axial chromatic aberration A lens phe- ness of an object or image. See also nomenon that bends different color light luminance. rays at different angles, thereby focusing, 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 283 ✦ Glossary 283 buffer Temporary storage for data in a cam- line of color along their borders. The effect era or computer. of chromatic aberration increases at longer focal lengths. bulb A shutter speed setting that keeps the shutter open as long as the Shutter button CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semi- is fully depressed. conductor) The type of imaging sensor used in 40D to record images. CMOS sensors are cable release An accessory that connects to chips that use power more efficiently than the camera and allows you to trip the shut- other types of recording mediums. ter using the cable instead of by pressing the Shutter button. color balance The color reproduction fidelity of a digital camera’s image sensor and of the calibration In hardware, a method of lens. In a digital camera, color balance is changing the behavior of a device to match achieved by setting the white balance to established standards, such as changing the match the scene’s primary light source. You contrast and brightness on a monitor. In can adjust color balance in image-editing software, calibration corrects the colorcast programs using the color Temperature and in shadows and allows adjustment of non- Tint controls. neutral colors that differ between an indi- vidual camera and the camera’s profile used colorcast The presence of one color in other by Camera Raw. colors of an image. A colorcast appears as an incorrect overall color shift often caused by camera profile A process of describing and an incorrect white balance setting. saving the colors that a specific digital cam- era produces so that colors can be corrected color/light temperature A numerical by assigning the camera profile to an image. description of the color of light measured in Camera profiles are especially useful for Kelvin. Warm, late-day light has a lower photographers who often shoot under the color temperature. Cool, early-day light has same lighting conditions, such as in a studio. a higher temperature. Midday light is often considered to be white light (5000K). Flash chroma noise Extraneous, unwanted color units are often calibrated to 5000K. artifacts in an image. color space In the spectrum of colors, a chromatic aberration A lens phenomena subset of colors included in the chosen that bends different color light rays at differ- space. Different color spaces include more ent angles, thereby focusing them on dif- or fewer colors. ferent planes. Two types of chromatic aberration exist. Axial chromatic aberration compression A means of reducing file size. shows up as color blur or flare. Chromatic Lossy compression permanently discards difference of magnification appears as color information from the original file. Lossless fringing along high-contrast edges. compression does not discard information from the original file and allows you to re- chromatic difference of magnification create an exact copy of the original file with- Chromatic aberration that appears as color out any data loss. See also lossless and lossy. fringing where high-contrast edges show a, 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 284 284 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture contrast The range of tones from light to and shadow areas over a broad range of val- dark in an image or scene. ues is said to have a high dynamic range. contrasty A term used to describe a scene exposure The amount of light reaching the or image with great differences in bright- light-sensitive medium — the film or an ness between light and dark areas. image sensor. It is the result of the intensity of light multiplied by the length of time the cool Describes the bluish color associated light strikes the medium. with higher color temperatures. Also used to describe editing techniques that result in an exposure compensation A camera control overall bluish tint. that allows the photographer to overexpose (plus setting) or underexpose (minus set- crop To trim or discard one or more edges ting) images by a specified amount from the of an image. You can crop when taking a metered exposure. picture by changing position (moving closer or farther away) to exclude parts of a scene, exposure meter A built-in light meter that by zooming in with a zoom lens, or via an measures the amount of light on the sub- image-editing program. ject. EOS cameras use reflective meters. The exposure is shown in the viewfinder and on daylight-balance General term used to the LCD panel as a scale with a tick mark describe the color of light at approximately under the scale that indicates ideal expo- 5500K — such as midday sunlight or an elec- sure, overexposure, and underexposure. tronic flash. extender An attachment that fits between dedicated flash An electronic flash unit the camera body and the lens to increase that’s made to be used directly with a spe- the focal distance of the lens. cific make or model of camera. extension tube A hollow ring attached depth of field The zone of acceptable between the camera lens mount and the sharpness in a photo extending in front of lens that increases the distance between the and behind the primary plane of focus. optical center of the lens and the sensor, and decreases the minimum focusing distance. diaphragm Adjustable blades inside the lens that determine the aperture. fast Refers to film, digital camera settings, and photographic paper that have high sen- diffuser Material such as fabric or paper sitivity to light. Also refers to lenses that that is placed over the light source to soften offer a very wide aperture, such as f/1.4, the light. and to a short shutter speed. dpi (Dots Per Inch) A measure of printing file format The form (data structure) in which resolution. digital images are stored, such as JPEG, TIFF, RAW, and so on. dynamic range The difference between the lightest and darkest values in an image. A filter A piece of glass or plastic that is usu- camera that can hold detail in both highlight ally attached to the front of the lens to alter, 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 285 ✦ Glossary 285 the color, intensity, or quality of the light. focus The point at which light rays from the Filters also are used to alter the rendition of lens converge to form a sharp image. Also tones, reduce haze and glare, and create the sharpest point in an image achieved by special effects such as soft focus and star adjusting the distance between the lens and effects. image. fisheye lens A lens with a 180-degree frame Used to indicate a single exposure or angle of view. image. Also refers to the edges around the image. flare Unwanted light reflecting and scatter- ing inside the lens causing a loss of contrast front light Light that comes from behind or and sharpness and/or artifacts in the image. beside the camera to strike the front of the subject. flat Describes a scene, light, photograph, or negative that displays little difference f-stop See also f-number and aperture. between dark and light tones. The opposite of contrasty. ghosting A type of flare that causes clearly defined reflection to appear in the image fluorite A lens material with an extremely symmetrically opposite to the light source low index of refraction and dispersion when creating a ghost-like appearance. Ghosting compared to optical glass. Fluorite features is caused when the sun or a strong light special partial dispersion characteristics that source is included in the scene and a com- allow almost ideal correction of chromatic plex series of reflections among the lens aberrations when combined with optical surfaces occur. glass. gigabyte The usual measure of the capacity f-number A number representing the max- of digital mass storage devices; slightly more imum light-gathering ability of a lens or the than 1 billion bytes. aperture setting at which a photo is taken. It is calculated by dividing the focal length of grain See noise. the lens by its diameter. Wide apertures are designated with small numbers, such as gray-balanced The property of a color f/2.8. Narrow apertures are designated with model or color profile where equal values of large numbers, such as f/22. See also red, green, and blue correspond to a neutral aperture. gray value. focal length The distance from the optical gray card A card that reflects a known per- center of the lens to the focal plane when centage of the light that falls on it. Typical the lens is focused on infinity. The longer the grayscale cards reflect 18 percent of the focal length is, the greater the magnification. light. Gray cards are standard for taking accu- rate exposure-meter readings and for pro- focal point The point on a focused image viding a consistent target for color balancing where rays of light intersect after reflecting during the color-correction process using an from a single point on a subject. image-editing program., 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 286 286 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture grayscale A scale that shows the progres- commonly referred to as film speed. ISO is sion of tones from black to white using expressed in numbers such as ISO 125. The tones of gray. Also refers to rendering a dig- ISO rating doubles as the sensitivity to light ital image in black, white, and tones of gray. doubles. ISO 200 is twice as sensitive to Also known as monochrome. light as ISO 100. highlight A term describing a light or bright JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A area in a scene, or the lightest area in a lossy file format that compresses data by scene. discarding information from the original file. histogram A graph that shows the distribu- Kelvin A scale for measuring temperature tion of tones or colors in an image. based around absolute zero. The scale is used in photography to quantify the color hot shoe A camera mount that accommo- temperature of light. dates a separate external flash unit. Inside the mount are contacts that transmit infor- LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) The image mation between the camera and the flash screen on digital cameras that displays unit and that trigger the flash when the menus and images during playback. Shutter button is pressed. LCD panel As you’re holding the camera to hue The color of a pixel defined by the shoot, the LCD panel is located on the top measure of degrees on the color wheel, right of the camera and displays exposure starting at 0 for red depending on the color information. Above it are buttons for chang- system and controls. ing exposure, white balance, drive mode, and other camera functions. ICC profile A standard format data file defined by the ICC (International Color lightness A measure of the amount of light Consortium) describing the color behavior reflected or emitted. See also brightness and of a specific device. ICC profiles maintain luminance. consistent color throughout a color-managed workflow and across computer platforms. linear A relationship where doubling the intensity of light produces double the image stabilization A technology that response, as in digital images. The human counteracts unintentional camera movement eye does not respond to light in a linear when handholding the camera at slow shut- fashion. See also nonlinear. ter speeds and when using long lenses. lossless A term that refers to file compres- infinity The farthest position on the dis- sion that discards no image data. TIFF is a tance scale of a lens (approximately 50 feet lossless file format. and beyond). lossy A term that refers to compression ISO (International Organization for algorithms that discard image data, often in Standardization) A rating that describes the the process of compressing image data to a sensitivity to light of film or an image sensor. smaller size. The higher the compression ISO in digital cameras refers to the amplifi- rate, the more data that’s discarded and the cation of the signal at the photosites. Also, 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 287 ✦ Glossary 287 lower the image quality. JPEG is a lossy file moiré Bands of diagonal distortions in an format. image caused by interference between two geometrically regular patterns in a scene or luminance The light reflected or produced between the pattern in a scene and the by an area of the subject in a specific direc- image sensor grid. tion and measurable by a reflected light meter. neutral density filter A filter attached to the lens or light source to reduce the Manual mode A camera mode in which required exposure. you set both aperture and shutter speed (as well as ISO). Commonly used in scenes noise Extraneous visible artifacts that when you want to vary the exposure over or degrade digital image quality. In digital under the camera’s ideal exposure. images, noise appears as multicolored flecks and as grain that is similar to grain megabyte Slightly more than 1 million seen in film. Both types of noise are most bytes. visible in high-speed digital images cap- tured at high ISO settings. megapixel A measure of the capacity of a digital image sensor. One million pixels. nonlinear A relationship where a change in stimulus does not always produce a corre- memory card In digital photography, sponding change in response. For example, removable media that stores digital images, if the light in a room is doubled, the room is such as the CompactFlash media used to not perceived as being twice as bright. See store 40D images. also linear. metadata Data about data, or more specifi- normal lens or zoom setting A lens or cally, information about a file. Data embed- zoom setting whose focal length is approxi- ded in image files by the camera includes mately the same as the diagonal measure- aperture, shutter speed, ISO, focal length, ment of the film or image sensor used. In date of capture, and other technical infor- 35mm format, a 50 to 60mm lens is con- mation. Photographers can add additional sidered to be a normal lens. A normal lens metadata in image-editing programs, includ- more closely represents the perspective of ing name, address, copyright, and so on. normal human vision. middle gray A shade of gray that has 18 open up Switching to a lower f-stop, which percent reflectance. increases the size of the diaphragm opening. midtone An area of medium brightness; a optical zoom Subject magnification that medium gray tone in a photographic print. A results from the lens. midtone is neither a dark shadow nor a bright highlight. overexposure Exposing film or an image sensor to more light than is required to Mode dial As you hold the camera to shoot, make an acceptable exposure. The resulting the large dial on the top left of the camera picture is too light. that allows you to select shooting modes such as Tv, Av, and Portrait., 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 288 288 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture panning A technique of moving the camera change key camera settings, including expo- horizontally to follow a moving subject, sure and white balance, in the conversion which keeps the subject sharp but blurs- program after the picture is taken. background details. reflected light meter A device — usually a photosite The place on the image sensor built-in camera meter — that measures light that captures and stores the brightness value emitted by a photographic subject. for one pixel in the image. reflector A surface, such as white card- pincushion distortion A lens aberration board, used to redirect light into shadow causing straight lines to bow inward toward areas of a scene or subject. the center of the image. resampling A method of averaging sur- pixel The smallest unit of information in a rounding pixels to add to the number of pix- digital image. Pixels contain tone and color els in a digital image. Sometimes used to that can be modified. The human eye increase resolution of an image in an merges very small pixels so they appear as image-editing program to make a larger continuous tones. print from the image. plane of critical focus The most sharply resolution The number of pixels in a linear focused part of a scene. Also referred to as inch. Resolution is the amount of data in an the point of sharpest focus. image to represent detail in a digital image. Also, the resolution of a lens that indicates polarizing filter A filter that reduces glare the capacity of reproduction of a subject from reflective surfaces such as glass or point of the lens. Lens resolution is water at certain angles. expressed as a numerical value such as 50 or 100 lines, which indicates the number of ppi (Pixels Per Inch) The number of pixels lines per millimeter of the smallest black per linear inch on a monitor or image file. and white line pattern that can be clearly Used to describe overall display quality or recorded. resolution. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) A color model prime lens A lens with a fixed, rather than based on additive primary colors of red, variable, focal length. green, and blue. This model is used to repre- sent colors based on how much light of each RAM (Random Access Memory) The mem- color is required to produce a given color. ory in a computer that temporarily stores information for rapid access. ring flash A flash unit with a circular light that fits around the lens or to the side and RAW A proprietary file format that has little produces virtually shadowless lighting. or no in-camera processing. Processing RAW files requires special image-conversion soft- saturation As it pertains to color, a strong, ware such as Canon Digital Photo pure hue undiluted by the presence of white, Professional or Adobe Camera Raw. Because black, or other colors. The higher the color image data has not been processed, you can purity is, the more vibrant the color., 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 289 ✦ Glossary 289 sharp The point in an image at which fine speed Refers to the relative sensitivity to detail is clear and well defined. light of photographic materials such as film, digital camera sensors, and photo paper. sharpen A method in image editing of Also refers to the ISO setting, and the ability enhancing the definition of edges in an of a lens to let in more light by opening the image to make it appear sharper. See also lens to a wider aperture. unsharp mask. spot meter A device that measures reflected shutter A mechanism that regulates the light or brightness from a small portion of a amount of time during which light is let into subject. the camera to make an exposure. Shutter time or shutter speed is expressed in sec- sRGB A color space that encompasses a onds and fractions of seconds such as 1/30 typical computer monitor. second. stop See aperture. shutter priority (Tv Shutter-Priority AE) A semiautomatic camera mode allowing the stop down To switch to a higher f-stop, photographer to set the shutter speed and thereby reducing the size of the diaphragm the camera to automatically set the aperture opening. (f-number) for correct exposure. telephoto A lens or zoom setting with a side lighting Light that strikes the subject focal length longer than 50 to 60mm in from the side. 35mm format. silhouette A scene where the background telephoto effect The effect a telephoto lens is much more brightly lit than the subject. creates that makes objects appear to be closer to the camera and to each other than slave A flash unit that is synchronized to they really are. and controlled by another flash unit. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) A universal slow Refers to film, digital camera settings, file format that most operating systems and and photographic paper that have low sen- image-editing applications can read. sitivity to light, requiring relatively more light Commonly used for images, TIFF supports to achieve accurate exposure. Also refers to 16.8 million colors and offers lossless com- lenses that have a relatively wide aperture, pression to preserve all the original file such as f/3.5 or f/5.6, and to a long shutter information. speed. tonal range The range from the lightest to SLR (Single Lens Reflex) A type of camera the darkest tones in an image. that enables the photographer to see the scene through the lens that takes the pic- top lighting Light, such as sunlight at mid- ture. A reflex mirror reflects the scene day, that strikes a subject from above. through the viewfinder. The mirror retracts when the Shutter button is pressed., 19_260449 bgloss.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 290 290 Part III ✦ Completing the Picture TTL (Through the Lens) A system that reads viewfinder A viewing system that allows the light passing through a lens that will the photographer to see all or part of the expose film or strike an image sensor. scene that will be included in the final pic- ture. Some viewfinders show the scene as tungsten lighting Common household the lens sees it. Others show approximately lighting that uses tungsten filaments. the area that will be captured in the image. Without filtering or adjusting to the correct white balance settings, pictures taken under vignetting Darkening of edges on an image tungsten light display a yellow-orange that can be caused by lens distortion, using colorcast. a filter, or using the wrong lens hood. Also used creatively in image editing to draw the UD (ultralow dispersion) A lens made of viewer’s eye toward the center of the image. special optical glass processing optical char- acteristics similar to fluorite. UD lenses are warm Reddish colors often associated with effective in correcting chromatic aberrations lower color temperatures. See also Kelvin. in super-telephoto lenses. white balance The relative intensity of red, underexposure Exposing film or an image green, and blue in a light source. On a digi- sensor to less light than required to make tal camera, white balance compensates for an accurate exposure. The picture is too dark. light that is different from daylight to create correct color balance. unsharp mask In digital image editing, a fil- ter that increases the apparent sharpness of Wide angle Describes a lens with a focal the image. The unsharp mask filter cannot length shorter than 50 to 60mm in full-frame correct an out-of-focus image. See also 35mm format. sharpen. value The relative lightness or darkness of an area. Dark areas have low values, and light areas have high values., 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 291

Index A Live View and, 132–133, 137–139

A-DEP, 281 One-Shot AF mode, 38 access lamp, 9 points, 38, 41–43 accessories small apertures and, 42 action and sports photography, 197 speed, 42 architectural and interior photography, 203 subject contrast and, 42 business photography, 208 wide-angle lenses and, 42 macro photography, 218 AF-Drive button, 7 night and low-light photography, 228 AF during Live View shooting, 114 pet and wildlife photography, 233 AF Lock, 281 portrait photography, 240 AF-On, 9 wedding photography, 251 AF-ON/AE lock button switch, 118 accessory flash, portrait photography, 236 AF-point Selection/Enlarge button, 9 action and sports photography AF-point Selection method, 114 accessories, 197 AF sensor, 3 Brian Storm, 195 AF Stop button, 153 burst rate, 193 ambient light, 281 exposure, 197 angle of view, 158, 281 fast camera and, 193 aperture, 155, 281 focal length multiplication factor, 193 aperture priority, 281 high shooting position, 198 Aperture-Priority AE mode, 33–34 inspiration, 195–196 architectural and interior photography lens, 197 A-DEP mode, 204 lighting, 197, 198 accessories, 203 panned shots, 194 color, 204 peak action moment, 194–195 exposure, 203 settings, 197 inspiration, 200–201 setup, 197 lenses, 199, 203 shutter speed, 198 lighting, 203 smart buffering, 193 lines, 204 thrill, 198 long-exposure noise reduction, 204 wide angle lenses, 198 noise reduction, 204 Add original decision data, 118 settings, 203 Adobe RGB color space, 79 setup, 202 AE (automatic exposure), 281 surrounding elements, 204 AE Lock, 9, 52–54, 281 artifacts, 282 AEB (Auto Exposure Bracketing), 54–55, 111 artificial light, 282 AF-assist beam firing, 114 artificial light color temperature, 169 AF (autofocus) ASMP (American Society of Media AI Focus AF mode, 38 Photographers), 204 AI Servo AF mode, 38 aspherical elements, lenses, 152 drive modes, 39 assist beam, 114, 184 EF Extenders and, 42 auto bracketing, white balance, 88–90 focal length and, 42 autofocus focusing screens, 40 definition, 282 light and, 42 specifications, 274 autofocus assist beam, enabling, 184, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 292 292 Index ✦ A—C Autofocus/Drive group, Custom Functions built-in flash AF-assist beam firing, 114 Creative Zone modes, 183 AF during Live View shooting, 114 EF-S 17-85mm lens, 183 AF-point Selection method, 114 EF-S 18-55mm lens, 183 description, 106 guide number, 182 Lens AF stop button function, 113–114 specifications, 275 Lens drive when AF impossible, 113 bulb, 283 Mirror lockup, 114 Bulb mode, 35–36 options, 107, 115–117 burst rate, 22–23 Superimposed display, 114 business photography autofocus mode, 7 accessories, 208 automatic exposure, 282 color, 209 automatic flash, 282 corporate publications, 204 Av, 282 exposure, 208 AWB (Automatic White Balance), 282 flash, 209 axial chromatic aberration, 282 graphic images, 205 inspiration, 206

B intended use, 209

backlighting, 177 lenses, 208 definition, 282 lighting, 208 macro photography, 219 personality of business, 205 banding digital noise, 60 perspective, 209 barrel distortion, 282 settings, 208 Basic Zone modes setup, 207 Close-up mode, 29 shadows, 209 color spaces, 82 Flash Off mode, 31 C Full Auto mode, 27 C1 mode, 26, 105 introduction, 25 C2 mode, 26, 105 Landscape mode, 28 C3 mode, 26, 105 Night Portrait mode, 30–31 C modes, 3 overview, 26 cable release, 283 Portrait mode, 27–28 calibration, 283 Sports mode, 29–30 camera profile, 283 battery compartment cover, 12 camera specifications, 273–276 bit-depth, 20, 81, 282 camera terminals bits, 20 digital terminal, 11 blocked up, 282 extension system terminal, 12 blooming, 282 PC terminal, 11 bokeh, 154, 282 remote control terminal, 11 bottom camera features, 11 video out terminal, 11 bounce light, 282 camera type, 273 bracketing Camera User settings, 26, 124–129 AEB (Auto Exposure Bracketing), 54–55 Canon Bubble Jet Direct, printer, 6 bracketing auto cancel, 109 Canon CP Direct, printer, 6 bracketing sequence, 109 CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) image sensors, 270 definition, 282 center-weighted average metering, 44 Brian Storm, 195 CF (CompactFlash) card, speed ratings, 62 brightness chroma noise, 283 automated, 51 chromatic aberration, 283 definition, 282 chromatic difference of magnification, 283 histogram, 47–48 cleaning image sensor, 73–77 RAW images, 257 close-up lenses, 165 buffer, 283 Close-up mode, 29, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 293

Index ✦ C—D 293

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide D Semiconductor) image sensor, 269, 283 date and time, setting, 18–19 color daylight-balance, 284 accuracy in RAW images, 85 Daylight White Balance, 83 architectural and interior photography, 204 DC coupler cord hole, 10 business photography, 209 dedicated flash, 284 ICC profiles, 82 default settings, restoring, 72–73 light, 170–173 depth of field color balance, 283 definition, 284 color/light temperature, 283 nature and landscape photography, 222 color spaces preview button, 10 Adobe RGB color space, 79 telephoto lenses, 146, 156–157 bit depth and, 81 wide angle lenses, 155 definition, 283 Depth of Field Preview button, Live View, 133 histograms, 80–81 Dial direction during Tv/Av, 118 selecting, 82 diaphragm, 284 color temperature diffractive optics (DO), 154 artificial light, 169 diffused light, 172 atmospheric temperature, 169 diffuser, 284 blue light and, 168 DIGIC III processor, 3, 271 determining, 93 digital noise Kelvin temperature scale, 168 banding, 60 overview, 167–170 fixed-pattern, 60, 270 setting specific, 86, 92–93 Live View, 132 yellow light and, 168 random, 60 color tone, Picture Styles, 96 Digital Photo Professional (DPP), 258 colorcast, 283 Digital Professional Pro conversion program, 258 compression, 283 digital terminal, 11 contrast dimensions, 276 correction, 51 dioptric adjustment knob, 9 definition, 284 Direct Print button, 6 Picture Styles, 96 direction, portrait photography, 237 contrasty, 284 directional light contrasty light, 175 backlighting, 177 conversion, RAW, 258–261 front lighting, 176 cool, 284 side lighting, 176 Creative Zone modes, 25–26 top lighting, 177 Aperture-Priority AE mode, 33–34 disabling flash, 182–184 built-in flash, 183 display Bulb, 35–36 index, 67–68 color space selection, 82 viewfinder, 13 Custom Functions, 106 distance scale, 12, 13 Manual mode, 34–35 distortion Program AE mode, 31–32 normal lenses, 158 Shutter-Priority AE mode, 32–33 wide angle lenses, 155 crop, 284 DO (diffractive optics), 154 Custom Function settings dpi, 284 Autofocus/Drive group, 106, 107, 113–117 drive mode Creative Zone, 106 high-speed continuous, 7, 61 Exposure group, 106, 107, 108–111 LCD panel, 4 Image group, 106, 107, 112–113 low-speed continuous, 7, 61 introduction, 3 selecting, 61–64 Operation/Others group, 106, 108, 118 self-timer, 7, 62 sets, 122–124 single shooting, 61 setting, 118–122 single-shot, 7 Custom Functions, 4, 17–18, 105, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 294 294 Index ✦ D—F drive system specifications, 275 night and low-light photography, 224–225, 228 dust-resistant lens construction, 152–153 overexposure, 287 dynamic range, 284 pet and wildlife photography, 233 portrait photography, 240

E RAW and, 50

E-TTL flash technology, 179 Shutter button, 6 editorial photography stock photography, 244 decisive moments, 214 travel photography, 248 elements from other styles, 209 underexposure, 290 exposure, 213 wedding photography, 251 feature-article images, 214 Exposure Compensation, 55–57, 284 high-emotion moments, 214 Exposure group, Custom Functions inspiration, 211 Bracketing auto cancel, 109 lenses, 213 Bracketing sequence, 109 lighting, 213 description, 106 permissions, 214 Exposure-level increments, 108–109 power, 214 Flash sync speed in Av mode, 109 publication’s format, 214 ISO expansion, 109 settings, 213 ISO speed setting increments, 109 setup, 212 options, 107, 110–111 storage, 214 Safety shift, 109 Ef-A focusing screen, 40 exposure meter, 284 Ef-D focusing screen, 40 exposure simulation, Live View and, 133 EF Extenders, AF and, 42 extended range ISO, 60–61 EF lens mount, 151–152 extender, 284 EF-S 17-85mm lens, 183 extension system terminal, 12 EF-S 18-55mm lens, 183 extension tube, 284 Ef-S focusing screen, 40 electronic flash, 172 F Enlarge button, 9 f-number, 285 EOS Utility Live View remote window, 133 f-stops, 3, 285 Erase button, 8 Faithful Picture Style, 95, 97 erasing images, 69–70 fast, 284 evaluative metering, 44 FE Lock (Flash Exposure Lock), 9, 187–189 EX-series Speedlite, Live View and, 133 feature-article images, editorial photography expanding menus, 4 and, 214 exposure file format action and sports photography, 197 definition, 284 AE Lock, 52–54 JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), AEB (Auto Exposure Bracketing), 54–55 19–20 architectural and interior photography, 203 RAW, 20–21 automatic, 282 sRAW, 21–23 brightness, automated, 51 files business photography, 208 auto reset numbering, 24 contrast correction, 51 continuous numbering, 24 control, specifications, 274–275 manual reset numbering, 24–25 definition, 284 quality, 22–23 editorial photography, 213 filtering mounting thread, 12 Exposure Compensation, 55–57 fireworks photography, 228–229 Highlight Tone Priority, 51–52 firmware, updating, 266–268 histogram, 47–51 fisheye lens, 285 JPEG and, 50 fixed-pattern digital noise, 60, 270 LCD panel, 4 flare, 285 Live View, 132 flash macro photography, 218 automatic, 282 nature and landscape photography, 222 built-in, guide number, 182, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 295

Index ✦ F—I 295

built-in, Creative Zone modes, 183 front camera controls built-in, EF-S 17-85mm lens, 183 DC coupler cord hole, 10 built-in, EF-S 18-55mm lens, 183 Depth of Field Preview button, 10 business photography, 209 lens release button, 10 color, 172 self-timer lamp, 10 disabling, 182–184 front lighting, 176, 285 EX-series Speedlite, 133 Full Auto mode, snapshots, 27 flash sync speed, 180–181 full-time manual focusing lenses, 153 hot shoe and, 5 Function Metering Timer, Live View, 133 LCD panel, 4 Live View, 133–134 G onboard, 182–185 ghosting, 285 options, 189–191 gigabyte, 285 portrait photography, 236 grain. See noise red-eye reduction, 184–185 gray-balanced, 285 sequence when taking flash pictures, 180 gray card, 285 Speedlites, 189–192 grayscale, 286 sync speed, 5 technology, 179–182 H flash compensation hard light, 175 1/3- or 1/2-stop increments, 7 HDR (high dynamic range), 200 plus/minus 2 stops, 7 High ISO speed noise reduction, 112 flash exposure High-Speed Continuous mode, silent shooting FE Lock (Flash Exposure Lock), 187–189 and, 135 Flash Exposure Compensation, 185–187 highlight, 286 Flash Exposure Compensation, 6, 185–187 Highlight Tone Priority, 51–52, 112 Flash Off mode, 31 histogram flash sync speed in Av mode, 109 brightness, 47–48 flat, 285 color spaces and, 80–81 floating system, lenses, 153 definition, 286 fluorescent light color, 173 RAW image conversion, 80–81 fluorite, 285 RGB, 48–51 focal length hot shoe, 5, 286 AF and, 42 HSL (Hue, Saturation, Luminosity), Picture Style definition, 285 Editor, 100 multiplication factor, 145–146 hue, 286 focal point, 285 focus I bokeh, 154 ICC (International Color Consortium) profiles, 82, definition, 285 286 macro photography, 219 Image group, Custom Functions focus lock and recompose, 40 description, 106 focus mode switch, 12 High ISO speed noise reduction, 112 focus preset, 153 Highlight tone priority, 112 focusing distance range selection switch, 12, 13 Long-exposure noise reduction, 112 focusing mode, LCD panel, 4 options, 107, 113 focusing ring, 12, 13 image playback Focusing screen, 118 index display, 67–68 focusing screens, 40 jump among, 68–69 fog, nature and landscape photography, 220 length of time, 64–65 framing magnified, 67 definition, 285 overview, 64–65 nature and landscape photography, 222 single image, 65–67 portrait photography, 240 image protection and erase specifications, 275 image sensor, 73–77, 273, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 296 296 Index ✦ I—L image stabilization LCD panel, 4–6, 286 definition, 286 lens controls handholding, 160 AF/MF switch, 11 lenses, 153 distance scale, 12 image stabilizer mode switch, 12, 13 filter mounting thread, 12 image stabilizer switch, 12, 13 focus mode switch, 12 images focusing distance range selection switch, 12 erasing, 69–70 focusing ring, 12 protecting, 70–71 image stabilizer mode switch, 12 images playback, TV display, 71–72 image stabilizer switch, 12 index display, 67–68 lens mounting index, 12 Index/Reduce button orientation locking knob, 12 display images, 6 tripod mount, 12 overview, 9 zoom ring, 12 infinity, 286 lens mounting index, 12 infinity compensation mark, 13 lens release button, 10 Info button, 8 lenses inner focusing, lenses, 153 action and sports photography, 197 Internet resources, 277–278 AF Stop, 153 IS (image stabilization), 160–163 architectural and interior photography, 199, 203 ISO expansion, 61 aspherical elements, 152 ISO-Flash Exposure Compensation button, 7 bokeh, 154 ISO (International Organization for business photography, 208 Standardization), 286 close-up, 165 expansion, 3 diffractive optics (DO), 154 extended range ISO, 60–61 dust-resistant construction, 152–153 ISO expansion, 109 editorial photography, 213 ISO speed setting increments, 109 EF lens mount, 151–152 LCD panel, 4 extenders, 164–165 Live View, 132 extension tubes, 165 setting, 60–61 fisheye, 285 ISO options, list, 7 floating system, 153 ISO settings focus preset, 153 C.Fn options, 58–60 full-time manual focusing, 153 expansion, 58–60 image stabilization, 153, 160–163 overview, 57–58 inner focusing, 153 range, 58–60 L-series, 152 macro, 148–149, 153, 158–159, 162–163

J nature and landscape photography, 222

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) files, night and low-light photography, 227 19–20, 50, 286 normal, 148, 157–158, 161–162 Jump button, 4, 8 pet and wildlife photography, 233 portrait photography, 234, 239

K prime, 151, 288

Kelvin, 286 rear focusing, 153 Kelvin temperature scale, 168 stock photography, 244 telephoto, 146, 148, 156–157, 161–163, 289

L tilt-and-shift, 160, 162–163

L-series lenses, 152 travel photography, 248 landscape photography. See nature and landscape UD/Fluorite elements, 152 photography USM, 152 Landscape Picture Style, 94, 97, 220 weather-resistant construction, 152–153 landscape set, 124, 125 wedding photography, 251 Landscape shooting mode, 5, 28 wide-angle, 147, 154–156, 161–162, 290 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), 286 wide-angle, AF and, 42 LCD monitor specifications, 275 zoom, 149–150, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 297

Index ✦ L—M 297

light M action and sports photography, 197, 198 macro lenses AF and, 42 description, 148–149, 153, 158–159 ambient light, 281 macro photography, 215 architectural and interior photography, 203 table, 162–163 artificial, color temperature, 169 macro photography business photography, 208 accessories, 218 color, 170–173 background, 219 contrasty light, 175 exposure, 218 directional, 176–178 focus, 219 editorial photography, 213 inspiration, 216 hard light, 175 introduction, 214–215 macro photography, 218 lenses, 218 metering and, 174–175 lighting, 218, 219 nature and landscape photography, 220, 222 settings, 218 night and low-light photography, 227 setup, 218 pet and wildlife photography, 233 visual interest, 219 portrait photography, 235, 239 magnified image playback, 67 reflected, 174–175 Main dial soft light, 176 Autofocus mode, 7 stock photography, 243 buttons and, 4 top lighting, 289 ISO options, 7 travel photography, 248 Metering mode-WB button, 4 wedding photography, 251 Metering modes, 7 lightness, 286 overview, 6 linear, 286 manual focus Live View full-time manual focusing lenses, 153 autofocus, 132–133, 137–139 Live View and, 137–139 custom functions, 136–137 Manual mode, 34–35, 287 Depth of Field Preview button, 133 megabyte, 287 digital noise, 132 megapixel, 287 EOS Utility Live View remote window, 133 memory card, 287 EX-series Speedlite, 133 Menu button exposure, 132 Multi-controller, 6 exposure simulation, 133 overview, 4 flash, 133–134 tabs, 6 Function Metering Timer, 133 menus, 276 function settings, 134–136 Custom Functions Menu, 17–18 introduction, 132 expanding, 4 ISO, 132 icons, 14 manual focus, 137–139 Menu button, 4 metering, 133 My Menu, 18 setup, 134–136 Playback 1, 15–16 silent shooting modes, 135 scrolling tabs, 8 temperature and, 132 Set-up 1, 16 tethered connection, 139–142 Set-up 2, 16–17 wireless connection, 139–142 Set-up 3, 17 Live View exposure simulation, 118 Shooting 1, 15 lossless compression, 286 Shooting 2, 15 lossy compression, 286 submenus, 4 low-light photography. See night and low-light metadata, 18, 287 photography metering luminance, 287 light and, 174–175 Live View, 133, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 298 298 Index ✦ M—P Metering mode-WB button lighting, 227 Main dial and, 4 safety, 228 Quick Control dial, 4 self-timer mode, 228 metering modes settings, 227 center-weighted, 7, 44 setup, 227 evaluative, 7, 44 tripod, 228 LCD panel, 4 Night Portrait mode, 30–31 mode selection, 44–47 noise, 287 partial, 7, 44 noise reduction setting, 45–47 architectural and interior photography, 204 spot, 7, 44 High ISO speed noise reduction, 112 Metering/WB button, 7 Long-exposure noise reduction setting, 112 midday color, 171 nonlinear, 287 middle gray, 287 normal lens or zoom setting, 287 midtone, 287 Mirror lockup, 114 O Mode dial, 3–5, 287 On/Off switch, 8 moire, 287 onboard flash, 182–185 Monochrome Filter effects, 98 open up, 287 Monochrome Picture Style, 95, 97 operation conditions, 276 Monochrome Toning effects, 98 Operation/Others group, Custom Functions mounting lenses, EF lens mount, 151–152 Add original decision data, 118 Multi-controller, 4, 6, 9 AF-ON/AE lock button switch, 118 multiplication factor, focal length, 145–146 description, 106 My Menu, 18 Dial direction during Tv/Av, 118 customizing, 129–130 Focusing screen, 118 description, 105 Live View exposure simulation, 118 introduction, 4 options, 108, 119–120 SET button when shooting, 118

N Shutter button/AF-ON button, 118

nature and landscape photography optical zoom, 287 depth of field, 222 orientation locking knob, 12 exposure, 222 overexposure, 287 fog, 220 framing, 222 P inspiration, 221 panning, 288 introduction, 219–221 partial metering, 44 lenses, 222 PC terminal, 11 light, 220, 222 permissions, editorial photography, 214 people in, 222 perspective perspective, 222 telephoto lenses, 156–157 settings, 222 wide-angle lenses, 154–156 setup, 222 pet and wildlife photography sky as backdrop, 222 accessories, 233 wide angle lenses, 222 exposure, 233 nature set, 124, 125 extenders, 234 neutral density filter, 287 eye level, 234 Neutral Picture Style, 94, 97 inspiration, 231 night and low-light photography introduction, 230–231 accessories, 228 lenses, 233 exposures, 224–225, 228 lighting, 233 flashlight, 228 settings, 233 inspiration, 225 setup, 233 introduction, 223–224 Photographer’s Market, 211 lenses, 227 photography publications Web sites, 278 level, 228 photojournalism, 209, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 299

Index ✦ P—R 299

photosite, 288 professional organizations, 278–280 PictBridge, 6 Program AE mode, 31–32 Picture Style button, 8 protecting images, 70–71 Picture Style Editor, 100–104 Picture Styles Q color tone, 96 Quick Control dial contrast, 96 buttons and, 4 Faithful, 95, 97 Drive modes, 7 introduction, 93 flash compensation, 7 Landscape, 94, 97 Metering mode-WB button, 4 modifying, 98–99 overview, 9 Monochrome, 95, 97 white balance, 7 Neutral, 94, 97 Portrait, 94, 97 R saturation, 96 RAM (Random Access Memory), 288 sharpness, 96 random digital noise, 60 Standard, 94, 97 rapport, portrait photography, 237 user defined, 99–100 RAW, conversion programs, 258–261 pincushion distortion, 288 RAW files, 20–21 pixels, 20, 288 brightness levels, 257 plane of critical focus, 288 characteristics of, 255–257 Playback 1 menu, 15–16 conversion sample, 262–264 Playback button, display images, 6 definition, 288 Playback menus, 4 exposure and, 50 playback specifications, 275 image conversion, histogram and, 80–81 playing back images. See image playback RAW images, color accuracy, 85 polarizing filter, 288 rear camera controls portrait photography AE Lock/FE Lock/Index/Reduce button, 9 accessories, 240 AF-ON, 9 accessory flash, 236 AF-point Selection/Enlarge button, 9 backgrounds, 235 Dioptric adjustment knob, 9 conversation during, 240 Direct Print button, 6 direction, 237 Erase button, 8 exposure, 240 Info button, 8 eyes, 240 Jump button, 8 facial expressions, 240 Menu button, 6 flash, 236 Multi-controller, 9 flatter subject, 240 On/Off switch, 8 framing, 240 Picture Style button, 8 hands, 240 Playback button, 6 inspiration, 237 Quick Control dial/Set button/access lamp, 9 lenses, 234, 239 rear focusing, lenses, 153 lighting, 235, 239 recording system, 273–274 list of poses, 240 red-eye reduction, 184–185 number of frames, 240 reflected light, 174–175, 288 poses, 236 reflector, 288 rapport, 237 register camera user settings, description, 105 settings, 239 remote control terminal, 11 setup, 239 resampling, 288 spontaneity, 240 resolution, 288 Portrait Picture Style, 94, 97 restoring default settings, 72–73 Portrait shooting mode, 5, 27–28 RGB color, 20 poses, portrait photography, 236 definition, 288 power source specifications, 276 Picture Style Editor, 100 ppi, 288 RGB color space, bit depth and, 81 prime lenses, 151, 288, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 300 300 Index ✦ R—T RGB histogram, 48–51 snapshots, Full Auto mode, 27 ring flash, 288 soft light, 176 specifications of camera, 273–276

S speed, 289

safety shift, 109 Speedlites, 189–192 saturation, 96, 288 sports photography. See action and sports scrolling, menu tabs, 8 photography self-timer Sports shooting mode, 5, 29–30 lamp, 10 spot meter, 289 night and low-light photography, 228 spot metering, 44 sensors, 269–270 sRAW files, 21–23 Set button, 9 sRGB, 289 SET button when shooting, 118 Standard Picture Style, 94, 97 settings stock photography action and sports photography, 197 captions, 244 architectural and interior photography, 203 exposure, 244 business photography, 208 image content, 244 editorial photography, 213 inspiration, 242 macro photography, 218 introduction, 241–242 nature and landscape photography, 222 keywords, 244 night and low-light photography, 227 lenses, 244 pet and wildlife photography, 233 lighting, 243 portrait photography, 239 portfolio, 244 stock photography, 244 settings, 244 travel photography, 248 setup, 243 wedding photography, 251 styles, 244 Setup menus, 4, 16–17 stop. See aperture shadows, business photography, 209 stop down, 289 sharpen, 289 Storm, Brian, 195 sharpness submenus, displaying, 4 definition, 289 sunrise color, 170–171 Picture Styles, 96 sunset color, 172 verifying, 43 Superimposed display, 114 Shooting menus, 4, 15 sync speed Shooting modes flash, 5 Basic Zone modes, 25 reason for, 180–181 Camera User settings, 26 Creative Zone modes, 25–26 T Mode dial, 5 telephoto effect, 289 Shutter button, 6 telephoto lenses shutter, 289 definition, 289 Shutter button, 6 depth of field, 146, 157 Shutter button/AF-ON button, 118 description, 148 shutter priority, 289 focal length multiplication factor, 146 Shutter-Priority AE mode, 32–33 narrow coverage of scene, 157 shutter specifications, 275 perspective, 157 shutter speed, action and sports photography, 198 slow speed, 157 side camera features, 11 table, 162–163 side lighting, 176, 289 temperature, Live View and, 132 silent shooting modes, 135 TIFF (Tagged Image File Format), 289 silhouette, 289 tilt-and-shift lenses, 160, 162–163 single-image playback, 65–67 tonal range, 289 slave, 289 top camera controls slow, 289 hot shoe, 5 SLR (single lens reflex), 289 LCD buttons, 6, 20_260449 bindex.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 301

Index ✦ T—Z 301

LCD panel, 6 lenses, 251 LCD panel illumination button, 5 lighting, 251 Mode dial, 5 settings, 251 top lighting, 177, 289 setup, 251 travel photography wedding set, 122–123 equipment safety, 248 weight, 276 exposure, 248 WFT-E3/WFT-E3A, 139 inspiration, 246 white balance introduction, 245–246 approaches to options, 85–86 lenses, 248 Auto, 7 light, 248 auto bracketing, 88–90 reflectors, 248 Cloudy, 7 settings, 248 color temperature, specific, 86 setup, 247 color temperature and, 168 tripod mount, 12, 228 Custom, 7 TS-E lenses, 160 custom, 86–88 TTL (through-the-lens), 44, 290 Daylight, 7, 83 tungsten light color, 173, 290 definition, 290 Tungsten White Balance, 83 Flash, 7 TV display of images, 71–72 K, 7 LCD panel, 4

U option selection, 82–93

UD/Fluorite elements, lenses, 152 overview, 84 UD (ultralow dispersion), 290 Shade, 7 Ultralow Dispersion (UD), lenses, 152 shift, 90–92 underexposure, 290 specifications, 274 unsharp mask, 290 temperature ranges, 84 updating firmware, 266–268 Tungsten, 7, 83 USB cable, 139 White Fluorescent, 7 user-defined Picture Styles, 99–100 wide-angle lenses, 290 USM lenses, 152 action and sports photography, 198 AF and, 42

V apertures, 155

value, 290 depth of field, 155 video out terminal, 11 description, 147 viewfinder distortion, 155 definition, 290 nature and landscape photography, 222 display, 13 perspective, 156 specifications, 274 table, 161–162 vignetting, 290 wildlife photography. See pet and wildlife photography

W wireless connection, Wireless File Transmitter, 139

warm, 290 workflow WB-BKT bracketing sequence, 111 description, 18 weather-resistant lens construction, 152–153 RAW images, 264–266 Web sites, photography publications, 278 wedding photography accessories, 251 Z exposure, 251 zoom lenses, 149–150 inspiration, 250 zoom ring, 12, 13 introduction, 249, 21_260449 badvert01.qxp 2/26/08 12:18 AM Page 302

Guides to go. Colorful, portable Digital Field Guides are packed with essential

tips and techniques about your camera equipment, iPod, or notebook. They go where you go; more than books—they’re gear.

Each $19.99.

978-0-470-16853-0 978-0-470-12656-1 978-0-470-04528-2 978-0-470-12051-4 978-0-470-11007-2 978-0-7645-9679-7

Also available

Canon EOS 30D Digital Field Guide • 978-0-470-05340-9 Digital Travel Photography Digital Field Guide • 978-0-471-79834-7 Nikon D200 Digital Field Guide • 978-0-470-03748-5 Nikon D50 Digital Field Guide • 978-0-471-78746-4 PowerBook and iBook Digital Field Guide • 978-0-7645-9680-3 Available wherever books are sold Wiley and the Wiley logo are registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affi liates. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.]

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