Download: И.В. орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева Учебник английского языка ДЛЯ технических университетов и вузов Издание шестое, стереотипное Допущено Учебно-методическим объединением вузов

И.В. орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева Учебник английского языка ДЛЯ технических университетов и вузов Издание шестое, стереотипное Допущено Учебно-методическим объединением вузов по машиностроительным и приборостроительным специальностям в качестве учебника для студентов технических университетов и вузов Москва Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана УДК 802.0(075.8) ББК 81.2 АНГЛ.-923 0-66 Рецензенты: Т.И. Мучник, Н.В. Корытина Орловская И.В., Самсонова Л.С, Скубриева А.И. 0-66 Учебник английского языка для студентов техниче­ ских университетов и вузов. — 6-е изд., стереотип. (Иностранный...
Author: Theiny Shared: 7/30/19
Downloads: 695 Views: 1998

Content

И.В. орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева

Учебник

английского языка

ДЛЯ технических

университетов и вузов Издание шестое, стереотипное Допущено Учебно-методическим объединением вузов по машиностроительным и приборостроительным специальностям в качестве учебника для студентов технических университетов и вузов Москва Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, УДК 802.0(075.8) ББК 81.2 АНГЛ.-923 0-66

Рецензенты: Т.И. Мучник, Н.В. Корытина Орловская И.В., Самсонова Л.С, Скубриева А.И.

0-66 Учебник английского языка для студентов техниче­ ских университетов и вузов. — 6-е изд., стереотип. (Иностранный язык в техническом университете). — М:

Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2006. — 448 с. ISBN 5-7038-2599-7

Учебник состоит из 12 уроков-тем, объединенных единой темати­ кой и содержащих: основной текст, назначением которого является обу­ чение чтению технической литературы по специальностям машино- и приборостроительных вузов; дополнительные тексты и диалоги для оз­ накомительного чтения, активизации грамматических структур и обще­ ственной лексики, развития навыков профессионального обучения по изучаемой тематике; письменные и устные грамматические и лексиче­ ские упражнения коммуникативной направленности. В 4-е издание (3-е — в 2002 г.) включены лексические упражнения для углубления навыков работы с текстом, а также дополнительные ма­ териалы для факультета «Инженерный бизнес и менеджмент» и специ­ альности «Юриспруденция». Учебник успешно используется при подготовке дипломированных специалистов в МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана и других высших учебных заве­ дениях. Для студентов технических университетов и вузов машино- и при­ боростроительного профиля. Полезен для специалистов, желающих научиться различным формам общения на английском языке. УДК 802.0(075.8) ББК 81.2 Англ.~923 ©И.в. орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева, 2002; 2004, с из­ менениями ©Оформление. Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2002; 2004, с из- ISBN 5-7038-2599-7 менениями, ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ К 1-МУ ИЗДАНИЮ Настояпщй учебник предназначен для студентов технических университе­ тов и институтов, изучавших английсю1й язык в средней школе, и составлен в соответствии с требованиями профаммы по иностранным язьпсам для не- язьпсовых вузов. Учебник рассчитан на 270—280 часов аудиторных занятий. Он может быть использован для самостоятельного совершенствования зна­ ний теми, кто хочет научиться читать научно-техническую литературу. Цель учебника — подготовить студентов к чтению специальной науч­ но-технической литературы для извлечения ршформации, а также привить им навыки устной речи по специальной и неспециальной тематике. При организации учебного материала авторы ставили целью повторе­ ние и обобщение основных фамматических тем и лексики, пройденных в средней школе, а также углубленное изучение тех грамматических и лекси­ ческих явлений, которые необходимы студентам для профессионального об­ щения на английском язьпсе. Тематика текстов определяется тем минимумом общетехнических знаний, которым обладают студенты первых двух курсов технических университетов и институтов. Тексты учебника отобраны из ори­ гинальных английских и американских источников с учетом их инфор­ мативности и соответствия научно-техническим достижениям и изло­ жены по принципу возрастания трудности и постепенного усложнения языка и тематики. Учебник состоит из 12 уроков-тем, дополнительных текстов, поурочно­ го фамматического справочника, англо-русского словаря и приложения. Ка51сдый урок-тема содержит четыре текста, три из которых объединены об­ щей тематикой, а четвертый, как правило, имеет страноведческую направ­ ленность. Все эти тексты предназначены для обучения различным видам чтения. Первый текст урока является основным и подлежит тщательной про­ работке и анализу для изучения тех фамматических и лексических явлений, которым посвящен данный урок. Второй и третий тексты служат развитию навыков чтения и извлечения необходимой информации, а также навыков беседы по соответствующей тематике, что способствует закреплению лекси- ко-грамматического материала, проработанного в основном тексте. Четвер­ тый текст урока посвящен вопросам страноведения и дает возможность про­ вести беседу, дискуссию за круглым столом, ролевую шру с привлечением иллюстративного и дополнительного материала, подобранного преподавате­ лем и студентами самостоятельно. Каждый урок-тема начинается с предгекстовых упражнений для прора­ ботки фамматического и лексического материала. Э ^ тематические уп­ ражнения предназначены для преодоления лексических и фамматических трудностей основного текста и требуют детальной проработки в аудитории. Упражнения составлены на основе лексики предшествуюшлх уроков. Упраж­ нения после основного текста даны для закрепления грамматического и лек­ сического материала. Упражнения на словообразование содержат в основном активную лекси­ ку. Эти упражнения, а также работу с интернациональной лексикой реко­ мендуется вьшолнять в аудитории. При этом преподаватель постоянно об­ ращает особое внимание студентов на сопоставление схождений и расхождений фамматической сфуктуры и лексического фонда родного и изучаемого языков. Широкий выбор лексико-фамматических упражнений позволяет это сделать., Для практического использования студентом приобретенных знаний нужно обладать умением самостоятельно работать над языком. Поэтому авторы сочли необходимым ввести специальную серию упражнений для самостоятельной работы. Эти упражнения даны для закрепления прой­ денной лексики и грамматики и подготовки к работе со словарем. За­ ключительное упражнение каждого урока (перевод текста без словаря) служит для контроля усвоения студентом грамматических и лексических аспектов данного урока. Неотьемлемой частью общения является умение вести беседу на про­ фессиональные темы, для чего приведены упражнения рубрики Conversation, задания к которым даны по-английски. При этом авторы следуют принципу постепенного усложнения как текстов, так и заданий. Обширная тематика и большое количество текстов, заданий к ним и упражнений дают возмож­ ность преподавателю варьировать работу в зависимости от уровня подготов­ ки группы и давать индивидуальные задания сгуцентам. Дополнительные тексты по тематике и лексике связаны с основными текстами уроков. Они предназначены для самостоятельной и индивидуаль­ ной работы и могут быть использованы в качестве дсйюлнительного материа­ ла при проведении дискуссий, бесед и конференций. В конце учебника даны англо-русский словарь и приложения. В сло­ варь включены все слова, встречаюшяеся в текстах и упражнениях. Авторы выражают благодарность за ценные указания, советы, помощь и замечания сотрудникам кафедры иностранных языков Н.Н. Пыховой и Л.М. Степановой. ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ К 4-МУ ИЗДАНИЮ В четвертом издании «Учебника английского языка для технических университетов и вузов» изменено внешнее оформление. Это связано с тем, что учебник вошел в серию «Иностранный язык в техническом университете». В третьем издании полностью заменены тексты 1А и 12А, дополне­ ны и расширены некоторые предтекстовые упражнения. После каждого урока основного курса даются дополнительные задания: упражнения к тексту, небольшой текст-упражнение, упражнения к этому тексту, на­ правленные в основном на работу с лексикой и соответствующей тер­ минологией, ее закрепление, развитие языковой догадки. Упражнения такого типа развивают у студентов навыки работы с незнакомым тек­ стом. Кроме того, после каждых трех уроков дан раздел Revision, вклю­ чающий грамматические и лексические упражнения по проработанным урокам и небольшой текст. Этот материал должен способствовать по­ вторению, закреплению пройденного материала и может быть исполь­ зован в качестве рубежного контроля. В раздел Supplementary Texts добавлены тексты, связанные с тема­ тикой уроков основного курса. В поурочный грамматический справоч­ ник введены темы «Местоимения», «Дополнения», а также новые таб­ лицы ряда грамматических тем. В настоящее время появились новые факультеты и специальности в технических университетах, поэтому в дополнение к основному курсу дается материал по инженерному бизнесу и менеджменту и юриспру­ денции для завершающего этапа обучения. Произношение дается по словарю «Everyman's English Pronouncing Dictionary» Даниила Джонса (Daniel Jones).,

LESSON 1

Глаголы to be, to have Времена группы Indefinite (Simple) Active, Passive Оборот there + be Порядок слов в предложении Суффиксы 'tion, -ic, -al, -ly Text lA. Higher Education in Russia Text IB. Cambridge Text 1С. Higher Education in the USA Text ID. A Letter ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Поставьте следующие предложения в Past Indefinite или Future Indefinite, добавляя, где необходимо, слова last/next week, last/next year, tomorrow, yesterday и т.д. 1. I am very busy today. 2. They are in the reading-room now. 3. It is a cold day today. 4. We are students of one of the Moscow Institutes. 5. You are late for the lecture. 6. Mary is a good stu­ dent. 7. Students have four exams in January. 8. Today they have time to go to the cinema. 9. We have some English magazines. 10. The book has many diagrams. 11. I have good news, 12. She has a map of England. Упражнение 2. Поставьте следующие предложения в Past и Future Inde­ finite, добавляя слова yesterday, tomorrow и т.д. 1. There is а large reading-room in our university. 2. There are thirty students in our group. 3. There is a new film in our club to­ day. 4. There is one telephone in our office. 5. There are many stu­ dents at the lecture., Упражнение 3. Поставьте следующие предложения в Past или Future Indefinite, добавляя слова last/next year, yesterday, tomorrow, last/next week, last/next summer и т. д. 1. We Study six days a week. 2. I go to the institute every day. 3. My friend lives in a hostel. 4. Usually I get up at 7 o'clock. 5. My studies begin at half past eight. 6. We have four lectures every day. 7. After lectures we go to the dinning room. 8. We do our home­ work for the next day. 9. At night I read and watch TV. 10. On Sunday I visit my friends. Упражнение 4. Поставьте сказуемое в отрицательной форме. 1. Today our lectures begin at 10 o'clock in the morning. 2. We were school-children last year. 3. We had four entrance exams in summer. 4. Yesterday the first-year students saw the institute labo­ ratories. 5. We took all the necessary books from the library. 6.1 got excellent marks for my entrance exams. 7. He knows the meaning of the word «engineering» (техника, машиностроение, инже­ нерное дело). 8. The students of our group will meet in the labora­ tory. 9. The librarian gave us all the necessary books. Упражнение 5. A. Раскройте скобки, поставив общие вопросы. 1. (You do) ... anything interesting last weekend? 2. (He works) ... at the institute every day? 3. (They will come) ... to see you soon? 4. (We studied) ... at school last year? 5. (She will go) ... to the theatre next week? 6. (The students worked) ... in the labora­ tory yesterday? 7. (Ann gets up) ... at 7 o'clock? 8. (There are) ... many laboratories at our institute? 9. (There were) ... many stu­ dents at the lecture? 10. (There will be) ... a library in the new building? 11. (We have)... two lectures today? 12. (The book has) ... many diagrams? 13. (You had) ... four exams last semester? B. Вставьте соответствующие вопросительные слова. 1. ... is your name? 2. ... doesn't understand this grammar rule? 3. ... of you studies French? 4. ... is the answer to my ques­ tion? 5. ... do you live in Moscow? 6. ... were you bom? 7. ... lec­ tures you on mathematics? 8. ... do you study? 9. Here are the books. ... is yours? 10. ... knows the answer to this question? Упражнение 6. Поставьте вопросы к каждому члену предложения и дайте отрицательную форму. 1. Не entered the Aviation Institute last year. 2. My sister stud­ ies at the university. 3. The third-year students will have industrial training next summer., Упражнение 7. Прочитайте и переведите текст. My University There are many universities in Moscow. The head of a univer­ sity is Rector. Usually there are several faculties in a university. Each faculty has a number of specialized departments and is headed by dean. The course of studies lasts (продолжается) 5~6 years. The academic year in this country's higher schools begins on the 1-st of September and is divided into two terms (semesters). Students take exams at the end of each semester. If the results of the examinations are good, students get grants. Twice a year stu­ dents have vacations — two weeks in winter and two months in summer. My University has several buildings, old and new ones. There are many various laboratories. There is a very good library and a computer center in the main building. Every faculty has its own specialized library, laboratories, workshops and computer centers. The first- and second-year students study general engineering subjects (общетехнические предметы). In the third year students begin to study specialized subjects. A very good tradition of our University is that theory is accom­ panied by practical training. Students begin to work at the Univer­ sity's well-equipped (хорошо оборудованный) laboratories and in senior years at various plants, design offices and research institutes of this country. It is interesting but difficult to study at our University, espe­ cially for the first-year students as they do not know yet how to or­ ganize their work and time. Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения, поставьте их в вопросительной и, где возможно, в отрицательной форме. 1. The books are taken from the library. 2. He was asked to help one of our students. 3. Many newspapers and magazines are pub­ lished in this country. 4. That problem was discussed at our meet­ ing. 5. The diagrams were brought by our monitor. 6. The exams will be taken in January. 7. They were told to do their work quickly. 8. The study of theory is accompanied by practical training. 9. A new laboratory was opened last year. 10. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 11. Every institute is headed by Rector. 12. In sum­ mer you will be sent to a big plant for your industrial training., 1. This work must be done quickly. 2. Many complex problems can be solved with the help of computers. 3. Lomonosov may be called the founder of higher education in Russia. 4. Books on this subject can be found in every library. 5, Many basic subjects must be studied by the first and second-year students.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 9. Переведите следующие производные слова: глагол + tion = существительное to examine — проверять, экзаменовать -> examination — экзамен to apply — применять, использовать -^ application — применение, использование to educate — education; to adopt — adoption; to graduate — graduation; to specialize — specialization; to organize — organi­ zation; существительное + al = прилагательное education — образование -> educational — образовательный industry — industrial; profession — professional; person — personal; существительное + ic = прилагательное science — наука -> scientific — научный; basis — основа ~> basic — основной прилагательное + /у = наречие high — высокий -> highly — высоко quick — quickly; usual — usually. Упражшение 10. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. qualification, qualified ['kwolifaid], speciality [,speji 'aeliti], specialist, special, specialize, engineer [,enct5i'ni9], serious ['sieries], adoption, style [stail], method ['meGed], distance, sys­ tem, foundation, satellite ['saetelait], course [ko:s], instruction, mathematics [,mae9i'maetiks], physics ['fiziks], chemistry ['kemistri], history, economics, to concentrate ['konsentreit], bachelor ['bae^ala], sport center, basic, exchange. Упражнение 11. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов. high [hai], higher education, highly-qualified, important [im'po:t9nt], provide [pra'vaid], development [diVelepment],, process ['preuses], progress ['preugres], steadily ['stedili], enough [I'nAf], through [9ru:], thorough ['влгэ], quality ['kwoliti], natural ['nae^rel], science ['saiens], scientist ['saientist], require [ri'kwaie], curricula [ka'rikjule], foreign ['form], major ['meidse], future ['fju:^9], further ['fe:69], re­ search [ri'se:^], enterprise ['entepraiz], know [neu], knowledge ['nolidj], graduate ['graedjueit]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ as conj — как; по мере того further а ~ дальнейший как, когда; так как, improve v — улучшать, совер­ поскольку шенствовать as well — так же mean (meant) v — значить, оз­ affect V — влиять, воздейст­ начать вовать на means п — средство, способ become v — становиться number п — число, количество consider v — считать, рас­ а number of — ряд, несколько сматривать, учитывать prepare v — готовить, подго­ develop v — развивать, раз­ тавливать рабатывать; преображать provide V — снабжать, обеспе­ development п — развитие, чивать разработка receive v — получать enable v — давать возмож­ remain v ~ оставаться ность quality п — качество ensure v — обеспечивать, thorough а — основательный, гарантировать доскональный, тщательный especially adv — особенно usually adv — обычно to play а part — играть роль to take into consideration — принимать во внимание, в расчет at present — в настоящее время Text 1А Прочитайте и переведите текст. Higher Education in Russia Higher education plays an important part in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists, for future development and progress. It trains people to become teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers. In all the industrial countries standards of living are steadily changing; this means that the kind of education, which was good enough thirty years ago, is not necessarily good for them today. The serious need to find ways and means of ensuring continuous and thorough adoption of the universities to contemporary needs in our rapidly changing world is widely recognized. And this means that styles of teaching, quality of learning materials^ and organization of the university itself have to be continuously brought up to date^ and improved. Besides, knowledge and information which comes through the mass media must also be taken into consideration. This informa- tion explosion^ has affected every field of study, especially, of course, in the natural and applied sciences and in all other sciences as well. The increase of information requires new methods and new approaches to students' training and instruction"*. At present a new system of education is introduced in this country — a distance education system. This computer system of learning helps working professionals to continue their education while remaining at their jobs. This system enables people to get knowledge and a good foundation in the sciences basic to his or her field of study. Distance learning has developed over years^ from satellite video courses to modern videoconferencing through per- sonal computers. The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters). The first- and second-year students obtain thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering and a number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened^ by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics. At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «ma- jor» subject and take many courses in this subject. Specialized study and courses will help students to become specialists and prepare them for their future work. After four years students will get a bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further study and research get a master's degree. After graduating from the university they may go on with their study and research and may get a still higher degree., About 75 percent of students receive state grants and 15 percent are sponsored by enterprises. Universities have their own students' hostels and some of them have large and excellent sport centers. Education is a process through which culture is preserved, knowledge and skills are developed, values are formed, and infor­ mation is exchanged. Education is the way to success. Notes to the Text 1. learning materials — учебный материал 2. to bring up to date ~ довести до современных требований 3. information explosion — информационный взрыв 4. training and instruction - подготовка и обучение 5. over years — за многие годы 6. curricula are enriched and broadened — программы (курсы обучения) обогащаются и расширяются

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 12. Просмотрите упражнение7итекст 1А, ответьте на во­ просы. 1. When does the academic year begin in this country? 2. How many exams did you pass to enter the University? 3. Do you pay for your education? 4. Do students get grants? 5. What subjects do stu­ dents study in the first year? 6. Which subject is the most interest­ ing for you? 7. Is there a sport center in your University? 8. What degree do students get after four years of study? 9. What degree can a student get after two years of further study and research? 10. What new education system is introduced in this country? 11. What spe­ cialities do people get after graduating from a university? 12. Why is higher education important in the life of every country? Упражнение 13. Сравните предложения в действительном и страдатель­ ном залоге, переведите их. 1. Students asked the lecturer many questions. The lecturer was asked many questions. 2. The monitor told the first-year students to come to the laboratory. The first-year students were told to come to the laboratory. 3. Usually a lab assistant shows the equipment to the students. Usually the equipment is shown to the students by a lab assistant. Usually students are shown the equipment by a lab as­ sistant. 4. Students watched the process with great attention. The process was watched with great attention. 5. Tomorrow our teacher, will give us a new task. A new task will be given tomorrow. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 6. Practice accompanies theory. Theory is accompanied by practice. 7. He asked me to bring a dic­ tionary. He was asked to bring a dictionary. 8. The teacher told the students to sign their drawings. The students were told to sign their drawings. 9. The dean will send the students to a big plant in sum­ mer. The students will be sent to a big plant in summer. 10. He taught us to use the lab equipment. We were taught to use the lab equipment. Упражнение 14. A. Переделайте предложения из действительного в стра­ дательный залог. 1. You Open the door. 2. We asked questions. 3. He will finish his project next week. 4. He can do this exercise. 5. They invited me to their conference. 6. I saw a new film. 7. My sister writes letters regularly. 8. Universities develop new methods of students' train­ ing. 9. After graduating from the University the students may get a still higher degree. 10. The study of foreign languages, history and economics must improve the curricula of technological universities. B. Переведите предложения в страдательном залоге, дайте варианты, где возможно. 1. Mathematics, strength of materials, mechanics, elements of machines as well as engineering physics are studied at technologi­ cal institutes. 2. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education. 3. Students are provided with hostels, well-equipped laboratories and libraries. 4. Any coun­ try must be provided with good specialists in all branches of sci­ ence and technology for its further development. 5. Large sums of money are spent by the state to train highly-qualified engineers. 6. Much attention must be paid to improve the standards of higher education. 7. Students of technological institutes are trained to analyse various facts and theories. 8. The scientific and techno­ logical progress of a country is determined by the qualification of specialists. 9.Some institutes of technology are reorganized into universities. lO.The country must be provided with specialists ca­ pable of working with the technology of tomorrow effectively. Упражнение 15. Найдите ParticipleIиParticiple II, переведите предложе­ ния. 1. The students studying at the institutes passed entrance exams in summer. 2. The subjects studied in the first two years are very important for future engineers. 3. The lecture delivered by our dean, was on new methods of technology. 4. The man delivering this lecture is our professor on mathematics. 5. An article discussing the new system of school education appeared in all newspapers. 6. The results of the experiments discussed yesterday will be pub­ lished. 7. The attention paid to the study of fundamental subjects is great. 8. Students interested in computer engineering enter techno­ logical institutes. 9. The number of specialists connected with new branches of science and engineering is increased every year. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 16. Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова: administration, gradual, electric, intensively, practical, dra­ matic, integral, specific, operation, illumination, naturally, identi­ cal, organization, originally, arctic, technical, acceleration. Упражнение 17. Найдите в тексте lA слова с суффиксами -Г/ол, -А/, -/С, -/у и переведите их. Упражнение 18. Найдите глагольные формы, которые могут быть сказуе­ мыми в предложении: Student, many, will be passed, doing, technical, has, reports, studied, interesting, connected, are, were done, large, is, tasks, de­ veloped, is read, coming, texts, badly, giving, had, was made possi­ ble, are given, forms, necessary, teaches, basis, was, done. Упражнение 19. Найдите: а) антонимы (слова, противоположные по значению) to begin, to enter, young, large, to open, to take, quick, much, to graduate from, many, long, slow, little, to finish, old, small, to close, to give, few, short; б) синонимы (слова, совпадающие по значению) new, large, many, to begin, to take, to speak, to enter, to build, to do, to get, modern, big, to start, much, to make, main, to talk, to construct, to come into, major. Упражнение 20. Составьте предложения из следующих слов в соответст­ вии с порядком слов в английском предложении. 1. has, buildings, our, several, institute. 2. subjects, students, many, the first-year, study. 3. the third-year, had, last, students, training, industrial, summer. 4. carry out, students, practical, work, in, laboratories, well-equipped. 5. problems, many, scien-, tists, important, solve, our. 6. texts, difficult, Petrov, technical, translated. 7. his, will, the teacher, translation, correct. 8. next, dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will. 9. students, more, insti­ tutes, last, entered, a million, than, year. Упражнение 21. Заполните пропуски глаголами to be, to have в соответст­ вующем времени. 1. Moscow ... the capital of Russia. 2. There ... many institutes in Moscow. 3. The oldest of them ... Moscow University. 4. Our University ... one of the oldest technological institutes in this coun­ try. 5. It... founded in 1830. 6. It... old and new buildings. 7. There ... laboratories, workshops and libraries in our institute. 8. Every faculty ... its own computer center. 9. Our library ... a great number of books and magazines in all branches of science and technology. 10. Last year we ... at school, next year we ... the second year stu­ dents. 11. We ... industrial training in the third year. Упражнение 22. Выберите правильную форму. 1. Entrance exams (held, are held) in summer. 2. More than 20 new technological institutes (were founded, founded) in the last decade. 3. Basic engineering subjects (studied, are studied) in the first and second years. 4. Highly-qualified specialists (trained, are trained) at higher schools. 5. More than a million students (enroled, were enroled) to the institutes and universities of this country last summer. 6. The training of specialists (will be im­ proved, will improve) as a result of restructuring in the next few years. Упражнение 23. Напишите ответы на вопросы по следующему образцу: Are there two presidents in the United States? No, there are not. There are not two presidents in the United States. There is one president in the United States. 1. Are there thirteen months in a year? 2. Are there eight days in a week? 3. Are there fifty minutes in a hour? 4. Are there sev­ enty seconds in a minute? 5. Are there forty days in a month? 6. Are there thirty days in February? 7. Are there thirty-two days in January? 8. Are there five seasons in a year? Упражнение 24. Выберите соответствующие местоимения. А. 1. (We, us) all went with (their, them) to the dean's office. 2. My friend came to see (I, me) last night. 3. Victor gave Peter and (I, me) a book and we went to the reading-room with (he, him) and his friend. 4. He told Mary and (me, I) to go with (he, him) and his, sister. 5. They know all about my friend and (I, me). 6. I came to the Institute with Michael and (her, she). 7. An old man asked (we, us) to come and see (him, his). 8. Go with David and (her, she) to visit (they, them). B. They invited me to (them, their) party. 2. He could not an­ swer (his, her) teacher. 3. They were (your, you) former students. 4. You are (us, our) colleagues. 5. This is (my, me) brother. 6. Ann went to (his, her) room and put on (his, her) new dress because she was going to a dance given by (his, her) company. 7. Where is the dictionary? (He, it) is in (his, its) place on the table. C. 1. Your dictionary is new, but (my, mine) is not. 2. She says that this dictionary is (her, hers). 3. You can do it without my help, but not without (theirs, their). 4. Will you help me to sort out the things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (our, ours). 5. He is an old friend of (me, mine). 6. Do you know your lesson today? He does not know (him, his). 7. This is your note­ book and this is his, but where is (her, hers)? Упражнение 25. Выразите согласие или несогласие. 1. Do you Study at school? 2. Are you a student of the third year? 3. Do you study many subjects? 4. Did you pass your en­ trance exams well? 5. Do you live in Moscow? 6. Do you live far from the institute? 7. Is English your favourite subject? 8. Will you go to the concert tomorrow? 9. Were your books taken from the li­ brary? 10. Do you live in the hostel? Упражнение 26. Заполните пропуски предлогами //i, at, on, to, into, under, near. 1. We live ... Moscow. 2.1 get up ... seven o'clock and leave ... eight. 3.1 usually walk ... the institute. 4. There are three rooms ... our flat. 5. There is a picture ... the wall and a small table ... the picture. 6. He comes ... the room and sits down ... the chair ... the table. 7. ... the evening we watch TV or read books. 8. We do not study... Sunday. 9. There are several newspapers ... the table. 10. The accident happened ... the bridge. Упражнение 27. Дайте недостающие формы глагола, запомните их. got, beginning, took, meant, say, becoming, found, brought, going, come Упражнение 28. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. As you know higher education trains highly-qualified specialists for further development and progress of the country. The students, making good progress get state grants. The course of study at the universities lasts about six years. The students take three or four years of general engineering and fundamental courses, then one or two years of specialized training in some fields of science and tech­ nology. In the first and second years a good foundation for profes­ sional knowledge is provided. At present there are many modern laboratories at institutes. Most higher schools have their own com­ puter centers. This means that the state must spend a lot of money to improve higher education.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. How old are you now? 2. Where were you born? 3. What city did you come from? 4. Where did you go to school? 5. What foreign language did you study at school? 6. How long did you study at school? 7. Why did you enter this institute? 8. What are your fa­ vourite subjects at the institute? 9. Where do you live? 10. Do you live with your family? 11. How do you usually spend your Satur­ day and Sunday? 12. What did you do last weekend? 13. What are you going to do next weekend? 14. What is your favourite sport? 15. What is your hobby? 16. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? 17. When do you usually get up in the morn­ ing? 18. At what time do you usually leave home? 19. How do you usually get to the institute? Exercise 2. Read and learn. Ted's instructor: Hello Ted. Vm glad I saw you before lectures. Did you know about the change in the examination timetable? Ted: Change? Ted's ins.: Yes. The last day of examinations for your group will be January 23rd not January 21st. Ted: Is that definite (определенно, точно)? We were told they'd be on January 22nd. Ted's ins.: There can be no changes now. It's definitely Janu­ ary 23rd. Ted: That's great. Fm going to London on holiday on January 24th. Ted's ins.: Have you finished your assignment (домашнее задание) yet?, Ted: I'm nearly there. I think I'll give it to you on Tuesday. Ted's ins.: That's good. I can't let you have another extension (отсрочка). Ted: I was really grateful for the extra time you gave me. That was a really big assignment. Ted's ins.: Well, I'll expect it next week. Now, would you like to hear the details of the schedule? Ted: Oh. Yes, please. Ted's ins.: You'll have four examinations. General mechanics is in the morning of January 8th, physics is on the afternoon of January 13th, maths is on the morning of January 18th, and information technology in the afternoon of January 23rd. Mr.R.: Good morning. Have a seat. Bob: Good morning. Thank you. Mr. R.: I have your application here. Your name is Robert Smith, right? В.: That's right, sir. Mr. R.: And you hope to enter our university this year? В.: Yes sir, if I can make it. Mr. R.: Fine, Bob. You finished school a year ago. Why didn't you enter college that year? В.: Well, I have a sister in college now. And there is another one who'll be going next year. So I need money to pay for my education. Mr. R.: All right. How were your grades (отметка, оценка) at school? В.: Well, pretty good. Until my last year I got a little too in­ terested in sports. But I know I'll work hard in college. Mr. R.: It's hard to keep up both sports and studies. В.: Yes sir, I know. Mr. R.: Fine. Well, we'll let you know in about two weeks, good luck (удачи). В.: Thank you, sir. Goodbye. Exercise 3. Speak about: 1. My University. 2. Academic Year at My University. 3. I am a first-year student. Use text «My University» and text lA for your topic., Exercise 4, Read and smile: Mary: Professor, I think you can speak several languages. Professor: Yes, Fd say about five. M.: French, I think? And German? P.: No, neither. I read them well, but have never learned to speak them. M.: Italian? Chinese? P.: No, I am afraid not. M.: You must be kidding me (обманывать, смеяться). P.: Not at all. First, there is a language we are using now. Then there is the language I use in the classroom, in my lectures. Next, there is the speech I use when I go back to my home town. And I have another that I use with my lit­ tle daughter, and still another with my dog. Then there's... M.: But those are all English. P.: Yes, of course. You speak differently to every person. Fortunately (к счастью), everybody does all this quite naturally. He was a Rising Star Max Bom, who later became an outstanding German physicist, took an exam in astronomy. He was examined by a professor. Here is their conversation: Professor: What do you do when you see a falling star? Bom: I think up of a wish (задумать желание). P.: Is that all? В.: Then I take a look at my watch, mark the time and the constellation (созвездие) from which the star appeared, determine the direction of its movement and the length of its path, then go home and calculate the orbit of the star. The professor asked no more questions. He was satisfied (быть удовлетворенным). Text IB Прочитайте текст. Расскажите об особенностях обучения в Кембридж­ ском университете. Cambridge Cambridge is one of the two main universities of England which is located at the Cam River. It was founded at the beginning, of the 12th century. The University consists of (состоит из) 24 different colleges including 4 colleges for women. Each college is self-governing (самоуправляется). The head of the University is the chancelor who is elected for life. The teachers are commonly called «dons» and «tutors». Part of the teaching is by means of lectures organized by the University. Besides lectures teaching is carried out by tutorial system for which Cambridge University is famous all over the world. This is a system of individual tuition (обучения) organized by the colleges. Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The tutor plans the student's work and once a week the student goes to his tutor to discuss his work with him. The training course lasts 4 years. The academic year is divided into 3 terms. The students study natural and technical sciences, law, history, languages, geography and many other subjects. After three years of study a student may proceed (получить ученую степень) to a Bachelor's degree, and later to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Students are required to wear gowns (мантия) at lectures, in the University library, in the street in the evening, for dinners in the colleges and for official visits. All the students must pay for their education, examinations, books, laboratories, univer­ sity hostel, the use of libraries, etc. Very few students get grants. Not many children from the working class families are able to get higher education, as the cost is high. The cost of education depends on the college and speciality. A number of great men, well-known scientists and writers stud­ ied at Cambridge. Among them are: Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar. Bacon, the philosopher, Milton and Byron, the poets, Cromwell, the soldier, Newton and Darwin, the scientists. Text 1С Прочитайте текст. Расскажите об особенностях системы высшего образования в нашей странеивСША. Higher Education in the USA There is no national system of higher education in the United States. Higher education is given in colleges and universities. There are over 2100 various higher educational institutions, including colleges, technological institutes and universities. The average col­ lege course of study is 4 years. The academic year is usually 9 months or 2 terms (semesters) of four and a half months each. Classes usually begin in September and end in June. The first-year students are called freshmen., Students choose a major subject (профилирующий предмет, дисциплина) and take many courses in this subject. After four years, they get a traditional Bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on to graduate school (старшие курсы) and with a year or two of further study get a Master's degree. After another year or two of study and research, they may get a still higher degree as Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.). The student's progress is evaluated by means of tests, term works and final exami­ nations in each course. The student's work is given a mark, usually on a five point scale (5-балльная система). Letters indicate the level of achievement. «A» is the highest mark. «F» denotes a failure. Most American colleges and universities charge for tuition. The methods of instruction in the universities are lectures, discussions, laboratory and course works and seminars. Most cities have colleges or universities that hold classes at night as well as in daytime. In this way people may work for a de­ gree or just take a course in the subject that interests them. Text ID Прочитайте письмо и напишите ответ. А Letter Dear Sergei, How are you? I have received your letter of 10-th June for which I thank you very much. I am sorry I haven't written to you sooner, but I have had many things to do. You know it was a very hard year for me. I spent my time getting ready for my exams and I was doing well in many subjects. After passing the exams I was enroled into the University. The whole course of study is four years. My major subject is mathematics. It is my favourite and my hobby. I am good at it and do maths whenever I have a chance. I take many courses in this subject. I like to take part in mathemati­ cal competitions organized at our department and at the Univer­ sity. I think that mathematics is «the language of science» and plays an important part in many sciences. We are lucky to have a brilliant lecturer in mathematics this term. He has a talent to take a difficult subject and make it simple. You leave the lecture hall with a feeling that mathematics is the most interesting subject under the sun. Next term I'll do research in the field of computer engineering. And how do you feel about maths? Please, write to me, I am es­ pecially interested in your life in students' hostel. Good-bye for the present, your friend Mike, ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. А. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь догадаться о значе­ нии выделенных слов. Computers are now essential in many areas of life — modem banking, information technology and many others. However, this is not true for education. There are some subjects which may be better taught using com­ puters. Elementary mathematics, elementary language learning, any subject that requires a student to memorize basic facts through repetition (повторение) is good to computer learning. The com­ puter can be programmed to provide an endless number of simple questions, and as the student answers these questions the facts are learned. However, in the learning and practice of more complex ideas, the computer is not adequate. A computer can evaluate (оценить) an answer as right or wrong, but it cannot determine why. It cannot find out why a student is making mistakes, and then explain impor­ tant concepts in a different way so the student will understand. Task connected with explanation cannot be taught by computers as there are too many variables for a computer to deal with successfully. Thus, while computers may be useful for practising simple skills, they are not an essential feature of modern education. Until further developments in computers are made, the human teacher will remain indispensable. B. Подберите к каждому слову или словосочетанию в колонке А соответ­ ствующее из колонки В. А В 1. essential а. thing that can vary 2. area of life b. idea, opinion 3. memorize с absolutely necessary 4. adequate d. most important 5. concept e. sphere of activity 6. variable f. learn by heart 7. indispensable g. satisfactory, sufficient С Заполните пропуски антонимами и синонимами. right ... new, up-to-date ... complex most important ... adequate ... absolutely necessary, Упражнение 2. Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон- киАссуществительными из колонки В, А В 1. go to/enter/be enrolled a. progress into/graduate from 2. read for/take/pass b. a course in, notes 3. do/study c. good at Maths 4, take/make d. research into/on 5. get/receive e. university 6. make f. a subject, a course, for a degree 7. be g. in discussion, competition on 8. take part h. grant, degree 9. do/conduct/carry out i. examinations (exams) 10. give/do j . a lecture Упражнение 3. Замените в каждом предложении выделенный глагол на другой глагол с тем же значением. 1. Did you receive а grant? 2. How many exams did you pass be­ fore you entered university? 3. Do you take notes in lectures? 4. Who gives the lecture in history? 5. My friend studies physics. 6. What research did you conduct last semester? Упражнение 4. Заполните таблицы на словообразование. Verb Noun Instruct . *. foundation Inform ... ... determination Consider ... ... preparation Introduce ... Verb Noun Adjective Educate ... .•. Occupy Base Упражнение 5. A. Назовите 10-15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Higher Education». В. Speak about: Computers in education.,

LESSON 2

Времена группы Continuous Active, Passive Функции it, one, that Степени сравнения прилагательных Суффиксы -ment, -ty, -ous Префикс re- Text 2A. Environment Protection must be Global Text 2B. Pollution Text 2C. Ecological Problems of Big Cities Text 2D. London, its History and Development ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Объясните употребление времен группы Continuous, пе­ реведите предложения. A. 1.1 am at my English lesson. I am sitting and doing my exer­ cises. My friend is not sitting, he is standing at the blackboard and looking at me. 2. It is getting cold now, isn't it? Look out. Is it rain­ ing now? 3. You are late. What were you doing? — I was translating a text. 4. When I came home my parents were having supper and at the same time they were watching TV. 5. What was he doing when I rang up an hour ago? He was looking through a newspaper when I rang up. 6. Tomorrow we shall be preparing for a test for the whole evening. 7. In July they will be taking their exams for the whole month. 8. What will you be doing tonight at 10 o'clock? Will you be working? No, I shall be reading a book at this hour. B, 1. New Metro lines are being built now in Moscow. 2. What is going on? A new film is being discussed. 3. What grammar was being explained when you came in? 4. What questions were being, discussed at that time? 5, New methods of research are being used in our lab. 6. Much is being done to improve laboratory methods. Упражнение 2. Выберите правильную форму глагола. 1. We (are translating, translate) a technical text now. 2. We usually (are not translating, do not translate) stories. 3. She (does not look, is not looking) through all the newspapers every evening. 4. He (looked, was looking) through a newspaper when the tele­ phone rang. 5. What (were, was) you doing a minute ago? I (was watching, watched) television. 6.1 (watch, am watching) television every day. 7.1 had a late night, I (worked, was working) until mid­ night. 8.Yesterday he (worked, was working) a lot. 9. The students (had, were having) an interesting discussion when the teacher came in. 10. The students often (have, are having) interesting discussions after lectures. 11.When he comes they (will be taking, will take) a test. 12. They (will be taking, will take) a test next week. 13. Where is Ann? She is in the coffee shop. She (has, is having) a cup of cof­ fee. She always (has, is having) a cup of coffee in the evening. Увражиенне 3. Поставьте глагол в соответствующем времени в зависи­ мости от обстоятельства. This Student (study) physics (at present, every day, last semester, when the telephone rang, tomorrow at this time, next semester). Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения. 1. Сейчас у нас урок английского языка. Преподаватель стоит у доски и объясняет новую грамматику. Студенты вни­ мательно слушают и записывают. 2. Где вы были вчера после обеда? Я был дома весь день. Я писал письмо друзьям. 3. Что ты делал пять минут назад? 4.На нашей улице произошел не­ счастный случай (accident). Я смотрел в окно, когда он про­ изошел. 5. Что будет делать твоя сестрав8часов вечера? Она будет выполнять домашнее задание. 6. Какие вопросы будут обсуждаться сегодня на собрании? — Приходите в 12 часов. Будет обсуждаться очень интересный вопрос. 7. Когда мы приехали в город, там строился новый спортклуб. Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения с it в различных функциях. 1. It is autumn. It is the 3rd of October. It is dark in the morn­ ing and it is difficult to get up. 2. It is a new subject. It is very im portant for our future speciality. We shall study it for two years. It will be our future speciality, but we do not know much about it in, the first year. 3. It is known that the knowledge of general engi­ neering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects. 4. It seems that he works a lot. 5. It is said that the chemistry labora­ tory of our institute is good. 6. The student finds it difficult to translate such a text without a dictionary. 7. It was not easy to study at the institute. 8. It is important to understand the funda­ mentals of this science. 9. It was A.S. Popov who invented the ra­ dio. 10. It is the knowledge of general engineering subjects that is the basis of engineering training. Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения с one в различных функциях. 1. One must study а lot to become an engineer. 2. We must write only one exercise now. 3. Engineer is one of the most impor­ tant professions, it is the one that is taught at technical institutes. 4. One cannot translate such an article without a dictionary in the first year. 5. One must have a very good knowledge of general engi­ neering subjects to become a good engineer. 6. One must pass all exams well to enter an institute. 7. Last summer I read many Eng­ lish articles, and my friend read some German ones. 8. This sum­ mer we shall spend in the country, the last one we spent in the city. 9. We translated many texts, but there is one more text to translate. 10. One can take this journal from the library. Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения с that в различных функциях. 1. That student studies in our group. 2. Do you know those girls? They are from our institute. 3. The professor that lectures on mechanics is the dean of our faculty. 4. It is known that the knowledge of general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects. 5. We know that the study of general engineering subjects is necessary for future engineers. 6. That higher education in this country is excellent is known to everybody. 7. The aim of to­ day's foreign policy is that peace in the world should be perma­ nent. 8. The programme for the first-year students differs from that of the third-year students. 9. There are many interesting articles in this journal, read those on your speciality. 10. It is the high qualifi­ cation of future specialists that will determine the scientific and technological progress of any country. Упражнение 8. Дайте недостающие степени сравнения. (the) biggest, longer, faster, (the) hardest, (the) heaviest, thin­ ner, narrower, lower, (the) greatest, newer, colder, (the) hottest, (the) shortest, less, (the) worst, more., Уаражневне 9. Поставьте прилагательные в сравнительной или превос­ ходной степени. 1. Moscow University is (large) University in Europe. 2. Strength of materials is (difficult) than chemistry. 3. Is it (interesting) to study at the institute than at school? 4. My friend works (hard) at his English than I. 5. My brother is (old) than I but he is (short). 6. The University is one of the (tall) buildings in Moscow. 7. Days in summer are (long) than in winter. 8. This group studies (good) than that one. 9. Oxford is (old) University in Britain. Упражнение 10. Ответьте на следующие вопросы. 1. Which is the most difficult subject for you? 2. Which is the easiest subject? 3. Which of the subjects is more difficult: physics or mathematics? 4. Who is the tallest in your group? 5. Which is the most interesting subject for you? 6. Is English as difficult as mathe­ matics? Упражнение 11. Заполните пропуски словами than, as ,,, as, not so ,„ as. 1. In winter days are ... long ... in summer. 2. Chemistry is... dif­ ficult ... physics. 3.1 study English ... long ... my friend. 4. My sister is older ... I. 5. English is ... so difficult... mathematics. 6. Moscow is bigger ... Tallinn. 7. This machine is ... old ... that one. 8. The new transistor is more powerful... the old one. 9. The task of school education is ... important... that of higher education. 10. John is ... tall ... his brother, but he is ... tall ... his father. Упражнение 12. Переведите обороты в сравнительной степени согласно образцу: The longer the nights, the shorter the days. Чем длиннее ночи, тем короче дни. 1. The harder we study, the more we know. 2. The more you work, the better you know English. 3. The more we study nature, the more we know about it. 4. The nearer the earth is, the denser the atmosphere is. 5. The stronger the wind, the harder the condi­ tions of work for weather observers. 6. The quicker we finish, the sooner we will go home. Упражнение 13. Найдите в каждом ряду прилагательные в сравнительной степени и переведите их. teacher, taller, thermometer, thinker worker, weather, worse, writer bomber, brother, brighter, barometer, darker, driver, denser, dancer bigger, best, builder, better father, farther, foreigner, faster earlier, easier, eater, engineer compressor, computer, colder, closer meter, mover, more, motor

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 14. Переведите следующие производные слова согласно об­ разцу: глагол + -ment = существительное to environ — окружать -> environment — окружение to enrol — enrolment, to develop — development, to achieve — achievement, to move — movement; прилагательное + -(i)ty = существительное communal-общинный -> community — общность, содружество social — общественный -> society — общество active — activity, special — speciality, national — nationality, intensive — intensity, electric — electricity; существительное + -ous = прилагательное fame — слава, известность -^ famous — знаменитый, известный variety — various, number — numerous, monotony — monoto­ nous; префикс re- (повторность действия) renew — обновлять, восстанавливать renewal — восстановление renewable — восстанавливаемый, восстанавливающийся rebuild, remake, reuse, reorganize, reorganization. Упражнение 15. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова: global ['д1эиЫ], resources [ri'so.siz], problem ['problem], ecology [I'kolecfei], proportion [pre'poijan], era ['lere], territory ['teriteri], ocean ['eujen], oceanic [,euji'aenik], situation [,sitju'eijen], atmosphere ['aetmesfie], process ['preuses], cli-, mate ['klaimit], balance ['baelens], experiment [iks'periment], social ['saujel]. Упражнение 16. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. environment [inVaieranment], pollution [pe'lu:Jen], achieve [e'^i:v], success [sak'ses], successful [sak'sesfal], successfully [sak'sesfuli], purify ['pjuarifai], air [ea], natural ['nae^ral], how­ ever [hau'eva], job [cfeob], remain [ri'mein], mankind [maen'kaind], reach [ri:f], special ['spejal], especially [is'pejali], serious ['siarias], throughout [Gru'aut], world [wa:ld], knowledge ['nolidj], advance [ad'va:ns], eliminate [I'limineit], purpose ['pa:pas], scale [skeil], weather ['we6a], essential [I'senjal], therefore ['Seafo:], data ['deita], joint [cfeoint], measure ['теза], realize ['rialaiz], circumstance ['sa:kamstans]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ achieve v — достигать increase v — увеличиваться advance n — продвижение level n — уровень вперед, успех, прогресс purpose п — цель, назначение area п — область reach v — достигать bring about V — вызывать realize v — понимать, отчет- carry out V — проводить, вы- ливо представлять полнять remain v — оставаться change v — менять(ся), изме- scale п — масштаб, размер нять(ся); п — изменение, пе- several а — несколько ремена similar а — подобный, considerable а — значитель- схожий ный solve V — решать deal with v — иметь дело с still adv — все еще, однако effort п — усилие success п -— успех evident а — очевидный therefore adv — поэтому growth п — рост way п — путь, дорога; способ however adv — однако, тем не менее joint efforts — совместные усилия take measures — принимать меры throughout the world — по всему миру, Техт 2А Прочитайте текст и ответьте, какие меры необходимы для успешного решения проблемы защиты окружающей среды в глобальном масштабе. Переведите. Environment Protection Must Be Global That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the greater the ecological problems are becoming. Air and water pollution by industry is now reaching tremendous proportions. In our era it is changing from a national to an interna­ tional problem, especially in territories where rivers cross several countries. The seas and oceans are also becoming seriously polluted. A similar situation is developing in the atmosphere. It is known that many cities throughout the world suffer from air pollution. However, our scientific knowledge and technological advance­ ment make it possible to eliminate it if people use good will̂ and make considerable investments for that purpose. The develop­ ment of natural resources on a global scale is already possible from a scientific and technical standpoint̂ . Large-scale experimental work in this area is successfully being carried out. At present scientists in industrially developed countries are working on the theory of interaction of all the atmospheric and oceanic global processes that determine the climate and weather of the world. Increasing growth of population, industrialization and the use of resources are slowly but surely changing the global climate and water balance. This can be described as a great experi­ ment, one that may bring about changes in the environment more serious than ever before. The essential feature in the environment protection is that many problems can be solved only on the level of world community .̂ Therefore, the planning of protection against pollu­ tion by human society as a whole^ is imperative today and in the near future. It is necessary to develop an international program to study data on land, forest, atmospheric and oceanic resources, both renewable and non-renewable. It is the joint efforts of many scien­ tists and special public organizations that can deal with the prob­ lem and take necessary measures to protect the environment. It is still a big job and much remains to be done .̂ However, sci­ entists are confident that planned actions of all countries can elimi­ nate pollution and achieve successes in purifying air, water and soil and in safeguarding natural resources. At the same time one must, realize that social and political circumstances may stand in the way of further progress in this field. Notes to the Text 1. good will — добрая воля 2. standpoint — точка зрения 3. community — сообщество 4. as a whole — в целом 5. much remains to be done — еще многое предстоит (оста­ ется) сделать

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 17. Просмотрите текст 2А и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is this text about? 2. What is ecology? 3. How does wa­ ter (air) become polluted? 4. Why is the problem of water pollution becoming a global problem? Упражнение 18. Найдите предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в Present Continuous, переведите. 1. Water and air are becoming more and more polluted. 2. At present computers are more widely used in the sphere of education. 3. Where were you at six o'clock? We were studying in the read­ ing-room. 4. There are government and public organizations that are analysing data on land, forest and air. 5. New courses of educa­ tion such as management are being organized in many institutes. 6, What will you be doing in the laboratory tomorrow morning? We shall be watching the operation of a new device. 7. Measures are being taken to save Lake Baikal. 8. The situation at Lake Baikal is remaining very serious. 9. Much attention is being paid at present to the development of international scientific contacts. 10. Science is becoming a leading factor in the progress of mankind. Упраяшение 19. A. Найдите предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в Continuous Passive, переведите. 1. Cambridge University was formed in the 12th century. 2. The solution of ecological problems may be achieved only by joint efforts of all countries. 3. Great changes in people's lives and work were brought about by the scientific and technological progress. 4. The theory of interaction of atmospheric and oceanic processes is being developed to determine the weather of the planet. 5. The teachers at Cambridge are called «dons» or «tutors». 6. Computers and la-, sers are being widely introduced at plants and factories. 7. The most important ecological problems must be considered at the govern­ ment level. 8. The training at Cambridge and Oxford is carried out by tutorial system. B. Переделайте предложения из действительного в страдательный залог. 1. Не is writing а letter at the moment. 2. John was preparing report all day yesterday. 3. We are learning grammar now. 4. At present mankind is making considerable investments to eliminate air pollution. 5. Today the changes in the global climate and wa­ ter balance are bringing about serious changes in the environ­ ment. 6. Many scientists are constantly carrying out experimental work to solve the problem of environment protection. 7. The com­ pany is making plans for the future. Упражнение 20. Найдите предложения, где it является формальным под­ лежащим, личным местоимением или входит в состав усилительной конст­ рукции; переведите. 1. It is dark here. Please, turn on the light. 2. It was Gagarin who was the first man to orbit the Earth. 3. Our students study strength of materials. It is a very difficult subject. 4. Mathematics is studied at all technological institutes because every engineer must know it well. 5. It is the most interesting article on this subject. 6. It has become evident that ecological problems can be solved only on the global level. 7. Joint efforts of people throughout the world make it possible to achieve some progress in environment protec­ tion. 8. It is the development of robots that will solve some very complex problems of industry. 9. It is evident that research is be­ coming more specialized now. 10. The use of the new equipment made it possible to minimize the number of workers. 11. It is indus­ trialization that is making ecological problems very serious. Упражнение 21. Определите функции one и thaty переведите предложе­ ния. 1. The problem that has become the most important one is the problem of pollution. 2. One can easily understand why the profes­ sion of an engineer requires a special college training 3. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with tra­ ditional ones. 4. That air and water pollution by industrialization is reaching dangerous levels is realized by everyone. 5. It is the inven­ tion of an engine that started the first industrial revolution. 6. The main purpose of education is that graduates must be able to work, with the technology of tomorrow. 7. The education in Oxford and Cambridge is different in many ways from that in other universities. 8. We discussed the first industrial revolution, the one that took place some centuries ago. 9. New robots will have several manipu­ lators that will carry out many functions. 10. That computers and robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers. 11. One must realize that the increasing number of cars brings about considerable pollution of the air. 12. It is the growth of industrialization that is changing the climate of the planet. 13. The essential feature of higher education in this country is that it combines theory with practice. 14. The simplest materials are those which have only one kind of atoms. 15. That the Earth is round was unknown for a long time. 16. It is found that the labour (труд) of a man with secondary education is 108 per cent more effi­ cient than that of a man without that education. Moreover, the work of a university or college graduate is 300 per cent more effi­ cient than that of a specialist with secondary education. Упражнение 22. Переведите предложения с союзами сравнения. 1. The bigger the cities are, the greater the pollution is. 2. The more computers and robots are used in industry, the quicker tech­ nological progress will be. 3. The more automobiles appear in the streets, the worse the air in the cities is. 4. The more effective is the technology, the quicker is the development of this country. 5. The quicker we joint our efforts in protecting the environment, the quicker the ecological problems are solved. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 23. Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речи относятся слова. radioactivity, measurement, interaction, society, nervous, elimination, basic, proportion, seriously, symbolic, anxious, eco­ logical. Упражнение 24. Назовите глаголы, образованные от следующих сущест­ вительных, и переведите их. advancement (продвижение вперед, прогресс), investment (капиталовложение), measurement (измерение), achievement (достижение), improvement (улучшение), fulfillment (выпол­ нение)., Упражнение 25. Переведите слова с префиксом re-. rename, reopen, renew, renewable, non-renewable, renewal. Упражнение 26. Найдите среди следующих слов: а) антонимы slowly, old, at present, small, quickly, in the past, new, large; б) синонимы tremendous, epoch, realize, several, work, progress, great, field, era, understand, make it possible, different, achieve, some, advance, enable, area, various, reach, essential, job, important. Упражнение 27. Составьте предложения, пользуясь словами и выраже­ ниями из таблицы. Her friend are watching a letter They is writing on the telephone I are listening to the latest news on the radio You am reading the TV programme We is speaking an exercise Упражнение 28. Придумайте предложения со следующими глагола- ми-сказуемыми: is changing, was changing, will be changing, are becoming, will be developing, are being introduced, was being solved. Упражнение 29. Раскройте скобки. A. When Peter was a child, he had two drawing books. One of them was (large) than the other. His elder brother bought the (large) one for him. Peter liked it (well) because the drawings in it were (large) and simple. He drew something every day. Each new day his drawing was (good) than the one he had made the day be­ fore. The last page was much (good) than the first one. B. After graduating from the institute Mike went to Siberia to a small industrial town. It was (difficult) for him to begin his work as an engineer than he thought that it would be. He moved to (impor­ tant) city than the first one. He was not (successful) there than be­ fore, however, and sometimes he was even (unhappy). However, he was (happy) about one thing, he was becoming a (useful) specialist. С New York is the (large) city in the US. Perhaps, with all its suburbs (пригород), it is the (large) city in the world. It is one of, the (important) industrial cities in the country. Some of the (old) and historic buildings are there. Some of the buildings in New York City are the (high) buildings in the whole world. New York City is not only the (large) city in the US; it is also the (important) indus­ trial center. Perhaps, the (expensive) office buildings in the world are there. It has the (great) number of factories, the (large) banks and post offices. It sends out many letters and receives the (heavy) mail bags. It is truly the (important) business city. Упражнение 30. Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. The highest mountain in the world is Mount Everest - 29,002 feet high. The largest ocean is the Pacific having a total area of 63,986,000 square miles. The Atlantic Ocean, the next largest, is only 31,530,000 square miles, the Indian Ocean with 28,350,000 square miles comes third. The longest river is the Nile which is more than 4,000 miles longer or about twice the distance by air from London to Beirut. The biggest island is Greenland which be­ longs to Denmark and is about 840,000 square miles in extent. The largest lake is the Caspian Sea. Geographers consider it as a lake because it is not connected with any of the great oceans. It has an area of about 170,000 square miles. Which is the deepest sea? So far, as we know at present the greatest depth is in the Pacific Ocean near the Philippines and goes down to 37,000 feet, which is much more than the height of Everest. The biggest volcano is in Ecuador, South America. It is still active and 19,612 feet high. There is an­ other one between Argentina and Chile and it is more than 3,000 feet higher. Упражнение 31. Напишите существительные в единственном числе. cities, countries, societies, universities, technologies, lorries, industries, dictionaries, territories, theories, communities. Упражнение 32. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. grown. Stand, dealing, brought, knew, making, send, found, thought, spending. Упражнение 33. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. It is difficult for mankind to predict (предсказать) changes in the environment accurately. It is known that natural changes in weather and climate may have more catastrophic global effects than human activity. But scientists are developing a new concept, that can help make such prediction more accurately. It is based on our understanding that the Earth is an integral system. Its parts — oceans, atmosphere, land or life — cannot be understood in isola- tion to predict changes in the most accurate way. Modern scientific and technological progress made it possible to use new technolo- gies for that purpose. That satellites can control physical, chemical, biological and geological changes on a global scale is well-known now. One must also know that the study of environmental problems with the help of satellites is becoming international. Russia, the US, France, Japan, Canada, India, China and Italy are planning to send their satellites in both polar and geostationary orbits.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer*the questions according to the example: What is one of the most important problems for mankind now? (the problem of pol- lution and ecology). The problem of pollution and ecology is one of the most important problems for mankind now. 1. What problem is becoming a global problem? (the problem of air and water pollution). 2. What makes it possible to eliminate air and water pollution? (scientific knowledge and technological ad- vance, good will and large investments). 3. What are scientists in industrially developed countries currently working on? (the the- ory of interaction of the atmospheric and oceanic global pro- cesses). 4. What factors are slowly changing the global climate and water balance? (the growth of population, industrialization and use of resources). 5. What actions are necessary to take to deal success- fully with the problem of protecting the environment throughout the world? (planning, developing international programs to study ecological data, joint efforts of scientists and special public organi- zations). Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. At present one of the most 1. are becoming seriously pol- important problems for mankind luted by industry. 2. The rivers, seas and oceans 2. are successfully being carried out on a global scale. 3. That purifying air, water and 3. it is possible to eliminate air soil is changing from a national and water pollution by planned to a global problem actions of human society as a whole., 4. Therefore, it is necessary 4. is evident to all. 5. Scientists expect that 5. to take measures to safeguard natural resources and the envi- ronment on a global scale. 6. Large-scale experiments in 6. is that air and water pollution this area is reaching very large propor- tions. Exercise 3. Read and learn. Rita: Did you have a nice weekend? Mary: Yes, I did. I was tired of watching television, going to parties, to the movies and so on. John and I decided to go to Pennsyl- vania University to take part in the discussion on environmen- tal problems. R.: Oh, really! How unusual! That must have been interesting. M.: Yes, it was. There were a lot of scientists and politicians. Have you heard about such a firm called «Sanyo»? R.: Certainly. It is well known for its electronics. M.: It's one of the first companies to make products that don't pollute the environment. R.: Oh, my father told us about new heating systems made by this company. They use clean and safe technology. Exercise 4. Speak about: 1. The problem of pollution and ecology is one of the most im- portant problems for mankind. 2. Ecological problems in your home town, especially the prob- lem of air pollution. Use exercise 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to become polluted by industry and transport; to reach high level; to develop a program of purifying air in industrial centers; to take necessary measures; for eliminating pollution; new technologies; make it possible; successfully. Exercise 5. Read and smile. One evening Rutherford entered the laboratory. It was late, but he found one of his students working with some apparatus. «What are you doing here so late?» Rutherford asked. «I'm working, sir,» was the answer. «And what do you do in the day time?» «Oh, I work, of course, sir,» answered the student. «Do you work early in the morning, too?», «Yes, professor, I work early in the morning, too,» said the stu­ dent, quite sure that the famous scientist would praise (хвалить) him. Rutherford looked at him gloomily (мрачно). «Tell me,» he asked with irritation (раздражение), «when do you think?» Text 2B Прочитайте текст. Укажите отрицательные стороны научно-техническо­ го прогресса. Приведите примеры экологической ситуации в Вашем городе. Pollution The British, like many other Europeans, are becoming more and more worried (беспокоиться) about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems that they face. As the population of large cities like London, Birmingham and Manchester continues to grow, pollution problems become worse. The air in many towns and cities is being polluted by traffic (транспорт, движение) and industry. The number of cars and lor­ ries is growing all the time. On the one hand, they bring mobility to millions of people, but on the other hand, they need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside (сельская местность). Traffic in cities is getting worse and worse. Water pollution has become a serious problem in many British rivers. People living near aiфorts suffer from the noise of increas­ ingly larger and more powerful jet airliners taking off and landing. Text 2C Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о результатах исследова­ ния, проведенного Всемирной организацией здравоохранения. Ecological Problems of Big Cities There are over 150 supercities in the world with population from one to 15 million and more. Tokyo, New York, London, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro and Moscow are just a few of the cities which have become supercities. People in the supercities suffer from polluted environment: bad water, bad air and noise. A new term, urban (городской) climate, is used now for such cities. It means high temperature, oppressive atmosphere and intensive smog. Some experts consider that it is practically impossible to pro­ tect the big cities from pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) studied air pollution around the world for over eight years., It measured two things: the level of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the air and the level of smoke. Sulphur dioxide and smoke pollute water and have serious effect on forest, buildings and health of people. In the WHO report it is shown that the cities with the most con­ siderable level of CO2 in the air are Milan, Teheran, Prague, Santi­ ago and Sao Paulo. However, some cities with clean air get worse in winter. Helsinki, for example, becomes one of the cities with the largest proportion of it in the air in winter. This must be connected with the heating of houses. One can also mention (упоминать) Glasgow and Warsaw which suffer in the same way. Text 2D Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о достопримечательностях современного Лондона. London, its History and Development It is known that the area around London was inhabited (населять) by the Celts. Later the Romans founded a military camp there. The camp developed into a port. The area of about 1 square mile where the Romans built their fortifications corre­ sponds approximately to today present City of London. London was the capital of one of the Roman provinces of Britain. After the Romans left Britain, London became less important and suffered greatly from the Danes and Vikings. It was under Henry the First in the 12th century that London finally became the capital of England. In the 16th century London, with its 500,000 inhabit­ ants, was the largest city in England. Under Queen Elizabeth the First in the 17th century England dominated the oceans and be­ came the Empire. It is in the Elizabethan Age that art, culture and literature flowered, especially in London. Over the centuries Lon­ don became the centre of a constantly growing empire. The em­ pire reached its apex (вершина) under Queen Victoria. In­ dustrialization and the expansion of international trade brought London power, growth and cultural and economic development. In the First and Second World Wars London was ruined consider­ ably. Some 9 million people now live in London and its suburbs, and the city covers an area of 620 square miles, making it one of the largest of the world's capitals. One reason for its size is that the English people like to live in small houses and have small gardens. As a result, less than 5,000 people live in the City of London, while, more than half a million come here to work in the daytime. Today London is the capital of Great Britain and is also the seat of the Royal Family, the Parliament, the major administrative bodies and scientific institutions. The Houses of Parliament stand on the bank of the Thames at Westminster Abbey. Actually it is one building but it is called «Houses» as it consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It was set up in the 13-th century. At one end of the Houses of Parliament there is a tower with a large clock. The largest bell, known as Big Ben, chimes in (отбивать часы) the hour. Westminster Abbey was a monastery built in the 8th century. It is one of the best examples of the Early English architecture. The kings and queens of England are buried there. Many great states­ men, writers and poets are also buried there. In the centre of London there is one of the most beautiful squares — Trafalgar Square which was named so to commemorate (в честь) Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar. There is the monument in its centre known as Nelson's Column. In the vicinity of Trafalgar Square is Whitehall which is now a street of government offices. Not far from Whitehall is Downing Street. Number 10 Downing Street is the residence of the Prime Minister of England. The Cabinet meets there. One must mention the British Museum. It is one of the most extensive and valuable museums in West Europe, It was founded in 1753. It also com­ prises the National Library. There are other numerous museums and galleries displaying interesting finds from all parts of the world and from all stages in the development of nature, man and art. There are also two large opera houses, the National Theatre and 50 other theatres. Monuments of past greatness are every­ where in London. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания из текста 2А и постарайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов. L to protect the environment 2. become seriously polluted 3. suffer from pollution 4. interaction of all processes 5. the essential feature, 6. protection is imperative today 7. public organizations 8. safeguarding natural resources B. Подберите к каждому слову в колонке А соответствующее значение из колонки В. А В 1. protect а. do not feel well 2. serious b. for all people 3. suffer с keep safe from smth. 4. interaction d. protection 5. essential e. needing attention 6. imperative f. important 7. public g. necessary, most important, fundamental 8. safeguarding h. action on each other Упражнение 2. A. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь догадаться о значе­ нии выделенных слов. One of the most urgent environmental problems in the world today is the shortage of clean water. Access to clean drinking water is a basic human need. But industrial pollution has made many sources of water undrinkable. Rivers, lakes and even seas have be­ come poisonous. Lake Baikal is one of the world's largest and most beautiful lakes. Russians call it the Holy Sea. It contains a rich variety of ani­ mals and plants, including 1,300 rare species that do not exist any­ where else in the world. However, they are being destroyed by the massive industrial effluent, which some factories still pour into the lake every day. A few years ago, people thought that the supply of clean water was limitless. Now clean water is scarce, and we are beginning to respect this precious resource. We must protect the clean water that remains for the sake of our children and grandchildren. B. Подберите к каждому слову в колонке А соответствующее из колонки В. А В 1. urgent a. group, sort, kind of 2. access b. in the interest of 3. poisonous с unusual, not often seen 4. plant d. of great value (price) 5. rare e. needing action, 6. species f. not available, not equal to the demand 7. destroy g. come freely, flow in a continuous stream 8. effluent h. way (road) to, means of using 9. pour i. think about, pay attention to 10. scarce j . living organism the kind smaller than trees 11. respect k. break, put an end to 12. precious 1. harmful, causing death 13. sake m. waste from a factory Упражнение 3, Заполните таблицы на словообразование. Noun Verb Noun Adjective change variety • • ... achieve ecology .. advance environment development danger protect industry pollute globe action nature ... increase safe elimination numerous - » interact ocean ... Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски словами global environmental, pollute, dangerous, scale, environment, protection, resources, increase. People are worried about the (1) ... (the air, water, and land around us) as a result of the (2)... effects of human activity. «De­ velopments» that are making our life more comfortable such as industrialization, urbanization and the use of cars all (3) ... the earth's atmosphere. There are some of the (4) ... problems today: the ozone layer, (5) ... warming (an (6) ... in world temperature), the conservation and (7) ... of nature and natural (8) ... on a global (9) ... Упражнение 5. A. Назовите 10-15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Environment protection». В. Speak about: The problem of clean water in your town., LESSON 3 Времена группы Perfect Active, Passive Подлежащее, сказуемое Суффиксы -er/'or, -antf-ent Префиксы ип'/im- Text ЗА. Electricity Text 3B. A Great Citizen of the World Text 3C. Solar Light by Night Text 3D. Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Объясните употребление времен группы Perfect, пере­ ведите. 1. This is а very good book, I have just read it with pleasure. 2. He has been absent this week. He has been ill. 3.1 haven't seen you for a long time. Where have you been all this time? 4. We haven't heard about her since 1989. 5. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the necessary diagrams. 6. Be­ fore we came to the next lecture we had studied the material of the first one. 7. Have you already finished your diploma work? No, I shall have finished it by the end of June. 8. They will not have passed their exams by the time you return. 9. Many students have been enroled into universities this year. 10. The translation has not been finished yet. It will have been finished by the end of the month. 11. Have you brought these journals with you? No, these journals had been brought by my sister before I returned from St.Petersburg. Don't you know that? Упражнение 2. A. Выберите правильную форму сказуемого. 1. Не (has graduated, graduated) from MSTU named after Bauman this year. He (graduated, will have graduated) from MSTU, named after Bauman in 6 years. 2. She (saw, has seen) us in the morning yesterday. She (saw, has seen) us this morning. 3.1 (have met, met) him last year. I never (had met, have met) him before. 4. Our group (will do, will have done) a lab work tomorrow. 5. This problem (is discussed, has been discussed) much in the press lately. This problem (was discussed, had been discussed) yesterday. B. Переделайте предложения из действительного в страдательный залог. 1. The students have done their homework very well. 2. Bob has left his notebook at home. 3.1 have told you about a lecture. 4. The laboratory assistant had prepared the experiment by 2 o'clock. 5. She had finished her test when we came. 6. The teacher will have corrected our dictation by the end of the week. 7. They have not made any mistakes. Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения. 1. Что ВЫ сделали сегодня? — Я напечатала (to type) много писем. — Я хочу посмотреть письмо к мистеру Д. — Вот, по­ жалуйста. Я только что напечатала его. — А письмо к мистеру Р.? — Я еще не напечатала это письмо. Я напечатаю его к концу рабочего дня. 2. Вчера мы встретили наших друзей. Мы не видели их с окончания университета. До возвращения в Москву они работали в Орле. 3. Новый завод будет построен к началу следующего года. Он будет оснащен самым современ­ ным оборудованием. Упражнение 4. Прочитайте и объясните употребление времен. At the Institute Vera: Hello, Mike! What are you doing here? Mike: Hello, Vera! I am reading for my mathematics exam. v.: But your group has passed it already, hasn't it? M.: Yes, it has, but I was absent at this time. So I'll take this exam tomorrow. v.: Is it difficult for you to take this exam? M.: No, it is not. I have finished a specialized mathematical school where mathematics was studied more thoroughly (тщательно) than at other schools. Besides, I have taken part in a mathemat­ ics contest of our city. v.: Really? Have you? When was it? M.: It was last year. v.: Were you the first at this contest?, М.: No, I was the second. The first one was the boy from one of the Novosibirsk mathematical schools, v.: Have you ever been to Novosibirsk? M.: Yes, I have been there this year with a group of students of our faculty, v.: What have you seen there? M.: Oh, I have seen a lot. But now I have no time to tell you about it. Well, Vera, what are you doing here? Are you reading for your exams too? v.: No, I am not. I've passed all my exams with good marks this term and so my holidays have already started. Fm waiting for my friend here. Good luck, Mike. Упражнение 5. Определите, чем выражено подлежащее каждого предло­ жения, переведите. 1. After the international conference on ecology it has become possible to begin working at environmental problems on a global scale. 2. Some scientists and engineers are working at improving traditional production processes, others are developing new tech­ nologies, 3. The new instruments will enable us to determine the level of pollution in our rivers. 4. Our technological advances make it possible to deal with the most difficult problems. 5. Our lecturer's book on strength of materials is well-known and popular. 6. One must study six years to become an engineer. 7. There is a big library in the new building of our institute. It is a very good library. One may get all the necessary books there and it is possible to keep them till the end of the academic year. 8. It is well-known that techno­ logical progress is impossible without electronics, computers, ro­ bots and new materials. 9. That ecological problems have become the most important ones at present is evident to all. 10. What is necessary for the students is to get a good qualification. 11.That S.P. Korolyev was the founder of practical cosmonautics is a well- known fact. 12. That theory is combined with practical training is a very good tradition of our educational system. 13. That it is neces­ sary to develop an international ecological program is realized throughout the world. Упражнение 6. Найдите сказуемое в каждом предложении, переведите. 1. The electronic industry produces several types of minicom­ puters. 2. The air in many cities has been polluted by traffic and industry. 3. The lecture on environment protection was very inte­ resting. 4. Mankind has never experienced changes in life and work, on such a scale. 5. The task of the world community is to improve the ecological situation in the world. 6. In six years we shall be­ come engineers. 7. It is possible to take measures to protect envi­ ronment on a global level by the joint efforts of all countries. 8. Professor N. is the dean of our faculty. 9. The important feature of our education is that it combines theory with practical training. 10. The main tendency of our life is that computers are being used in all spheres of technology, science and everyday life. 11. The es­ sential feature in environment protection is that most of it is done by public initiative. 12. What is necessary today is that the protec­ tion of global natural resources must be planned. 13. Today one of the most important problems is that big cities are polluted.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 7. Переведите следующие производные слова согласно об­ разцу: глагол + -ег/-ог = существительное to teach — учить, обучать -> teacher — учитель to regulate — регулировать -> regulator — регулятор to lecture — lecturer, to speak — speaker, to invent — inventor, to generate — generator, to transform — transformer, to indicate — indicator, to compute — computer; суффиксы прилагательных -ant/'Cnt to excel — превосходить -> excellent — превосходный important, efficient, distant, evident, confident, recent; отрицательные префиксы un-fim- questionable — спорный -^ unquestionable — неоспоримый, несомненный material — immaterial, limited — unlimited, important — unim­ portant, usual — unusual, natural — unnatural, necessary — un­ necessary, known — unknown, qualified — unqualified, changing — unchanging, seen — unseen, possible — impossible, perfect — im­ perfect, personal — impersonal, mobile — immobile. Упражнение 8. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. electricity [ilek'trisiti], civilization [,sivilai'zeijen], economic and social progress ['preugres], transformer [traens'foime], uni­ versal [ju:niVe:s9l], electrometallurgy [ilektreume'taeledsi], ca­ ble ['keibl], specific [spi'sifik], machine [m9'Ji:n], photocopying machine, radar ['reide], Paris ['paeris], generator ['dsenereite],, battery ['baetari], lamp [laemp], dynamo ['dainameu], indicator ['indikeite], nation ['neijan], energy ['enacfei], service ['S9:vis], laser ['leiza], compact ['kompaekt]. Упражнение 9. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. imagine [I'maedjin], turn [te:n], daily ['deili], completely [kam'pli:tli], power ['paua], appearance [a'piarans], gear [gia], pulley ['pull], whole [haul], range [reincfe], device [diVais], source [so:s], century ['sen^uri], design [di'zain], since [sins], consumption [кап'злтр/ап], double [dAbI], health [heIG], reduce [ri'djuis], beam [bi:m], advantages [adVointicfeiz], clean [kli:n], regulated ['regjuleitid], generate ['chjenareit], human ['hju:man], latest [leitist]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ advantage п — преимущество power п — энергия, мощность appearance п — появление property п — свойство application п ~ применение, recent а — недавний, послед­ заявление ний completely adv — полностью, reduce v — уменьшать, сни­ целиком жать consumption п — потребление, replace v -— заменять расход set up (set) V — воздвигать, cover п — охватить, охваты­ сооружать вать, source п — источник design V — конструировать, state п — положение, состоя­ проектировать ние device п — прибор, устройство such as — такой как double V — удваивать transform v — преобразовы­ efficient а — эффективный вать generate v — вырабатывать, turn V — поворачиваться, об­ производить ратиться; превратить (into) imagine v — представлять wide а — широкий себе, воображать without ргр — без invent V — изобретать whole а — весь, целый in the case of — в случае to be based on — основываться, быть основанным на, Text ЗА прочитайте текст, перечислите наиболее важные изобретения в области электротехники. Переведите. Electricity It is impossible to imagine our civilization without electricity: economic and social progress will be turned to the past and our daily lives completely transformed. Electrical power has become universal. Thousands of applica­ tions of electricity such as lighting, electrochemistry and electro­ metallurgy are longstanding and unquestionable. With the appearance of the electrical motor, power cables re­ placed transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys^ in the 19-th century workshops. And in the home a whole range of various time and labour saving appliances^ have become a part of our ev­ eryday lives. Other devices are based on specific properties of electricity: electrostatics in the case of photocopying machine and electro mag­ netism in the case of radar and television. These applications have made electricity most widely used. The first industrial application was in the silver workshops in Paris. The generator — a new compact source of electricity — was also developed there. The generator replaced the batteries and other devices that had been used before. Electric lighting came into wide use at the end of the last cen­ tury with the development of the electric lamp by Thomas Edison. Then the transformer was invented, the first electric lines and net­ works were set up, dynamos and induction motors^ were designed. Since the beginning of the 20th century the successful develop­ ment of electricity has begun throughout the industrial world. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years. Today consumption of electricity per capita"* is an indicator of the state of development and economic health of a nation. Elec­ tricity has replaced other sources of energy as it has been realized that it offers improved service and reduced cost. One of the greatest advantages of electricity is that it is clean, easily-regulated and generates no by-products^. Applications of electricity now cover all fields of human activity from house wash­ ing machines to the latest laser devices. Electricity is the efficient source of some of the most recent technological advances such as the laser and electron beams. Truly^ electricity provides mankind with the energy of the future., Notes to the Text 1. transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys — транс­ миссионные валы, зубчатые колеса, ремни и блоки 2. time and labour saving appliances — электроприборы, эко­ номящие время и труд 3. induction motors — индукционные моторы 4. per capita — на человека; на душу населения 5. by-products — побочные продукты 6. truly — поистине

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 10. Просмотрите текст ЗА и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is this text about? 2. What industrial applications of electricity do you know? 3. What home applications of electricity do you know? 4. Where was the generator developed? 5. Who in­ vented the electric lamp? 6. Do you know who invented the dy­ namo? 7. Can you imagine our life without electricity? Why? Упражнение 11. Определите функции глагола to have, переведите. 1. Electricity has many useful properties: it is clean and gener­ ates no by-products. 2. It has many important applications in in­ dustry as well as in our houses. 3. The latest laser devices have found application in medicine. 4. Electricity has provided mankind with the most efficient source of energy. 5. No other source of en­ ergy has been so widely used as electricity. 6. We have many various electric devices in our houses. 7. Our lives have been completely transformed with the appearance of electricity. 8. The generator re­ placed batteries that had been used before. 9.The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years. Упражнение 12. Найдите подлежащее и сказуемое в предложениях, пере­ ведите. 1. That electricity is clean and easily-regulated is its great ad­ vantage. 2. The important fact is that electricity offers improved service at reduced cost. 3. That the two scientists Lodygyn and Yablochkov were the first in Russia to work in the field of electrical engineering is well-known. 4. One of the main advantages of elec­ tricity is that it does not pollute the environment. 5. The indicator of nation development is how much electricity is consumed per ca­ pita. 6. What has been and is being done in environment protection cannot be measured by yesterday's standards., Упражнение 13. Определите время и залог глагола-сказуемого, переведи­ те предложения. A. 1.1 have not cleaned the window yet. I am cleaning it now. I have cleaned it. 2. But Bob has a different idea. 3, Last year she passed school leaving exams. 4. We will be studying for our exams at the end of the term. 5. While we were having supper, all the lights went out. 6. Will people speak the same language all over the world? 7. People will land on Mars in the 21st century. 8. I think cars will be powered by electric batteries in five years' time and they will not be powered by atomic power in 100 years' time. 9. The Earth is getting warmer because of the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. B. 1. It is evident that electricity will be the energy of the fu­ ture. 2. The transformer was invented and the first electric lines and networks were set up at the end of the 19th century. 3. New powerful electric stations must be built because it is electricity that offers improved standards of life and work. 4. A combination of electric lines and networks are being set up throughout the country. 5. Electric power has become universal 6. Electricity is transmitted to distant parts of this country by a combination of electric net­ works. 7. Our power stations have been connected by high voltage transmission lines into several networks. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 14. Определите, к какой части речи относятся производные слова и переведите их. invent — inventor, inventive, invention; transform — transformer, transformation; generate — generator, generation, generative; pollute — polluter, pollutant, pollution; effect — effective, effectively; vary — variety, various; possible — impossible, possibly, possibility; complete — completely; recent — recently; replace — replacement; economic - economical, economically. Упражнение 15. Найдите: a) синонимы application, appliance, latest, power, use, enable, reach, de­ vice, longstanding, make it possible, achieve, energy, transform, old, turn to, most recent;, б) антонимы future, unlimited, with, past, necessary, limited, old, unneces­ sary, without, present. Упражнение 16. Поставьте глагол в скобках в соответствующем времени. My brother (enter) Moscow University (long ago, already, just, next year, last year, this year, by the end of the month, when I came to Moscow). Упражнение 17. Найдите предложения со словами to have, one, that, пере­ ведите. Although the US is a large country with many peoples the lan­ guage is almost the same wherever one goes. There are two reasons for this. One is that people move around a great deal in the US. A man can grow up in one part of the country, go to college in an­ other place, find work in another place and marry a girl from still another part of the country. The second important factor is public communication. Movies, radio and television all have standard way of speech. The southern part of the US is probably the region with the most individual speech. Southern pronunciation differs from that in the rest of the country. Southerners talk slowly and often do not pronounce «r» or a final «g». Another common Southern expression is the unusual use of the word «evening». In most parts of the country this means the time after the sun goes down, the early part of the night, but to a Southerner it can mean any time after twelve o'clock noon. In the southern mountains there have not been new settlers from other countries for two hundred years. They have ways of speech that are like the English spoken centuries ago when the first people came there from England. Many songs they sing today are those sung long ago in England. Упражнение 18. Поставьте глагол to be в соответствующей форме. Today is ..., ..., 20... I ... at my English class. I ... reading a story about Thomas A. Edison. I ... learning that his laboratories are in Orange, New Jersey. I... glad to read about such a man as Th.A. Edison. A young inventor ... in Thomas Edison's laboratory. He ... looking at an in­ vention that ... in a glass case. It ... an electrical invention. The young inventor's pencil ... in his hand. He ... drawing the part of the invention which he came there to study. An Englishman and his young son ... in Edison's laboratory. They ... looking at hundreds of, inventions. Many of them ... in glass cases. The man and his son ... interested in all Mr. Edison's inventions, they ... most interested in the electrical ones. Many of those ... in one room. Several tourists ... in this room, and among them ... the Englishman and his son. The man says to one tourist, «We ... interested in electrical ones». Упражнение 19. Вставьте предлоги to, with, about, at, for, on, in. This morning father spoke ... my brother and me ... going to see our aunt this evening. It is our aunt's birthday. We wanted to sur­ prise her family. Our mother was going to go ... us. We had to be ready... seven o'clock. We wanted to be ... our aunt's house ... seven thirty. We left... my aunt's house... seven... our mother and father. But the aunt was not ... home. Her children had taken her and the uncle... the theater. We laughed: we had a surprise party, but it was on us. We left the presents and went... a show ourselves. We went... Kuskovo yesterday. I went... my mother and father. We took our lunch ... us. We reached Kuskovo ... noon. Father went ... a parking station, but it was full. He went to another and then ... another. Every parking station was crowded. Father drove for a while. ... one o'clock he found a place ... a car... two o'clock our friends came, we sat down ... grass and ate our lunch. We didn't see much because too many people were there ... Kuskovo. Next time we have a day to spend we shall go ... some other place. Упражнение 20. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. becoming, set up, keep, understand, spoken, showing, built, left, light. Упражнение 21. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. Before Faraday's inventions in the field of electricity and mag­ netism the only source of electricity that was used was the galvanic battery. It made possible some practical applications: the electric light and electric telegraph. The practical use of electricity on a larger scale became possible after developing electromagnetic ma­ chines, generators and transformers. It is considered that the devel­ opment of the induction motor has become the most important technical achievement. At first, the induction motor had a constant and unchangeable speed (скорость). Some years later a motor with two speeds was designed. Since its invention the induction motor has been considerably improved and its power increased. But the principle of operation still remains the same.,

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What is electricity? (a source of electric power used in every day life and industry) 2. What are the sources of electricity? (bat- teries, generators, electric motors and many other devices) 3. What properties of electricity have made it widely used? (electrostatics and electromagnetism) 4. What are the advantages of electricity? (clearness, easy regulation, no byproducts, low cost, improved service) 5. What are home uses of electricity? (lighting, heating, various time and labour saving appliances, radio, television, video and many others) 6. What are the latest industrial applications of electricity? (lasers and electronic devices) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. Electricity 1. have already become universal. 2. The applications of 2. has completely transformed our electricity in the home and everyday life. industry 3. Electricity was used for 3. per capita is an indicator of the the first time state of development of a nation. 4. The generator, a new 4. the wide industrial use of source of electricity electricity has begun throughout the world. 5. Since the beginning of 5. was also developed in Paris. the 20-th century 6. Today consumption of 6. for industrial purposes in the electricity silver workshops in Paris. Exercise 3. Read and learn. A Story about Edison Edison: Oh, Ben, I'm glad to see you. How are you? Wilson: Fine, and how are you? Ed.: So-so. A lot of work to do. Just today I've begun some im- portant work. Oh, excuse me, meet my assistant John Smith. John, this is my old friend from my home town, Ben Wilson. Smith: How do you do, Mr.Wilson? W: How do you do, Mr.Smith? Glad to meet you. Ed.: Will you come to my laboratory and have dinner with John and me tonight? W.: Yes, I will. Ed.: Come at six tonight, will you?, W.: ГЦ certainly come. At six o'clock at the laboratory. W.: Good evening, Tom. Good evening Mr. Smith. S.: Good evening, Tom. Good evening Mr. Wilson. Mr. Edison is experimenting with a microscope. All his interest is there. Would you mind walking around for a while looking at Mr. Edison's inventions. W.: With pleasure. S.: In a few minutes dinner will be brought. We usually eat our dinner here. Don't you mind? W.: Certainly not. S.: The dinner is ready. Let Mr. Edison know you are here. W.: Shall we eat; Tom? But he doesn't answer. S.: He is busy working with his microscope. W.: But I am quite hungry. Tom, the food looks good, and it is getting cold. S.: You see, Mr.Edison never stops working for a second till he is satisfied with what he is doing. W.: Then let's sit down and eat. Two hours later Mr.Wilson and Smith finished eating and left the laboratory. Ed. (entering the laboratory): Oh, I am hungry. If those dishes were not empty, I'd say I've had no dinner tonight. Exercise 4. Speak about: 1. Electricity — its nature, history and development. 2. Applications of electricity cover all fields of human activity. Use exercises 1, 2, as well as the following words and word combinations for your topic: it is difQcult to imagine; applications such as; completely; to replace; to come into wide use; to double every ten years; to be an indicator; the latest technological advances. Exercise 5. Read and smile. A young doctor, the son of a well-known professor of medicine, proudly (c гордостью) told his father one day: «Imagine, dad! I've cured (вылечить) that lady that has been your patient for ten years». «She deserved (заслужить) it. It was she who had paid for your studies», his father replied., «Where did the car hit him?», asked the coroner (следователь). «At the junction (стык, перекресток) of the dorsal and cervial ver­ tebrae (спинных и шейных позвонков)», answered the doctor. A big man rose from his seat. «Listen, I've lived in these parts for fifty years», he protested, «and I've never heard of this place». Text 3B Прочитайте текст. Ответьте на вопрос, почему Эдисон сказал: «Don't watch the clock». A Great Citizen of the World Every day many people visited Thomas A.Edison's laboratories in Orange, New Jersey. Some of them were young inventors who went to study, but many more of them were tourists. They came from all parts of the US and from other countries as well. One day a very important citizen from England visited Edison's factories, taking with him his young son,eight years old. They spent many hours in great workshops, looking at hundreds of useful in­ ventions. Before leaving the laboratories the man went to the office of the main building. Giving his card to the person in charge, he asked: «May I speak to Mr.Edison, please?». The man looked at the card and then answered: «Wait a minute, I'll see». Soon he returned and said: «Come this way, please. Mr.Edison will see you». The father and his son went into the great inventor's workroom. «Mr.Edison», said the Englishman, «I brought my young son here to see what the world's greatest citizen has done. I want this day to help him all his life. Will you please shake hands with him and say something that he will remember?» Mr. Edison took the boy's hand. He laid his other hand on the child's shoulder and looked into his eyes. «My boy», he said, «don't watch the clock». In 1928 Mr. Edison was eighty-one years old, but he still worked sixteen hours a day. Text 3C Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о преимуществах солнеч­ ной энергии в качестве источника электричества. Solar Light by Night Most people living in towns consider it a usual thing that streets are lit at night. But street lights need a power supply (источник, энергии) therefore distant areas with no source of electricity re­ main in darkness until the sun comes up again. With new appliances now offered by several British firms, many distant places could be lit with solar-powered street lights. It may seem strange that the lamps can use the power of the sun which shines by day when the lamps are needed at night, but they work by using energy accumulated during the day from a solar panel. The solar panel produces electricity which charges (заряжать) a bat­ tery. When the sun goes down, the battery power is then used for lighting. Each lamp has its own panel so the system can be used for one individual light or a number of them. In the south of Saudi Arabia a motorway tunnel miles from any power supply is lit day and night by solar-powered devices. The so­ lar panels provide power during the day and charge batteries which accumulate enough power to light the tunnel at night. The genera­ tion of electricity by batteries is still expensive but the advantage of sun-powered lamps is that they can bring light to areas distant from any other power supply. There is one more advantage of solar power: not only it is un­ limited, but also its use does not pollute the environment. That is why it is very important to develop devices which make it possible to transform solar power into mechanical or electric forms of power. Text 3D Прочитайте текст. Найдите информацию о наиболее перспективных источниках энергии и об основных отличиях нетрадиционных источников энергии от традиционных. Изложите основное содержание текста по-английски. Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy It is known that much is being done in the world today for the development of non-traditional sources of energy. Without them the Earth cannot support its present population of 5 billion people and probably 8 billion people in the 21st century. Now we are using traditional power sources, that is, oil, natural gas, coal and water power with the consumption of more than 50 billion barrels per year. It is evident that these sources are not un­ limited. That is why it is so important to use such renewable sources of energy as the sun, wind, geothermal energy and others. Research is being carried out in these fields., One of the most promising (перспективный) research is the development of power stations with direct transformation of solar energy into electricity on the basis of photo-effect. It was Russia that was the first in the world to develop and test a photoelectric battery of 32,000 volts and effective area of only 0.5 sq.m., which made it possible to concentrate solar radiation. This idea is now be­ ing intensively developed in many countries. However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced because of the limited time of its work during the year. But it is possible to improve the efficiency of solar power stations by de­ veloping different combinations of solar power stations and tradi­ tional ones — thermal, atomic and hydraulic. Today some engineers are working at the problem of developing electric power stations with the use of a thermal-chemical cycle. It will operate on products of the transformation of solar energy, whereas the «solar» chemical reactor uses CO2 and water steam of the thermal power station. The result is that we have a closed cycle. In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations operating on hot water-steam mixture from the depths of about a kilometre. In some projects water will be heated by the warmth of mountains at a depth of four-five km. It is planned that plants working on the energy of the solar heat provided by the sun will be built on a larger scale. That different wind energy plants are being developed is also well-known. These energy plants can be small (of several kilowatts) and large powerful systems. It is important that all these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones help to solve the en­ ergy problem as a whole and they do not have negative effects on the environment. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания из текста ЗА и постарайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов и словосочетаний. 1. such as lighting 2. applications are longstanding 3. in the 19th century workshops 4. a range of appliances 5. devices are based on, 6. in the case of 7. all fields of 8. human activity B. Подберите к каждому выделенномувАслову или словосочетанию со­ ответствующее ему по значению. a. for е. а number of b. area or sphere f. things done by man с are built on g. electric lamps d. for a long time h. a small factory Упражнение 2. A. Прочитайте текст и найдите слова или словосочетания, означающие portable, work, generate, at present. Although most electricity comes from power stations, power can also be generated by far smaller means. Nowadays, electricity generators can be small enough to hold in the hand. A portable generator can provide electricity no matter how far you are from the mains (сеть). It works by turning the movement of a piston into electrical energy. Such a generator can produce a 700 watt output, enough to operate lights, television, and some domestic appliances. Larger versions provide emergency power to hospitals and factories. B. Найдите в тексте, приведенном в А, слова, означающие: 1. method, way 2. change, transform 3. principal wire to transmit electricity into a building 4. house 5. to be of no importance 6. much, considerably 7. situation needing action as soon as possible 8. power, energy produced 9. variant, form Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски следующими словами: electricity increase consumers power use generation reduce consumption far users application provide sources energy light We hear so much these days of local problems of electricity (1) ... Many (2) ... are taking steps to (3) ... their electricity (4) ... This is as a result of the recent (5) ... in electricity tariffs for (6) ... We, should all try to (7) ... less (8) ..., by insulating our houses, turning off the (9) ... when leaving a room and using less hot water. We must try to develop alternative (10) ... of energy to (11) ... electricity for domestic and industrial (12) ... It is known that nu­ clear power comes to the consumer as electricity, which is clean and convenient form of (13) ... Although nuclear (14) ... stations are large, they can be built (15) ... from places where people live. Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски антонимами выделенных слов. 1. Though the capital investment, that is, the initial cost of building the nuclear power station, is high, the cost of generating electricity from a nuclear power station is relatively ... 2. There is a limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal on the earth, but a supply of natural uranium is ...3. Cheap impure coal produces much more CO2 than coal of high quality. 4. It is evident to all that an old inefficient power station is more dangerous to the environment than a power station. Упражнение 5. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Personal noun ... producer operation generate ... mover act ... design invent ... consume transformation regulation indicate Упражнение 6. Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ киАисуществительных из колонки В, переведите их и запомните.

В

1. carry out (conduct) а. а problem 2. solve (face, work at, deal with) b. changes 3. becomeсasuccess, 4. suffer from d. an effect on 5. bring about e. measures 6. have f. study, research, experimen­ tal work 7. make g. the center of, a part of 8. develop h. investments 9. take i. a program, concept, theory 10. achieve j . noise, pollution Упражнение 7. Составьте, переведите и запомните словосочетания гла­ гола become со следующими словами: popular, universal, international, possible, important, better, worse, polluted, worried, interested in. Упражнение 8. A. Назовите 10—15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «Electricity as а source of energy». В. Speak about: The main types of fuel or processes used to generate energy in our country., REVISION OF LESSONS 1-3 Упражнение 1. Повторите времена группы Indefinite (Simple), Continu­ ous, Perfect Active, Passive. Определите время глагола-сказуемого и переве­ дите предложения. 1. What cpurse are you taking here? Business English? — No, I am not doing Business English yet. I am trying to improve my gen­ eral English, especially conversation. 2. I liked the lecturer better after I had heard him the second time. 3. My friend will take the course in English next semester. 4. Who has finished the test? 5. We looked at him while he was dancing. 6. How many books of Shaw have you read? 7. Why have not you told them about it? 8. I shall still be studying English in two years' time. 9. The books were taken from the library. 10. You can find the books taken from the library on the table. 11. The exams are held in June. 12.1 have been in the laboratory since 8 o'clock. 13. There were many people coming back from their work. 14. Australia is one of the five continents, but it is much smaller than the other four. 15. The light in that room is poor. Please light the candles (свечи). 16. People speak the language of their country. 17. Every country needs good specialists for its further progress of science and technology. 18. By the year 2030 human labour in industry will have been replaced by robots. Families will have robots to do the housework. Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы. What devices and machines using electricity a) have become a part of our everyday life? b) have made electricity most widely used in all fields of science, technology and industry? c) are based on its specific properties? Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски следующими словами: radar battery generator appliances dynamo transformer 1. ... is a machine that generates electricity, steam, gas, etc. 2. A device giving information about position, movement, etc. is named ... 3. A machine for changing water and steam power into electrical energy is known as ... 4. Food mixers, toasters, modem dish-wash­ ers and a number of the most recent home devices are household ... 5. An apparatus to increase or decrease the voltage of an electric power supply — ... — was invented at the end of the 19th century. 6. It is known that a portable cell for supplying electricity is called ..., Упражнение 4. А. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на проработанную грамматику уроков 1-3. Save the Planet Today's global economy has been formed by market, not by the principles of ecology. This has created an economy that is destroy­ ing its natural support system (система естественной поддерж­ ки). It is eco-economy that we need today to save the planet. An eco-economy is one that satisfies our needs without affecting the prospects of future generations to meet their needs. Therefore, it is necessary to turn our economy into in eco-economy. To build an eco-economy means to restore carbon balance, to stabilize popula­ tion and water use, and to conserve forests, soils and variety of plant and animal life in the world. Such an eco-economy will affect every side of our lives. It will change how we light our homes, what we eat, where we live, how we use our free time, and how many children we have. It will give us a world where we are a part of nature. Building a new economy means eliminating and replacing old industries, restructuring existing ones, and creating new ones. The generation of electricity from wind is one such industry. Soon mil­ lions of turbines will be turning wind into electricity. In many countries, wind will provide both electricity and hydrogen. To­ gether, electricity and hydrogen can meet all the energy needs of a modern society. Another industry that will play an important part in the new economy is management of available water supply most efficiently. Irrigation technology will become more efficient. The recycling of urban waste water will become common. At present, waterf lows into and out of cities, carrying waste with it. In the future, water will be used again and again, never discharged (спускать, выливать). As water does not lose its quality from use, there is no limit to how long it can be used, as long as (пока) it is cleaned before reuse. One can easily see eco-economy changes in some countries. It is known that Denmark is the eco-economy leader. It has stabilised its population, banned (запрещать) the construction of coal power plants, banned the use of non-refiUable drink containers, and is now getting 15 per cent of its electricity from wind. Besides, it has restructured its urban transport networks; now 32 per cent of all trips in Copenhagen are on bicycles. Denmark is still not close (near) to balancing carbon emission, but it is moving in that direction. B. Speak about: Your idea of the economy of the future., LESSON 4 Согласование времен Дополнение Дополнительные придаточные предложения Суффикс -ible/'able Префикс dis- Текст 4А. Television Текст 4В. Telegraph Текст 4С. Telephone Текст 4D. Talking via Space ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Повторите времена групп Indefinite (Simple), Continuous, Perfect. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужном времени и форме. At the time I first (meet) Mr. Alien in 1990, he (consider) the possibility of studying foreign languages again. He (forget) every­ thing that he (learn) about Latin and French at school. The lan­ guages that he (want) (learn) at that time (be) Spanish and Portuguese. He (to be going) to study those languages in the De­ partment of General Education at New York University. There­ fore, he (enrol) that school in 1991. After my friend (finish) studying at New York University he ecide) (go) to South America for a year. Because he (be, never) there before, he (enjoy) visiting the famous cities of Brazil and Ar­ gentina. He liked Sao Paulo so much that he (consider) staying there much longer. Before that time he (hope, always) to find a place with an ideal climate. Therefore, Sao Paulo (seem) to be a real paradise (рай). However, he (spend) all his money and (to be forced) to return., Now my friend Mr. Alien (plan) (visit) France next year. He (leave) for Paris on March 15. Mr. Alien (visit) also Germany on the same trip. He realizes that he must (learn) French and German before he (go) to Europe. At present he (take) a course in French in preparation for the trip. He (think) that French (be) quite easy. Of course he (be, never) in France before, so he (have) little opportu­ nity to hear French. He (work) very hard at his French every day. He (study) German at New York University next semester. I am sure that he (have) no language problem in the other countries when he (get) there. Many people in those countries (understand) English or French. Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на правило согласования времен. 1. We knew that his family lived in Orel. 2. He said that the stu­ dents of that group were studying in the library. 3. She thought that she might finish her work by two o'clock. 4.1 didn't think he could come there in time. 5. She said that her name was Lena. 6. The stu­ dents were told that they had three lectures every day. 7. The dean said that he was busy. 8. We found that he had studied mathematics at the University. 9. The newspapers reported that the Trade Union Congress had finished its work. 10. Students were informed that they would have industrial training in the third year. 11. The weather-man reported over the radio that it would be cold the fol­ lowing weekend. Упражнение 3. Поставьте глаголы в скобках согласно правилу согласова­ ния времен. A. 1. Не says that he (want) to be an engineer. 2. He thinks that he (see) a new device already. 3. He knows that he (lose) his watch yesterday. 4. He says that he (help) with work next week. 5. He said that he (know) him. 6. He understood that the speaker (be) in Lon­ don recently. 7. He said that he (think) about it later. 8. He asked what they (want) to do. 9. They asked when we (come) to see him. 10. He asked if I (can) stay with them. 11. The teacher wanted to know whether I (be) good at maths. 12. The professor wanted to know whether I (take) part in our conference the week before. 13. My friend wanted to know whether I (go) to the library next Saturday. 14. He asked which book she (read) at that moment. B. 1. The engineer was told that he (may) test the device in the afternoon. 2. It was known that the head of our laboratory (be) a graduate of Moscow University. 3. They thought that she (graduate), from a technical institute. 4. Our professor informed us that he (give) the following lecture on quantum mechanics on Monday. 5. At the meeting it was said that our lecturer (work) at a new programme of laboratory work. 6. The teacher told us that the term «engineering» (have) many Russian equivalents. 7. The chief engi­ neer believed that we (work) at that problem for a month the fol­ lowing summer. Упражнение 4. Переделайте следующие предложения в косвенную речь, поставив глагол в главном предложении в прошедшем времени. Например: Тот wants to spend the winter in Texas. They said that Tom wanted to spend the winter in Texas. He asked if Tom wanted to spend the winter in Texas. 1. Mary wants to take a course in German. 2. Ann does not work at the college. 3. The laboratories have new TV sets. 4. The teacher will give you further instructions. 5. Where are you coming from? 6. The lecture will begin in five minutes. 7. John has learned grammar for two years. 8. Could I speak to Mr. Smith, please? 9. Does Bob go to the library every day? Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык. 1. Мой друг сказал, что он много работает. 2. Ученый сооб­ щил, что он написал статью о своей работе. 3. Меня спроси­ ли, сделал ли я свою работу. 4. Она хотела знать, будет ли он летом в Москве. 5. Мы спросили преподавателя, сколько но­ вых слов в четвертом уроке. 6. Мы не знали, будет ли у него практика летом. 7. Он сказал, что знает два иностранных язы­ ка. 8. Он знал, что ее брат живет в Самаре. Упражнение 6. Определите, чем выражено дополнение в предложениях, переведите. 1. The students of our group saw a new film yesterday. They said it was very interesting. 2. The dean's assistant told us to do all our work in time. 3. Our laboratory has been equipped with modern devices. 4. The students were informed at the meeting that they would have their practical training in St. Petersburg. 5. We asked the dean if he was busy. 6. The new student asked when our lec­ tures would begin. 7. He also asked to show him where the chem­ istry laboratory was. 8. He wanted to know whether we had already had our industrial training. 9. I did not know then if I should see him again. 10. We didn't know whether it would be possible to use a computer for our work., Упражнение 7. Обратите внимание на перевод предлога by в предложе­ ниях. 1. By 3 o'clock I shall be free and go with you to the library. 2. By the end of the second year we shall have finished studying the main engineering subjects. 3. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the necessary diagrams. 4. By the year 2010 cable television will have been used more widely. 5. By the spring of 1945 World War II was over. Упражнение 8. Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний. it is true; compared to; to be of importance; a lot of; to be inte­ rested in; like; a step forward; at the right time; direct to; to put into memory. интересоваться; иметь значение; по сравнению с; ввести в память; шаг вперед; как, подобно; верно (правильно); в нуж­ ное время; много; непосредственно на.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 8. А. Переведите следующие производные слова согласно образцу: существительное или глагол + -ibleZ-able = прилагательное access — доступ -> accessible — доступный to rely — доверять -^ reliable — надежный, practice — осуществление (на практике) -> practicable — осуществимый to use — usable, to consider — considerable, to avail — available; префикс dis- (имеет отрицательное значение) to appear — появляться ~-> to disappear ~ исчезать to like — to dislike, illusion — disillusion, similar — dissimilar, comfort — discomfort, to connect — to disconnect, connection — disconnection, connected — disconnected, to organize — to disor­ ganize, organized — disorganized, organization — disorganization. B. Образуйте и переведите производные слова согласно образцу: tele- (на большом расстоянии) television, telegraph, telegraphy, telemetry phone, text, scope, printer, communication; photo- (имеющий отношение к свету или фотографии) photon, photograph, photography, photographic copy, finish, meter, electric, sensitive., Упражнение 9. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. television ['teli,vi3en], action ['aekjan], territory ['teriteri], material [me'tieriel], million ['miljen], communication [k9,mju:nL'keiJan], central ['sentral], programme ['praugraem], transmission [traenz'mijen], telephone ['telifaun], cable ['keibl], signal ['signl], crystal ['kristl], code [kaud], visual [Visjual], video, regular ['regjula], zones ['zaunz]. Упражнение 10. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов: tiny ['taini], fair [fea], research [ri'sa:^], to spread [spred], in­ stead [in'sted], watch [wo^], provide [praVaid], artificial [,a:ti'fijal], convenient [kan'vi.njant], nowadays ['nauadeiz], wire ['waia], launching [1о:п^1Г[], to break [breik], to produce [pra'dju'.s], production [pra'dAkJan], to weigh [wei], clear [klia], major ['meidsa], available [aVeilabI], satellite ['saetalait], size [saiz], tape [teip], liquid [likwid], magazine [,maega'zi:n]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ appear v — появляться influence п — влияние artificial а — искусственный means п — средство compare v — сравнивать nowadays adv — сейчас, в на- contain V — содержать, вмещать стоящее время continuous а — непрерывный occur v — происходить, возни- convenient а — удобный кать direct а — прямой, непо- rapidly adv — быстро средственный research п — исследование during ргр — в течение, во simultaneously adv — одновре- время, в продолжение менно equipment п — оборудование state v — утверждать essentially adv — по сущест- switch on v — включать ву, главным образом time п — время, times — раз etc (etcetera) — и т. д. transmit v — передавать exist V — существовать watch v — наблюдать, смотреть few а — мало, немного weigh v — весить, взвешивать а few — несколько within;7г;? — в пределах, в, через а lot of — много; to be able to — мочь, быть в состоянии, Text 4A Прочитайте текст и найдите абзацы, содержащие информацию о разви­ тии различных видов телевизионных систем в хронологической последова­ тельности. Переведите. Television The television set is evidently the most important and popular electronic product of all time. All homes in developed countries have one or more TV sets and in many countries there are consider­ ably more TV sets than telephones. But in 1939 at the World's Fair in New York a tiny nine-by- twelve inch box was the centre of attention for hundreds of people. They were the first to see a television set in action. Compared to to­ day's TV shows of underwater and outer-space research, those first black-white pictures were not very good. The pictures were only transmitted from one side of the Fair territory to the other. But in 1939 they were of historical importance. Within a few days the news of television spread throughout the world. A lot of people wanted to have a look^ at the new invention. Everyone was interested in it. But only few people owned television sets in the next few years. When World War II broke out^ electronic factories that began the TV production stopped making them and started making war materials instead. When the war was over, TV sets began coming off factory assembly lines. By 1958 there were millions of them. In a surprisingly short time people watched fewer films and turned from newspapers and magazines to TV. In its short history television has had great influence on people's life and way of think­ ing. Rocket-launching, concerts and football and tennis matches can be seen direct as they occur. The boundaries of time and space have disappeared. At present TV communication is provided with the help of a system of artificial earth satellites so that people living in different parts of the country and all over the world and in different time zones are able to watch the central TV programs at the most conve­ nient hours. Nowadays many countries also have cable TV, a system using wires for the transmission of television programs (like telephone calls). Cable television first appeared in 1949 as a means of trans­ mitting TV signals to rural and mountain areas far from big cities. Cable television's next big step forward was made by the mid — 1980s. Scientists announced that many technical problems had, been solved and in the future it would be possible via satellite and cable TV to use more channels on a TV set at every home in the world. Then we saw how a new technical invention, colour television, was rapidly replacing black-and-white television. Recently it was reported that the first pocket-size^ colour television set had been developed. It was stated that a liquid-crystal display^ was used sim­ ilar to those on calculators and watches and that it weighed less than a pound. A few years ago it became evident that the next major advance for TV would be digital television. In a digital system the usual con­ tinuous signal is replaced by a digital code containing detailed in­ formation on brightness, colour, etc. A digital TV set hangs on the wall like a picture. Essentially, it is a minicomputer with a visual display. Once a week^ you put the programs you like into the memory, and the TV set will automatically switch on the desired channel at the right time. You can watch several programs simulta­ neously on miniscreens and then produce one of them in full for­ mat. Also, the TV set can automatically video-record the programs when you are absent or occupied. By the end of 1980s television has moved to a new and the most important stage in its development since the appearance of colour television. Technically it is called high-definition television (HDTV)^ or Hi-Vision. This is the much higher resolution tele­ vision^ of the 21st century. This revolution was started by Japanese manufacturers when they developed a new video system with a pic­ ture resembling a wide-screen film more than traditional television. The new system increases the screen's width-to-height ratio^ (16:9). The result is a picture several times shaфer than in the exist­ ing TV sets. Besides, recent developments in plasma display panel technology^ make HDTV commercially practicable. The plasma display makes it possible to produce a large, bright, colour, flat TV screen so thin and light that it can also be hung on a wall like a framed picture. The engineering problem that has existed almost since the first days of television may be solved now. Notes to the Text 1. to have a look — взглянуть, посмотреть 2. to break out — начаться, разразиться 3. pocket-size — карманный 4. liquid-crystal display — устройство изображения на жид­ ких кристаллах, 5. once a week — раз в неделю 6. high-definition television (HDTV) — телевидение высокой четкости 7. high resolution television — телевидение с большим разре­ шением 8. width-to-height ratio — отношение ширины к высоте 9. plasma display panel technology — производство плазмен­ ных панелей

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 11. Просмотрите текст 4А и ответьте на вопросы. 1. When did the first TV set appear? 2.Were people interested in the new invention? 3. Why was the TV production stopped in 1940? 4. What is cable television? 5. What is digital television? 6. What is high-definition television? Упражнение 12. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответству­ ют содержанию текста 4А. 1. А lot of people owned television sets in the first years after its invention. 2. First television black-and-white pictures were excel­ lent. 3. Only few people owned television sets in the next few years after their appearance. 4. Black-and-white television was rapidly replacing colour television. 5. First television black-and-white pic­ tures were not very good. 6. Only a few years ago colour television was rapidly replacing black-and-white television. 7. When the war was over, TV sets stopped coming off factory assembly lines. 8. Af­ ter World War И TV sets began coming off factory assembly lines. Упражнение 13. Найдите в тексте 4А предложения, в которых использо­ вано правило согласования времен, и переведите их. Упражнение 14. Прочитайте и укажите способы присоединения прида­ точных дополнительных предложений к главному. 1. It was reported in 1939 that the first TV set was shown at the World Fair in New York. 2. The students wanted to know whether colour television sets were produced at that plant. 3. After the war when the mass production of TV sets began, people realized they wanted to have a TV set at home. 4. Experiments proved that elec­ tricity could travel instantly over a long piece of wire. 5. Can you tell me whether satellites are used for telephone communication? 6. It became clear television had a great influence on people's life., 7. Russian newspapers informed that about 2,000 satellites had been launched into the orbit. 8. We did not know whether the de­ velopment of television had continued during the war. 9. We know he works at the problem of space communication. Упражнение 15. Прочитайте и найдите предложения, где использовано правило согласования времен. 1. Some years ago India began its Satellite Instructional Televi­ sion Experiment. This experiment showed (that) satellite television programs had been a success with schoolchildren, their knowledge level had increased considerably. It was found that children could remem^ber and speak about programs which they had seen several wee^^^ack. 2. Many experts could not decide whether so much TV was harmful to the individual's health and mental activity or not. 3. Specialists did not know if it was possible to continue mod­ ernizing the electronic equipment of this kind — the costs were too high. 4. There appeared some reports that we had technical means to use much more channels on a TV set and we should be able to see many sports and news programs from all parts of the world soon. 5. At first it was not clear whether new telephone and teletype communication with ships via six satellites was economical and re­ liable or not. 6. It was announced that the cryogenic cable had been invented in Russia. 7. We read that for the first time electricity had been applied for industrial use in silver workshops in Paris. 8. We know different transmitters are used in a television system — one for the sound channel and the other for the picture channel. 9. We learnt from the lecture that electricity was still considered the main source for new technological developments. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 16. Выберите правильный перевод следующих слов: attention — внимательно, внимательный, внимание; surprisingly — удивительный, удивление, удивительно; recorder — записывающее устройство, запись, записывать; convenient — удобство, удобный, созывать; numerous — бесчисленный, количество, многочисленный. Упражнение 17. Назовите основу, от которой образованы следующие слова: development, conveniently, communication, production, con­ tinuous, beginning, transmitter, action, recorder, electronic, si-, muitaneousiy, different, usable, central, calculator, possibility, disconnect. Упражнение 18. Выпишите сначала синонимы, а затем антонимы. tiny — small; to disappear — to appear; a lot of — many; dif­ ferent — various; next — following; short — long; to watch — to see; program — show; commonly — usually; less — more; possible — im­ possible; true — untrue; small — large; nowadays — at present, now; large — tremendous; advance — progress; to start — to begin; major — main; to report — to announce; to occur — to take place; convenient — suitable. Упражнение 19. Расположите слова в алфавитном порядке. true, picture, telephone, communication; world, research, as­ sembly, invention; own, beginning, telegraph, central; satellite, first, artificial, convenient; turn, videotape, transmit, size. Упражнение 20. Назовите в следующих парах первое по алфавиту слово. concept/concert; complete/compare; invention/invasion; avail­ able/availability; commonly/commonless; commune/commit; com­ pulsory/compunction. Упражнение 21. Напишите исходную форму, по которой нужно искать слово в словаре. boxes, matches, beginning, tinier, owned, boundaries, possibly, replacing, less. Упражнение 22. Найдите в словаре подходящее значение для выделен­ ных слов или словосочетаний. 1. The Japanese companies developed the first pocket-size col­ our television set. 2. Man first set foot on the Moon in July, 1969. 3. Special telephone sets are used at plants in tropical sea climate. 4. A great Russian scientist A.N. Krylov took an active part in the work of the first Atomic Commission set up at the Optical Insti­ tute. 5. It was Popov who constructed the first radio set. 6. One of the global tasks nowadays is to set up solar power plants on high orbits. 7. Ships are equipped with radar sets helping them to ori­ ent at sea. Упражнение 23. Найдите в словаре и запомните значения выделенных слов. 1. New directions of research in robotics were discussed at the last conference. 2. There is no direct connection between those, processes. 3. This program is directed toward the scientific study of various physico-chemical processes. 4. Our scientists must direct their attention to the development of new technologies. 5. Further human progress is directly connected with the scientific and tech­ nological progress. 6. Our task is to develop technological pro­ cesses without a direct participation of man. 7. The future of mankind depends on the direction in which scientific and techno­ logical progress will be developing. 8. There is a direct communi­ cation between spacecrafts and the Earth, and between spacecrafts as well. Упражнение 24. Поставьте глагол, приведенный в скобках, в соответст­ вующих времени и форме. The Life of а Student While I (walk) across the campus (университетский городок) the other day, I (meet) my old friend Bill, whom I (see, not) since May. Naturally, we (stop) (talk) to each other for a few minutes. I asked him how he (do) in his classes that semester. He told me that he (take) a course in English that semester. He said that he (com­ plete) the elementary course two semesters before, and by the next semester he (be) ready (take) the most difficult English course of­ fered at this school. He also said that he (be) interested in getting his degree as soon as possible and he (ask, already) his adviser for permission to take the final examination. «I am glad (hear) that you (make) such good progress», I (say) to Bill. Then I asked him if he (can) tell me the secret of his success. He answered that the secret of his success (be) simple and he (study) at least two hours a day to improve his English. After that I told Bill I (have) a little difficulty with my course in French at the moment. I said that I (study, not) very hard the last semester, but I (work) harder in the future. Упражнение 25. Прочитайте текст. Перескажите его содержание, ис­ пользуя косвенную речь. Albert Einstein liked the film with Charlie Chaplin. Once he wrote a letter to Chaplin: «Everybody in the world understands your film "Golden Fever" ("Золотая лихорадка"). You will become a great man by all means.» Chaplin's answer was: «I like you even more. Nobody in the world understands your "Theory of Relativity" and you have already become a great man.», Упражнение 26. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. find, broke, putting, hung, began, seen. Упражнение 27. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. Recently it was reported in the press that the USA was trying to build bigger, better and much more expensive TV sets. Experts de­ clared that it was the most important change in television since the invention of colour television. They informed that a new kind of television had images so clear that watching it was like looking through a window. But it became known that Japanese specialists had started their work on HDTV when nobody else in the world was thinking how to improve TV. The inventors expected that their standard for high-definition television would be used throughout the world. However, the Europeans have announced that they would set their own standard. And now it is not clear whether the Japanese stan­ dard will be used or not. Some people consider that a single high-definition TV standard will allow to exchange news and may bring nations together.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What invention was the center of attention at the World Fair in New York in 1939? (the first black-and-white television set) 2. What stopped the TV production? (World War П) 3. What influence has had television on people's life and way of thinking? (great influence; boundaries of time and space have disappeared) 4. What kinds of TV exist now? (satellite, cable, colour, digital and high-definition television) 5. What is the latest and the most im­ portant stage in the development of television since the appearance of colour television? (high-definition television) 6. What is the ad­ vantage of high-definition television? (the television of much higher resolution) 7. What technology makes HDTV commercially practicable now? (plasma display panel technology) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. The first black-and-white 1. has been replaced by colour nine-by-twelve inch TV sets television. 2. In a surprisingly short time 2. the development of TV became digital television in which the usual signal is replaced by a digital code., 3. At present 3. were of historical importance in 1939. 4. Satellite and cable TV makes 4. television has had great influ- it possible ence on people's life and way of thinking. 5. Recently black-and-white TV 5. is the most important stage in the development of TV since the appearance of colour television. 6. The next major advance in 6. to watch TV programs in dif­ ferent parts of the country and throughout the world. 7. The invention of high-defmi- 7. there are different kinds of tele- tion television with a picture re- vision systems: satellite, cable, col- sembling a wide screen film our, pocket-size, digital, high-de­ finition television. Exercise 3. Read and learn. At the Telephone Mr. Smith: Can I use your telephone for a long distance call? I couldn't find a pay phone in the building. Mr. Wilson: Sure. Mr. S.: My wife is going to meet me in New York tomorrow. I want to tell her what time the train gets in. Mr. W.: Here you are. New York you can dial the number direct. Dial 2 and then the number. Mr. S.: There's no answer. I'll call later. Mr. W.: You can use the telephone any time you want. Mr. S.: Direct distance dialing is wonderful, isn't it? Operator: Trunk-service (междугородная), number, please? Mr. Jones: London Victoria 2884. I say, operator, will you hurry it up for me as I have a train to catch in a few minutes? O.: Unless your number is engaged, I can put you through almost at once. I am sorry, sir, your number is engaged. (After a few seconds.) I have got your number. Hold the line, please. Mr. J.: Oh, it's you, Mary? Mrs. Jones: Is it you, George, dear? How are you? So pleased to hear your voice again! When are you going to come back?, Mr. J.: I can't hear you, dear. Operator, will you try again. 0.: I think that's better now. Mr. J.: Are you there? Is that you, Mary, dear? I say, can you hear me? Mrs. J. Yes, dear, I can. Mr. J.: I shall be arriving at Waterioo Station at 5.40 this after­ noon. Will you come and meet me? Mrs. J. Certainly, darling. Mr. J.: There is something else I want to tell you. Get hold of Smith at the office, will you? Ask him to ring me up to­ morrow in the morning. O.: Your time is up. If you want to speak on, drop another sixpence, please. Mr. J.: All right, dear, so long. Exercise 4. Speak about: 1. The history of television development. 2. Future development of television. Use exercise 1 and 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to be interested in; research; it is announced (reported) that; to solve prob­ lems; it became clear; compared to (with); to call; have an advantage; to find appli­ cation in. Exercise 5. Comment on the following statements: 1. Opponents usually say that the young people are too passive and too lazy (ленивы) because they watch TV so much now. 2. We don't need the telephone, telegraph and television. Exercise 6. Read and smile. A Letter to a Sweetheart A young man was writing a letter to his sweetheart (любимая) who lived just a few miles away in a nearby town. He began to tell her how much he loved her and how wonderful he thought she was. But the more he wrote, the more poetical he became. Finally, he said that in order to be with her he would suffer the greatest hard­ ships (лишения), he would face the greatest dangers (опасность) that anyone could imagine. In fact, to spend only one minute with her, he would climb (подниматься) the highest mountain, he would swim the widest river, he would fight the fiercest (свире­ пый) animals. He signed his name, and then suddenly remembered, that he had forgotten to mention something rather important. So, in a postscript below his name, he added: «By the way, I'll be over to see you on Wednesday night — if it doesn't rain». A Frenchman in England A Frenchman was once travelling in England. He could speak English quite well but not perfectly. His vocabulary was not large. Once, for example, he was eating in a small country inn (гостиница) and he wanted to order some eggs. But he couldn't re­ member the word for eggs. Suddenly, through the window, he saw a rooster (петух) walk­ ing in the yard. He immediately asked the waiter what the bird was called in English. The waiter told him that it was called a rooster. The Frenchman then asked what the rooster's wife was called. The waiter told him that she was called a hen. The Frenchman then asked what the hen's children were called. The waiter told him that they were called chickens. The Frenchman then asked what the chickens were called before they were born. The waiter told him that they were called eggs. «Fine!», said the Frenchman, «Please bring me two plus a cup of coffee and some toast.» Text 4B Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о том, в каких странах ученые работали над созданием телеграфной связи, какие трудности встретились при этом. Перескажите. Telegraph Benjamin Franklin, an American who is famous for his inter­ esting and useful inventions, published his ideas about electricity in 1752. Scientists in many countries became interested in this won­ derful form of energy. They wanted to find the answer to a very im­ portant question: could the electricity be used to develop a fast, efficient system of long-distance communication? Experiments proved that electricity could travel instantly over a very long piece of wire. But a note that was written on a piece of paper couldn't be put into a wire. How could electricity be used to send a message? A Danish scientist discovered that electricity could move a needle from left to right and that the needle could be pointed at letters on a piece of paper. Then a German government worker made up a code system that could be used with an electric needle. In 1837 two English scientists sent a message by electric telegraph for a distance of more than 1.6 kilometers., Samuel Morse, an American portrait painter, was experiment­ ing with an electric telegraph too. At first he connected a pencil to an electric wire. When the electricity came through the wire the pencil made wavy lines. Then Morse invented a code that used dots and dashes for the letters of the alphabet. Finally, he discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written, they could be sent in sound. On May 24, 1844, the first long-distance message was sent by telegraph for 64 kilometers. Telegraph companies were formed in many cities. By 1861 tele­ graph wires stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Europe too, Samuel Morse's system became popular. But telegraph wires couldn't be hung over an ocean. Messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship — a journey of two or three weeks. A new method was needed. The Atlantic Telegraph Company which was organized in 1856 wanted to try to lay a cable on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. The 4,000-kilometer cable broke three times. Each time a new cable had to be made. Finally, on July 27, 1866, the first transatlantic message was sent from Newfoundland to Ireland. Later cables were laid to Central and South America. After 1900 transpacific cables were laid to Asia and Australia. At last news and business information could be sent instantly to almost every country in the world. Text 4C Прочитайте текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы: 1. Какие биографические факты из жизни изобретателя телефона приве­ дены в тексте? 2. Какие другие факты, кроме приведенных, вы знаете об изобретателе телефона? 3. Что нового вы узнали из текста? Соотнесите факты, относящиеся к истории развития телефонной связи, со следующими датами: 1877 г. и 1915 г. Telephone Alexander Graham Bell never planned to be an inventor, he wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf people (глухих). The subjects that he studied at school included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include German which all scientists used in their books. Alexander's mother was a painter and a musi­ cian. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people. When Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in boy's school in Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher of deaf people as his father., Не read all the books about sound that he could find and started to work on some of his own experiments. At twenty five Alexander became interested in finding a way to send human voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pu­ pils contributed money for the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an electrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to build a machine that peo­ ple could use to talk to one another over long distances. After two years, the two young men were becoming discouraged (опустились руки). Then, one day, when they were working on a new transmit­ ter Alexander spilled some acid (пролить кислоту) on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room, heard a voice. The voice was coming through a wire to a receiver on the table! The voice was Alexander Bell's! It was saying: «Come here, Mr. Wat­ son. I need you!» The first telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. By 1915 a telephone line was opened in the United States — 5,440 kilome­ ters from New York to San Francisco. Now design bureaus all over the world are conducting experi­ ments to develop video-phone or picture phone. A young man in Moscow wants to speak to his friend in Vladivostok. He lifts his telephone receiver, dials a number. After a very short time his friend answers. As he picks up his receiver, his picture appears on the screen. They can speak to each other face to face because they are using a new kind of telephone which may be called «a video-phone». In addition to the usual telephone, the equipment includes a small television screen (14 cm by 13 cm) and, combined with the screen, a television camera. The camera tube will allow the user to switch from a wide view of the room to the face of the per­ son speaking. The focus can be changed to give clear pictures of objects 0.3,0.9 and 6.0 meters away from the camera. There is also a mirror attachment, which allows the camera to scan documents which may be lying on the table. The camera adjusts itself auto­ matically to different lighting conditions. Text4D Прочитайте и перескажите текст. Talking via Space Communication has come a long way from the time when an In­ dian beat a drum (барабан) in the forest to the time when a scientist receives messages from a satellite. In this space age communication has become a highly developed field. The system of communica-, tion in large countries is unthinkable today without space satellites. Besides large distances, there is a great time difference: the territo­ ries of some countries comprise up to 11 zones. Satellites help to minimize all the difficulties that may appear. They rapidly transmit TV and radio programs to different towns, cities, and distant areas. Space systems and electronic technology have made it possible to set up an automatic system of communication designed for rapid transmission of all kinds of information. People write letters and send telegrams. But at the same time people living in various cities like to exchange (обмениваться) news on the telephone. Statistics reports that the number of long­ distance telephone calls is about 2, 000 million per year. A person in Moscow talking on the phone with Vladivostok must know that this conversation is carried on through a satellite. Trains and cars can use mobile radio telephones to make calls. Businessmen can use fax machines which provide electronic trans­ mission of documents and messages over telephone lines. Even photographs can be sent and received over telephone wires. Practically all the population in large countries can watch TV via satellites. The orbital communication systems make it possible for people from different continents to see and hear one another. The importance of space means of communication is increasing every year. The communication satellites of the international orga­ nization «INTERSAT» enable people to keep reliable telephone, telegraph, telex and fax communication in any weather with ships practically in every part of the World Ocean. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте следующие выражения из текста 4А и по­ старайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов и словосочетаний. 1. TV sets began coming off factory assembly lines 2. on people's life and way of thinking 3. it weighed less than a pound 4. the desired channel 5. when you are occupied B. Подберите к каждому выделенному слову или словосочетанию соот­ ветствующее ему по значению. a. unit of weight b. programme c. busy with smth., d. where parts of large machines are put together in mass pro­ duction e. the way you think Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте слова cell, network, area, set и выберите правильное значение. А cellular phone (cellphone) is a lightweight, portable radio transceiver, which can transmit and receive telephone calls any­ where in cellular network area. It is a mobile telephone, which communicates through base stations situated in areas called cells. Cell is a subdivision of communication area in a cellphone net­ work. In the network, the same frequencies can be used for many different telephone calls at the same time. Each cell has its own small electronic base station and set of transmission frequencies. The sizes of the cell vary between 1 km to about 30 km across, de­ pending on the output power of the cellphone transmitter. 1. cell a) a small room for one person b) apparatus for producing electricity by chemical action c) a compartment in a larger structure (e.g., in a honeycomb) 2. network a) a system of lines that cross b) a complex system of interconnected radio and TV devices c) a connected system 3. area a) a zone, region, district b) surface measure c) range of activity 4. set a) a number of smth. of the same kind b) radio, TV, phone apparatus c) direction Упражнение 3. Подберите к глаголам и словосочетаниям в колонке А глаголы с тем же значением из колонки В. А В 1. link up to a. contain 2. exchange news b. connect 3. send a signal, message, fax с replace 4. show d. make it difficult and impos sible to read 5. take the place of e. own 6. have, possess f. communicate 7. make it illegible g. transmit 8. have h. indicate, Упражнение 4. Замените выделенное слово или словосочетание другим словом с тем же значением. 1. А Fax system can now send texts, graphics and documents to several places at the same time in less than a minute. The informa­ tion may have photographic images as well as words. The latest Fax machines must be linked up to a special digital phone line. A few seconds' interference (помехи) on the phone line can make several lines of a document or text illegible. 2. Digital systems of information transmission have taken the place of analog systems in the last 25 years. 3. Most phones now have memories to store frequently used numbers. Some telephone manufacturers make phones with LCDs (liquid-crystal displays) which show the duration of calls. 4. Before World War II few people had television sets. 5. A lot of people have cellphones, answerphones and mobile phones now. 6. It is possible to exchange news with people in most parts of the world by telephone. Упражнение 5. Заполните пропуски глаголами connect, transmit, communi­ cate и их производными. 1. А small radio receiver called a radiopager makes it possible for people to ... with each other wherever they are. 2. Data ... services, known as teletext... text and graphics over a long distance as part of the television video signal. 3. In telecommunication the information can be directed be­ tween ... and receivers by cables of various kinds. 4. The lines which ... telephones within a building are the simplest type of... line. 5. Mobile phone systems normally do not... directly with other mobile phones. They send messages to the control base station. 6. How long will the ... of the new telephone take? 7. You can now ... your computer to computers all over the world by means of the Internet. Упражнение 6. A. Назовите 10—15 слов и словосочетаний на тему «Means of communication». 8. Speak about: Your favourite TV programmes at the moment. Do you often watch football match live (as it happens) on TV or do you watch recorded highlights (parts of the game after it has been played)? Do you enjoy watching the commercials (the advertise­ ments in programmes)? Do you watch satellite TV and/or cable TV?,

LESSON 5

Определения Определительные придаточные предложения Слова сапу и mean и словосочетания с ними Суффиксы -/ve, -иге Префикс super- Text 5А. Is there an End to the Computer Race? Text 5B. Computers Concern You Text 5C. Text 5D. The Library of Congress ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Переведите словосочетания, обращая внимание на раз­ ные способы выражения определения. а new invention, to be of great importance, books available in this library, at this time, our professor's lectures, the building of their institute, an institute's library, a television programme, our central TV programme, the first television set, the first pocket-size colour television set, today's shows, a tiny nine-by-twelve inch box, the 1939 World Fair, a reading room, people living in different time zones of the country, modern TV sets appearing now, a writ­ ten text, a factory built in Siberia, an article to translate, the first to translate those texts. Упражнение 2. Укажите предложения, где выделенное слово является определением. 1. Complex systems of radio transmission networks have been set up throughout the world. 2. Scientists all over the world were quick to realize the importance of radio and contributed much to, its further development. 3. The Russian scientist A.S.Popov worked much at the problem of radio communication. 4. It is necessary to radio the latest news to distant parts of the country. 5. The system of communication in any country is unthinkable today without sat­ ellites. 6. Electronic technology has made it possible to set up auto­ matic communication systems. 7. A new international orbital system provides telephone, telegraph and telex communication with ships practically in every part of the World Ocean. 8. It is known that a photon is a particle of light. 9. Some specialists expect that a photon can greatly increase the operation of a computer. 10. Photon com­ puters are quite possible in the not so far future. Упражнение 3. Найдите определения в предложениях и переведите их. A. 1. There are twenty-five students in our group, five students got excellent marks for all their exams. 2. Students studying at our institute must know mathematics well. 3. The device made at our laboratory will be used in industry. 4. It is a short and easy text, our students don't need a dictionary to translate it. 5. Scientists work­ ing at new computers have a lot of different problems to solve. 6. A citizen of our country was the first to circle the globe. 7. The first television black-and-white pictures produced a sensation in 1939. 8. A tiny nine-by-twelve inch box was displayed at the 1939 World Fair. 9. Now we can see many different radio and TV sets in every house. 10. Computers of different types and sizes have appeared in every country of the world. B. 1. Materials necessary at present to produce supercomputers are difficult to make. 2. A system capable of transmitting long dis­ tance messages was developed at the end of the last century. 3. Peo­ ple present at the World Fair in New York were interested in the new invention. 4. Some general engineering subjects difficult for the first-year students are necessary for studying specialized subjects. Упражнение 4. Назовите подлежащее придаточного определительного предложения, переведите и укажите, где можно опустить союзное слово. 1. Morse invented а code that used dots and dashes for letters of the alphabet. 2. Al. Bell found an assistant who was a specialist in electrical engineering. 3. They wanted to build a machine which people could use to talk over long distances. 4. A television screen and camera that will be used with a usual telephone are very small. 5. People who come to the Aircraft Fair in Paris see new designs of aircraft from different countries. 6. Bell did not know German, which most writers of scientific and technical papers used at the time. 7. The decimal system that was developed by French scien­ tists was introduced in Russia by D.I. Mendeleev. Упражнение 5. Измените предложения, где это возможно, согласно об­ разцам и переведите. A. Например: The experiments which Popov made were discussed at the Univer­ sity meeting. The experiments Popov made were discussed at the University meeting, 1. Newton's great work which was published in 1687 is called «Principia». 2. The Russian Chemical Society which is named after Mendeleev was organised more than a century ago. 3. The subjects that the students study in the first and second years are very impor­ tant for their future speciality. 4. The invention which Popov made did not interest the government. B. Например: The laboratory in which the students will work is in a new build­ ing. The laboratory which the students will work in is in a new building. The labora­ tory the students will work in is in a new building. 1. The film about which we were told had been made several years before. 2. The magazine in which a very interesting article is published is available in our library. 3. The material of which this instrument is made is a new one. 4. This is a subject about which we don't know much. 5. The cosmonauts about whom we heard so much came to our town. 6. Have you seen the main components which the new device consists of? Упражнение 6. Найдите бессоюзные определительные придаточные предложения, переведите их. 1. The building our students live in is not far from the institute. 2. Bell was making his experiment in a room next to the room Wat­ son worked in. 3. For a long time Bell couldn't get the results he was looking for. 4. The discovery of Newton's mistake we shall read about was made by a young physicist. 5. When Roentgen made his discovery the room he was experimenting in was dark. 6. The plant this material is produced at is in the Urals. 7. The problem this arti­ cle deals with is connected with the subject we study. 8. It is diffi­ cult to imagine the world we live in without radio, television and telephone. Упражнение 7. Определите, являются ли выделенные слова существи­ тельным или глаголом. Назовите подтверждающие это признаки. 1. this means that; this means; it means; new means; this means is. 2. this increase is; this increases; it increases; nothing increases;, its increase. 3. these results; this results in; both results; this result; both result in; it results from. Упражнение 8. Переведите выделенные словосочетания, обращая внима­ ние на различные значения слова carry, 1. During the course of study students carry out practical work in well-equipped laboratories. 2. People are carried by aiфlanes, ships, trains and cars equipped with electronic devices. 3. Intensive work and research are being carried out on new robots in many countries. 4. A new computer carries out a few hundred thousand calculations in a few seconds. 5. Peter, help me carry this heavy box, please. Упражнение 9. Найдите русские эквиваленты для следующих словосоче­ таний. to be in general usage; electronically controlled; in other words; of a few square millimetres; commonly; the more ..., the more; operation by operation; according to; advantage over; a thousand times faster. согласно; размером в несколько мм; с электронным управ­ лением; чем больше ..., тем больше; являться общеупотреби­ тельным; операция за операцией; обычно; в 1000 раз быстрее; другими словами; преимущество по сравнению.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 10. А. Переведите следующие производные слова: глагол или существительное + -ive = прилагательное to act — действовать -> active — деятельный intensity- интенсивность -> intensive- интенсивный to conserve — conservative, progress — progressive, effect — effective, mass — massive, to react — reactive; суффикс существительного -иге nature — природа; culture — культура structure, manufacture, future, measure, feature, agriculture; префикс super- (сверх, супер) supernatural — сверхестественный; superpower — сверхдержава supergenius, supercomputer, superman, supermarket, super­ sonic, superhot, superconductor., в. Образуйте и переведите производные слова согласно образцу: префиксы micro-, mini- (микро-, мини-) microscope — микроскоп, microscopic — микроскопический computer, chip, electronics, fiche, film, phone, processor, wave, organism; minimum — минимум, minimal — минимальный, minimize — минимизировать, сводить к минимуму computer, screen, tour, bus, skirt, -sized. Упражнение 11. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. computer, supercomputer ['sj u: pekem'pj u: te], general ['с15епэгэ1], millions, electron, electronics, electronic instru­ ment, electronically controlled machines [me'Ji'.nz], airplane, globe ['gleub], millimeter, center, operation, components [kem'peunents], materials [me'tierielz], laboratory [Is'boreteri], modern, seconds, physical ['fizikal], limit, specialists ['spejialists], photons ['feutonz]. Упражнение 12. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. race [reis], usage ['juizicfe], device [diVais], circle ['S9:kl], world [wa:ld], circuit ['S9:kit], undoubtedly [An'dautidli], require [ri'kwaie], quality ['kwoliti], quantity ['kwontiti], purity ['pjueriti], produce [pre'djuis], throughout [Gru'aut], reliable [ri1ai9bl], whole [haul], perform [p9'fo:m], simultaneously [,sim9rteinj9sli], basic ['beisik], available [9Veil9bl], research [ri's9:f], expect [iks'pekt]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ according to adv — согласно, generation n — поколение соответственно go on v — продолжать (ся) available a — доступный, machine-tool n — станок имеющийся в распоряжении matter п •— дело, вопрос beam п — луч ordinary — обыкновенный built-in p.p. — встроенный perform v — выполнять, by means of prp — посредством, делать, исполнять при помощи quality п — качество calculation п — вычисление reliable а — надежный, capable a — способный require v — требовать(ся) circuit n — схема, цепь speed n — скорость close a — близкий, тесный surround v — окружать complete v — завершать task n — задание, задача control — управлять, контро- up to prp — вплоть до лировать usage n — использование depend on v — зависеть от whereas conj — тогда как, fast a — быстрый в то время как Техт 5А Прочитайте текст и прокомментируйте его заголовок. Прав ли автор, дав такой заголовок? Найдите в тексте соответствующие факты. Переведите. Is there an End to the Computer Race? Today the word «electronics» is in general usage. Millions of people have electron watches. There are a lot of various radio and TV sets, video cassette recorders and CD players in our houses. In factories and plants we are surrounded with electronically con­ trolled machines and instruments, we are carried by airplanes, ships, trains and cars with built-in electronic devices, and satellites circle the globe. In other words, we are living in an electronic world. And the center of this world is a tiny silicon plate ̂ of a few square millimetres, an integrated circuit^, or a chip^, as it is more commonly known. The integrated circuit is undoubtedly one of the most sophisticated"^ inventions of man, science and technology. It is in the heart of every electronic device and the more cassette re­ corders, TV sets and computers we need, the more integrated cir­ cuits are required. When we speak about a further development of computers we mean not only quantity, but also high technology^ and high speed. As the operation of an integrated circuit depends on microscopic «components», the purity of all materials and the cleanness at the plant they are produced at must be of the highest quality. A con­ tinuous search is going on in laboratories throughout the world for more perfect, reliable and high speed electronic circuits. In the past it took^ scientists and researchers a whole lifetime to make a few thousand calculations, whereas for a modern computer this task is a matter of a few seconds. At present computers capable of performing billions of operations a second are required. Super­ computers are different from ordinary computers. The ordinary computer does the computations operation by operation, while the, supercomputer operates like a brain: all operations are being done simultaneously. In the next few years engineers will complete the work on com­ puters of above 2 billion operations a second. It will take a few more years to produce a 10-billion operations computer. The fifth-generation computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become available in the near future. Is there an end to this race? According to some researchers, we are close to what can be re­ garded as a true physical limit. But other specialists think that pho­ tons will make the operation a thousand times faster. This means that in the future it will be possible to expect the appearance of photon computers and that computations will be done by means of light. Light has several advantages over electronics: light beams are faster, travel in parallel lines and can pass through one another without interference'̂ . Already, the optical equivalent of a transis­ tor has been produced, and intensive research on optical-electronic computers is being carried out in a number of countries around the world. In a few decades a new age of light may replace the still youthful electronic age. The race is going on. Notes to the Text 1. silicon plate — кремниевая пластина 2. integrated circuit — интегральная схема 3. chip — кристалл 4. sophisticated — сложный 5. high technology — передовая технология 6. it takes ... (one year) — требуется 7. interference — взаимное влияние, помехи

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 13. Просмотрите текст 5А и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is this text about? 2. What new things appeared in peo­ ple's everyday life after World War П? 3. What is at the center of all these things? 4. What applications of computers do you know? 5.Where else (еще) may computers be used? 6. How does an ordi­ nary computer (a supercomputer) operate? 7. What is the speed of a new supercomputer? 8. What is the task of engineers in the field of computer development? 9. What types of computers do you know? 10. What are the prospects in the development of computers?, Упражнение 14. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответству­ ют содержанию текста 5А. 1. Nowadays an integrated circuit is the main component of everyday device. 2. Supercomputers are in general usage now. 3. The operation of integrated circuits depends on their micro­ scopic component quality. 4. Some researchers think that we are close to a physical limit in increasing computer operation speed. 5. Supercomputers are similar to ordinary computers. 6. By the be­ ginning of the 21st century the electronic age may replace the light age. 7. It is possible to expect the appearance of optical-electronic computers in the future. Упражнение 15. Найдите в тексте 5А цепочки существительных-опреде­ лений, состоящих не менее чем из трех компонентов, выделите основное слово и переведите. Упражнение 16. Найдите в третьем абзаце текста 5А бессоюзное опреде­ лительное придаточное предложение и переведите его. Упражнение 17. Укажите, чем выражено определение в предложениях. A. 1. Yesterday we watched а very late TV programme of a foot­ ball match. 2. Y.Gagarin made the world's first space flight on April 12, 1961. 3. It was announced that 1000 well-equipped sport clubs could be opened in this country. 4. Our electronics and radio electronics industry have developed from the country's only radio laboratory in Nizny Novgorod. 5. This country has powerful energy systems with the world's largest hydro and thermal power stations and nuclear plants. 6. How can architects solve the problem of liv­ ing in a region where night lasts for several months and where the temperature may be between 40 °C and 50 "C? B. 1. The experiments carried out by Bell and Watson didn't give any positive results for a long time. 2. D.K. Chernov laid the foundation of the science dealing with metals. 3. In many countries scientists interested in electricity wanted to find out whether it could be used for a long distance communication. 4. Articles pub­ lished by Franklin in 1752 dealt with electricity. 5. Communication satellites used by all countries make intercontinental television transmission possible. C. 1. Nowadays computers capable of performing billions of op­ erations a second are required. 2. People present at the demonstra­ tion of Popov's invention were sure of its great future. 3. Wind and solar energies available throughout the earth must be used for useful purposes. 4. Russian engineers have developed the cargo airplane, «Ruslan» capable of carrying load up to 150 tons. 5. Computers available everywhere nowadays make our life easier. D. 1. Polzunov was the first to construct a steam engine. 2, Men­ deleev was the first to make a classification of chemical elements. 3. The thermometer is a device to measure temperature. 4. Faraday was the first to invent a dynamo. 5. A telephone set is a device to reproduce sounds. E. 1. Materials new computers depend on must be of the best quality. 2. The number of components supercomputers consist of is great. 3. The plants computer components are produced at must be superclean. 4. The laboratory the Curies worked in was very primi­ tive. 5. The space laboratory the Russian cosmonauts live and work in is in the orbit for a long time. 6. Satellites our communication goes through are sent into space regularly. 7. The problem Bell was interested in was not an easy one and it took several years to solve it. 8. The problem this article deals with is connected with the subject we study. 9. The changes and movements of the air we are surrounded with influence our lives. 10. This is an article that deals with some environmental problems we face. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 18. Образуйте слова с префиксом super- и переведите их. man, power, genius, hot, hard, natural, conductor. Упражнение 19. Найдите слова с отрицательным значением. true, unusual, important, disappearance, incapable, informa­ tion, undiscovered, capable, untrue, changing, usual, undetected, unimportant, appearance, detected, discovered, intention, possi­ ble, include, impossible, disadvantages, imagine, unchanging. Упражнение 20. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся слова. superconductivity, superconductive, quality, qualitative, quali­ tatively, quantity, quantitative, quantitatively, pure, purity, manu­ facture. Упражнение 21. Назовите производные от следующих слов, переведите их. electron, operate, compute, calculate. Упражнение 22. Расположите слова в алфавитном порядке. Still, start, specialist, speed, speak, second, search, science, so­ phisticated, surround, supercomputer, ship, simultaneously., Упражнение 23. Назовите исходную форму слов. factories, carried, living, more, depends, components, highest, took, qualitatively. Упражнение 24. Найдите в колонке В эквиваленты словосочетаниям из колонки А. А В 1. to make faster a. many 2. able b. supercomputer 3. a lot of с to improve 4. at present d. capable 5. to make better e. nowadays 6. to be different from f. to increase 7. a computer which does all g. to differ operations simultaneously 8. it takes h. it requires Упражнение 25. Найдите антонимы. simple, untrue, begin, sophisticated, reliable, efficient, close to, true, complete, low, disadvantage, far from, high, unreliable, inefficient, advantage. Упражнение 26. Переведите выделенные слова и запомните их. 1. In the past «Engineer» meant a designer of engines. 2. The word «a means» means «средство». 3. The meaning of «telemetry» is «measuring at a distance» and is a combination of Greek and Latin words. 4. By means of satellites we can communicate with any country of the world. 5. There were no means of direct commu­ nication before the telephone was invented. 6. By communication we mean various ways to send information. 7. Scientists reported that we had technical means to use more channels on a TV set. 8. The importance of space means of communication is increasing every year. 9. By what means is speech transmitted over a distance? 10. By means of telephone people communicate with each other at great distances. 11. The mean distance between these two objects is not known yet. Упражнение 27. Заполните пропуски словами/ew или л/ew. 1. ... people know that the first programmer in the world was Lord Bayron's daughter. 2. In the past astronomers spent all their lives to make ... hundred thousand calculations. 3. A calculator makes these calculations in ... seconds. 4. In the next ... years a, new generation computer will be developed. 5. ... people read that the first electric light illuminated the laboratory of Vasily Petrov, a St. Petersburg physicist, in 1862. Упражнение 28. Обратите внимание на перевод слова which. 1. In our institute the study of theory is linked with practical training, which is very important for future engineers. 2. Students have industrial training at various plants, which allows them not only to watch production processes, but also to take part in produc­ tion. 3. It is now possible to find a book or an article in this library very quickly, which is extremely important for specialists. 4. Pierre Curie studied the properties of crystals, which led him to the dis­ covery of the piezoelectric phenomenon. Упражнение 29. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внима­ ние на неопределенные местоимения. 1. There are some students in the room now. 2. Are there any students in the classroom now? 3. Everybody knows that one can find any book in the Lenin library, 4. There are no students in the classroom now. 5. I was looking for the new reference book on physics everywhere, but couldn't find it. 6.1 must have some paper, I can't write anything. 7. This man knows something, but he does not want to tell us. 8.1 have seen you somewhere before. 9. No one said anything to us about it at the meeting. 10. In our institute li­ brary I always find everything I need. 11. We could park our car no­ where. 12. They found nobody at home. 13. I have been nowhere this summer. I had no vacation. 14. Every faculty at our institute has a computer. Упражнение 30. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. won, rung, driven, run, fed, laid, read Упражнение 31. Прочитайте и переведите без словаря. Let's look at the progress the computers have made in their development. Besides the great changes in size and speed, we now have machines which change numbers into pictures, words and sounds. The next big change will be when we get computers that will understand human language. But now if you want to programme your own computer, you must learn its language. It does not understand yours. For example you talk with an English­ man. You make one small grammar mistake «have» instead of «has». The man understands what you mean and the talk goes on. But if you make even the smallest mistake in computer language, the talk breaks down and you must go back to the beginning.,

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What influences the operation of an integrated circuit? (the quality of microscopic components it consists of) 2. What is the function of a computer? (making a great number of calculations at a very high speed) 3. What will be the speed of the fifth-generation computers? (100 billion operations a second) 4. What can in­ crease the operation speed many times compared to the present computers? (a photon) 5. What physical phenomenon can be used to improve a computer's speed? (light) 6. What are the advantages of light for computation purposes over electronics? (the capability to move faster, in parallel lines and pass one another) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. Nowadays electronic devices 1. а1ф1апе8, ships, trains and cars having built-in electronic circuits and instruments. 2. We are surrounded 2. is being used more widely at home and in office. 3. There are 3. without electronically con­ trolled machine-tools. 4. A personal computer 4. with electronics everywhere in everyday life and at plants and factories. 5. People are carried by 5. scientific research without computers. 6. The modern production is 6. are in general usage, unthinkable 7. It is impossible to imagine 7. electronic watches we wear, telephone, radio, and TV sets we speak, listen to and watch. Exercise 3. Read and learn. Computers Mary: Have you seen an interesting advertisement (реклама) in the last issue of «The Economist»? John: I have not read it yet. M.: The School of Engineering offers a new programme in infor­ mation system. Applications are invited for jobs in this field., J.: Professor Smith has told me about it. This programme is interesting. It is designed to meet the needs of persons with a computing background for their work in manage­ ment and industry. M.: Don't you think that our son can lecture on this new programme? J.: Why not? He graduated from the Department of Compu­ ter Science and for some years was taking part in the rese­ arch project connected with the problems of super­ computers and their manufacturing. M.: As far as I remember his research interests cover software (программное обеспечение) and appUcation. J.: And what do they say about the contract? M.: It is a three years' contract and it may be extended for fur­ ther two years. I'll write Mike a letter. J.: It's too long. You'd better call him. A.: How do you like these new electronic games? В.: I am crazy (mad) about them. And you? A.: Really, I don't know what you see in them. В.: Well, I think a real computer game resembles real life as closely as possible, doesn't it? A.: May be you are right, but I am not sure. В.: Oh, but I find them rather relaxing for a change and try to spend every spare (свободное) minute playing. Exercise 4. Speak about: 1. The application of electronics in everyday life, 2. New developments in computers. Use exercise 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to be in general usage, research is going on, throughout the world, further develop­ ment, high speed electronic circuits of the highest quality, according to some re­ searchers, a photon computer, by means of light, advantage over, in a few decades. Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement. Electronic games are very popular today. There are already up to 10,000 different computer games in the world. Exercise 6. Read and smile. Andrew Jackson's Poor Health After his wife died Andrew Jackson, former President of the United States, became increasingly irritable (раздражительный). He also worried (беспокоиться) more and more about his health., Several members of his family had died after a paralytic stroke (паралич) and Jackson was sure he was going to die in the same way. He therefore lived in daily fear (страх) of getting such a stroke. One day, during a party at his home, he was playing chess with a young woman. Suddenly Jackson's hands dropped to his side, his face became white. Several friends run to him. «At last it has come», Jackson said weakly. «I have had a stroke. My whole right side is completely paralyzed.» «How do you know?» someone asked. «Because», Jackson said, «in the last few minutes I have pinched (ущипнуть) my leg several times and there is absolutely no sensation in it». «Oh, I beg your pardon, sir», said the young woman he played with, «but it was my leg you were pinching.» Text 5B Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию об использовании компьюте­ ров в повседневной жизни и работе людей. Выпишите и переведите опреде­ лительные придаточные предложения. Computers Concern You When Ch. Babbage, a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, invented the first calculating machine in 1812, he could hardly have imagined the situations we find ourselves in today. Al­ most everything in modern world is done with the help of comput­ ers — the complicated descendants (потомки) of his simple machine. Computers are being used more and more extensively in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more effi­ cient than human beings. They have much better memories and can store (запоминать) great amount of information and they can do calculations in a fraction of the time required by a human math­ ematician. No man alive can do 500,000 sums in one second, but a modern computer can. In fact, computers can do many things we do, but faster and better. They can control machines at factories, work out tomor­ row's weather and even play chess, write poetry or compose music. Let's look now at some of the ways in which computers concern people in their daily lives and work. Many people associate computers with the world of science and mathematics, but they are also a great help to scholars in other subjects: in history, literature and so on. It is now possible for a scholar to find a book or an article he needs very quickly, which nowadays when a million or more new books are published each year is quite an advantage. You tell the computer which subject, you are interested in and it produces any microfiche (микро­ фише, диамикрокарта) you need in seconds. There are also systems which are being developed to translate articles from foreign magazines by computer and to make up many lists of information which are needed in a modem library. So, com­ puter can help us to deal with the knowledge explosion in many ways. One can imagine a time when libraries will be run by comput­ ers, without human beings at all. Or, let's take another example. When a man drives a car for long distances he has two problems: to keep the car at a constant speed and watch that he does not run into the car in front of him. Engineers are now experimenting with a system which has a com­ puter control of these two problems. The car's computer keeps the speed constant. At the same time the distance between the car and any other car in front of it is measured by a beam of light transmit­ ted forwards. The beam meets the rear reflectors of the car in front and it is reflected back, which enables to measure the distance. This information is fed to the computer which adjusts (регулировать) its speed control accordingly. TexT 5C Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. Кратко изложите основное содержа­ ние текста по-английски. Sir Isaac Newton was a supergenius of science who among other things invented calculus (исчисление), stated the laws of gravity and optics. But it turned out (оказываться) Newton also made mistakes. The University of Chicago announced recently that R. Garusto, 23, a physicist, had discovered in one of Newton's cal­ culations an error that had been undetected for three centuries. The young scientist discovered it while he was studying New­ ton's masterpiece (шедевр) of physics «Principia» (1687). Newton had derived (выводить) a figure for the Earth's mass based on his new theory that a single force — gravity — governed (управлять) falling bodies on the Earth and the motion of planets around the Sun. The calculation depended on the angle (угол) between two lines from the Earth to the Sun, but because that angle was not ex­ actly known at the time, Newton used slightly different figures in «Principia». It was that mistake that the young scientist found, a discovery that was soon confirmed (подтвердить) by other physi­ cists. The mistake has no influence on Newton's theory, but its dis­ covery was enough to get him a prize from the University of Chicago., Text 5D Прочитайте текст и расскажите по-английски, из каких зданий состоит комплекс Библиотеки Конгресса и каким известным деятелям посвящено каждое из них. Найдите предложения со словами houses и numbers, переведи­ те и запомните их значения. The Library of Congress The Library of Congress is the Nation's library in the USA. It serves not only to members and committees of the Congress, but to libraries throughout the USA and the world and to the scholars, re­ searchers and scientists who use it. Its foundation was laid in 1815 when President Thomas Gef- ferson offered his personal library accumulated for 50 years and considered one of the best in the United States at that time as the basis for a great national library. Now the Library of Congress complex on Capital Hill includes three buildings. The Thomas Gefferson Building, which has been built in Italian Renaissance style, is the oldest of them. It was the largest and costliest (роскошный) library building in the world when it was completed in 1897. It is decorated with splendid sculp­ ture, murals (фрески) created by 50 American artists. Its Main Reading Room is 160 feet high. The Room houses a collection of 45,000 reference books (справочники), a part of the extensive main catalog of more than 23 million cards and desks for 212 readers. The Computer Catalog Center provides public access (доступ) to the Library's automated catalog. The simply designed John Adams Building faced with white marble (мрамор) was opened in 1939. Sculptures on its large bronze doors represent 12 famous writers. The white marble James Madison Memorial Building opened in 1980 more than doubled the Library's available Capitol Hill space. The building which is the official memorial to the Nation's fourth President contains the James Madison Memorial Hall, exhibition areas, eight reading rooms, offices and storage areas for collections which number over 50 million items (предметов). ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Улражнение 1. А. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания из текста ЗА и постарайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов в данном контексте. 1. the word «electronics» is in general usage 2. more perfect electronic circuits, 3. billions of operations 4. what can be regarded as 5. the still youthful electronic age B. Подберите к каждому выделенномувАслову или словосочетанию со­ ответствующее ему по значению. a. excellent, exact, accurate b. combination of written symbols forming vocabulary of a language с consider d. great or long period of time with special characteristics e. one thousand million (GB), 10̂ (US) Упражнение 2. Прочитайте текст и найдите эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям: 1. number 2. tiny 3. not likely to change 4. signal to ring a bell at a fixed (certain) time 5. divide into two equal parts 6. watch that is used to time sport events, such as a race, to a fraction (small part) of a second 7. a place between the hand and the arm 8. not fast, slowly 9. smth. that helps smb. to remember, not to forget 10. start or begin a process 11. Hertz (Hz) 12. speed Digital Watch In a digital watch the mechanical parts of the traditional me­ chanical wristwatch have been replaced by a vibrating quartz crys­ tal to keep time. The vibrating quartz crystal is controlled by minute electronic circuits. One of the advantages of quartz is that it is very stable. The artificial quartz crystals used in digital watches are designed to vibrate up to 32,768 cycles per second when the current from a battery is passed through them. These vibrations produce electric pulses. As the pulses travel through the electronic circuits of the microchip, their rate is gradu­ ally halved. The result is a pulse rate of one per second. Each one-second pulse triggers the microchip to send signals to the liquid crystal display to advance the numerals by one second. The pulses are also used to control different functions. Such a digi­ tal watch can show the day and date; it can have an alarm and a re­ minder and can act as a stopwatch with an accuracy of 1/100th second., Упражнение 3. Прочитайте следующие определения компьютерных тер­ минов, дайте русские эквиваленты выделенных слов и словосочетаний. Пе­ реведите предложения. 1. Hardware means the different types of equipment a com­ puter consists of. 2. A computer's hardware comprises a central processing unit (CPU) which is the heart and brain of the computer. 3. Input and output devices capable of putting information into a computer and getting it out of it are types of peripheral equip­ ment. Peripherals are the units connected to the CPU: input de­ vices, output devices and storage devices. 4. The simplest and most common type of input device is a key­ board, containing a typewriter keyboard. 5. A laser printer is a kind of output device to print information. 6. Software means the programs needed to operate computer equipment. 7. These programs are on disks, the hard disks inside the com­ puter, or floppy disks, or on CD-ROMs, that is. Compact Disk Read Only Memory, which you can put on or store a large amount of information. A disk is a storage device made of flat circular plates with magnetizable surfaces. A hard disk is a disk made from a solid magnetic material and used as a storage device. A floppy disk (also called diskette) is a disk made of flexible plastic material upon which data are stored on magnetic tracks. Tracks are areas marked on the surface of a disk. A disk drive is the electronic mechanism that actually reads what is on a disk. In hard disks, the disk and the drive are built into a single unit. 8. A word processor is a computer used to write documents, let­ ters and reports, or the software that is used for this purpose. 9. Databases are programs, which allow you to store, look at or change a large quantity of information quickly and easily. 10. Graphics are pictures and symbols a computer program can produce. 11. An extra copy on a floppy disk is called a back-up copy, a copy of data or software, usually kept in case the original disk is damaged or destroyed. 12. A bug possible in a computer operation, also a virus is a software problem or error in a program. Debugging means correct­ ing program errors or bugs. 13. People send e-mail (electronic mail) messages with the help of the Internet, a system that lets computers connect by telephone lines. 14. A laptop is a portable computer weighing about 2—4 kg., 15. With a device called the mouse you can do a number of things by clicking on different icons. 16. A mouse is a small input device, on the top of which there are one or more buttons for communicating with the computer. 17. Clicking is a basic mouse action to place a cursor to close a window, etc. 18. An icon is a small picture representing an object, process or function. Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски, образуя общеизвестные компьютер­ ные термины. Запомните их. 1. data ... 12. mini ... 2. integrated ... or chip 13. ... copy 3. soft ... 14. fifth ... computer 4. ... ROM 15. ... processor 5. hard ... 16. e-... 6. floppy ... 17. ... age 7. ... disk 18. photon ... 8. input, output ... 19. ... writer 9. super ... 20. key ... 10. physical ... 21. laser ... 11. ... network 22. mini ... Упражнение 5. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb, Noun Adjective create ... possessive act ... compete competitive attract ... ... comparative expense ... sense ... mass ... Упражнение 6. Назовите прилагательные с суффиксом -ible/'able, озна­ чающие: 1) that can be done, can exist, happen; 2) that cannot be done, cannot exist, happen;, 3) that can be used; 4) that may be obtained, can be used; 5) that may be relied on; 6) that cannot be relied on; 7) which may be questioned; 8) which may not be questioned; 9) absolutely essential. Упражнение 7. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Noun Adjective Adverb ... questionably availability — capability ... usable possibly reliability ... quality ... quantity intensively indispensability — Упражнение 8. A. Назовите 15-20 ключевых слов и выражений на тему «Computer». В. Speak about: 1. А lot of people are becoming computer literate (have experi­ ence of working with computers and know how to use them). Are you computer literate? Do you find most computers «user- friendly» (easy to use)? 2. The Internet and its influence on our daily life. Can it help people from different countries to learn English?,

LESSON 6

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты Глагол to cause Сочетания по longer, because of, due to, thanks to Суффиксы -ness; -ance/ence; -ist; -ful; -less Text 6A. Made in Space Text 6B. Composite Ceramics Text 6C. Ancient Steel-Making Secret Text 6D. The British Museum ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Прочитайте диалоги, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. А: You can do without lots of things. B: You can't do without food or water. A: Oh, yes, you can! You can do without food for weeks and with­ out water for days. B: Well, you can't do without air or only for a very short time. A: Can you write without a pen? B: No, of course, I can't. A: I must have a new dictionary. B: Why must you? You don't need a new dictionary. You've got a lot of dictionaries. A: I want to see Mr. Z. B: I am sorry. I am afraid he may not be in., А But perhaps he may be. В No, sir. He may not be back for some time. А I can wait. В He may not be in until twelve. А; I can wait until he is in. В He may be out all day. A: May I go to the cinema? B: No, not today, tomorrow. A: May not I go today? Zed can't come tomorrow. May I go home with Zed afterwards? B: Oh, no, you mustn't do that. A: Why, mustn't I? B: Because you mustn't be home late. A: Well, then, may Zed come home with me? B: Yes, he may do that. A: May I have the money, please. B: Oh, very well. Упраяшение 2. Замените модальные глаголы соответствующими эквива­ лентами. 1. Students must take exams in January. 2. She can speak French well. 3. You may take this book till tomorrow. 4. We must learn new words every week. 5.1 live not far from my work. I can go by bus or I can walk. 6. You may come in. 7. We can take this book from the li­ brary. 8. She cannot do this work in time. 9. He must go to St. Pe­ tersburg for a few days. 10. We can see electrical devices everywhere. Упражнение 3. Поставьте предложения в вопросительной и отрицатель­ ной формах. 1. We were able to read that article in the library. 2. Some stu­ dents will be permitted to take exams in December. 3. You have to read this book. 4. We shall be able to skate in winter. 5. My friend is to take part in the conference. 6. The students of our group had to go to the plant last week. 7. They were allowed to continue their research. Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод модальных глаголов. 1. Everyone should know а foreign language. 2. To make supercomputers, we need highly developed electronics and new materials. 3. One should do one's work in time. 4. The students ought to know the history of their institute. 5. The development of, new materials does not mean that old materials should lose their significance. 6. Marie Curie needed a laboratory and equipment for her research. 7. Every institute ought to be proud of their famous graduates. 8. One should know that «roentgen» is a unit (единица) of radiation. Упражнение 5. Замените would на used to, где возможно, и переведите. 1. Не would spend hours in the Tretyakov Gallery. 2. Tsiolkov- sky believed that rockets would be used for space travel. 3. Bell and Watson would repeat their experiments many times. 4. It became known that a new car would be shown at the exhibition. 5. Elec­ tricity would pass through metals, but wouldn't pass through wood. 6. I asked my friend to help me, but he wouldn't, he said I could do everything without his help. 7. He would work in the li­ brary when he was getting ready for his exam. Упражнение 6. Выберите правильный модальный глагол или его экви­ валент. МОЖНО ВЫЧИСЛИТЬ — (must, can, should) calculate; быть в со­ стоянии выполнить — (have to, be able to, be allowed to) carry out; нельзя предсказать — (can't, needn't, be not able to) predict; должны начаться в 10 — (have to, may, be to) begin at 10; следует знать — (should, may, need) know; не нужно созда­ вать — (may not, needn't, should not) create; необходимо ис­ пользовать — (must, be allowed, may) use; можно взять эту книгу — (must, can, may) take this book; упорно не желать сде­ лать — (need, wouldn't, must) do. Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения. 1. Он может читать и писать по-английски. 2. Она должна сделать эту работу в конце месяца. 3. Теперь студенты могут войти в аудиторию. 4. Она может заниматься здесь. 5. Он дол­ жен прочитать эту статью. 6. Можно мне взять ваш учебник? 7. Я должен пойти в библиотеку и взять книги. 8. Можно мне поехать с вами? 9. Умеет (может) этот ребенок ходить? 10. Вы должны вернуть книгу завтра. Упражнение 8. Переведите выделенные словосочетания. 1. It was found that proton and neutron have almost the same weight. 2. It was necessary to lay cables across the Atlantic Ocean as there were no radio or satellites at that time. 3. It is difficult to imagine the world we live in without radio, telephone and televi-, sion. 4. It is possible to have a direct telephone talk with Vladivo­ stok with the help of satellite systems. 5. This material has proper­ ties which make it useful for various space projects. 6. It should be said that computers become increasingly important in our life and work. 7. My adviser considers it necessary for me to read as much literature as possible before starting my work. 8. It is difficult to name all the branches of science and technology which are based on electronics. 9. It is well-known that «watt» is a unit named after James Watt, an inventor from Scotland. 10. It is impossible to solve many modern complex engineering problems without the help of computers. Упражнение 9. Укажите, чем выражено отрицание. Переведите. 1. Popov had no support from the government to continue his research. 2. Not long ago chemists developed new materials that could withstand high temperatures. 3. No system of measurement of the past is as simple as the metric system. 4. It is no longer possi­ ble to put off the solution of ecological problems. 5. Tsarist Russia gave no money for Tsiolkovsky's research. 6. No one is allowed to smoke in our office. 7. There is no doubt (несомненно) that the development of electronics is one of the greatest achievements of mankind. 8. Haifa century is not a long period in the history of civ­ ilization. 9. Before Newton no one could explain why the planets moved around the Sun. 10. People no longer think of radio and television as something fantastic. Упражнение 10. Переведите предложения с составными предлогами due to, thanks to, because of. 1. Ships can communicate over long distances due to the radio. 2. Because of the earth's rotation there are days and nights on the earth. 3. Thanks to the radio it is possible to transmit human voice across the globe. 4. Due to the latest achievements in electronics it has become possible to develop supercomputers. 5. Because of their long life solar and atomic batteries are used to supply power to transmitters in spacecrafts. 6. Thanks to the development of radio telescopes radio astronomy has made great achievements. 7. Our century can be called «Space Age» because of the development of a new branch of science and technology — cosmonautics. Упражнение 11. Переведите предложения, обратив внимание на слово much перед прилагательным в сравнительной степени. 1. We don't notice the gravitational pull of a book because the pull of the earth is much greater. 2. The speed of computer opera-, tions will be much greater in the future. 3. Graphite which with­ stands much higher temperatures is one of the best materials for reactors. 4. When a spaceship is in space, much smaller energy is needed for its movement. Упражнение 12. Переведите предложения и запомните значения глагола to cause. 1. Heating causes different changes in metals. 2. A Danish scien­ tist discovered that electricity caused the needle to move from left to right. 3.Vibration not only causes noise but can also break mate­ rials and structures. 4. The space flight of Gagarin caused a sensa­ tion throughout the world. 5. Rutherford showed that positive charge of a nucleus was caused by protons. 6. New achievements in mathematics caused the development of new means of computer­ ization. Упражнение 13. Найдите английские эквиваленты для русских словосо­ четаний. В большем масштабе; пилотируемые и непилотируемые космические аппараты; проводить эксперимент; на борту кос­ мического корабля; преимущества состояния невесомости; условия невесомости; материалы нового поколения; получить полезные и ценные данные. carry out experiments; zero gravity conditions; at a larger scale; zero-gravity state advantages; on board a spacecraft; manned and unmanned space vehicles; obtain useful and valuable data; new generation materials.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 14. A. Образуйте и переведите следующие производные сло­ ва согласно образцу: существительное + -ful = прилагательное use — польза -> useful — полезный power, skill, success; существительное + -less = прилагательное use — польза -> useless — бесполезный change, noise, water, help, end; прилагательное + -ness = абстрактное существительное weightless — невесомый -> weightlessness — невесомость useful, dark, hard, weak;, существительное или прилагательное + -ist = существительное science — наука -> scientist — ученый special, art, motor, biology. в. Переведите существительные с суффиксами -апсе/'впсе : resistance — сопротивление consequence, distance, appearance, difference, absence, presence. Упражнение 15. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. surprise [sa'praiz], substance ['SAbstans], magnetic [maeg'netik], laser ['leiza], polymer ['polima], plastics ['plaestiks], experiment [iks'perimant], orbital ['o:bitl], expert ['ekspa:t], start [sta:t], simulate ['Simjulaleit], principle ['prinsipl], gravitatio­ nal [,graevi'teijanl], convection [kanVekJan], temperature ['te m pri^a], zero-gravity ['ziarau'g raeviti], hydromechanical ['haidraumi'kaenikal], acceleration [ak,sela'reijan], project ['procfeekt]. Упражнение 16. Прочитайте слова. label ['leibl], material [ma'tiarial], alloys ['aeloiz], peculiar [pi'kju:lja], numerous ['nju:maras], pave [peiv], vehicle ['vi:ikl], inertia [i'na:Jja], process ['prauses], Archimedes [,a:ki'mi:di:z], consequently ['konsikwantli], separate ['separeit], component [kam'paunant], quite [kwait], gases [gaesiz], cause [ko:z], research [ri'sa:^], biochemist [,baiau'kemist], biological [,baiau1ogikal], special ['spejal]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ aim V — стремиться, це- launch п — запуск лить(ся) liquid п — жидкость, а — жид- alloy п — сплав кий approach v — приближаться, manned р — пилотируемый, с подходить человеком на борту certain а — определенный movement п — движение condition п — условие numerous а — многочислен- create v — создавать ный consequently adv — obtain v — получать следовательно possess v — обладать, владеть, data n — данные thus adv — так, таким образом density n — плотность valuable a — ценный differ from v — отличаться от prove v — доказывать difference n — различие, раз- substance n — вещество ница surface n — поверхность estimate n — оценивать vehicle n — транспортное сред- except/?Ap — кроме, за исклю- ство, космический летатель- чением ный аппарат i.e. [that is] — то есть weight п — вес include V — включать Техт 6А Прочитайте текст и найдите абзацы, в которых сообщается о результатах и значении проведенных экспериментов по производству материалов в космосе. Переведите Made in Space This label «Made in Space» for industrial materials will proba­ bly surprise no one in the not so distant future. They may include superconductors, new kinds of alloys, substances with peculiar magnetic properties, supertransparent laser glass^, polymers, plas­ tics, and so on. Numerous experiments carried out at the Russian orbital space stations have paved the way^ to the development of methods and means of industrial production of new materials of better quality on board a spacecraft^. Experts estimate that within a few coming years industrial production of various materials will be started in space. Conditions on board a space vehicle orbiting Earth greatly dif­ fer from those on its surface. However, all of these conditions can be simulated^ on Earth, except for one — prolonged weightless­ ness. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but only for a few seconds. A space flight is another matter: a satellite orbiting Earth is in a dynamic zero-gravity state, i.e., when gravity is cancelled out^ by inertia. What can weightlessness be used for? Many well-known pro­ cesses go on differently due to the absence of weight. The Archime­ des principle is no longer valid and, consequently, stable-state^ liquid mixtures can be obtained, the components of which would immediately separate on Earth because of different density. In case of melts^ of metals, glasses or semiconductors, they can be cooled down to the solidification point even in space and then brought back to Earth. Such materials will possess quite unusual qualities., In space there is no gravitational convection^, i.e., movements of gases or liquids caused by difference of temperatures. It is well-known that various defects in semiconductors occur because of convection. Biochemists also have to deal with the worst aspects of convection, for example, in the production of superpure biologi- cally active substances. Convection makes it very difficult on Earth. Following the launch of the first orbital stations the specialists started experiments aimed at proving the advantages of the zero-gravity state for the production of certain materials. In this country all orbital stations from Salyut 5 onwards were used for that purpose, as well as rockets. Since 1976 over 600 technological experiments have been carried out on board manned and un- manned space vehicles. The experiments proved that many of the properties of the ma- terials obtained under the zero-gravity condition were much better than those produced on Earth. Besides, it has been established that it is necessary to develop a new science — physics of the weightless state — which forms the theoretical basis for space industry and space materials study. This science has basically been developed. The methods of mathematical modelling of the hydromechanical process under the zero-gravity condition have been created with the help of computers. Special space vehicles will also be needed for industrial produc- tion of new-generation materials. Research has shown that the ac- celeration rate on board these vehicles must be reduced to the minimum. It was found that space platforms in independent flight carrying the equipment were most suitable for producing materials. These vehicles will have to use their own propulsion systems to ap- proach their base orbital station after a certain period of time. The cosmonauts on board the station can replace the specimens. Many new and very interesting projects are planned for orbital stations. Here is one of them. Convection does not allow to grow large pro- tein crystals on Earth. But it is possible to grow such crystals under the zero-gravity condition and to study their structure. The data obtained during the experiments can be useful for the work of labo- ratories on Earth in using the methods of gene engineering^. Thus, it may be possible to make new materials in space and also to obtain valuable scientific data for new highly efficient technologies on Earth. Preparatory work for industrial production in space at a larger scale is being carried out in Russia, the USA, Western Europe and, Japan. It should be said that according to the estimates of Ameri­ can experts production of materials in space is to bring 60 billion dollars in the future. Notes to the Text 1. supertransparent laser glass - сверхпрозрачное лазерное стекло 2. to pave the way — проложить путь 3. on board (a spacecraft) — на борту (космического корабля) 4. to simulate — моделировать, имитировать 5. to cancel out — уничтожать, уравновешивать 6. stable-state — устойчивое состояние 7. in case of melts — в случае расплавов 8. gravitational convection — гравитационная конвекция (перенос тепла под действием силы тяжести) 9. gene engineering — генная инженерия

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 17. Просмотрите текст 6А и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is this text about? 2. Have you seen the label «Made in Space» anywhere? 3. Why can't certain materials be produced on Earth? 4. Can all the conditions on board a space vehicle be simu­ lated on Earth? 5. When will it be possible to start industrial pro­ duction of materials in space? What do you think about it? Can we start such production now? 6. Why can we obtain materials of better quality in space? 7. What equipment is needed for producing materials in space? 8. How will this equipment operate? Упражнение 18. Составьте утверждения, выбрав правильный вариант со­ гласно тексту 6А. 1. Many well-known processes go on differently in space due to a) different density. b) the presence of weight. c) the absence of weight. 2. The components of stable-state liquid mixtures would sepa­ rate on Earth because of a) high temperature. b) different density. c) different conditions., 3. It is well-known that various defects in semiconductors occur because of a) weightlessness. b) solidification. c) convection. Упражвение 19. Найдите в тексте 6А модальные глаголы и их эквивален­ ты. Замените эквиваленты соответствующими модальными глаголами. Упражнение 20. Выберите соответствующий модальный глагол. 1. Do you live far? (Can, must) we meet here at 7 o'clock? — We certainly (may, can). — Г11 see you later this evening, then. 2. Bill, would you help me? Sure, I'd be glad to help you. What (may, can) I do for you? 3. (Can, may) I take your pen? I've broken mine. 4. Do you know when Bob comes back from the University? I am afraid he (can, may) be very late. He has an examination to­ morrow. He (can, must) study for the examination. 5. Do you have a stamp (марка)? — No, I'm afraid I don't. You (may, must) go to the post office for this. 6. I'm very much interested in envi­ ronment problems. I think we (must, may) learn to live in har­ mony with nature. Упражнение 21. Укажите предложения с модальными глаголами, выра­ жающими необходимость совершения действия. Переведите. 1. As telegraph wires couldn't be hung over the ocean, cables had to be laid on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. 2. In the next few years engineers are to develop computers of more than 2 billion operations a second. 3. A new kind of telephone may be called a video-phone. 4. One must know that we shall need a lot of special­ ists that will be able to work and live in space for a long time. 5. To see distant objects clearly, one should change the focus. 6. Within a few coming years a quantity production of various materials is to begin in space. 7. Some liquid mixture components would immedi­ ately separate on Earth because of different density. 8. It should be said that special space vehicles are necessary for industrial produc­ tion of space materials. 9. Our group will be allowed to use new lab­ oratory equipment next term. 10. One can see that there is no principal difference between iron and copper as conductors. Упражнение 22. Найдите предложения с эквивалентами модальных гла­ голов to have to, to be to, A. 1. Television has a great number of uses nowadays. 2. Morse discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written, they, could be sent as a sound. 3. That part of this country has become a highly industrial one. 4. Why couldn't you do it yesterday? — Be­ cause I had to go home earlier than usual. 5. This important prob­ lem had been solved by the end of 1980. 6. In the past messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship. 7. Some materials with useful qualities will have to be produced in space. 8. A historian has to study a lot of various facts to be able to reconstruct the far past. B. 1. Such metals as iron, cobalt, nickel and some alloys are much more magnetic than any other substances. 2. In the next few years Russian engineers are to complete the work on supercom­ puters. 3. The main aim of this article is to explain methods and means of space industrialization. 4. We are living in an electronic world. 5. A number of TV stations are to be linked up into a net­ work. 6. Experiments for industrial production of materials in space are being carried out in many countries. 7. Weightlessness is created on Earth, but only for a few seconds. 8. The quality of these metal parts is to be very high. 9. It was found that the acceleration rate on board such vehicles was to be reduced to a minimum. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 23. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся слова, и пе­ реведите их. requirement, constituent, scientific, distance, agronomist, an­ cient, density, differ, hardness, structural, various, magnificent, presence, property, culture, conductor, presentation, probably. Упражнение 24. Напишите глаголы, соответствующие словам. surprisingly, difference, equipment, mixture, coming, estima­ tion, weightlessness, production, separately, development, move­ ment, disappearance, functional. Упражнение 25. Образуйте прилагательные от существительных. magnet, industry, absence, speciality, weight, probability, orbit, dynamics, preparation, supertransparency, independence, gravita­ tion, 8ирефиг11у, difficulty, variety. Упражнение 26. Переведите слова, учитывая значение префикса super-. supercritical, superactive, supercooled, superalloy, superhard, superplastic., Упражнение 27. Дайте для следующих слов: а) синонимы to Start, movement, nowadays, quality, research, various, a means, manufacture, possess, to occur, consequently, numerous, spacecraft, to use, to substitute, certain; б) антонимы distant, to stop, few, to reduce, invaluable, unusual, dependence, minimum. Упражнение 28. Выберите английский эквивалент русского предложе­ ния из предлагаемых вариантов. 1. Он должен идти домой. Не may go home. Не must go home. He had to go home. 2. OH должен идти домойв5часов. Не must go home at 5 o'clock. He is to go home at 5 o'clock. He may go home at 5 o'clock. 3. OH может идти домойв5часов. Не may go home at 5. Не can go home at 5. He must go home at 5. 4. OH должен будет идти домой раньше. Не must go home earlier. He should go home earlier. He will have to go home earlier. 5. Ему следует идти домой. Не should go home. He may go home. He had to go home. 6. OH может очень быстро ходить. Не can walk very quickly. He will be able to walk very quickly. He could walk very quickly. 7. Ему разрешат идти домой после трех. Не is permitted to go home after 3. He was permitted to go home after 3. He will be permitted to go home after 3. 8. Ему не нужно идти домой сразу. Не is not allowed to go home at once. He could not go home at once. He needn't go home at once. Упражнение 29. Заполните пропуски словами because или because of. 1. She must go by bus every morning ... she lives far from the institute. 2. The students cannot translate this text... it is difficult. 3. The planes could not leave the aiфort... the bad weather. 4. Our life has become easier ... the electricity. 5. Critics would say that the young people were too passive ... they watched TV so much. Упражнение 30. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. lost, risen, pay, leading, struck, sat., Упражнение 31. Переведите без словаря. The first step in any industrialization project, for example, on the Moon should be preparation for plant construction. It is eco­ nomically desirable to use local materials for this. It is well-known that metals form the most important group of engineering materi­ als. One must know that they possess necessary mechanical and physical properties. They can be easily fabricated into various forms by a variety of techniques. They are hard, tough (пластич­ ный), strong and temperature-resistant, a combination of proper­ ties not available in any other materials. The properties of metals can be changed by. heat treatment so that the fabrication is much easier since the work pieces can have properties quite different from those needed in the final product.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What condition on board a space vehicle can't be simulated on Earth? (prolonged weightlessness). 2. What eliminates gravity during a space flight? (inertia). 3. What can be the industrial use of weightlessness? (the production of new materials with unusual properties). 4. What industrial materials can be produced in space? (superconductors, new kinds of alloys, magnetic materials, laser glass, polymers, plastics, etc). 5. What is Russia's contribution to the development of methods and means of industrial material pro­ duction in space? (over 600 technological experiments carried out at the Russian orbital space stations). 6. What are the results of these experiments? (much better properties of the materials ob­ tained under the zero-gravity condition than those produced on Earth). 7. What is needed for industrial material production in space? (special space platforms). Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts, 1. Experts estimate that within 1. for industrial production of a few coming years new-generation materials at a larger scale is being carried out in Russia, the USA, Europe and Ja­ pan. 2. Numerous experiments on 2. very difficult on Earth, board, 3. They may include 3. i.e. movement of gases or liq­ uids because of difference of tem­ peratures. 4. In space there is no gravita- 4. to grow large crystals and to tional convection study their structure. 5. Convection makes the pro- 5. super and semiconductors, duction of some materials metals, glasses, supeфure biologi­ cally active substances, etc. 6. But in zero-gravity condi- 6. the industrial production of tions it is possible various materials is to begin in space. 7. It should be said that research 7. the Russian manned and un- and preparatory work manned space vehicles and space stations proved the advantages of the zero-gravity state for the pro­ duction of some materials. Exercise 3. Read and learn. Tom: Are you going to attend the seminar tonight? Bill: I should go. Unfortunately, I won't be able to do so. Т.: Why should you go there? В.: The speaker will talk about composite ceramics. I must know all about this subject. As you know, I'll do some experimental work in this field next June. So I'll have to know about it. Т.: In that case, you ought to cancel (отменить) your other plans and attend the seminar. You shouldn't miss (пропускать) it. В.: You are right. But I can't go. Т.: Why can't you? В.: Don't you remember (помнить)? We are to take an exam in French tomorrow. I have to study for the examination. T. Do you have to study? Is it a necessity? В.: Well, I suppose the expression «have to study» is too strong. No one is forcing me. But I really ought to study tonight. Shouldn't you do it too? Т.: I don't have to study. I studied last night and I am sure I can pass it. Besides that, I must attend the seminar. В.: Why must you attend it? Т.: Have you forgotten? I must introduce the speaker to the audi­ ence. В.: Yes, that's right. Т.: Well, I have to go now. I may be late. I'll see you later., Exercise 4. Speak about: L Space industrialization and its importance for mankind. 2. The latest achievements in industrial materials production in space. Use exercises 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic : carry out experiments; obtain useful and valuable data; on board a space ve­ hicle; zero-gravity condition; zero-gravity state advantages, materials of better quality; at a larger scale; in case; according to. Exercise 5. Read and smile. The teacher was trying to explain the fundamentals of Science to her class. «Sir Isaak Newton was sitting under a tree looking up into it when an apple fell on his head, and from that he could dis­ cover the law of gravity. Wasn't that wonderful?» «Yes, it certainly was», a pupil said, «and if he had been at school at his books, he wouldn't have discovered anything». A Trick on a President W.H. Harrison was the ninth President of the United States. Like so many other early American presidents he was bom in a small town. As a boy, he was extremely quiet. In fact, he was so quiet that he had the reputation of being very stupid (глупый). The town people therefore often used to play tricks (шутка) on him. For example, they would put a nickel and a dime (монетыв5и10 центов) in front of him and tell him to take whichever one he wanted. He would always choose the nickel and they would laugh at him. One day, a woman took pity (пожалеть) on him. She said: «William, why do you always choose the nickel instead (вместо) of a dime? Don't you know that a dime, though smaller in size than a nickel, is worth (стоить) much more than a nickel?» «Cer­ tainly I know it», William answered. «But if I chose the dime, they wouldn't play the trick on me any more.» Text 6B Прочитайте текст и расскажите о новом способе повышения пластично­ сти и износостойкости режущего инструмента из композиционной керамики. Composite Ceramics Advanced ceramic materials have such interesting properties that mechanical engineers are becoming more and more interested in their use as structural parts (конструкционные детали)., Ceramic cutting tools have been in use for some time. How­ ever, it is only during the last twenty years that there has been rapid development in this field because of the development of new com­ posite ceramics. Composite materials are materials in which two or more differ­ ent substances, such as metals, ceramics, glasses, or polymers are combined without chemical reaction. As a result one can produce a material with properties different from those of any of the individ­ ual constituents. The constituents of a composite would retain their individual characteristics. Recently engineers have developed various kinds of composite ceramics which must combine an increased toughness (пластич­ ность) with the same hardness and strength of usual ceramics. A promising recent development is the addition of a tiny quantity of metal to increase toughness and tool life. Thus, at room and high temperatures (1000 °C) the composite ceramics for cutting tools should possess the following properties: high strength, high tough­ ness, high hardness, high thermal shock resistance and high chemi­ cal inertness. Text 6C Прочитайте текст, выделите интересные для вас факты и перескажите. Ancient Steel-Making Secret When two metallurgists at Stanford University were trying to produce a «superplastic» metal they became interested in the secret of Damascus steel, the legendary material used by numerous war­ riors (воины) of the past, including Crusaders (крестоносцы). Its formula had been lost for generations. Analyses of a new steel revealed properties almost identical to those they found in Damascus steel, although their own plastic steel had been produced by present-day methods. The remarkable characteristics of Damascus steel became known to Europe when the Crusaders reached the Middle East in the Uth century. They discovered that swords (меч) of the metal could split (рассечь) a feather (перо) in air and at the same time retain their edge sharp through many battles. The secrets of Damascus steel were known in many parts of the ancient world, especially in Persia, where some of the finest speci­ mens were produced. For eight centuries the Arab sword makers kept the secret about their techniques and methods. And with the invention of firearms (огнестрельное оружие), the secret was lost and it was never fully rediscovered., The two metallurgists carried out a lot of researches. When they realized that they might be close to the discovery of a new material, a sword fancier (знаток), at one of their demonstrations, pointed out that Damascus steel, like their own product, was very rich in carbon. This led them to conduct a comparative analysis of their steel and those of the ancient weapons. As a result, it was found that a basic requirement was a high carbon content. The two metal­ lurgists believed it had to be from 1 per cent to 2 per cent, compared to only a part of 1 per cent in ordinary steel. Their research showed how to make steel of even greater hardness than Damascus steel. Text 6D Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски, чем примечателен читаль­ ный зал Библиотеки Британского музея и какие отделы имеются в Британ­ ском музее. The British Museum The British Museum consisting of the National Museum of Ar­ cheology and Ethnography and the National Library is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. Built in the middle of the last century it is situated in central London which consists of quiet squares and streets. The British Museum was founded by Act of Parliament in 1753 to bring together the collection of Sir Robert Cotton, some others and future addition to them. Anthony Panizzi designed the famous circular Reading Room at the British Museum. The first thing that strikes a visitor on en­ tering the Reading Room is its unusual shape. It is a perfect circle. The superintendent (управляющий) and his assistant sit in the centre of the room and they issue (выдавать) and collect books. Long rows of reading desks radiate to the outer walls, like the spokes (спицы) of the wheel. Many famous people have used the Reading Room at the Brit­ ish Museum. Of the many distinguished people who have used the Reading Room no one was perhaps more regular and more intent (целеустремленный) than the German philosopher and socialist Karl Marx. Soon after he arrived in England in 1849, Marx became a daily visitor of the Reading Room, where he used to remain from nine in the morning till closing time. The British Museum has a department of ethnography. Ethnog­ raphy is concerned with primitive people and their cultures in vari­ ous stages of development as revealed by their tools, ritual objects and various crafts (ремесло). This collection is so vast that only a, tiny percentage is on show to the general public. Then there is a de­ partment of prints and drawings. There are also departments devoted to maps, coins and medals. Visitors interested in chronology can see a large collection of clocks and watches. Those who are interested in philately can find a magnificent collection of postage stamps. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте следующие выражения из текста 6А и по­ старайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов и словосочетаний. 1. this label «Made in Space» 2. in the not so distant future 3. with peculiar magnetic properties 4. prolonged weightlessness 5. The Archimedes principal is no longer valid 6. the theoretical basis for space industry 7. on board these vehicles; on board orbital station 8. preparatory work for industrial production in space 9. replace the specimens B. Подберите к каждому выделенномувАслову соответствующее ему по значению. a. well based, correct, effective b. needed for preparing; introductory с continuing for a long time d. foundation e. in a ship f. not so far away in time g. special, particular h. piece of paper, metal or other material used to describe what smth. is, where it is to go, etc. i. one as an example of a class Упражнение 2. A. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь догадаться о значе­ нии терминов shape memory alloy, suggest, remember, piston, contract, expand, engine. Shape memory alloys (SMA) are in general usage today. What exactly is a SMA? As the name suggests, this alloy can remember its original shape or form. Essentially it is a metal which can be de­ formed when cold and will return to its first shape when hot. The particular alloy we are speaking about is nickel titanium. We can see here one application in a conventional piston. When, the piston is cold, the SMA coil or spring contracts and so the pis­ ton does not move. Heat causes it to expand and consequently the piston moves up. The advantage is that the device can work without any mechanical power, just from the heat which is supplied by the engine itself. B. Найдите в приведенном выше тексте 5 пар синонимови3пары анто­ нимов. Упражнение 3. Замените выделенные словосочетания соответствующи­ ми глаголами expand, remember, contract, suggest, deform. The name SMA causes us to think that such an alloy can keep in memory its original shape. In other words it can change its shape. When cold it gets smaller. When hot it gets bigger. Упражнение 4. Составьте возможные словосочетания из глаголов в ко­ лонкеАисуществительных из колонки В, переведите их и запомните.

В

1. make a. the basis, foundation 2. meet b. application, a way 3. obtain/provide с an operation 4. lay d. an advantage over, influence on 5. state e. data, results, access to 6. find f. information, a message, signal 7. develop g. an experiment, a TV program 8. send/transmit/receive h. a law 9. have i. a decision, mistake, calculation 10. perform j . equipment, a device, design, system 11. watch k. requirements Упражнение 5. Составьте, переведите и запомните словосочетания с гла­ голом to be. famous for, of great importance, in general (common) use (usage), of great help, interested in. Упражнение 6. Заполните таблицы на словообразование. Noun Adjective Opposite Adjective use thought thoughtful care hopeless, Adjective Noun Noun, Adjective Noun hard journal tough toughness science useful economy uselessness metallurgist hopeful active hopelessness humanist carefulness chemistry careless ... physicist Упражнение 7. A. Назовите 10—15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Advanced materials». В. Speak about: А new alloy or advanced composite material you have recently read or heard about, its properties and possible uses., REVISION OF LESSONS 4 - 6 Упражнение 1. Повторите способы выражения определения. Найдите определения и переведите предложения. A. 1. This is an excellent computer which will give you many years of service. 2. The number of men present was small. 3. Per­ sonal laser printers cost less than ordinary laser printer. They also weigh less and require less space. 4. Do you know the total number of colours available on this graphics system? 5. Supercomputers ca­ pable of performing billions of operations a second will have to be developed soon. 6. Ten miles is a long distance to walk. 7. Any me­ chanic could do that job. 8. Digital television has many features that are absent from conventional TV, such as easy connection to computers and telecommunication networks. 9. E-mail is a very fast data communication service. For e-mail to get a message to the other side of the world is a matter of a second or two. 10. The fac­ tory has computer controlled production equipment. B. 1. Tell me about the report you are preparing now. 2. A new radio set Ted has is a Zenith. 3, Ten hours of work a day is the maximum you should do. 4. Do you know about the disco the Uni­ versity is organising? 5. The news we have heard this week is of great importance. 6. You have been given all the information you need. 7. I collected all the information I could find on the Internet about this subject. 8. With the new system you will be able to gen­ erate statistics any time you want. 9. Writing letters and reports are the purposes most people use computers for. 10. Composite mate­ rials we learnt about are the combination of metals, ceramics, glasses and polymers produced without chemical reactions. 11. Weightlessness the production of new materials depend on cannot be created on the earth for a long period of time. 12. The TV sets people saw at the New York Fair in 1939 were not available for a long time because of World War II. 13. Metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers composite materials consist of have properties different from those of the obtained composite material. Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и переведите тексты, обращая внимание на проработанную грамматику и лексику 4, 5, 6 уроков. The Monitor We interact with computers by entering instructions and data into them. After the information has been processed (обрабаты-, вать), we can see the results (i.e. the output) on the visual display unit (VDU — устройство виртуального отображения) or the monitor. In this interactive process with the computer, the screen plays an important part. The pictures and the characters (символы) we see on the screen are made up of picture elements which are also called pixels. The total number of pixels the display is divided in (both horizon­ tally and vertically) is known as resolution. When the number of pixels is very large, we obtain a high resolution display and there­ fore a sharp image. If the number of pixels is small, a low resolution is obtained. Thus, pixel density or resolution affects the quality of the image: a larger number of pixels gives a much clearer image. The cathode ray tube of the monitor is very similar to that of a TV set. Inside the tube there is an electron beam which scans the screen and turns on or off the pixels that make up the image. The beam appears in the top left corner, and scans the screen from left to right in a continuous sequence, similar to the movement of our eyes when we read, but much faster. This sequence is repeated 50, 60 or 75 times per second, depending on the system. In a colour monitor, the screen surface is coated (покрывать) with substances called phosphors. Three different phosphor materi­ als are used — one each for red, green and blue. A beam of elec­ trons causes phosphor materials to give coloured light from which the picture is formed. Colour monitors are capable to display many different colours at the same time. Portable computers use a flat liquid-crystal display (LCD) in­ stead of a picture tube. Super Phones Not long ago it became known that cell phone manufacturers were experimenting with several different designs for the handheld devices that would be linked to the advanced wireless networks of the future. If these machines really are to become digital compan­ ions, they will have to be versatile, adaptable and fashionable (мод­ ный). Companies such as Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola are working on the third-generation «super phone» that will look quite different from existing cell phones. In fact, calling them phones seems absurd (неразумный). They will have built-in colour screens several inches square for presentation of high resolution graphics and video. Some may have a keyboard and a miniature mouse for data input, but most of them will use touch-sensitive, (сенсорный) screens and styluses (перо, пишущий узел) like those employed now by the handheld computers. In addition to carrying voice communication, the super phone will also be able to play music files that are circulating on the Web in the most popular MP3 format (or in whatever format may re­ place it). Упражнение 3. Объясните значение следующих словосочетаний. Например: material properties — the properties of a material; colour monitor — a monitor that works in colour; company's database — the database which belongs to the company. 1. light beams 2. pixel number, pixel density 3. eye movements 4. director's computer 5. printing device 6. new generation computer 7. pocket-sized computer 8. handheld phones 9. high resolution display 10. high speed electronic circuits 11. computer controlled production equipment Упражнение 4. Подберите к словам из колонки А их объяснение из ко­ лонки В. А В 1. pixel а. the maximum number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical directions of the screen 2. monitor b. the results produced by a computer 3. resolution с the smallest element of a display surface 4. character d. read the image as a series of pixels to enter infor­ mation into the computer's memory 5. computer e. the picture tube of the display which is made of glass and contains a vacuum 6. CRT f. a CRT device which displays the computer output 7. image g. a symbol available on the keyboard 8. scan h. the machine that stores and processes data 9. output i. a picture or what is seen on a television or com- puter screen, Упражнение 5. А. Заполните пропуски словами: pixel certain Web stylus chip perform CPU mouse 1. A ... is a tiny piece of silicon containing a set of integrated circuits. 2. The ... directs and coordinates the operations taking place within the computer system. 3. The arithmetic logic units ... calculations on the data. 4. The common name for picture ele­ ments is ... 5. On colour systems, each pixel is a ... combination of the three primary colours: red, green, and blue. 6. ... is a system by which one can navigate through the Internet and find news, pic­ tures, virtual museums, electronic magazines — any topic you can imagine. 7. What makes the ... especially useful is that it is a very quick way to move around on a screen. 8. A ... is a pen-like input device used to write directly on the screen to enter data. B. Speak about: The next generation mobile phones., LESSON 7 Причастия Независимый причастный оборот Значения слова since Суффиксы -agCy -ate Префикс ел- Text 7 А. Transport for Tomorrow Text 7В. Car of Future Text 1С. Talking Instrument Panels Text 7D. Testing Times ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Прочитайте, обращая внимание на употребление времен. «Have you seen а copy of Magna Charta: collection of old Eng­ lish Laws?» «I haven't seen all of it. I have seen parts of it many times. I saw three or four articles from it yesterday. I read them in the translated form. Old English is almost as difficult to read as a foreign language». «Where did you see them?» «I saw them at the Public Library». «I saw you there. Did you see me?» «No, I didn't see you. I didn't see anyone whom I knew except the librarian. I didn't see any of my school friends, I mean». «I have seen you at the library many times, but you don't see anyone. The teacher says she has seen you there too, but you see only the books which you are reading». Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски глаголом to see в соответствующем времени. I ... а friend in the library yesterday. I ... him there many times before, but he was so busy that I did not speak to him. When I spoke to him he said that he ... never ... me at the library. He con­ centrates on his work. He ... only his book. The teacher ... him, there many times, but he doesn't ... even her. He ... many impor­ tant facts in books, however, and tells the class about them. He ... and read more important documents than all the rest of our class put together. Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие словосочетания с ParticipleIиParticiple II: developing industry, developed industry; changing distances, changed distances; a controlling device, a controlled device; an increasing speed, an increased speed; a transmitting signal, a transmitted signal; a reducing noise, a reduced noise; a moving object, a moved object; heating parts, heated parts. Упражнение 4. Найдите причастия, переведите предложения. A. 1. We need highly developed electronics and new materials to make supercomputers. 2. New alloys have appeared during the last decades, among them a magnesium-lithium alloy developed by our scientists. 3. We are carried by aiфlanes, trains and cars with built-in electronic devices. 4. Computer components produced should be very clean. 5. Many countries have cable TV, a system using wires for transmitting TV programs. 6. The fifth-generation computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become available in the near future. 7. A video phone has a device which al­ lows us to see a room and the face of the person speaking. 8. New technologies reduce the number of workers needed. B. 1. Driving a car a man tries to keep steady speed and watch the car in front of him. 2. Having stated the laws of gravity, Newton was able to explain the structure of the Universe. 3. Being more effi­ cient than human beings, computers are used more and more exten­ sively. 4, Having graduated from Cambridge, Newton worked there as a tutor. 5. Having been published in 1687, Newton's laws of mo­ tion are still the basis for research. 6. Being invented the digital tech­ nology solved the old problems of noise in signal transmission. 7. Having published his book about space exploration in 1895, Tsiol- kovsky became known all over the world. 8. Built in the middle of the last century, the British Museum is situated in central London. Упражнение 5. Определите, какую функцию выполняет слово с оконча- нием -ed, и переведите предложения. 1. The first television set produced quite a sensation in 1939. The first television set produced in 1939 was a tiny nine-by-twelve inch box. 2. Newton's great work published in 1687 is called, «Principia». Newton published his great work «Principia» in 1687. 3. The Russian Chemical Society organized more than a century ago is named after Mendeleev. The Russian Chemical Society or­ ganized an international conference devoted to the latest achieve­ ments in organic chemistry. 4. The energy possessed by the body due to its position is called the potential energy. The new material possessed good properties. 5. The equipment required to carry out laboratory experiments was very complex. The equipment re­ quired further improvement. 6. The car model developed a speed of 50 miles an hour. The car model developed by our student design bureau will be shown on TV. Упражнение 6. Переведите выделенные словосочетания. 1. When completed in 1897, Jefferson's building was the largest and costliest library in the world. 2. Though being a school teacher of mathematics all his life, Tsiolkovsky concentrated his attention on man's travel into space. 3. If compared to today's TV program, the first black-and-white pictures were rather bad. 4. While being a teacher of deaf people Bell became interested in sound and its transmission. 5. Though discovered, Newton's mistake had no in­ fluence on his theory. 6. While worl̂ ing at a new transmitter for deaf people Bell invented a telephone. 7. If heated to 100 °C, water turns into steam. Упражнение 7. Найдите подлежащее независимого причастного оборота, переведите предложения. A. 1. The room being dark, we couldn't see anything. 2. The book being translated into many languages, everybody will be able to read it. 3. Peter having passed his exams, we decided to have a rest in the country. 4. We went for a walk, our dog running in front of us. 5. The testwork having been written, he gave it to the teacher and left the room. 6. They having arrived at the station early, all of us went to the cafe. 7. My friends decided to go to the park, the weather being warm and sunny. 8. Our library buying all the new books, we needn't buy them ourselves. 9.The fuel burnt out, the en­ gine stopped. 10. Many scientists worked in the field of mechanics before Newton, the most outstanding being Galileo. B. 1. Numerous experiments having been carried out at the or­ bital stations, it became possible to develop new methods of indus­ trial production of new materials. 2. President Jefferson having offered his personal library, the foundation of the Library of Con­ gress was laid. 3. Anthony Panizzi designed the Reading Room of the British Museum, the Reading Room being a perfect circle. 4. A beam of light being transmitted forwards, it is possible to measure, the distance between the car and the other cars in front of it. 5. The distance having been measured, the computer adjusts the car's speed. 6. Two metallurgists produced a new superplastic metal, the new steel showing properties identical to Damascus steel. 7. The young physicist having discovered Newton's error, other scientists confirmed it. 8. The first TV sets having been shown in New York, the news about it spread throughout the world. C. 1. With the first steam engine built in the 17-th century, people began to use them in factories. 2. The inventor was demon­ strating his new device, with the workers watching its operation at­ tentively. 3. With his numerous experiments being over, Newton was able to write his work very quickly. 4. With the current being switched on, the machine automatically starts operating. Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения на английский язык. 1. Читая книгу, он обьино делает заметки (make notes). 2. Про­ читав текст, мы обсудим его. 3. Отвечая на вопросы, он сделал несколько ошибок. 4. Ответив на вопросы преподавателя, мы начали переводить новый текст. 5. Являясь хорошим провод­ ником электричества, медь широко используется в промыш­ ленности. 6. Увидев зеленый свет, мы перешли (cross) улицу. 7. Покупая газету, он потерял деньги. 8. Купив газету, он пошел к метро. Упражнение 9. Переведите предложения. Запомните значения выделен­ ных слов. 1. The Reading Room of the Library of Congress houses a great collection of reference books. 2. The Houses of Parliament are situated in the centre of London on the banks of the Thames. 3, The fuselage of a new cargo aircraft can house large-size equip­ ment. 4. Solar power can be used as a source of heat. 5. When we heat water, it turns into steam. 6. Heat energy may be of a kinetic form. 7. A new computerized system monitors the production pro­ cesses of this plant. 8. This plant is equipped with video and televi­ sion monitors. 9. Our laboratory is developing an electronic monitoring system for cars. 10. In new cars instrument panels will have a means to display different objects on the road. 11. Liquid- crystal display was used in the first colour television set. 12. A spe­ cial electronic device signals the engine to stop. 13. Now it is pos­ sible to send signals over long distances. Упражнение 10. Определите, в каких предложениях only — наречие, а в каких — прилагательное. 1. The higher school today considers education not only as a collection of useful facts and theories but as a process which trains, the mind to think, analyze and make decisions. 2. Halley's Comet is the only comet which has been regularly observed for more than 200 years. 3. Many experts now question the idea that environmen­ tal problems began only with the industrial revolution in the 19th century. 4. Since their first appearance in 1939 only few people owned television sets. 5. The collection of ethnography in the British Museum is so vast that only a tiny percentage is on show to the general public. 6. When we speak about the further develop­ ment of computers, we mean not only quantity, but also high tech­ nology and high speed. Упражнение 11. A. Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний. one thing is certain, public transport, the time is coming, from home to office, a modern vehicle, in common use, to get into a car, a pack of cigarettes, how far one can drive, various objects ahead, directly above the bumper, get out of a car. различные объекты впереди, общественный транспорт, современное транспортное средство, приходит время, сесть в машину, пачка сигарет, от дома до работы, одно явно, в по­ всеместном использовании, выйти из машины, сколько (как далеко) можно проехать, непосредственно над бампером. в. Переведите словосочетания. to go out into the street, a usual means of transport, to get in­ formation, to get the best economy, a decade ago, to play a part, the size of a pack of cigarettes, the vehicle's carburetor, an elec­ tronic instrument panel, the car's position on a road, objects ahead of the vehicle, stationary objects ahead, ten miles an hour.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 12. Переведите производные слова согласно образцу: прилагательное 1 существительное > ч- -age = существительное глагол J short — короткий -> shortage — нехватка, недостаток mile — миля -> mileage — расстояние в милях to use — использовать -> usage — использование advantage, breakage, blockage; суффикс глагола -ate illuminate — освещать; sophisticate — усложнять regulate, demonstrate, concentrate, separate, indicate;, префикс en- -^ прилагательное = глагол rich — богатый -> to enrich — обогащать to enable, to ensure, to enlarge, to enclose. Упражнение 13. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. public ['рлЫхк], transport, future ['fju:^9], pilot ['pail9t], role ['reul], carburetor [,ka:bju'rete], control [кэпЧгэи!], display, component [kam'peunent], model ['modi], characteristics [,kaer9kte'ristiks], diagonally [dai'aeg9n9li], automatic [,o:t9m'aetik], automatically, automobile ['o:t9m9ubi:l], motor ['m9ut9], decade ['dekeid], gasoline ['gaes9uli:n], nature ['nei^9.], to project [pr9'd5ekt], Sahara [S9'ha:r9], ceramic [si'raemik], radar ['reid9]. Упражнение 14. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. vehicle [Vi:ikl], drive [draiv], driver, arrive [9'raiv], arrival [9'raiv9l], guidance ['gaid9ns], private ['praivit], motorway, mo­ torcar, lane [lein], luxury ['1лк/9Г1], exhaust [ig'zo:st], device [di'vais], adjust [9'cl5ASt], fuel [fju9l], calculate ['kaelkjuleit], av­ erage ['aev9rict5], since [sins], feature ['fi:^9], aerial ['S9ri9l], di­ rectly [di'rektii], danger ['deincl59], observe [9b'z9:v], warn [wo:n], buzzer [Ъл29], Japan [cl59'paen], Japanese [,ct5aep9'ni:z], angle ['aer^gi], axis ['aeksis], data ['deit9], impassable [im'pa:s9bl], valve [vaelv], 5 °C [faivdi'gri.z'sentigreid], engine ['endjin]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ adjust V — регулировать guidance п — управление, на- angle п — угол ведение apply V — применять ignition п — зажигание avoid V — избегать indicate v — указывать, пока- axis п — ось зывать current а — современный, те- make v — делать, заставлять кущий mount V — монтировать, уста- destination п — пункт назначе- навливать ния only а — единственный; adv — detect V — обнаруживать только, directly adv — прямо, непо- place v — помещать средственно select v — выбирать engine n — двигатель size n — размер ensure v — обеспечивать, га- sophisticated p,p — сложный рантировать valve n — клапан equip V — оборудовать warn v — предупреждать exceed v — превышать withstand v — выдерживать exhaust n — выхлоп in many respects — во многих отношениях to look like — быть похожим to turn on/off — включать/выключать Text 7A Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте на следующие вопросы: Какой вид автомобиля наиболее перспективен для общественного транспорта будущего? Какие примеры применения электроники в автомобиле приводятся в тексте? Transport for Tomorrow One thing is certain about the public transport of the future: it must be more efficient than it is today. The time is coming when it will be quicker to fly across the Atlantic to New York than to travel from home to office. The two main problems are: what vehicle shall we use and how can we plan our use of it? There are already some modern vehicles which are not yet in common use, but which may become a usual means of transport in the future. One of these is the small electric car: we go out into the street, find an empty car, get into it, drive to our destination, get out and leave the car for the next person who comes along. In fact, there may be no need to drive these cars. With an automatic guid­ ance system for cars being developed, it will be possible for us to se­ lect our destination just as today we select a telephone number, and our car will move automatically to the address we want. For long journeys in private cars one can also use an automatic guidance system. Arriving at the motorway, a driver will select the lane^ he wishes to use, switch over to automatic driving, and then relax — dream, read the newspaper, have a meal, flirt with his pas­ senger — while the car does the work for him. Unbelievable? It is already possible. Just as in many ships and aircraft today we are pi-, loted automatically for the greater part of the journey, so in the fu- ture we can also have this luxury in our own cars. A decade ago, the only thing electronic on most automobiles was the radio. But at present sophisticated electronics is playing a big part in current automotive research. For example, in every gasoline-powered^ car that General Motors Corporation makes there is a small computer continuously monitoring the exhaust. The device, about the size of a pack of cigarettes, adjusts the vehi- cle carburetor fuel intake^ to get the best fuel economy. Ford cars are equipped with an electronic instrument panel that, among other things^, will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. It will also estimate the time of arrival at destination and tell the driver what speed he has averaged^ since turning on the ignition. According to specialists these features made possible by micro- electronics are only the beginning. Radar may control the brakes to avoid collisions, and a display screen may show the car's position on the road. Recently a radar to be mounted on lorries and cars has been designed in the USA. The radar aerial looks like a third head- light placed directly above the bumper. Having summed up the in- formation about the speed and distance of various objects ahead, the computer detects all possible dangers and their nature. A third com- ponent in the system is a monitor on the instrument panel. The radar only observes objects ahead of the vehicle. It is automatically turned on when the speed exceeds ten miles an hour. The green light on the panel indicates that the system is on. The yellow light warns of sta- tionary objects ahead, or something moving slower than the car. The red light and buzzer warn that the speed should go down. Another red light and sound signal make the driver apply the brakes. A Japanese company is designing a car of a new generation. When completed, the new model will have a lot of unusual charac- teristics. The car's four-wheel control system will ensure move- ment diagonally and even sideways, like a crab, at right angles to the longitudinal axis. This is especially important when leaving the car in parking places. To help the driver get information while con- centrating on the road, the most important data will be projected on the wind screen. A tourist travelling in such a car will not lose his way even in Sahara with its impassable roads: a navigation Earth satellite will indicate the route. A new ceramic engine has been developed in Japan. Many im- portant parts as pistons, pressure rings^, valves and some others, have been made of various ceramic materials, piston rings'̂ made of silicon materials being in many respects better than those of steel. They withstand temperatures up to 1,000 °C. Therefore, the engine does not need a cooling system. Notes to the Text 1. lane — ряд 2. gasoline-powered — с бензиновым двигателем 3. fuel intake — впрыск топлива 4. among other things — кроме всего прочего 5. what speed he has averaged — какова была его средняя скорость 6. pressure ring — уплотнительное кольцо 7. piston ring — поршневое кольцо

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 15. Просмотрите текст 7А и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is the text about? 2. What kind of a car may be in com­ mon use in the near future? 3. How will a public electric car operate? 4. How will it operate on a motorway? 5. What electronic devices are there in a modern car? 6. What electronic devices does General Motors Coфoration offer for a car? 7. What electronic devices are Ford cars equipped with? 8. Can a radar be used in a car? What will its functions be? 9. What functions will a Japanese car of a new generation have? 10. What materials do the Japanese offer to use for car motors? Упражнение 16. Укажите, какие из приведенных утверждений соответст­ вуют содержанию текста 7А. 1. An automatic guidance system was developed for the electric car. 2. Small electric cars are in common use. 3. Many ships and aircrafts are piloted automatically for the greater part of the jour­ ney. 4. Usually having arrived at a motorway, a driver switches over to automatic control and relaxes. 5. A decade ago there were many electronic things in the cars. 6. There is no future for microelec­ tronics in automobiles. 7. Recently a radar to be mounted on lor­ ries and cars has been designed in the USA. 8. A new ceramic engine has been developed in France., Упражнение 17. Найдите и тексте 7А причастия в функциях определения и обстоятельства (см. 3, 5 и 6-й абзацы), независимые причастные обороты (см. 2-й и 7-й абзацы). Упражнение 18. Найдите причастия и переведите предложения. 1. Studying Newton's work «Principia», a young physicist dis­ covered a mistake in the calculations. 2. Having designed a car ra­ dar, the engineers started complex tests. 3. While driving a car one should be very attentive. 4. A new electronic instrument will calcu­ late how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. 5. The engine tested showed that it needed no further improvement. 6. Scientists are experimenting with a system allowing drivers to see better after dark. 7. The system being tested will increase the safety and fuel ef­ ficiency of a car. 8. Having been tested, the computer system was installed at a plant. 9. Soon the night-vision system designed will be available. 10. The synthetic magnet has a lot of valuable qualities that can be changed, if desired. 11. Recently there have appeared battery-powered cars. 12. The radar used was of a completely new design. 13. Having been heated, the substance changed its proper­ ties. 14. Being provided with batteries an electric car can develop a speed of 50 miles an hour. 15. When mass produced, electric cars will help solve ecological problems of big cities. 16. A defect unde­ tected caused an accident. 17. Though first developed for military purposes, radar can be used in modern cars. Упражнение 19. Найдите предложения с независимым причастным обо­ ротом, переведите. 1. The first engines appeared in the 17th century and people be­ gan using them to operate factories, irrigate land, supply water to towns, etc. 2. The steam engine having been invented, a self-pro­ pelled vehicle was built. 3. The supply of steam in the car lasting only 15 minutes, the vehicle had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam. 4. After the German engineer N. Otto had invented the gasoline engine, the application of this engine in motor cars be­ gan in many countries. 5. The cars at that time were very small, the engine being placed under the seat. 6. Motorists had to carry a sup­ ply of fuel, because there were no service stations. 7. Brakes having become more efficient, cars achieved greater reliability. 8. Cars with internal combustion engines having appeared, the automobile industry began to develop rapidly. 9. By 1960 the number of cars in the world had reached 60 million, no other industry having ever de­ veloped so quickly., УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 20. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся слова. dangerous, automotive, longitudinal, automatically, present, nature, motorist, enrol, enrolment, guidance, average, current, ig­ nition, diagonally, calculate, impossible, graduate, village, public, garage, useful, usefulness. Упражнение 21. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на значение суф­ фикса -ег/-ог. driver, sensor, starter, monitor, microprocessor, detector, tran­ sistor, carburetor, user, transmitter, lecturer, generator. Упражнение 22. Назовите производные слова от глаголов, переведите. navigate, generate, stimulate, estimate, innovate, investigate, regulate. Упражнение 23. Напишите исходную форму, по которой нужно искать следующие слова в словаре: companies, easier, accordingly, better, creating, biggest, cried. Упражнение 24. Сгруппируйте из слов пары: а) синонимов regulate, modern, want, select, use, current, wish, average, ad­ just, choose, mean, apply; б) антонимов unbelievable, cooling, continuous, passable, heating, believ­ able, discontinuous, impassable. Упражнение 25. Переведите предложения и запомните различные значе­ ния слова since. 1. Since 1770 there were many brilliant inventions in the auto­ mobile industry. 2. The production of motor cars in Great Britain was stopped since there were severe speed limits. 3. In early days many of the cars broke since transmissions were still unreliable and often went out of operation. 4. Since conventional headlights are not very effective, a new system has to be developed. 5. Since the French engineer Gugnot invented the first self-propelled vehicle in 1770, the automobile industry developed very rapidly. 6. The num­ ber of chemical elements known to science has grown considerably since Mendeleev created his Periodic Table in 1871., Упражнение 26. Переведите предложения и запомните значение слова too (слишком) перед прилагательным. 1. The task is too difficult for them. 2. The size of the device is too big now. 3. The difference in temperatures was too great. 4. The old system is too complicated. 5. A sensor mechanism for a car is too large at present. Упражнение 27. Переведите предложения и запомните значения слов future и further. 1. In the future it will be possible to use more channels on every TV set via satellite and cable TV. 2. Scientists throughout the world were quick to realize the importance of the radio and contributed much to its further development. 3. The subjects that the students study in the first and the second years are very important for their future speciality. 4. The use of computers in cars is a further step in improving safety on the road. 5. I'll give you further instructions tomorrow. Упражнение 28. Заполните пропуски словами only или the only, переве­ дите предложения. 1. The Earth is ... planet having liquid water. 2. It is useful to remember that the industrial revolution began ... at the end of the 18th century. 3 way to achieve good results is to apply one's knowledge to practical work. 4. The revolution in science and technology affects not ... economically developed countries, but also developing countries. 5. Multi-cylinder engines came into use ... after World War II. 6. The motor car has not ... brought mobility to millions of people, but also has polluted the atmo­ sphere. 7. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but... for a few seconds. 8 ... requirement for plastic steel is that it must be rich in carbon. 9. The Library of Congress serves not... to Members of the Congress, but also to libraries throughout the US and the world. Упражнение 29. Заполните пропуски соответствующими формами глаго­ ла to have (has, have, had, hasn't, haven't, hadn't). «I ... a good car for sale. It ... many extra parts. It ... a good speedometer and four new tires. It ... a new spare (запасная) tire too.» «... it its original paint (краска)?» «No, it... its original paint. It... new paint on it. It looks new.» «I... a good offer for it yester­ day, but the man ... very little cash. I want cash (наличные деньги).» «... it a good engine?» «Yes, it... an excellent engine. It ... any weak places in it. Engines that... weak places in them are al-, ways in the garage.» «I ... an idea you will sell your car.» «I ... two good offers yesterday. One man ... all cash. But he doesn't look like an honest man. I ... no desire to do business with him.» Упражнение 30. Замените придаточные предложения причастным обо­ ротом. 1. While Boris was driving home, he saw an accident. 2. After we had talked with Peter, we felt much better. 3. When John ar­ rived at the station, he saw the train leave. 4. After he had left the house, he walked to the nearest metro station. 5. When I looked out of the window, I saw Mary coming. 6. As we finished our part of the work, we were free to go home. 7. As Ann had had no time to write us a letter, she sent a telegram. Упражнение 31. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. driven, learning, said, setting, buy, ridden, break. Упражнение 32. Прочитайте и переведите без словаря. А new vacuum-controlled constant velocity carburetor devel­ oped by an American company offers several advantages over ordi­ nary carburetors, including 25 per cent gasoline economy, improved engine performance and easier starting. The device having only 54 parts compared with some 300 in conventional carburetors has no choke (дроссель). It constantly adjusts the mixture of fuel and air, which cannot be done in usual carburetors. Provided with special mechanism the carburetor helps the engine turn on at once in cold weather. Though developed quite recently, it is already being used by cars and other kinds of public transport. With diesel engine be­ coming almost standard equipment, the vacuum carburetor will never be used on new cars. It may be said that present-day carbure­ tors are dinosaurs and in 20 years there won't be any more. But there are some countries which are interested in importing the de­ vice as a replacement for existing carburetors.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What are the main problems of public transport? (a new type of vehicle and its much more efficient use) 2. What type of modern vehicle may become a usual means of transport in the future? (a small electric car) 3. What is the possible development in private cars? (the use of an automatic guidance system) 4. What electronic, devices are used in modern cars? (a computer, fuel adjusting de­ vices, an electronic instrument panel for indicating the speed, time, distance covered and fuel left) 5. What is the main function of a radar for a car? (detecting all possible dangers ahead of the vehicle on a road) 6. What unusual feature will a new generation car have? (four-wheel control system ensuring diagonal and side movements) 7. What materials are used in current automotive de­ sign? (ceramics) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. There are alre^y some mod­ 1. goes out into the street, finds em vehicles an empty car, gets into it, drives to his destination, gets out and leaves the car for the next pas­ senger. 2. For example, a small electric 2. there may be no need to drive car can solve these cars. 3. A passenger 3. which may become a usual means of transport in the future. 4. With an automatic guidance 4. increasingly wide use of mod­ system for cars, em microelectronics in cars. 5. It will be possible 5. many problems of public trans­ port. 6. All these innovations will be­ 6. an important part in current come possible because of car design. 7. Computers, electronic instru­ 7. to switch over to automatic ment panels, radars, adjusting driving, as we do in ships and air- devices, etc. are playing crafts today. Exercise 3. Read and learn. Bob's New Used Car John: This is the car that Bob bought from Mr. Adams. Bill: I didn't even know that he had bought a car. When did he tell you that he had bought it? J: He told me yesterday that he had bought it two days earlier. B: Do you know how much he paid for the car? J: Well, he said he had paid 800 dollars for it. В.: I wonder why he bought an old car? I didn't think he needed a car. J.: Well, I suppose he will use it for his new job., в.: Do you think the car is in good condition? J.: He told me that the car was in perfect condition. The tires are practically new. The new generator works perfectly. Frankly (откровенно говоря), I think that it was a good bargain (выгодная покупка, хорошая сделка). В.: I believe you are right. J.: I haven't mentioned that the car had been driven only 25,000 miles. Also, the covers (чехлы) which are on the front seats are new. They are made of material that can be washed. В.: Now I want to see how well the car really runs. J.: O.K. Let's ask Bob when he is going for a ride. Then we can see whether or not the car runs well. В.: Do you know if Bob is going to come back here soon? J.: Yes, I'm sure he'll be back right away (сразу, немедленно). В.: By the way (между прочим), can you tell me where Bob is keeping his car? J.: He is using the garage of the people living next door. Exercise 4. Speak about: 1. Public transport of the future. 2. The application of electronics in modern cars. 3. The latest innovations in car design. Use exercises 1,2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: one thing is certain, to be much more efficient, to be in common use, to se­ lect a destination, to monitor, the size of a pack of cigarettes, to look like, to warn of objects ahead of the vehicle, to design, to get information, while driving, to make of. Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement. It is natural that everybody should want to have a car. One point of view : It is convenient, saving time, avoiding crowded buses and other city transport, independent, comfortable, useful at weekends, contact with nature, developing the sense of responsibility, improving the level of technological culture. A contrary point of view : Expensive, traffic jams (пробки в уличном движении), difficulties with repairs and maintenance, pollution, lack of physical exercise, takes more time than it saves, road accidents, waste of energy resources, the unbearable situation in many cities, especially in supercities. Exercise 6. Read and smile. On the Bus It was during the rush-hour (часы пик). As usual, all the seats in the bus were occupied. When a good-looking young lady got in,, an elderly man sitting near the door wanted to rise, but the lady at once pressed him to keep his seat. «Thank you», she said, «I don't mind standing.» «But, madam, permit me ... ». «I insist upon your sitting down,» she stopped him, and putting her hands on his shoulders she almost forced him back into his seat. The man tried again to stand up and said, «Madam, will you al­ low me to ... » But once more the lady said, «I don't wish to take your seat, sir!» and forced him back with another push. With a great effort the man finally pushed her aside. «Madam», he called out, «I don't care whether you take my seat or not. The bus has already taken me two stops beyond my destination, and now I wish to get out.» A good-looking lady-motorist was speeding through the sleepy village when a policeman stepped out on the road in front of her and forced her to stop. «What have I done?» she asked. «You were travelling forty miles an hour», replied the policeman. «Forty miles an hour!» cried the lady-motorist in surprise, «I left my house only 20 minutes ago». Text 7B Прочитайте текст и заполните следующую таблицу: Саг design innovations The latest Their Their since 1770 car electronic systems advantages disadvantages

L

2. Используя таблицу, расскажите по-английски о наиболее важных усо­ вершенствованиях в конструкции автомобиля с момента его изобретения. О каких последних достижениях в области конструирования автомобилей вы знаете? Какая информация в тексте наиболее интересна с вашей точки зре­ ния и почему? Саг of Future Ever since Nicolas Cugnot, a Frenchman, invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770, there has been no shortage of companies willing to make a better automobile. Over years their ef­ forts have given users the gasoline engine (дизель), the electric starter, tubeless tires (бескамерная шина), fuel-injected engines and anti-lock brakes (тормоз с антиблокировочным устрой-, ством), these are only a few innovations. What is next? Here are some examples of what the car designers are working at in the world today. Engineers are experimenting with a state-of-art (новейший) system that enables drivers to see better after dark. This «night vi­ sion» system uses infrared sensors that can detect a human figure at night more than 1,600 feet away. That's five times the distance at which conventional headlights are effective. The sensors pick up infrared rays emitted by any object that gives off heat. An im­ age-processing system scans the information from the sensors, cre­ ating different images for different objects. The images are then displayed on a cathode-ray screen built in a car's instrument panel. It is like black-and-white photograph of an object ahead. And the system is passive, which means no lights are needed to illuminate the object in front of the vehicle. But the biggest problem will be re­ ducing costs and the other one is the size of the sensor mechanism which is too big now. One of the latest applications of sophisticated electronics is the wheel-computerized system that not only monitors air pressure in automobile tires but adjusts it automatically. In addition this sys­ tem enables a driver to set tire pressure while seated. The system developed consists of three separate modules. The first is the in­ strument panel display which houses the system's main micropro­ cessor, programming buttons (кнопка включения программы) and warning signals. The second component is the detector drive module (модуль привода) which is essentially four microchips at­ tached, in one unit, to the chassis. Each chip detecting pressure changes that may occur, the transistors within the module signal the third component — a programmable transducer (программи­ руемый преобразователь). The transducer attached to each wheel changes the tire pressure accordingly. However, some automobile experts think this system is too com­ plicated and costly. The design has to be simple and of low cost. Text 7C Прочитайте и перескажите текст. Talking Instrument Panels For a few years now some of the most advanced new automo­ biles have been equipped with instrument panels that can «speak», providing instrument readings or safety warnings from special elec­ tronic circuits. In a polite female voice, the device will report on engine oil pressure, parking-brake and headlight operation, seat belt connec­ tion, totalling 14 different functions. The driver can even program the Voice Warning System to announce the time or to give a low-fuel warning for any preset gas tank level. The heart of the Voice Warning System is a microprocessor-based electronic speech module made by National Semiconductor Соф. (US). The device requires the connection of 18 wires, but it is simple enough to in­ stall in a car. Text 7D Прочитайте текст. Используя слова и выражения из текста, опишите свое состояние перед экзаменом. Testing Times Exam stress doesn't occur most strongly during the actual exams but in the few weeks just before them. The climax is usually the night before when last minute preparations confirm your worst fears (страх). There are, however, some simple ways of dealing with the problem. First, one must know that the night before is too late to do any­ thing. Much better to go to a dance, for a walk, to the pictures or to play a game rather than increase stress by frantic efforts to plug in gaps (затыкать пробелы) in your knowledge. The brain is a complex bio-electrical machine which, like a computer, can be overloaded. It does not work continuously. When you study, your brain reaches its maximum eflTiciency about five minutes you start work, stays at it for about ten minutes and then it is down. Indeed, after thirty minutes your attention wonders (от­ влекаться), your memory shuts off, and boredom (скука) sets in. For this reason, the best way to study is in half-hour sessions with gaps in between of about the same length. It even helps to change subjects and not keep at the same one since it reduces the boredom factor. Study stress was experienced by Isaac Newton, the greatest mathematical genius, and by Einstein. Newton had a depression af­ ter his efforts on gravity. Einstein had no such difficulty: he would break off and go sailing or play violin — not very well, he said, but it was very comforting., The lesson here is clear. To avoid exam stress, you have to tell that what you are doing is fun (забава) and the best way to do this is to treat revision as a game. If you stimulate your brain with short, snappy (энергичный) sessions, you will be surprised how quick and sharp you are. A laugh with friends or a walk through the coun­ try is really giving your mind the recreation it needs. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте следующие слова и словосочетания из тек­ ста 7А и постарайтесь понять значения выделенных слов. 1. for long journeys in cars 2. arriving at the motorway 3. the fuel left in the tank 4. the radar aerial 5. the radar only observes objects ahead of 6. stationary objects 7. the red light and buzzer warn 8. satellite will indicate the route B. Подберите к выделенномувАслову или словосочетанию соответст­ вующее ему по значению. a. container for liquid or gas b. electrical device that produces a sound signal с way taken or planned from one place to another d. see, watch carefully objects in front of e. not moving or changing f. reach a wide road for continuously moving fast vehicles g. travel to a distant place h. antenna Упражнение 2, A. Прочитайте текст и найдите слова и словосочетания, означающие: а new idea or product, reduce, basis. Joining, position, for each car, whole (com­ plete), very great, large number (quantity), at a very high level (suddenly), put together or fit the parts of, take (send to), every year, the same, a person who takes part in a race for the first place. Mass Production Car manufacturer Henry Ford laid the foundation for the revo­ lutionary change in the entire motor vehicle industry., The key for mass production was not the moving assembly line. It was the complete interchangeability of parts and the simplicity of attaching them to each other. These were the innovations that made the assembly line possible. Taken together, they gave Ford tremendous advantage over his competitors. Ford's first efforts to assemble his cars, beginning in 1903, were to set up assembly stands on which a whole car was built. Each as­ sembler performed many jobs on one car and had to get the neces­ sary parts for it. The first step Ford took to make this process more efficient was to deliver the parts to each work station. Now each assembler remained in the same place all day. Later in 1908 Ford decided that each assembler would perform only one task and move around the factory from car to car. In 1913 cars were placed on a moving as­ sembly line. Each assembler performed one task only and remained stationary. This innovation cut cycle time from 2.3 minutes to 1.19 minutes, thus dramatically improving productivity. Ford's discovery simultaneously reduced the amount of human effort needed to assemble an automobile. What is more, the more vehicles Ford produced, the more the cost per vehicle fell. In the early 1920s Ford produced 2 million identical vehicles a year. Ford's mass production was adopted in almost every industrial activity in America and Europe. B. Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизвестные слово­ сочетания или термины: ... time the cost ... vehicle ... production assembly ... manufacturer ... effort ... industry Упражнение 3. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значения выде­ ленных слов. There was а bad accident on one of the main motorways to Paris this afternoon. A big tourist coach broke down on the inside lane of the motorway, and the driver could not move it. It was about 5.30 in the afternoon, the middle of the rush hour, so it soon created a terrible traffic jam. A driver in a BMW doing about 60 mph tried to go round the coach. Unfortunately, another car was coming in the opposite direction. The driver braked hard and tried to stop, but he could not avoid the accident. The BMW, crashed into the front of his car. The driver of the BMW died, the other driver was badly injured, and both cars were badly damaged. Упражнение 4. Выберите из двух выделенных слов или словосочетаний правильное. 1. While turning а corner at high speed my car hit/crashed a lamp post. 2. The only means of arrival/access to the station is through a dark subway. 3. We managed to complete our journey ahead of/in front of schedule. 4. The police accused the driver of breaking the speed limit/re­ striction. 5. Sixty extra policemen were to direct/control the traffic out­ side the stadium. 6. When her car broke down, she had to catch/take a taxi. 7. There are road works in center streets and long delays/inter­ vals are expected. 8. This car is an automatic, so you do not have to adjust/change gear all the time. 9. Only a mechanic could realize/understand the true amount/extent of the damage to the car. 10. Travellers who wish to visit the old city should travel in the two front buses/coaches. 11. The driver told his passengers to fasten/fix their safety belts. 12. You mustn't ride/drive a motorbike without a helmet. 13. The two buses collided (столкнуться), but luckily none was injured/wounded. Упражнение 5. A. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значения слов tube, poor и run. Many of the world's major cities were built long before the car appeared and people realized the need to built efficient road sys­ tems. Current traffic management problems may be connected with old city planning. The thing that saves some of these cities is an effective public transport system, usually below ground. London has an old but ef­ fective underground train system known as a tube, and a compre­ hensive bus and train system above the ground. Hong Kong has cheap, swift and effective public transport in the form of Mass Transit Railway, buses and ferries., But there are newly built cities, such as, for example, Dallas, Baltimore and Los Angeles in America. Dallas is a wealthy city in Texas, which has grown up in an era when cars were considered to be essential to move about. It has an excellent road system, as does Baltimore, another new city with wise city leaders who insisted on building good roads. However, the public transport system in both Baltimore and Dallas is extremely poor. As a result, travel in these cities is easy except for peak hour, when a twenty minute run can take more than an hour in traffic jams. Los Angeles suffers from chronic highway blockages, despite efforts to encourage people to use public transport. Cities with good road systems can use other methods to reduce the number of vehicles travelling together at peak hour. Flexible time is one good method: offices open and close at different times so people are travelling to and from work at different times. Vehi­ cles carrying more than one person can use special priority lanes, which means they can travel more quickly. There are even systems to make peak hours car use more expensive, with electronic chips recording the presence of a vehicle in a given high traffic area at a given time. B. Выберите соответствующие тексту A значения слов ferries, poor. spacecrafts, airplanes, boats, space vehicles; needing help, small in quantity, low in quality. C. Найдите в тексте A слова, означающие: 1. demand 5. easily changed for new needs or conditions 2. rich 6. full, including many kinds of 3. journey in a car 7. having experience, knowledge 4. fast 8. main public road D. Вставьте антонимы выделенных слов. 1. Public transport in Hong Kong is cheap, but in London it is... 2. Paris has the Metro railway below ground and a large bus system ... 3. People should ... and finish work at different time to reduce peak hour traffic jams. 4. City administration try to encourage people to use ... trans­ port, not private cars in the city center. 5. An electronic device can record the absence or ... of any per­ son at the office., 6. The public transport available in Baltimore is very poor, while in Sidney it is ... E. Найдите в тексте A независимый причастный оборот. Переведите. Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски следующими словами: reduce transportation advantage car per traffic public transport source study average routes increase symbol atmosphere number motor vehicle reduction solve The private (1) ... has dramatically improved the comfort, speed and individual freedom of movement. The automobile has become a status (2) ... The car brought people much closer to places of work, (3) ... and entertainment. However, the use of private cars can also be a (4) ... of many most serious problems today. The car is a disadvantage as well as an (5) ... It pollutes the (6) ..., may be involved in dangerous acci­ dents, and by its very numbers blocks roads and chokes (душить) cities. In New York City, 2.5 million cars move in and out of the city each day. In this (7) ..., the average speed is sometimes 8.1 miles (8) ... hour. This speed could easily be reached by riding a horse instead of driving a (9)... But New Yorkers continue to drive, just as people in London where the (10)... speed in certain particu­ larly overcrowded (11) ... is only 2 miles per hour. Most people be­ lieve that the car is a necessary part of life in today's world. Car owners usually do not consider other methods of public (12) ... such as bus, train or bicycle. The only way to (13) ... these problems is to reduce the use of private cars. How can we do it? We may (14) ... access to parking spaces in the cities and simultaneously (15)... the quality and avail­ ability of public transport. Cars could not be permitted in certain parts of the city, thus making people walk and use (16) ... The cost of buying and running a car can be increased with a corresponding (17) ... in the price of public transport. The reduced (18) ... of cars on the roads means less pollution. Упражнение 7. Назовите прилагательные с окончанием -able/'ible, озна­ чающие: that can be moved that can be used or obtained that can be reached that can provide comfort that can be managed that may be permitted that can be solved that can be changed for new needs, Упражнение 8 . Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Person Adjective compete action transporter productive assemble ,., — manufacture — found — drive — — reducible indicative Упражнение 9. A. Назовите 15-20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Road transport». В. Speak about: 1. The current public transport problems in your city or town, its safety, speed and comfort. 2. The role and importance of a private car in your own life. 3. The changes in technology (manual assembly — mass assem­ bly lines — robotics — computerized production). 4. Offer your own ideas on traffic management improvement in your area.,

LESSON 8

Герундий Значения as и by Суффикс -ize i'ise) Префикс over- Text 8A. A New Era for Aircraft Text 8B. The Return of the Dirigibles Text 8C. Off the Ground: How do We Find Where We are Going? Text 8D. New York ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Найдите в предложениях герундий по его признакам, пе­ реведите. 1. On detecting danger on the road the computer signals the driver. 2. Detecting an object in front of a car in the dark is the pur­ pose of the «night vision system». 3. One of the main problems of a driver on the road is keeping the speed constant and watching the cars ahead. 4. A new device for monitoring and adjusting air pres­ sure in tires has recently been developed. 5. Before starting a car one must examine it carefully. 6. Computers are widely used for controlling all kinds of processes. 7. Alexander Bell's being a teacher of deaf people influenced his interest in sound and its transmission. 8. Samuel Morse's hobby was experimenting with electricity. 9. Driving a truck in the city is difficult. Упражнение 2. Определите формы и функции герундия. 1. One of the best ways of keeping the speed steady is using a computer for this purpose. 2. Newton's having made a mistake in his calculations has no influence on his theory. 3. On being turned, on the radar will warn the driver of stationary or slow-moving ob­ jects on the road. 4. Upon being heated the molecules begin mov­ ing very rapidly. 5. The white line in the centre of the road is one of the most effective means of controlling traffic. 6. On graduating from the University S.P. Korolev began working in the field of rocket design. 7. The function of a car computer is detecting and summing up the information about the road conditions. 8. Moni­ toring and adjusting air pressure in tires is one of the new develop­ ments of the car designers. 9. It is difficult to solve some of the present-day scientific and technological problems without using supercomputers. 10. On seeing a red light on a panel and on hear­ ing a warning sound the driver should decrease the speed. 11. By picking up infrared rays emitted by objects ahead of the car an im­ age-processing system produces different images of objects. 12. On studying for half an hour before an exam one should switch over to some other activity. Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения и запомните значения выделен­ ных слов. A. 1. When the first self-propelled vehicles appeared, measures were taken to limit their speed in many countries. 2. His having measured the distance will enable him to calculate the intensity of light. 3. The universal system of measures and weights was worked out by the French Academy of Science in 1791. 4. The distance from the North Pole to the Equator was measured, one-fourth was taken and divided into ten million equal parts. One of these parts was called a «measure» or «a meter». B. 1. One of the earliest ideas to propel a vehicle using mechan­ ical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. 2. Having used a steam- driven engine a French engineer built a three-wheeled vehicle for two passengers. 3. At the end of the 19th century the use of cars was still very limited. 4. Constant efforts are made to use standard com­ ponents for the cars. 5. The use of multi-cylinder engines greatly increased the speed of cars. 6. N. Otto having used the gasoline en­ gine, motor cars got the standard shape and appearance. С 1. Many times Alexander Bell wanted to stop his experi­ ments being unable to get any results. 2. Since ancient times people dreamt of flying. 3. Four times five is equal to twenty. 4. There is much more lithium on the earth than zinc, 130 times more than cadmium. 5. The magnesium-lithium alloy is 1.5 times lighter than aluminium and 4.5 times lighter than iron., Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения и запомните различные значе­ ния as. 1. People no longer think of the radio and television as some­ thing fantastic. 2. It was necessary to lay cables across the Atlantic Ocean as there was no radio or satellites at that time. 3. Rocket launching, concerts, football and tennis matches can be seen on TV as they occur. 4. As the operation of integrated circuits depends on microscopic components, the purity of all materials at the plant must be very high. 5. One can see that there is no principal differ­ ence between iron and copper as conductors. 6. President T. Jeffer­ son offered his personal library as the basis for the national library. 7. It is difficult for the first-year students to study at the institute as they do not know yet how to organize their work and time. 8. No system of the past was as simple as the metric system. 9. Such metals as iron, cobalt, and nickel are much more magnetic than any other known substances. 10. Cryogenic fuels such as liquid hydrogen are used to cool the aircraft surface. 11. Metallurgists are trying to make composite materials as strong and light as possible. 12. Measures must be taken to keep Moscow air as clean as possible. 13. Engi­ neers are working at the problem of making computers as small as possible. Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, учитывая различные значения предлога by. 1. It should be said that according to estimates the production of materials in space is to bring 60 billion dollars by 2030. 2. The best way to study before the exam is by changing one's activity ev­ ery 30 minutes. 3. The first self-propelled vehicle in Russia was made by Kulibin in the 18-th century. 4. Driving a new Japanese car a driver will find his way even in Sahara by switching over to a navigation Earth satellite. 5. By 1960 the number of cars in the world has reached 60 million. 6. A driver may avoid collisions on the road by using a radar system. 7. Newton's great work «Principia» was published by Halley, the famous astronomer, who paid his own money for it. 8. The cosmonauts were told to increase their daily exercises by 30 minutes. Упражнение 6. A. Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний. а new form of supersonic transport, prospective model, elon­ gated fuselage, without horizontal stabilizer, cover the distance, less than two hours, overall length, overall aircraft weight, at high velocities, lower atmosphere, the skin is heated, the only way out,, one of the ways, combined engines, combined with, as economical as possible. единственный выход, комбинированные двигатели, менее двух часов, без горизонтального стабилизатора, нижние слои атмосферы, один из путей, удлиненный фюзеляж, общий вес самолета, обшивка нагревается, на больших скоростях, общая длина, как можно более экономично, перспективная модель, новый вид сверхзвукового транспорта, в сочетании с, покры­ вать расстояние. в. Переведите словосочетания. today's aircraft, ordinary aircraft, ordinary aircraft windows, passenger liner, future superliners of such a class, reliable hyper­ sonic plane, look like a rocket, five times above the speed of sound, diameter of the fuselage, the front of the cabin, the skin is heated to a very high temperature, highly economical engines, new genera­ tion model.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 7. Образуйте и переведите производные слова согласно об­ разцу: прилагательное или существительное + ize/ise = глагол special — специальный -> specialize — специализировать(ся) computer, ideal, crystal, central; префикс over- (сверх-; пере-) to heat — нагревать -> to overheat — перегревать production, active, grow, estimate. Упражнение 8. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова, aviation, airplane, project, passenger, liner, model ['modi], fu­ selage ['fju:zila:3], horizontal stabilizer ['steibilaize], rocket, dis­ tance, meter ['mi:ta], diameter [dai'aemite], cabin, technological, problem, thermodynamics ['Gaimeudai'naemiks], aerodynamics ['sereudai'naemiks], per cent, efficiency [I'fijensi], extreme [iks4ri:m], temperature ['tempri^e], cryogenic ['kraiedsenik]. Упражнение 9. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. supersonic ['sju:p9'sonik], hypersonic ['haipe'sonik], Paris ['paeris], Tokyo [49ukj9u], plane [plein], hours ['auez], reliable [ri'laiabi], combined [kem'baind], engine ['endsin], heat-insulat-, ing [hi:t 'insjuleitir\], extreme [iks'tri.m], generate ['cfeenereit], generation, in general, require [ri'kwaie], fuel [fjuel], liquid ['likwid], hydrogen ['haidridjen], surface ['se:fis], vaporize [Veiperaiz], inject [iri'djekt], combustion [кешЪлз^еп], chamber ['feimbe], percentage [pe'senticfe]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ amount п — количество efficiency п — производитель­ announce v — объявлять, заяв­ ность, КПД, эффективность лять e.g. (for example) — например combine v — сочетать(ся), expect V — ожидать, предпо­ комбинировать(ся), объеди- лагать нять(ся) extreme а — крайний, чрезвы­ combined with — в сочетании с чайный combustion п — горение friction п — трение complicated р,р. — сложный fuel п — топливо conventional а — обычный, heat V — нагревать(ся) стандартный inject V — впрыскивать, вво­ currently adv — в настоящее дить время mainly adv — главным образом disadvantage п — недостаток structure п — конструкция, measure п — мера структура noise п — шум substitute V — заменять, под­ overall а — полный, общий ставлять overcome v — преодолевать vaporize v — испарять(ся) resistance п — сопротивление velocity п — скорость stress п — напряжение apart from — помимо, кроме way out — выход Text 8А Прочитайте текст по абзацам и озаглавьте их. Назовите основные проб­ лемы, рассмотренные в каждом абзаце. Скажите, какие абзацы можно объ­ единить под одним заглавием. Переведите текст. А New Era for Aircraft Aviation experts expect that today's aircraft will begin to be re­ placed with some new form of supersonic transport in a few years' time. A 21st century hypersonic aircraft may open a new age of air­ craft design., The designers of this country displayed the project of such a su­ personic passenger liner among the prospective models at one of the latest Aerospace Salon held on the old Le Bourget airfield^ in Paris. An elongated fuselage with a sharp nose and without a hori­ zontal stabilizer makes it look more like a rocket. The speed matches the looks^. This plane will fly at a speed five to six times above the speed of sound, e.g., it will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours. The diameter of the fu­ selage will be 4 meters and the overall length 100 meters, with the cabin accomodating 300 passengers. The future supeфlanes of such a class will have no windows, but the passengers can enjoy^ watch­ ing the panorama of the Earth on the TV monitor at the front of the cabin. They will fly so fast that ordinary aircraft windows would make the structure too weak to withstand the stresses at such a speed. At high velocities the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is so great that the skin is heated to very high temperature. The only way out is to fly higher. Therefore, airliners' routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere. In general, to build a reliable hypersonic plane one has to over­ come a whole set of technological and scientific difficulties. Apart from creating highly economical combined engines and heat- insulating materials^, designers have to make such an amount of thermodynamic computations that can't be performed without using supercomputers. One of the ways to make planes as economi­ cal as possible is lightening the aircraft by substituting new com­ posite materials for conventional metal alloys. Accounting for^ less than 5 per cent of the overall aircraft weight now, the percentage of composite material parts will exceed 25 per cent in new generation models. An extensive use of new materials combined with better aerodynamics and engines will allow increasing fuel efficiency by one-third^. Because of the extreme temperatures generated by the atmo­ sphere friction, a hypersonic craft will also require complicated cooling measures. One possibility is using cryogenic fuels, such as liquid hydrogen, as both coolants^ and propellants. The fuel flow­ ing through the aircraft's skin would cool the surfaces as it vapor­ izes before being injected into combustion chamber. In addition, specialists in many countries are currently working on new propeller engines considered much more economical and less noisy than jets. The only disadvantage is that propeller planes fly slower than jet planes. However, it has recently been announced that specialists succeeded in^ solving this problem. As a result a ventilator engine with a propeller often fibre-glass blades has been built, each being five meters long. It will be mounted in the experi­ mental passenger plane., Notes to the Text 1. Le Bourget airfield - аэропорт Jle Бурже 2. the looks — внешний вид 3. can enjoy — с удовольствием (здесь) 4. heat-insulating materials — теплоизолирующие материалы 5. accounting for — составляя 6. by one-third — на одну треть 7. coolant — охлаждающая жидкость 8. succeeded in — удалось

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 10. Просмотрите текст 8А и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is this text about? 2. What aircraft was displayed in Paris? 3. What are the characteristics of the new liner? 4. What are the difficulties in building a hypersonic plane? Упражнение 11. Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста 8А. Исправьте неправильные утверждения. 1. Today's aircraft will be replaced with a new form of super­ sonic transport in a few years' time. 2. The new hypersonic aircraft that looks like a rocket will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours. 3. The future superliner of this class will have large windows that will allow passengers to watch the panorama of the Earth. 4. Airliner's routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere because the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is too great. 5. Designers can easily make all the necessary thermody­ namic calculations to build a reliable hypersonic plane. 6. It is pos­ sible to lighten the aircraft by substituting conventional metal alloys for new composite materials. 7. Cryogenic fuels are used as both coolants and propellants. 8. The great advantage of propeller planes is that they fly faster than jet planes. Упражнение 12. Найдите в тексте 8А герундий (см. 3, 4 и 5-й абзацы). Упражнение 13. Найдите герундий в функции обстоятельства, переведи­ те предложения. 1. Flying from Los Angeles to Tokyo on board a new supersonic craft will take two hours. 2. On examining the car before starting on a long journey a driver can be sure that he will get to his destination without accidents. 3. By summing up the information about the speed and distance of various objects on the road, the computer de-, tects all possible dangers. 4. A superliner of a new kind will be capa­ ble of flying at five times above the speed of the sound. 5. The only way of overcoming the great air resistance at high velocities is fly­ ing higher. 6. At low speeds the engine can use turbines for com­ pressing the air before mixing it with fuel in the combustion chamber. 7. In the future, in switching over to the new Earth satel­ lite a driver can be sure of coming safely to his destination. 8. Cryo­ genic fuels will vaporize before being injected into combustion chamber. 9. In flowing over the aircraft's surface the fuel cools its skin. 10. On reaching its cruising speed the supersonic liner will fly at 100,000 feet above the Earth. 11. By using supercomputers it is possible to avoid making mistakes in extremely complicated ther­ modynamic computations. 12. A new carburetor offers easier start­ ing in cold weather. 13. By using the automatic guidance system a driver will be able to make long journeys without concentrating on the road conditions. 14. It is impossible to solve economic prob­ lems without using the achievements of the scientific and techno­ logical progress. Упражнение 14. Найдите герундий в парах предложений, переведите их. 1. Overcoming these difficulties is not so easy as it may seem. Overcoming these difficulties the designers can increase the fuel ef­ ficiency. 2. Setting a problem the scientist makes the first step to its solution. Setting a problem is the first step to its solution. 3. Cover­ ing the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours this superliner develops a speed five times above the speed of sound. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow on board a superliner requires about two hours. 4. Putting the discov­ ery into practice the engineers will solve a complicated technologi­ cal task. Putting the discovery into practice sometimes requires more effort than making it. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 15. Образуйте прилагательные от глаголов или существи­ тельных по образцу: move — двинуть, двигаться -» movable — подвижный comfort, change, compare, control, program, measure. Упражнение 16. Определите, к какой части речи относятся слова. reliable, elongate, percentage, stabilizer, stabilize, prospective, carrier, brilliant, relativity, intelligent, intelligence, assistance, fu-, selage, mainly, encircle, departure, statement, hypersonic, liner, horizontal, powerful. Упражнение 17. Найдите русскому слову соответствующее английское. конструктор — design, designer, to design стабилизировать — stabilizer, stability, stabilize самый последний — latest, late, later эффективный — efficient, efficiency, efficiently характеристика, работа — perform, performing, performance надежно — reliable, reliability, reliably немыслимый — thinking, thinkable, unthinkable невесомость — weightlessness, weightless, weight Упражнение 18. Определите, синонимами или антонимами являются приведенные пары слов. advantage — disadvantage; to remain — to stay; reliable — un­ reliable; fast — slow; apart from — besides, in addition; capable — incapable; to begin — to start; liquid — solid; to cool ~ to heat; possible — impossible; weak - strong; to build — to break; aircraft — plane; engine — motor. Упражнение 19. Переведите выделенные слова и словосочетания, запом­ ните их. 1. At higher schools specialization generally begins in the third year. 2. Nowadays we generally have computers at every plant. 3. This doesn't improve the speed of transport vehicles in general and that of an automobile in particular. 4. The general principles of the design of new transport machines in general and diesel locomotives in particular can be found in the new magazine. 5. The fifth-generation computers performing 100 billion opera­ tions a second will become available in the near future. 6. Because of the extreme temperatures generated by atmospheric friction a craft will require protection. 7.The generation of electric power in­ creases every year. Упражнение 20. Определите, какой частью речи является в предложении выделенное слово. Переведите. 1. Television has а great number of uses nowadays. 2. This car uses a new sensor mechanism. 3. A. Bell wanted to build a mecha­ nism that people could use to talk to one another over long dis­ tances. 4. The new material can be applied in manufacturing components much smaller than those in use today. 5. The Library of Congress serves not only Members of the Congress, but re-, searchers and scientists who use it. 6. In Russian universities there is no charge for the use of reading rooms, laboratories and libraries. 7. Measures to keep Moscow's air clean are important components of our ecological programme. 8. A thermometer is a device that measures temperature. 9. Computers can do many things, they can control machines in factories, cars on roads, play chess and so on. 10. Computers control nearly everything we do in the modern world. 11. Today dirigibles are equipped with electronic controls. Упражнение 21. Выберите правильный глагол из приведенных в скобках. 1. The car has ... (brought, brought about) mobility to millions of people, but at the same time polluted the atmosphere. 2. The scientific and technological achievements ... (brought, brought about) great changes in people's life and work. 3. A lot of people came to ... (look at, look for) a new invention, the television set, at the World Fair in New York. 4. It was necessary ... (to look at, to look for) a more reliable method of calculation. 5. The airplane «Ruslan» can ... (carry, carry out) up to 150 tons. 6. Research is be­ ing ... (carried, carried out) for developing new composite materi­ als to lighten aircraft structure. Упражнение 22. Заполните пропуски предлогами by, with, for, at, in. The steam was invented ... James Watt, who worked ... many years before he could make the instruments ... which he perfected his machine. ... first he worked ... primitive tools so he could not make his engine well-regulated. The old machine was kept going ... a boy who stood by it and let... the air... means of which the steam was condensed at every revolution. ... this machine, though it was imperfect, some work was done and it had been used ... a large mine-owner (шахтовладелец) to pump out the water. The first ef­ ficient steam-engine was made ... a Birmingham firm and it was soon used...nearly every manufacturer. The revolution in industry made ... this machine was extremely great. Упражнение 23. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. held, flown, overcome, withstanding, lain, flow, burnt. Упражнение 24. Прочитайте и переведите без словаря. «Even the birds aren't flying today» is an old saying used to in­ dicate that the weather for flying is extremely bad. And for man nothing has a greater effect on flying than the weather. And be­ cause of its changing so quickly and without warning an extensive, network of weather stations has been set up for helping the pilots get all the information about weather. Before flying pilots may get current weather information on changing conditions along their route or at their destination. The weather reporting system helps overcoming many difficulties in flying. In winter, e.g., icing can cause the reduction of lift efficiency of airplane by changing the flow of air. Pilot's being informed about the weather allows him to avoid weather problems. The weather being too bad, pilots just stay on the ground like any wise (опытный) bird.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What kind of aircraft may begin a new age in aviation? (a hy­ personic passenger liner) 2. What is the shape of the new liner? (an elongated fuselage with a sharp nose) 3. What distance can the new liner cover in less than two hours? (the distance between Tokyo and Moscow) 4. What are the main problems of building a reliable hy­ personic liner? (developing an economical engine and new heat in­ sulating materials combined with better aerodynamics) 5. What is one of the ways to make a hypersonic liner as economical as possi­ ble? (using new composite materials) 6. What will be used for cool­ ing a hypersonic craft? (cryogenic fuels) 7. What combined engine was developed? (a ventilator propeller engine) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. It is expected that a new hy- 1. will be 4 meters, overall length personic aircraft 100 meters and its cabin will carry 300 passengers. 2. The project of such an aircraft 2. a speed five to six times above was displayed at the speed of sound. 3. There is no horizontal stabilizer 3. like a rocket. 4. Therefore it looks more 4. since conventional aircraft windows are too weak to with­ stand high stresses at supersonic speed. 5. The superliner will mainly fly 5. the Aerospace Salon in Paris, in the stratosphere at 6. The diameter of the fuselage 6. will replace todays' aircrafts soon. 7. The passenger superliners of 7. in the design of a new super- such a class will have no windows liner., Exersice 3. Read and learn. Departure Ann: Well, good-bye, then! I hope you will have a pleasant journey. Bob: I hope so too. The weather isn't too bad, anyway. A.: No, it looks good. Just write me a few Unes when you arrive, will you? B. I will, indeed. And many thanks for your hospitality. A. It was nice having you with us. When will you come again? B. It is hard to say. It depends on a number of things. A. Give my love to your mother. B. I will. Thanks. Bye. Bob: I think, the people of today are the most intelligent (умный) people who have ever lived. Mary: Before answering this question I want you to listen to the fol­ lowing words: «Flying machines are possible. A man may sit in the middle of the machine and turn some device. This device makes the artificial wings beat the air in the manner of a flying bird.» В.: Why have you said this? There is nothing new or interesting. M.: But they were written six hundred years ago. В.: Oh, really, who made this statement? M.: Roger Bacon, an English scientist. Of course, his sentences have been made easier, but these were his words and thoughts. Have you heard about him? В.: Certainly, I have heard about him. But I have thought he was a monk (монах) and was in prison for many years. M.: You are quite right. Besides, he made a deep study of physics. And this was the reason (причина) for his being in prison. He made men think about new things. В.: Oh, Mary, Fve always said you are the most clever (умный) girl I've ever met. Do you agree with me, Peter? Peter: Oh, sure. And I remember Bakon's statement about cars that can go very rapidly by their own power and great ships on rivers and oceans guided by one man. Exercise 4. Speak about: 1. The characteristics of a new hypersonic passenger liner. 2. The main difficulties of its construction. Use exercises 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: The text gives the information on... It is interesting to note that... Speaking about... Further description of... is given. It is pointed out that... As far as I know... In conclusion rd like to say that..., aviation designers, to display, to cover the distance, overall, to heat to a very high temperature, new generation aircraft, to overcome difficulties in, a great amount of, without using, extensive use of new materials, exceed, to solve a prob­ lem. Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement. Air transport has many advantages and many disadvantages. One point of view : It is fast, comfortable, safe, it is particularly good and effi­ cient for long distances, it is independent of roads, it is good for the health because it is not tiring (утомительно), it is the most modem means of transport and it is the best way of travelling. A contrary point of view : It is not safe, it is not reliable, it depends on the weather, it is not always good for the health, it always takes a long time to get from and to the airport, it is expensive, it is always connected with nervous strain (напряжение, стресс) Exercise 6. Read and smile. A teacher was explaining fractions to the class of girls and boys. After having written several examples on the blackboard, he asked a boy whether he would prefer (предпочитать) one-fifth or one- eighth of a lemon. «Vd prefer one-eighth, sir.» Then the teacher began explaining again that though the frac­ tion one-eighth looked larger than the fraction one-fifth, it was re­ ally the smaller of the two. «I know that, sir. I don't like lemons.» Einstein for a Day Albert Einstein, one of the world's most brilliant and respected scientists, is best known for formulating the theory of relativity which played a critical part in the development of atomic energy. What may not be widely known is that Einstein had a fine sense of humor. There is an amusing story about Einstein's visiting universities in a car driven by a chauffeur, giving lectures on relativity. One day the chauffeur said: «Mr. Einstein, I've heard you give this lecture about 30 times. I know it by heart, and I am sure I could give it my­ self.» «Well, I'll give you a chance», said Einstein. «They won't re­ cognise me at the school. When we get there, I'll put on your cap and you introduce yourself as me and give the lecture.» The chauffeur gave Einstein's lecture without making a single mistake. On finishing, he started to leave, but one of the professors stopped him to ask a complex question. The chauffeur thought fast., «That problem is so trivial», he said, «I'm surprised that you have to ask me. In fact, to show you how simple it is, I'm going to ask my chauffeur to come up here and answer your question.» Text 8B Прочитайте текст. Ответьте на следующие вопросы: Почему вернулись вновь к использованию дирижабля? Чем отличаются современные дирижабли от первых конструкций? Каково их практическое применение? Какие сведения из текста вам знакомы? Что нового вы узнали, прочитав этот текст? The Return of the Dirigibles When it comes to technology, people are not inclined to return to the past. Yet, some exceptions do exist. Such is the attitude at present towards dirigibles. Having abandoned the skies more than 40 years ago, they have suddenly begun to reappear. Designers have once again sat down to design this kind of transportation. Their use can still be limited, but there is no doubt that dirigibles are coming back. Why is dirigible attractive? What do you do with it? As its cruis­ ing speed is about 60 miles per hour, it is too slow to be used as a passenger carrier. But it is cheaper to operate than a helicopter, comfortable and capable of flying for several days. The craft's large size and staying power (dirigibles have remained in skies for as long as a week) make it ideally suited for exploration. Their use in countries that have large territories and are rich in forests and are planning to explore and exploit new regions is most promising. They may be used to make a geological survey and to make maps, to look for off-shore oil and minerals, to take tourists to roadless, but beautiful places, to deliver heavy loads to remote regions and bring the products back. They have a potential use as a flying platform. In general, their possibilities are endless. They do not need expensive runways required by cargo planes. Besides, the technological possibilities of manufacturing these crafts have changed. In 1920 and 1930s the dirigibles were manned by a big crew. Today being equipped with electronic control they can be operated by three pilots. The modern dirigibles have one more important advantage over older models — that of complete safety in flight, for, instead of hy­ drogen, they are filled with helium which does not burn. The craft is 200 feet long and is made of superstrong materials., In the future it may be possible to build a dirigible with a metal hull that could carry hundreds of passengers and transport cargo around the world. In fact, it is probably as a cargo vehicle that the dirigible will have the best chance to find its use. Text 8C Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о трех способах навигации и применяемых для этого устройствах. Off the Ground: How do We Find Where We are Going? Scientists who are concerned with such a problem generally agree that birds have some kind of so-called «second sense» that al­ lows them to fly over land and water without getting lost. Indeed, birds are always able to find their destinations and make a return fly without any trouble at all. But people need help in finding their destination when piloting their own airplanes. This, of course, is called navigation. Navigation is the art of finding your way from where you start to your destination. Whether used by the seamen, explorer or the pilot, navigation falls into three basic categories: dead reckoning (счисление пути) which is the basis for all navigation, celestial navigation which is flying by the aid of the sun and other stars, and radio and radar navigation. Several different kinds of aeronautical maps provide all the de­ tails which might be needed by the pilot. And hundreds of radio navigation stations are located at different places around the world to help guide the pilot. All the pilot needs to do is to tune to these radio transmitters and he will get the directional signals he needs. Distance measuring equipment now used in many airplanes tells the pilot exactly how far he is from a radio station and at what speed he is travelling over the ground. When certain types of weather prevent the pilot from seeing the ground, additional radio transmitters let him make his approach to an airport by simply watching his flight instruments and his radio receiver indicators. These receivers help the pilot descend on the runway, thus landing at an airport even though he cannot see the ground. At the world's larger air terminals airplanes are provided with radar guidance as another means of guiding the pilot to the destina­ tion. With the help of an electronic transponder (ретранслятор) in each airplane which shows it on the radar screen, radar controllers guide hundreds of airplanes to landing., Because of the great improvement in electronic and radio navi­ gation equipment, flying to where you are going is done as effi­ ciently as the birds do it and much more scientifically. Text 8D Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о Нью-Йорке, культурном, финансовом и промышленном центре США. New York Situated at the mouth of the deep Hudson River, New York has always been the gate of the USA. But it is more than just a door: it is also a window through which the life of the whole nation may be observed. New York is a city of striking social contrasts. It is a place where most of the millionaires live and at the same time a greater proportion of New Yorkers live at a lower level than the average for the US. In 1626 Dutch colonists set up here the first settlement, named New Amsterdam. They bought Manhattan Island from In­ dians for 24 dollars and a barrel of rum. The Americans say that it was the best business deal ever made in New York. In 1664 the colony was captured by British fleet under Duke of York and re­ named New York. Now New York includes five boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. Manhattan is the smallest of the five city boroughs in size and it is not the largest in population although the majority spend a con­ siderable part of the day in this center of business life. Here are Broadway, Wall Street and the Stock Exchange. This is the heart and source of American policy. Harlem is also in Manhattan. Thick walls separate this «Black Bottom» with 450,000 coloured people from the white population. In the bay stands the bronze Statue of Liberty given to the United States by France as a present in 1886. Its torch is 60 meters high and can be seen at night for many miles. A new American Mu­ seum of Immigration is open at the base of the Statue. The Bronx is a more residential rather than industrial part of the city. The well-known Zoo and Botanic Gardens are in the Bronx. Queens is both a residential and industrial area. New York's two biggest airports are both there. The Brooklyn Navy Yard is the largest naval shipbuilding cen­ ter in the world. Brooklyn has more people than any other part of the city — about 3,000,000. It is mostly a district of middle-class people., Richmond is the borough of piers and warehouses. Its popula­ tion is only 200,000. What rnakes New York? First of all, it is a great seaport, the greatest in tte USA. The sea encircles many of the city areas. It is also a greai financial center, where «money-making» is the main law of life. It is the symbol of big business and its Wall Street has become a riickname for big monopolies all over the world. New York is the leading textile center of the country and its clothes in­ dustry. It has a considerable printing industry and many book-shops; It is also undoubtedly one of the centres of social and spiritual lif<: of America. There are a lot of Art Galleries, among them rich Henry Frick collections, and many impressive art muse­ ums (Metropolitan Museum, Modern Art Museum, American Art Museum and others). For a long time New York specialized in giv­ ing visitors a good time at its theatres, restaurants, night clubs, sporting art̂ nas, and therefore has a large hotel industry. It is the main publi$j;hing, advertising and radio center with Columbia and New York universities and various city colleges. Among the inhabitants of New York one can meet people of al­ most all nations. The population of New York numbers about 16 million. Th^ citizens speak seventy-five different languages. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражне^ке 1. Прочитайте текст, найдите герундий и причастие насто­ ящего времени, переведите. In most capital cities built long before the time of the private car there is, rarely enough space for moving traffic, and certainly not enough for parking vehicles. Buses move slowly because of the great volun^e of traffic, thus encouraging more people to give up (отказатьс5^) using public transport. Banning traffic from some ar­ eas may heUp, but such a solution may not actually make less the number of «cars coming into the city. The new city cannot survive (выжить) without building a series of ring roads. During the work­ ing hours o.f the day, there is the constant noise of traffic, but at night the center is almost empty. The moî it environmentally-friendly way of solving traffic prob­ lems is to nise more widely public transportation. Buses require fewer parkintg lots, make less noise and use less road space per pas­ senger than private cars. They consume less fuel, causing less air pollution., Some environmentalists dream of turning parking lots into parks and replacing cars with bicycles. In some countries there are extensive networks of bicycle paths, which make cycling a safe and enjoyable form of transportation. Упражнение 2. A. Прочитайте словосочетания и выберите для выделен­ ных слов соответствующие тексту 8А значения. 1. with the cabin accommodating a. grant b. have, provide a room or place for с change 2. the skin is heated a. outer covering of human body b. outer covering of a fruit с outer layer or surface 3. lightening the aircraft a. make light or bright b. reduce the weight of с make visible 4. the fuel flowing through a. move along or over b. come from с be the result of 5. fibre-glass blades a. cutting part of a knife b. a part of a tool for playing baseball с flat wide part of a propeller B. Найдите в тексте 8A слово с тем же значением, что и/ме/ (см. 4-й абзац). Упражнение 3. А. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значения вы­ деленных слов. Virtual Laboratory Expands NASA Research NASA has successfully concluded tests on a computer- generated virtual laboratory that will allow researchers, located anywhere in the world, to study potentially dangerous aircraft and spacecraft situations without risking human life. The lab can enable research organizations to collaborate long­ distance without having to be physically present at the world's larg­ est flight simulator at Ames Research Center, California. It could also be used by universities, research laboratories and industry to develop a wide variety of products beyond the aerospace field. Fu-, ture uses of the laboratory being considered include designing new spacecrafts and training astronauts. The simulator is able to move airplane and spaceship cockpits in all directions, including 60 feet vertically and 40 feet horizon­ tally. There are five interchangeable cockpits that are used to simu­ late the Space Shuttle, helicopters, airplanes and other aerospace vehicles. The simulator creates a convincing environment for a pilot and is controlled by computers programmed to represent each aircraft proposed. Computers calculate correct aircraft response when a pilot changes simulator cockpit controls. In real time, responses by the simulator include cockpit motion, images in the windshield, sounds and control readouts. Simulations are monitored from the control lab at ARC. The virtual laboratory and the «world» it cre­ ates exist partly in computer memory and other physical gear. Recently, astronauts made simulated Space Shuttle landings using a huge motion simulator at ARC while NASA engineers in Houston monitored the sessions using the three-dimensional «world» that includes video screens, computer video, two-way video conferencing, remote data access and a pilot's out-the- window scene. B. Выберите для выделенных в тексте А слов правильные значения. a. reaction d. work in partnership b. view e. compartment for the pilot с make larger f. apparatus, mechanism C. Замените в предложении выделенный глагол другим глаголом с тем же значением, 1. А new system enables researchers to carry out complicated tests. 2. Engineers have completed their research in the aerospace field. 3. A huge simulator provides the condition of real operations in flight. 4. Virtual lab helps us learn how to better use cockpit controls. 5. A pilot can move aeroplane in all directions. D. Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизвестные слово­ сочетания и термины. Запомните их. remote ... space long ... aerospace, ... shuttle ... screen air ... conference ... memory human ... out-the-window ... access ... world wind ... research ... time E. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Person Adjective organization ... direct ... ... collaborator local simulation — represent ... F. Образуйте от выделенных слов существительное, прилагательное или наречие и заполните пропуски. physics 1. It is ... impossible to be in two places at once. 2. ... is an expert dealing with matter and energy. 3. Mechanical laws and Newtonian ... are very important for creating virtual systems. 4. The equivalent of clip art for virtual reality designers might be ... systems. possibility 5. What will make the virtual reality design system of tomorrow...? 6. Is there any ... of your taking part in virtual reality confer­ ence this year? 7. If we throw an object, it flies across the room, ... hitting an­ other object and causing a complex chain of events as objects crash into each other. success 8. Virtual reality can have great... in many ways, especially in experimenting. 9. Recent... tests of the world's largest simulator enable scien­ tists to do research in education, management and industry. 10. Astronauts have ... simulated Space Shuttle landings., potential 11. Virtual lab helps researchers simulate ... complicated flight situations. 12. Our country has great ... raw resources. 13. It has not realized its full ... yet. Упражнение 4. Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ киАисуществительных из колонки В.

В

1. simulate a. solving a problem 2. complete b. the distance 3. collaborate с passengers 4. withstand d. a pilot, an airplane 5. succeed in e. the conditions of flight 6. cover f. loads to remote regions 7. make g. at a speed 8. overcome h. a new era, age 9. deliver i. stresses, high temperatures 10. carry j . landings, calculations 11. fly k. problems, difficulties 12. open 1. long-distance 13. find m. destination, use, application 14. guide n. research, tests, study Упражнение 5. A. Назовите 15-20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «Aircraft of today, its safety, reliability, speed and comfort». B. Speak about: Virtual reality and its application in aerospace field., LESSON 9 Условные придаточные предложения Значения слова provide Суффиксы 'th, -en Префиксы sub-, under-, поп- Text 9А. Descending to New Ocean Depths Text 9B. Text 9C. Lifeboats Text 9D. Greenwich ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Определите тип условного придаточного предложения, переведите. 1. If we look around, we can see that electricity is serving us in one way or another. 2. If I were free, I should help you with plea­ sure. 3. If we had tested this material, we should have used it in our work. 4. If ordinary gases are greatly compressed, they become liquids. 5. If supercomputers had not been used for thermodynamic calculations, designers would have spent all their lives on computa­ tions. 6. If you think that a computer never makes mistakes, you are wrong. 7. If extreme temperatures generated by atmospheric friction were not so high, a hypersonic craft would not require complicated cooling measures. 8. If we had been told about the lec­ ture on reliability in spacecraft production, we should have come by all means. 9. Superconductivity can be obtained in some materi­ als if the temperature is very low and close to absolute zero. B. Поставьте глагол в скобках в соответствующую форму. 1. It you (to know) English well, you will be able to read books in the original. 2. If I get this book, I (to be) very happy. 3. You (to become) much stronger if you did your morning exercises regu-, larly. 4. If she went to work in France, she (to learn) French very quickly. 5. If he (to see) her, he would have spoken to her. 6. I (to help) them if I had been at home. 7. You (to write) the testwork well if you have learnt grammar. 8. If she (to ask) me yesterday, I should have told her about it. 9. If we had not been present at the lecture, we (not to understand) the new approach to the solution of the problem. С Закончите предложения. 1. I would work much better if...2. Life would be much sim­ pler if...3. Use every opportunity to practice English if... 4. I would have started to study English earlier, if... 5. I would have had more opportunities, if...Упражнение 2. A. Измените предложения согласно образцам: If I were free, I should help you. Were I free, I should help you. If he had known about the lecture, he would have come. Had he known about the lecture, he would have come. 1. If it were possible, we should begin this work at once. 2. If he had had all the necessary books, he would have made his report in time. 3. If the books had been available in our library, we could have done this work much earlier. 4. If there were no computers, space flights would be impossible. 5. If drivers were more attentive while driving, there would be less accidents on the road. B. Переведите бессоюзные условные придаточные предложения. 1. Had he used new materials, the device would have been more reliable. 2. Were electric motors used, cars would not pollute the air, would be practically noiseless and very easy to control. 3. Had they applied the new method, the result would have been much better. 4. Were the design of cars improved, the fuel consumption would be greatly reduced. 5. Had a less explosive gas been used in dirigibles at the beginning of the century, they would have been in operation since that time. 6. Were it possible to learn how birds find their way, people would use the principle to develop a naviga­ tion system for aviation. Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения и запомните значения глагола to provide и союза provided. 1. The experiments conducted provided very good results. 2. Rus­ sian technological achievements that provided the launching of rockets are known all over the world. 3. A tire pressure display pro-, vides information for front and back pairs of tires. 4. Provided new composite materials are used, it will be possible to reduce overall aircraft weight. 5̂ Provided with a new vacuum-controlled carbure­ tor this car model has several important advantages. 6. Superliners could develop a higher speed provided some special cooling mea­ sures were used. 7. An aircraft pilot can get all the information he needs provided he contacts a radio navigation station. 8. The work done provided us with new data. 9. Having measured the distance between two points, it is possible to calculate the time during which a car can cover it provided we know the car's average speed. 10. Our laboratory has been provided with the latest equipment. Упражнение 4. A. Дайте степени сравнения для прилагательных, great, easy, good, far, many, difficult, possible. B. Поставьте much перед прилагательным в сравнительной степени (го­ раздо, намного), переведите. late, simple, important, valuable, quick, reliable, useful, com­ plex. С Переведите словосочетания. гораздо (намного) раньше, гораздо (намного) длиннее, на­ много (гораздо) труднее, намного эффективнее, намного легче. Упражнение 5. А. Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний. as old as seagoing, a round container, the Swiss National Fair, as primitive as marine life, so-called, to take people deep into the lake, underwater tasks, around the ocean floor, wrist of the manipu­ lator, to lift 120 pounds, marine life, the world's deepest vehicle, underwater helicopter. швейцарская национальная ярмарка; подводные работы; опускать людей на большую глубину озера; по морскому дну; подводный вертолет; запястье манипулятора; морской живот­ ный и растительный мир; самый глубоководный в мире аппа­ рат; такая же примитивная, как и морская среда (жизнь); так же стары, как мореплавание; так называемый; круглый кон­ тейнер; поднимать 120 фунтов. в. Переведите словосочетания. round glass container, marine life people watch around them, centuries before, to take people deeper than before, difficult under­ water tasks, mounted on a metal platform, it looks like an underwa-, ter helicopter, move like a sport car, video cameras provide vision, to lift up to 120 pounds, work for up to nine hours.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 6. Переведите следующие производные слова согласно об­ разцу: прилагательное -^ th = существительное, deep — глубокий ~> depth ~ глубина length, width, strength; прилагательное + е« = глагол light — легкий -> to lighten — облегчить deepen, brighten, lessen; префиксы sub' (суб-, под-, до-), under- (под-, ниже, недо-) submerge — погружать(ся) -> submersible — подводный, погружаемый estimate — оценивать -> underestimate — недооценивать subsystem, subsonic, subcommittee, subdivision, subsurface, submarine, undersea, underground, undercooling, underproduc­ tion, underdeveloped; префикс поп- (не-) non-conductor — непроводник; non-military — невоенный non-effective, non-essential, non-standard, non-metal, non-stop. Упражнение 7. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. ocean ['eujen], container, apparatus [,aep9'reites], machine [ma'Jiin], spherical ['sferikal], plastic, metal platform, helicopter ['helikopta], manoeuvre [ma'nu:va], sport, mechanical [mi'kaenikal], manipulator [ma'nipjuleita], system, miniature ['minja^a], microphone ['maikrafaun], to lift, minerals, battery, stereo ['stiariau], construct, cultivate, videocamera, titanium [tai'teinjam]. Упражнение 8. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. descend [di'send], legend ['ledsand], submerge [sab'maidj], submersible [sab'ma:sibl], da Vinci [Vin^i], national ['naejani], Geneva [dsi'niiva], Japanese [,cl5aepa'ni:z], technician [tek'nijan], extreme [iks4ri:m], precision [pri'si3an], essentially [I'senjali],, cycloid ['saikloidi], particular [pe'tikjula], wrist [rist], provide [preVaid], sample ['sa:mpl], image ['imids], scale [skeil], join [djoin], politiciani [,poli4iJen], СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ accurate а — точный particular а — данный, almost adv — почти особенный, отдельный advanced p.p. — новейший, пере­ penetrate v — проникать довой precision п — точность collect V ~ собирать promise v — обещать construct V - строить, сооружать provided cj — при условии crew п — экипаж что; в том случае, если depth п — глубина realize v — осуществлять, descend v — спускаться, опус­ реализовывать каться resist V — сопротивляться, due to prp — благодаря, из-за вьщерживать explore V — исследовать sample п — образец find out V — выяснить, узнать submerge v — погружаться, image п — изображение опускаться вглубь instead of adv — вместо test V — проверять, под­ join V — соединять, объединять вергать испытанию lift V — поднимать(ся) transparent а — прозрач­ mankind п — человечество ный operate v — работать, действовать try V — пытаться, пробо­ вать battery-operated/?./?. — работающий на батареях Text 9А Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте на следующие вопросы: В каких странах ведутся работы по созданию погружаемых аппаратов? Каковы особенности погружаемых аппаратов нового типа? Descending to New Ocean Depths We know little about the ocean yet. The dream of exploring un­ der the waves is almost as old as seagoing. Legend says that Alexan­ der the Great submerged himself in a round glass container, and Leonardo da Vinci designed a submersible vehicle in his notebooks centuries before Jules Verne wrote «Twenty Thousand Leagues Un-, der the Sea». If their dreams had been realized aifd such a craft had been constructed, mankind would have known ajbout the secrets of Ocean much earlier. However, already during tjhe Swiss National Fair in 1964 a submersible vehicle took thousands of people deep into Lake Geneva. , Not long ago, the crafts that penetrated the' ocean depths were almost as primitive as the marine life they watched around them. However, non-military deep sea ships, so-cklled submersibles, were progressing rapidly. Russian, French, Japanese and American scientists are developing crafts that can submerge deeper, stay lon- ger and find out more than earlier apparatuses. Soon, one of the most advanced crafts, a one passenger sub- merging ship, will be tested. It may be able to take explorers and technicians deeper than ever before (up to 3,300 feet) and perform difficult underwater tasks with extreme precision. This new submersible is essentially a spherical transparent plastic hull^ mounted on a metal platform. It looks like an underwater heli- copter and can manoeuvre itself in its water environment with some of the versatility^ of a helicopter due to the use of a cycloid rotor^ instead of conventional marine-propeller screws'^. It is expected that this apparatus will move around the ocean like a sports car. However, the breakthrough^ that will make this particular craft quite different from other manned submersibles is a mechanical hand called the sensory manipulator system^. Miniature video cameras on the «wrist» of the manipulator provide it with vision and microphones enable the submersible to «hear». This manipula- tor system is designed to lift up to 120 pounds and will also be able to perform such accurate scientific work as collecting samples of ocean-floor minerals and marine life. When demonstrated, it lifted crystal glasses, drew pictures and wrote with a pen. Some scientists are trying to develop the world's deepest manned submersible. When completed, it will be capable of sub- merging to the depths of 21,000 feet. Its crew will be in a pres- sure-resistant titanium-alloy cabin. This craft will be driven by a battery-operated electric motor and will work for up to nine hours. It will record images with colour television and stereo cameras and will collect samples by manipulating two robotic arms. If such crafts are constructed on a large scale, we shall be able not only to spend our holidays enjoying the underwater life, but also grow and cultivate sea plants, fish and pearls. It will be possible provided scientists, designers and politicians from all over the world join their efforts and solve the most important problems in this field., Notes to the Text 1. transparent plastic hull — прозрачный пластмассовый корпус 2. versatility — свобода передвижения 3. cycloid rotor — несущий винт циклоидного типа 4. marine-propeller screw — судовой гребной винт 5. breakthrough — радикальное решение 6. sensory manipulator system — сенсорная система манипу­ лятора

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 9. Просмотрите текст 9А и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is the text about? 2. What is a submersible? 3. Who was the first to think of a submersible vehicle? 4.What writer wrote about a submersible? 5. What special systems will be used on a new submersible? 6. What are the characteristics of the manipulator system? 7. What kind of submersible is being designed at present? 8. What do you think of the future of such vehicles? 9. What is the name of the famous French scientist, an explorer of the ocean? 10. Have you seen his film? Have you read his books? Упражнение 10. Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста 9А. Исправьте неправильные. 1. We know very little about the ocean yet. 2. The dream of ex­ ploring the underwater life is very old. 3. It was Jules Verne who was the first to write about a submersible vehicle. 4. Only Japanese scientists are developing deep water submersible crafts. 5. A new submersible craft looks and moves like an underwater helicopter. 6. A new submersible is provided with a manipulator that is de­ signed to lift 120 tons. 7. When demonstrated, it lifted crystal glass and drew pictures. 8. When completed, the world's deepest manned submersible will be capable of submerging to the depth of 21,000 feet. 9. This craft will be driven by a battery-operated elec­ tric motor. Упражнение 11. Найдите в тексте 9А условные придаточные предложе­ ния; сделайте, где возможно, их бессоюзными. Упражнение 12. Найдите условные придаточные предложения, выра­ жающие нереальные действия. Переведите. 1. If а scientific research is closely linked with practice, the re­ sults are always good. 2. If you looked at the equipment of 1946,, you would notice the difference with that available at present. 3. If there is a pressure change in the tires, a transmitter signals to adjust the pressure. 4. If we were to make a journey in a plane to the nearest star, we should have to travel for several thousand centuries. 5. Were traffic controlled by computers, cars could travel with safety and speed. 6. Had submersibles been developed since the time of Alex­ ander the Great, mankind would have used natural resources from the ocean floor and cultivated plants and fish there. 7. Had all sub­ mersibles had autonomous principle of operation, they would have become much more useful. 8. If fire-arms had not been invented, the secret of Damascus steel would not have been lost. 9. If we could make a non-stop flight around the sun in an а1ф1апе at a speed about 300 km per hour, it would require 565 days to encircle it at the equator. 10. If the satellite speed is less than necessary, it will go down from the orbit and enter the atmosphere. Упражнение 13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различ­ ные значения слов provide, if (whether). 1. Specialists reported that a miniature video camera provided the latest submersible with vision. 2. The speed of a satellite would be less provided it moved at a greater distance from the Earth. 3. Drivers don't know yet whether radars will be mounted on the next car models. 4. If the weather is too bad for flying, passenger airplanes don't leave aiфorts. 5. It was very important to find out if electricity could be used for long distance communication. 6. Dur­ ing the entire flight, the pilot is provided with all the necessary in­ formation about weather conditions. 7. Modern submersibles can remain at the depth of 20,000 feet for eight hours or, if needed, as long as two or three days. 8. A new system for motor cars can be provided with infrared sensors that can detect a human figure at night. 9. If underwater tourism continued to develop at the present rate, the number of passengers could grow up to millions in only a few years. Упражнение 14. Переведите предложения с союзом unless и запомните особенности его перевода. 1. Isaac Newton stated that a body would continue moving un­ less some force was applied to stop it. 2. Space flights would be im­ possible unless special materials for space vehicles were produced. 3. We should have no radio, telephone, television or computers un­ less there were electricity. 4. The earth temperature would increase indefinitely unless heat were radiated. 5. Unless the temperature rises, the speed of the molecules will not increase. 6. It would have, been impossible to send satellites into orbit unless Newton's laws of motion had been studied. 7. With heat generated by friction of the air on aircraft surface, the temperature inside the cabin would in­ crease to almost 1,000 °C unless it were cooled by mechanical means. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 15. Образуйте от следующих слов: а) глаголы usage, subdivision, indication, complication, difference, large, systematisation, appearance, changeable, measurable; б) существительные noiseless, powerful, deep, dangerous, perform, realise, lighten. Упражнение 16. Образуйте производные от следующих слов: manipulate, compress, move. Упражнение 17. Найдите русскому слову соответствующее английское. исследовать — exploration, explorer, to explore; точно — exactness, exactly, exact, exaction; погруженный — submergence, submerge, submerged, sub­ mersion; направлять — navigate, navigable, navigation; стойкий — resistance, to resist, resistant, resistor; ширина — wide, width, widely, widen. Упражнение 18. Найдите: а) синонимы to finish, to submerge, to work, craft, to build, to descend, ve­ hicle, to operate, rapid, fast, to construct, to complete; б) антонимы to lift, difficult, to complete, after, to descend, before, easy, to start. Упражнение 19. Определите, какой частью речи являются выделенные слова; переведите предложения. 1. In а new apparatus rotors mounted on the fuselage provide lift acting as wings when the craft is moving at high velocity. 2. The aerostatic apparatuses of the latest design can vary its lift force. 3. The man can't lift this weight, it can be lifted only automati­ cally. 4. When weight is lifted to a given level, it possesses potential, energy due to its position. 5. Russia possesses the world's heaviest helicopters MI-26 which lift and transport cargoes up to 20 tons. Упражнение 20. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значе­ ния слов before и after в функции предлога и союза. 1. There was no means of direct communication before the telephone was invented. 2. After World War 1 dirigibles gradually lost their significance as a means of transportation. 3. Before New­ ton no one could explain why the planets moved around the sun. 4. After a French engineer invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770, many car designers wanted to make a better auto­ mobile. 5. Before each flight pilots must ask for the information about the weather expected during the planned route. 6. The «night vision» system enables drivers to see better after dark. 7. Before the industrial production of materials in space can be started, it is necessary to create special space stations. 8. Soon after Karl Marx's arrival in England he became a daily visitor of the Reading Room of the British Museum. Упражнение 21. Выберите соответствующий глагол из приведенных в скобках. 1. А young physicist can (get, get up) a prize for his work. 2. Designers tested a new engine to (find, find out) whether the ce­ ramics it was made of could withstand temperatures up to 1,000 °C. 3. It is difficult to (get, get up) early in winter. 4. Many specialists are working at the problem of developing a new kind of telephone which we (call, call for) «video phone». 5. The projects in Siberia (call, call for) the most effective means of transporting various car­ goes over long distances. 6. Specialists wanted to (find, find out) whether telephone communication was reliable or not. 7. Further development (call, call for) new specialists who are able to generate new technical ideas. 8. New generation materials which we (call, call for) composite materials will allow to lighten the aircraft. 9. To translate this text, we must (find, find out) some words in a dictionary. Упражнение 22. Укажите предложения, где выделенное слово имеет сле­ дующее значение: — действуя 1. They should know in what direction this force is acting. 2. Acting upon the body the force changes. 3. They should find the force, acting upon the body., — имеет дело, рассматривает 1. Thermodynamics is the branch of physics dealing with the transformation of heat into work. 2. The experience of France deal­ ing with environmental problems is very important. 3. Now Russia is dealing very seriously with the problem of Baikal protection. — используя 1. Using thermomagnetic alloys in the turbine rotor allows to develop a lot of various sensors. 2. By using thermomagnetic alloys it is possible to develop a lot of various sensors. 3. Many American companies began using submersibles for tourism. — совершенствование 1. Construction specialists are working at improving the design of metro escalators. 2. While improving the design of metro escala­ tors specialists developed a two speed escalator. 3. Our design bu­ reau has developed spiral escalators improving the construction of public buildings. — превышающий 1. A car exceeding its speed, the indicators show it on the dis­ play. 2. Exceeding the speed limit the driver should be very atten­ tive. 3. There are relatively few cargoes exceeding 400 tons. Упражнение 23. A. Прочитайте текст без словаря. Three Stonecutters Three stonecutters (каменотес) were working hard. A man who was passing by watched them for a few minutes and then, turning to the first stonecutter, he asked: «What are you doing, my friend?» «I am working like a slave (раб). Look at my hands. Did you think I was playing?», he replied. The passer-by then looked at the second workman. «And what are you doing?», he asked. The stone-cutter answered quickly, «I am earning seven dollars and fifty cents a day. I hope to receive at least nine dollars a day in a very near future.» The visitor studied the face of the third stonecutter. Once more, he asked, «And what are you doing, my friend?» The stonecutter's face lighted up as he replied, «I am helping to erect a magnificent building. Look at the colour in this piece of marble. I was just thinking how beautiful it will be when it is thoroughly polished. This building will last for hundreds of years and its beauty will in­ spire everyone who sees it.», в. Составьте предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста А. 1. The first stonecutter was the 1. he saw beauty and joy in his unhappiest of the three because work. 2. The second one was happier 2. he thought that all work was than the first stonecutter because hard and dull. 3. The third stonecutter was the 3. he thought that honest work happiest of the three because brings advancement. Упражнение 24. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. drawn, grew, feeling, wake up, drank, cutting, sink. Упражнение 25. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. Deep Trouble An experimental undersea telephone cable in the Canary Is­ lands had to be lifted from the ocean floor three times because of breakage. Each time sharks' (акула) teeth were found in the dam­ aged cable. Though the cable contains optical fibres transmitting signals in the form of light, it carries a very small amount of electri­ cal wires. It is known that electricity attracts sharks. Therefore, or­ dinary electric power cables are usually provided with some kind of protection to stop their being attacked by sharks. However, it was not expected that it was necessary to mount this expensive protec­ tion on the new cable. But provided the designers had used this conventional protection on the new cable, the sharks would not have approached it.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What apparatuses are used for exploring the ocean depths at present? (non-military submersibles) 2. What countries are de­ veloping such submersibles? (Russia, the USA, France and Japan) 3. What kind of submersible is being designed? (an advanced manned submersible) 4. What is the depth it is capable to submerge to? (21,000 feet) 5. What motor is used in it? (a battery-operated electric motor) 6. What devices are provided for collecting samples from the ocean floor? (robotic manipulators) 7. What is the practi­ cal application of the submersible? (cultivating sea plants, fish and pearls), Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. A new one-passenger submer- 1. an underwater helicopter, sible is designed for performing 2. This submersible is a spherical 2. to the depth of 3,300 feet, transparent plastic apparatus 3. It looks like 3. this apparatus will move like a sports car. 4. It can move in water environ- 4. its sensory manipulator with ment miniature video cameras and mi­ crophones. 5. While exploring the ocean floor 5. accurate scientific explorations. 6. The apparatus is capable to 6. due to the use of rotor instead descend of conventional propeller. 7. A special feature of this man- 7. mounted on a metal platform, ned submersible is Exercise 3. Read and learn. Hiking in the Mountains Mike: My steps become lighter because I hear the music of running water. Let's stand and look at the stream. Jane: Why only look? Vm thirsty (хочу пить) and nothing tastes so good as cool mountain water. M.: But passing the same water through the pores of the skin does the body fifteen times as much good as it does when you drink it. Put your hands and arms into the deepest place and keep them for a while and you'll feel so wonderful. J.: I can't stop drinking. Look at the clear, smooth surface of the stream. Water is beautiful. M.: And perhaps, the most beautiful thing about it is its use. It helps all living things in one way or another. J.: I know that my own body is eighty-five per cent water. M.: Yes, and this water keeps you going in spite of the weather. J.: How does it do this? M.: By circulation it keeps your body at the same temperature all the time. J.: I've read that water has the most interesting properties of all liquids. It is the slowest to cool and the slowest to heat. M.: In winter the water in your body keeps you warm by circulat­ ing evenly to all parts. In the heat of summer it passes off through the million of pores of your skin. This keeps you cool and takes away toxic material at the same time., J.: I think the great supply of water in the body is one of the na­ ture's great provisions. M.: Sure, especially taking into consideration (принимать во внимание) that the human being can live only within the nar­ row range (диапазон) in body temperature of a very few de­ grees Fahrenheit. Have you had enough water? J.: Yes, I have. Usually I drink at least six glassfuls of water daily. Exercise 4. Speak about: 1. An advanced manned submersible. 2. Practical applications of manned submersibles. Use exercises 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to realize a dream, underwater exploration, to penetrate, a submersible vehi­ cle, to descend to a depth up to, to perform tasks, collecting samples of minerals and marine life, to work for nine hours, to join efforts. Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement. Scientists cannot afford (позволить себе) to be interested in things not connected with their subject. One point of view: There is no alternative to narrow (узкий) specialization, ev­ erybody has a limited amount of time, it is unrealistic to expect a scientist to be in­ terested in other fields than his own, a person who is interested in many things is sure to become a dilettante. A contrary point of view : It is impossible to understand a particular science in complete isolation, the scientist should not be treated as a machine for solving spe­ cialized problems, a narrow specialist may tend to become a narrow -minded per­ son, really great scientists have always had wide interests. What do you think about it? Why? Exercise 6. A. Read and say what you think about tea and what it does for you. Tea The English know how to make tea and what it does for you. Seven cups of it wake you up in the morning; nine cups will put you to sleep at night. If you are hot, tea will cool you off, and if you are cold, it will warm you up. If you take it in the middle of the morning, it will stimulate you for further work; if you drink it in the afternoon, it will relax you for further thought. Then, of course, you drink lots of it in off hours (свободное время). The test of good tea is simple. If a spoon stands in it, then it is strong enough., в . Use the following phrases. 1. If you ask me, tea... 2. If you want my opinion, tea... 3. I entirely / quite agree with the idea that... 4. That's exactly my opinion / that's exactly what I feel... 5. I don't like tea because... Exercise 7. Read and smile. A Fable from Aesop ['i:sop] While sitting together one time, a group of animals was discuss­ ing the popularity of the elephant. They all agreed that the elephant was the most popular animal in the forest, but none of them could give a satisfactory explanation of this fact. Yet they all had certain comments to offer. The giraffe [dsiYoif] said, «If the elephant had a long neck like mine, then it would be easy to understand his popularity. He would be the tallest animal in the forest». The peacock (павлин) said, «If he possessed my beautiful tail, it would be easy to understand. He would be the most beautiful creature in the forest». The rabbit said, «If he could run as fast as I, it would be easy to understand. He would be the fastest animal in the forest». The bear said, «If he was as strong as I, it would be easy to un­ derstand. He would be the strongest animal in the forest». Suddenly the elephant himself appeared. He was larger and stronger than any of the other animals, and he was also superior in many ways. But he was always quiet and modest about his many accomplishments. This, after all, was the real explanation for his popularity. An American lady got into a smoking carriage (вагон) where an Englishman was smoking a pipe. She began doing everything to show him she objected to his smoking. At last, seeing that the man paid no attention, she said, «If you were a gentleman, you would stop smoking when a lady got into the carriage». «If you were a lady», replied the Englishman, «you would not get into a smoking carriage». «If you were my husband», said the American lady angrily, «I would give you poison (яд)». «Well,» said the Englishman at last, «if I were your husband, I would take it»., Text 9В Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. Ответьте на следующие вопросы: Какую новую информацию вы нашли в тексте? За счет чего можно устранить недостатки в существующих погружаемых аппаратах? Now most submersibles are connected with a support ship on the surface. This connection is an armoured cable measuring an inch or two in diameter and weighing up to 10 tons and it transmits power and navigational commands to the submersible, as well as sends sensor data and television images back to the support ship. Cables allow submersibles to transmit data at a great speed, but they limit the range of territory studied and have many disadvan­ tages in operation. Autonomous underwater submersibles can move freely. Con­ trolled by on-board microprocessors or by acoustic signals trans­ mitted by a ship on the surface, battery-operated submersibles can cover much greater areas. They can operate under ice and in very deep water. Such three-ton unmanned crafts can submerge to the depth of almost 20,000 feet and stay there for up to seven hours. High quality images of the ocean bottom can be transmitted to the support ship in three to four seconds (because of the slow speed — about 5,000 feet per second through water — acoustic data trans­ mission is much less quick than signals sent via cable which travel at the speed of light). But even these most advanced submersibles have definite disad­ vantages: batteries are heavy, data transmission is slow and com­ puter programs are primitive. Future submersibles may overcome those difficulties. Some may be propelled by nuclear power or by fuel cells (топливные элементы) that use oxygen from the sea water. Many of them will rely on signal-compression techniques to speed up acoustic data links. Computerized systems will enable some submersibles to repair damaged telephone cables or oil plat­ forms. If research work in this field continues to expand at its present rate, the number of radically different kind of more effi­ cient crafts will appear very soon. Text 9C Прочитайте текст. Назовите особенности современного спасательного средства на воде и принцип его действия. Lifeboats Even though we now have ships of a kind unknown in earlier centuries, we are still very far from mastering the sea. The Greek, sailor who was shipwrecked (терпеть кораблекрушение) on his way home from Troy and the sailor of tomorrow whose nuclear- powered cargo ship might be on fire both face the same dangers. They may drown (тонуть), and so they need to keep afloat. They may die, and so they need to keep themselves covered and dry. Rescuers (спасатель) may never find them, and so they need to send signals. The Greek sailor at the time of the Trojan war had only a small chance of survival (спасение). The sailor of tomorrow has a greater chance, especially if the ship has one of the new rescue crafts on board. One such lifeboat looks more like a flying saucer (тарелка) than a boat. Sailors on board a ship which is in trouble can get into the capsule, close the water-tight doors and operate the controls which drop the capsule automatically into the sea. Made of glass fibre (стекловолокно) the capsule will float on the sea and will not be dragged down by the sinking ship. It will protect the men inside from explosions, fire and extreme cold. It has a thirty-kilowatt diesel engine and so can carry survivors to the coast. To help rescue ship and aircraft to find it, the upper part of the capsule is covered with a special orange paint which can be detected by radar. Each capsule is large enough for twenty eight men. Text 9D Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски, что вы узнали об истории Гринвича и его сегодняшнем дне. Greenwich Greenwich is on the river Thames, five miles from the middle of London, and its story is 2,000 years old. The first English people ~ the Saxons — were fishermen there and they gave Greenwich its name — «the green village». You can still walk along the old Roman road in Greenwich park. But the river was the true road to the outside world for the Romans and for English kings and queens who later lived in Greenwich. The King Henry VIII loved this place. He knew that England must be strong at sea. So two big shipyards were started at Greenwich and for 350 years the ships made there were the best in the world. Many ships were lost at sea — their sailors did not know how to tell exactly where they were. In the 17th century astronomer Flamstead tried to find the an­ swer. He worked in an Observatory on the high ground in Green­ wich park. The walls of its big light-sided (непрочной) room shook, when the weather was bad. But from it, with a telescope made by himself, Flamstead could look all round the sky. And he did look night after night for twenty years. Carrying on Flamstead's work a hundred years later, an astronomer called Harrison finally made a clock which told the time at sea and helped sailors to know where they were. You can see Harrison's clock, still working in Green­ wich museum of the sea. Because of Flamstead's work every coun­ try in the world now tells its time by Greenwich time. Every year a million people come to Greenwich to see its mu­ seums and palaces and its two famous ships: one old, one new. Both the big CUTTY SARK and the little GYPSY MOTH sailed through dangerous waters before they came safely back to their Greenwich home. At-the end of the 1800's the CUTTY SARK was the fastest ship of its size. Carrying more than a million kilos of tea, she travelled the 25,000 kilometeres from China to England in only hundred days. Next to the CUTTY SARK is the GYPSY MOTH - only 16.5 metres long, but full of newest equipment. Her captain Sir F. Chichester wanted his ship to sail as far and as fast as the CUTTY SARK. When he sailed round the world by himself in CYPSY MOTH in 1966 - the first man ever to do this - he took a flag from the CUTTY SARK with him. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте 9А: а) ключевые слова со значением deep sea ship; переведите их; б) словосочетания с under и близкие по значению выражения, переведи­ те их; в) слово marine и словосочетания с ним; поясните их и приведите примеры. Упражнение 2. А. Прочитайте текст. Постарайтесь догадаться о значении термина scuba divers, А computer for scuba divers will provide in one device informa­ tion about time, depth and air supply. It is to be used together with special divers' tables. A display will provide visual information and audible warnings about critical conditions. If a diver wants to know an accurate depth he is down, he must set water type he is in. If he is in the sea, he will set «sea water», otherwise he will set «fresh water». The device shows the diver's current depth in meters and the level of power left in the batteries. It will indicate if the level is low, medium or high., If a diver wants to know how long he has been down, he can see this from the display. If a diver needs to spend some minutes at a certain depth for decompression, he will start his stop watch, and will wait until the time has elapsed (passed). If a diver wants to know the amount of air left in the tank, he can see this from the contents display. A warning signal tells him when he must start his ascent. Before he descends, the diver sets the time to ascend. If he began his as­ cent before the display started flashing, he would be within safe Umits. If he did not ascend then, he would expose himself to de­ compression sickness. If he started his ascent and went up too quickly, he would see a warning light «Too fast». Then he should slow down his ascent. B. Объясните на английском языке значения следующих слов и словосо­ четаний: scuba diving, stop watch, display flashing, air tank content, expose oneself to decompression sickness. Переведите их. C. Найдите в тексте дополнительное придаточное предложение с союзом if D. Заполните пропуски антонимами выделенных слов. 1. Tables give information about safe and ... diving limit, 2. Time information is the time from the beginning of the diver's descent to the ... of his ... 3. If a diver is in the sea, he will set «sea water», otherwise he will set ... 4. Battery level information indicates if the level is low or ... 5. Before a diver starts to descend, he should set the time when he must ... E. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Adjective submergence exploratory popularize ... creature — sick ... performance connective exposure definite, Упражнение 3. Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ киАисуществительных из колонки В. А В 1. realize a. data, images 2. master / penetrate b. areas 3. join c. at a rate of 4. submerge d. the sea and ocean depths 5. descend / ascend e. a dream 6. be f. efforts 7. cover g. within safe limits 8. transmit h. to the depth of Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизве­ стные словосочетания и термины. Запомните их. 1. battery-... 7. ocean-... minerals 2. ... warning 8. ... arms 3. visual ... 9. support ... 4. ... diving 10. life ... system 5. stop ... 11. one ... 6. ... plants 12. ... camera Упражнение 5. A. Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «New developments in manned submersibles». В. Speak about: Modern scuba diving.,

REVISION OF LESSONS 7-9

Упражнение 1. Повторите причастия I, II, герундий и условные прида­ точные предложения. Переведите. 1. Bob is very good at solving mathematical equations. 2. She has never done any computing. 3. We saw an old man lying on the road. 4. Being a disabled, he could not drive a car. 5. The train be­ ing late, they decided to return home. 6. His favourite pastime is playing computer games. 7. Realizing the danger, they stopped. 8. The house rebuilt recently is very beautiful. 9. Look at the dis­ played objects! Look at the objects being displayed! 10. Graphic artists like adding colour and depth to their drawings and designs. 11. Having completed the job, the man left early. 12. The task hav­ ing been accomplished, the pilot returned to the base. 13. Having been rebuilt recently, the house is very attractive now. 14. Scien­ tists are interested in developing new programming languages. 15. What do you think of the methods being used in these experi­ ments? 16. Our engineers will discuss the methods used and the re­ sults obtained. 17. Given certain conditions such work can be done by anybody. 18. The speed of a microprocessor is very important in processing information. 19. A fax machine is used for sending and receiving copies of original documents via a phone line. 20. Joy­ stick is an input device especially helpful when playing computer games. 21. Distance measuring equipment now being used in all airplanes, pilots know exactly their position and speed. 22. Pro­ vided electronic and radio navigation equipment had not been im­ proved so radically in recent years, aircraft flying would not have been so reliable and efficient. 23. Manhattan, one of the New York boroughs, is not large in size and population, people coming there only for work, to the theaters, museums and clubs. 24. If you got tired while getting ready for your exam, you should break off for half an hour. 25. We learnt of the engineers' having invented a wheel-computerized system that monitors and adjusts air-pressure in tyres. 26. Most submersibles do not move very far from the sup­ port ship, the connecting cables limiting their range. 27. Unless the internal combustion engine had been invented, the automobile in­ dustry would not have begun to develop so rapidly all over the world. 28. When completed, the new dirigible will be the largest and the most powerful one. 29. Hundreds of radio navigation sta­ tions being located at different places around the world, pilots are at constant link with them. 30. The principles of ecology are as real as those of aerodynamics. If an aircraft is to fly, it has to satisfy cer­ tain criteria of thrust and lift. Similarly, if an economy is to keep up progress, it must satisfy the basic principles of ecology. If it does not, it will decline (приходить в упадок)., Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на грамматику уроков 7—9. How It Works Fuel warning light. Many cars have a fuel warning light. The level of fuel (petrol) in the tank being very low, this light switches on and the driver can see that he needs more petrol. How does this fuel warning light work? The level of the fuel falling, the float moves downwards. When this happens, the arm also moves downwards and makes the lever touch an electrical contact, thus switching on the fuel light in the car. Seeing the fuel warning light, the driver puts more petrol into the tank. This makes the fuel level rise and pushes the float up­ wards. When risen, the float makes the arm move upwards and this causes the level to move upwards also. The fuel warning light then switches off A car cooling system. Most car engines are cooled by water. The water flows around the engine and then passes through the ra­ diator. It then passes through the water pump and around the en­ gine again. Thus, there are several stages in this cycle: 1. Water flows around the engine. The engine is cooled and wa­ ter is heated. 2. When heated, the hot water enters the radiator through the top hose (шланг). 3. Flowing down through the radiator, the hot water is cooled by air. The air is drawn through the radiator by a fan (вентилятор). This fan is turned by a belt, which is driven by the engine. The cool water leaves the radiator through the bottom hose. The water is pumped around the engine again. Finding a fault in a car. If your car doesn't start in the morning, you should check three things first: the battery, the fuel level and the spark plugs (свеча зажигания). It is easy to repair these faults. If the battery is flat, you should recharge it. If this doesn't work, you should replace it. If the petrol tank is empty, fill it up. If the spark plugs are dirty, clean them, and if the gap in a spark plug is too narrow or too wide, adjust it to the correct width. If your car still doesn't start, the petrol pump may be broken, or the fuel pipe may be blocked. If the pump is broken, it must be re­ paired or replaced. If the fuel pipe is blocked, take it off'and unblock it. If there is a loud click when you turn the key, the starter motor may be jammed (заклинивать). If it is, you can try to release it by pushing the car forwards and backwards (in 2nd gear). If the car still doesn't start, the starter motor should be repaired or replaced., Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски следующими словами: flat be repaired click recharge faults battery clean tank empty replace fuel wide sparkplugs cooling backwards narrow forwards 1. In a car the flat battery, the empty fuel tank and the dirty spark plugs are the ... that can be easily eliminated. 2. If your car doesn't start, check the ... and the fuel ...3. If the battery is flat, try to ... or ... it. 4. If the ... tank is ... , fill it with petrol. 5. If the ... ... are dirty, ... them. 6. Adjust the gap in a spark plug if it is too ... or too ...7. If the petrol pump is broken, it must 8. If the tyres are ... , you should pump them up. 9. If you hear a loud ... , while turning the key, the starter motor may be jammed. 10. If it is jammed, try to move the car ... or ... 11. If the engine becomes too hot, there is a fault in the ... system. Упражнение 4. A. Прочитайте текст. Automotive Engines Speaking about automotive engines one should say that the two most common types of engine for land vehicles are the petrol en­ gine and the diesel engine. Since petrol engines are usually lighter and smaller than diesel engines, they are cheaper. Therefore, most cars and motorbikes use petrol engines. Petrol engines are also less noisy than diesel en­ gines. They usually go faster. On the other hand, diesel engines use less fuel and last longer than petrol engines, and this is why larger vehicles such as trucks and trains use them. They are also safer than petrol engines, because there is less danger of fire. There are two main types of petrol engine — 4-stroke and 2-stroke. All cars and larger motor-cycles use 4-stroke engines. But most smaller motorbikes use 2-stroke engines. These are lighter and smaller than 4-stroke engines, and are therefore cheaper. B. Ответьте на вопросы. 1. Which is the lightest of the three engines (2-stroke, 4-stroke or diesel)? 2. Which is the least expensive? 3. Which is the noisiest? 4. Which is the largest? 5. Which is the safest? Why? 6. Which has the lowest fuel consumption? C. Speak about: The main systems of a car.,

LESSON 10

Инфинитив, формы И функции Конструкция there + сказуемое Глаголы to causey to make, to force Text lOA. Laser Text lOB. Optical Technology Text IOC. An Encyclopedia on a Tiny Crystal Text lOD. Science and International Cooperation ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Определите функции инфинитива в предложениях, пере­ ведите. 1. То develop а new submersible craft with a manipulator is not an easy task. 2. To develop the supercomputer, highly developed electronics and new materials were required. 3. One of the best ways to keep the car speed steady is to use a computer. 4. Experi­ ments helped Mendeleev to discover the properties of new chemi­ cal elements. 5. Francis Chichester was the first to sail round the world by himself. 6. Some materials with new useful properties may be produced in space. 7. A special electronic device signals the en­ gine to stop. 8. Radar may control the brakes to avoid collisions with other cars. 9. High temperature alloys make it possible for jet engines to be operating under severe conditions for a long period of time. 10. Recently a radar to be mounted on cars has been de­ veloped. 11. In a new Japanese car the information to be received by the driver will come through a navigation earth satellite. 12. To help helicopters and aircraft find the capsule, its upper part is co­ vered with special paint which can be detected by radar. 13. To de­ tect objects at a distance such as ships, aircrafts, buildings, mountains, etc. is of great importance for navigation both at sea and in air. 14. The radar detects the stationary objects ahead of the, саг to warn the driver about them and slow down the speed. 15. We had fresh water to drink. 16. They returned to listen about our acci­ dent and help. 17. He asked permission to leave. Упражнение 2. Переведите согласно образцам: There are many ways ... — Существует много способов ... There has appeared a new kind of vehicle. — Появился новый вид аппарата. There is no doubt... — Hem сомнения ... 1. There are unique conditions in space for producing materials with special qualities. 2. There exist different designs of submers­ ible crafts in several countries. 3. There remains one more test to be carried out before using the device. 4. There has recently appeared a new way of communication through satellite networks. 5. There is no doubt that soon we shall see the appearance of a new kind of superliners and space crafts. 6. We have read that there exists an in­ ternational organization that makes it possible to keep telephone and telegraph communication via satellite with ships in any part of the World Ocean. 7. There is no doubt that mankind will be able to explore the solar system by using nuclear rockets. But there still re­ main a lot of problems to be solved. Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения и запомните значения глаголов to cause, to make, to force. 1. Weather changes are often caused by cyclones and anticy­ clones. 2. Work with deaf people made Al. Bell look for a way to help them and he began to study the theory of sound. 3. In internal combustion engines the pressure of gases forces the piston to go down. 4. The fact that Sofia Kovalevskaya couldn't continue her studies in Russia made her leave for Germany. 5. Heating causes the motion of molecules in a substance, the hotter it becomes, the quicker the molecules move. 6. Morse's interest in electricity made him start experimenting with it. 7. Sometimes bad weather forces the aircrafts to land. 8. In ordinary air it is possible to make elec­ trons jump through space by means of pressure of high voltage. 9. The manager made Mary copy the report again. 10. They made him wait for an hour. Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, учитывая особенности сочета­ ния прилагательного с наречием enough. 1. Materials used for superliner structures must be strong enough to withstand the air resistance at high speeds. 2. The «night vision» system is to be small enough to be used in automobiles., 3. The film must be interesting enough since everyone has already seen it. 4. New materials for hypersonic craft should be light enough because the weight of the aircraft structure is of the greatest importance. 5. Infrared rays emitted by any object on the road are to be intensive enough for sensors to pick them up. 6. The Voice Warning system for cars requires the connection of 18 wires, but it is simple enough to be installed in a car. Упражнение 5. A. Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний. before the turn of the century, fantastic story, sword of heat, mysterious sword of heat, has come to reality, the name stands for, light amplification, stimulated emission, mankind's oldest dream, to make lead run like water, technological tool, thermonuclear fuel, to have no time to disintegrate, experiments in heating, re­ quired temperature, dozens of times greater, in just a fraction of a second. технологическое средство, заставить свинец литься как вода, название означает, старейшая мечта челозечества, уси­ ление света, в конце прошлого века, индуцированная эмиссия (излучение), огненный меч, таинственный огненный меч, во­ плотилось в реальность, фантастическая история, экспери­ менты по нагреву, требуемая температура, термоядерное топливо, нет времени для распада, в десятки раз больше, все­ го за долю секунды. В. Переведите словосочетания. а very pure colour, to vaporize the hardest materials, to vapor­ ize any substance on the earth, to combine two technological dis­ coveries, limitless source of energy, practically limitless source of energy, thermonuclear fuel, thermonuclear reaction, controlled thermonuclear reaction, current estimates, a billionth of a second, to work hard. Упражнение 6. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. fantastic [faen'taestik], Martians ['ma:Jjenz], to stimulate ["stimjuleit], laser [1eiz9], colour ['кл1э], thermonuclear reac­ tion, controlled thermonuclear reaction, energy, plasma ['plaezme], dozens ['dAznz], practice ['praektis], practical ['praektikel], potential [pau'tenjel], intensive, intensity, principle, to vibrate [vai'breit], fraction, project ['procfeekt], transmission, solar transmission, realise ['rialaiz], effect [i'fekt]. Encyclopaedia [en,saikl9u'pi:dj9]., Упражнение 7. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. world [w9:ld], turn [t9:n], earth [э:6], invade [in'veid], sword [so:d], heat [hi:t], beam [bi:m], pure [pju9], mankind [maen'kaind], enough [I'nAf], vaporize [Veiparaiz], lead [led], focused ['f9uk9st], treatment ['tri:tm9nt], vary [V89ri], varied [V89rid], suggest [S9'd5est], magic ['maedsik], problem ['probl9m], combine [котЪаш], source [so:s], contribute [k9n'tribju:t], duration [dju9'reij9n], pulse [pAls], though [бэи], encounter [in'kaunt9], encode [in'k9ud], surface ['S9:fis], there­ fore ['689fo:], doubt [daut], entire [in4ai9], weapon ['wep9n]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ amplification п — усиление heat V — нагревать; п — тепло, as well adv — также теплота approximately adv — почти, heating п — нагрев приблизительно heat-resistant а — теплостой­ capacity п — мощность, кий нагрузка, производительность indeed adv — действительно, conduct V — вести, проводить на самом деле cost п — стоимость installation п — установка, duration п — сборка продолжительность involved/?.//— связанный, рас­ enough adv — достаточно, сматриваемый, имеющий мес­то довольно rapidly adv — быстро entire а — полный, целый represent v — представлять, fulfilment п — выполнение, олицетворять осуществление, исполнение stimulate v — возбуждать, ин­ single а — один, одиночный дуцировать suggest V — предлагать, treatment п — обработка советовать vary V — менять, изменять(ся) tool п — инструмент, орудие, weapon п — оружие средство to meet the demands, the requirements — удовлетво­ рять требованиям in order to — для того чтобы power plant — силовая установка, электростанция, Text lOA Прочитайте текст и найдите абзацы, где говорится о применении лазеров. Переведите. Laser In the «War of Worlds» written before the turn of the last cen­ tury H. Wells told a fantastic story of how Martians almost invaded our Earth. Their weapon was a mysterious «sword of heat». Today Wells' sword of heat has come to reality in the laser. The name stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Laser, one of the most sophisticated inventions of man, pro­ duces an intensive beam of light of a very pure single colour. It rep­ resents the fulfilment of one of the mankind's oldest dreams of technology to provide ̂ a light beam intensive enough to vaporize the hardest and most heat-resistant materials. It can indeed make lead run like water, or, when focused, it can vaporize any substance on the earth. There is no material unamenable^ to laser treatment and laser will become one of the main technological tools quite soon. The applications of laser in industry and science are so many and so varied as to suggest magic^. Scientists in many countries are working at a very interesting problem: combining the two big tech­ nological discoveries of the second half of the 20th century — laser and thermonuclear reaction — to produce a practically limitless source of energy. Physicists of this country have developed large la­ ser installations to conduct physical experiments in heating ther­ monuclear fuel with laser beams. There also exists an idea to use laser for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction. The laser beam must heat the fuel to the required temperature so quickly that the plasma does not have time to disintegrate. Accord­ ing to current estimates, the duration of the pulse has to be approx­ imately a billionth of a second. The light capacity of this pulse would be dozens of times greater than the capacity of all the world's power plants. To meet such demands in practice, scientists and engineers must work hard as it is clear that a lot of difficulties are to be encountered on route^. The laser's most important potential may be its use in commu­ nications. The intensity of a laser can be rapidly changed to encode very complex signals. In principle, one laser beam, vibrating a bil­ lion times faster than ordinary radio waves, could carry the radio, TV and telephone messages of the world simultaneously. In just a, fraction of a second, for example, one laser beam could transmit the entire text of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Besides, there are projects to use lasers for long distance com­ munication and for transmission of energy to space stations, to the surface of the Moon or to planets in the Solar system. Projects have also been suggested to place lasers aboard Earth satellites nearer to the Sun in order to transform the solar radiation into laser beams, with this transformed energy subsequently transmitted to the Earth or to other space bodies. These projects have not yet been put into effect̂ , because of the great technological difficulties to be over­ come and, therefore, the great cost involved. But there is no doubt that in time^ these projects will be realized and the laser beam will begin operating in outer space as well. Notes to the Text 1. to provide — получать 2. unamenable — неподдающийся 3. as to suggest magic — можно принять за чудо 4. on route — на пути 5. put into effect — осуществлять 6. in time — со временем

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 8. Просмотрите текст 10А и ответьте на вопросы. What is this text about? 2. What does the word «laser» mean? 3. What is the laser, is it a device or some phenomenon? 4. Who was the first to write about lasers? 5. What writer from this country wrote a book about a laser? 6. What can a laser do? 7. Where can it be used? 8. What other uses do you know? Упражнение 9. Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста 10А. Исправьте неправильные утверждения. 1. Laser means «light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation». 2. Laser produces an intensive beam of light. 3. In the next few years laser will become one of the main technological tools. 4, Martians almost invaded the Earth before the turn of the last century. 5. Laser and thermonuclear reaction can produce a limited source of energy. 6. The laser beam heats the fuel so quickly that the plasma disintegrates. 7. There are projects to transform lu-, nar radiation into beams. 8. The laser beam will begin operating in outer space. Упражнение 10. Найдите в тексте lOA инфинитивы в функции части ска­ зуемого и обстоятельства цели (см. 3-й и 5-й абзацы). Упражнение 11. Найдите предложения с инфинитивом в функции опре­ деления и дополнения, переведите. 1. То design, construct and operate a laser system is a great technological achievement. 2. To protect the water resources, forests and atmosphere, several laws were passed in Russia in the 1970s. 3. A very interesting problem is to produce a practically limitless source of energy. 4. There are projects to use lasers for long dis­ tance communication. 5. Automation makes it possible to obtain and develop new sources of energy. 6. To combine laser and ther­ monuclear reaction is a very interesting problem for the scientists in many countries. 7. To conduct physical experiments with laser beams, Russian physicists have developed large laser installations. 8. Some Western experts consider that it is practically impossible to protect big cities from pollution. 9. Lasers to be placed on Earth satellites will transform solar radiation into laser beams. 10. A spe­ cial design bureau in St. Petersburg was the first in the world to de­ velop production of superlong escalators. 11. To put some projects with lasers in operation, great technological difficulties must be overcome. 12. One of the ways to make planes as economical as possible is to lighten the aircraft by using new composite materials. 13. Signals to be measured must be strong enough. Упражнение 12. Определите, чем выражено определение, переведите. 1. The new system developed increased the safety and effi­ ciency of a car. 2. The laser's most important potential use may be its long distance communication applications. 3. Provided the problems of using laser for controlled thermonuclear reaction were solved, the capacity of the pulse received would be much greater than that of all the world's power plants. 4. All a pilot needs to do is to tune to radio transmitters and he will get direction signals he needs. 5. One of the problems scientists are working at is to trans­ mit energy to space stations by using lasers. 6. Laser provides a light beam intensive enough to vaporize the hardest and most heat-resis­ tant materials. 7. A hypersonic aircraft will require complicated cooling measures because of the extreme temperatures involved. 8. A new electronic device to be installed in the car's panel will cal-, culate how far one can drive on the fuel left. 9. The hardest materi­ als a laser beam is aimed at vaporize within a fraction of a second. 10. Aircraft designers are interested in all kinds of new materials that are strong enough to be used for high-speed airliners. 11. Noise and vibration are also the problems to be faced by design­ ers of hypersonic crafts. 12. Besides, there is one more problem to be studied — that of surface cooling. 13. The ordinary aircraft win­ dows would make the future superliner structure too weak to with­ stand great stresses developed. 14. Every student of Cambridge is to go to his tutor once a week to discuss with him the work done. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 13. Определите части речи по суффиксам и префиксам. encode, capacity, disintegrate, emission, widen, intensive, in­ credible, defence, stranger, reality, strengthen, fulfilment, inde­ structible, amplification, substance, entirely, vaporize. Упражнение 14. Назовите производные от следующих слов, переведите. limit, transmit, approximate, success, science, relate. Упражнение 15. Найдите русскому слову соответствующее английское. устанавливать — installment, installation, install; различие, разница — differ, difference, different; распадаться — disintegrator, disintegration, disintegrate; применимый — application, applicable, apply; укреплять — strong, strength, strengthen; эффективно — efficient, efficiency, efficiently; усилитель — amplification, amplifier, amplify. Упражнение 16. Найдите: а) синонимы rapidly, sophisticated, to conduct, demand, almost, quickly, to carry out, approximately, opportunity, requirement, also, use, to fulfill, complex, as well, to realize, application, possibility; б) антонимы further, integrate, cooling, outside, powerless, uncontrolled, limited, disintegrate, nearer, capable, limitless, controlled, inca­ pable, powerful, heating, inside., Упражнение 17. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на много­ значность слов make и iight. What makes а soap bubble (мыльный пузырь) rise and fall. If a soap bubble does not break at once, it will begin to fall. Why? To explain this, we must remember a balloon which is filled with hot air. It rises for some time and then it falls again. A balloon rises be­ cause the hot air inside it is lighter than the air round it, and as it is lighter, it must rise. When the air inside a balloon cools, the weight of the balloon itself makes it fall. A soap bubble is really a little bal­ loon filled with hot air. This air is much lighter than the air outside. It can carry the weight of the water which makes the skin of the soap bubble. But this cannot last for a long time, because the skin of the soap bubble is very thin. The bubble becomes as cool as the air around it and it begins to fall. It is interesting to know that the early experiments with balloons were based on soap bubbles. Упражнение 18. Переведите. There is a large garage on Seventh Street that provides work for eleven men. There is one man who meets the customers. There are two other men who take care of batteries. There is another man who washes cars. There are three other men who sell gas and oil. There is another man who repairs timers. There are two men who work with engines and there is one man who sells tires. There is no better place for automobile service. Упражнение 19. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола to be. I ... now in the garage on Seventh Street. There ... three cars here. One ... a Ford. There ... a man in it. He ... buying a tire. One car ... a Buick. There ... five people in it. There ... a third car. A man and his wife ... in it. Their battery ... dead. The two battery men ... looking at it. «I... sure you will have to rent a battery», one man says. «We ... a long way from home», the man in the car an­ swers. «We ... not here often. We must buy a battery. There ... nothing else to do». Упражнение 20. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. chosen, fed, costing, put, overcome, coming, made., Упражнение 21. Прочитайте и переведите без словаря. То understand why light from the laser is so concentrated, you must know that light travels in waves. Ordinary white light is made up of many wavelengths travelling in every direction. Laser light is essentially of one wavelength, with all the waves moving in one di­ rection. Because the laser wavelengths intensify each other, they can remain in an unbelievably straight beam for a long distance. Al­ most any substance can be forced to «lase» if you work hard enough with it. Gas lasers give off continuous beams of light. Tiny semi­ conductor lasers may be especially useful in computers for trans­ mitting signals to replace the use of cables. Many lasers can give off invisible radiation, either infrared or ultraviolet.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What is a laser? (a device producing an intensive beam of light) 2. What is its principle of operation? (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) 3. What light is produced by a la­ ser? (light of pure single colour) 4. What can be done by means of a laser? (vaporizing the hardest materials) 5. What materials can be treated with a laser? (practically any material and any substance) 6. What is the most promising use of lasers? (the use in all kinds of communication) 7. What prevents putting into effect the projects to use lasers more widely in space? (great technological difficulties and great cost involved) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. A laser can find 1. must heat the fuel to the re­ quired temperature very quickly. 2. It is very interesting to com- 2. very wide application, bine 3. There is an idea 3. hard to overcome numerous technological difficulties. 4. In this case a laser beam 4. is not an easy task. 5. The light capacity in a laser in- 5. to use a laser for solving the stallation should be dozens of problem of controlled thermonu- times greater clear reaction. 6. To develop such a laser system 6. laser and thermonuclear reac- in practice tion to produce a Hmitless source of energy. 7. Scientists and engineers must 7. than the capacity of all the work world's power plants., Exercise 3. A. Read and learn. I Want to Read Faster Mary: I've read a detective story. It wasn't very good so I wasted (тратить, терять время) much time. Jane: Oh, it takes me now not more than an hour to read a novel. M.: Really? J.: Two months ago it would have taken me about two days. It is a pity you didn't join me when I was taking speed-reading course. M.: Two things hold me back. Doubts that any system could radi­ cally and permanently increase my speed. And money for the courses. J.: But I thought that if I could double my speed, the sum would­ n't be so much. M.: Sure, you are right. By the way, some authorities say it isn't reading. Though a lot of unread newspapers, books and maga­ zines about the house might fall on me. My present work day reading is 200 words per minute, it is very slow. How are those speed reading courses? J.: Great, today 50,000 students a year take these courses. M.: How long does this course last? J.: Eight weeks, a 2,5 hour session a week plus an hour a day drill. M.: What is your speed now? J.: The final test showed that my speed was 1520 w.p.m. The book was the same we have used for our entrance exam. M.: But you can lose the technique. J.: It is another question. The only wide survey (опрос) of ex-students — 1800 of them — showed that after a year one third of the people weren't using the method at all. Another third said they use it sometimes and that probably they have kept speed. But the rest of the students said they were reading faster than a year later. B. Answer the following questions: 1. Are you a fast or a slow reader? 2. In what situations can fast reading be useful in your opinion? 3. Would you like to improve your reading speed? Why? 4. Can all books be read quickly? Why (not)? Exercise 4. Comment on the following statement. Every student ought to be able to read very fast. One point of view: Reading requires thought; one needs time for thinking, reading ought to be a kind of dialogue with the author — this requires time; quaUty is more im­ portant than quantity., А contrary point of view : Fast reading does not mean careless reading, nothing is left out, thinking can be very fast, fast reading is reading for meaning, it saves time (экономить) also for thinking, it is very important for a person to get a great deal of information in as little time as possible. Exercise 5. Conduct a scientific meeting on: «Laser and its applications». Use texts lOA, lOB, and IOC as a basis for the preparation of an oral talk (устное сообщение), short abstracts (краткие тезисы), summary (реферат) of the presenta­ tion and for the discussion of the theme (тема). Useful Words and Phrases of Scientific Communication at a scientific meeting, conference, round-table discussion, symposium, colloquium, seminar, session, con­ gress, etc. Stages of a meeting Phrases Chairman Opening a meeting I declare the meeting open. Right, can we start? Ladies and Gentlemen, are we ready to begin? OK then, perhaps we could make a start? Introducing a speaker I have a great pleasure to introduce Dr. (Prof.) Baker, an expert in ... Our first speaker, Dr Baker, will speak on... Interrupting a speaker May I draw your attention to the fact that this point will be discussed later? Opening a discussion And now I'd like to open the discussion on the presentation given by Dr Baker. Are there any questions to Dr Baker? Ending a discussion May I propose that we stop there? Thanking I'm sure I'm speaking for everyone when I say how grateful we are to Dr Baker for his informative (excellent) presentation, (talk, speech, lecture). I'd like to thank everybody here. Ending a meeting I declare the meeting closed. Speaker Introducing the report Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a great honour to address this meeting (conference); I'd like to talk in my report about ... First of all (in the first place) I'd like to name the main points of my paper., Продолжение While reporting Now, let us turn to the point ... The second point is ... Moving to point three ...And finally ... So much about ... rd like to attract your attention to ... Allow me to call your attention to ... I should like to note (emphasize) ... If you look at this diagram ... Have a look at ... If you remember, I mentioned ... As I've already mentioned ... Do you see what I mean ... Do you follow me... As far as I know ... Sorry, I got lost ... Ending the report In conclusion rd like to stress the importance ... Thank you for your attention. Audience Introducing oneself My name is John Smith. I am from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Vm very impressed with Dr. B's complete (interesting) presentation. Td like to give you my view on this subject ... Questions My question is as follows ... I have a question to ask ... One question is, the second question is ... rd like to ask a question in this connection... There is a practical question which ... rd like to ask a question concerning ... May I address a question to Dr. В.? Is it possible to describe simply, how... Agreement with the I think you are entirely right speaking about... speaker rd like to express agreement with the speaker Disagreement But I am not sure you are right. I am very sorry to have to say that I don't agree with Dr. B. Unfortunately, I cannot agree with your final statement. I wish I could agree with you but... We are not yet certain..., Окончание Making remarks This is an interesting work but it has a lack... It is surprising... It is unbelievable... I'm not surprised that it is possible... I find it hard to believe... Fd like to make a comment of general nature... rd like to make two more remarks... I have a few points to make... I have just a small point, but it may make things much clearer a bit. Excuse me, but I'd just like to point out... Making contribution I'd like to add in connection with... to the discussion In addition, I'd like to mention... Let me put some more questions... Exercise 6. Read and smile. A Story Too Terrible To Tell Three men came to New York for the first time. They took a room in a hotel. In the evening they went sight-seeing and did not come back till nearly three in the morning. The room they had taken was on the 43rd floor. «I am sorry, gentlemen», said the por­ ter, «but the elevator does not work, there is something wrong with it. You will have to walk up to your room». This was too bad, but the men agreed to tell stories on the way up in order to kill the time. By the time the first one had told his story, they had climbed up to the 11th floor. The next story kept them amused till they had reached the 31st floor. At last it was time for the third man to tell his story, but he refused. He said the story he had in mind was too terrible, he simply couldn't tell it. They continued climbing and all the time the two asked him to begin. At last they stopped and re­ fused to go on unless he told them his terrible story. «The story I have to tell you is a short one», he said at last, «we have left the key to our room downstairs with the porter». Text lOB Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о преимуществах применения оптических волокон в технике связи; о том, что послужило основой разра­ ботки систем оптической связи, а также о практическом применении опти­ ческой технологии. Соотнесите отмеченные в тексте факты со следующими датами: 1960, 1970, 1982 гг. Изложите эту информацию по-английски. Optical Technology One of the most interesting developments in telecommunica­ tion is the rapid progress of optical communication where optical, fibers are replacing conventional telephone wires and cables. Just as digital technologies greatly improved the telephone system, opti- cal communication promises a considerable increase in capacity, quality, performance and reliability of the global telecommunica- tion network. New technologies such as optical fibers will increase the speed of telecommunication and provide new, specialized in- information service. Voice, computer data, even video images, will be increasingly integrated into a single digital communication network capable of processing and transmitting virtually any kind of information. It is a result of combining two technologies: the laser, first dem- onstrated in 1960, and the fabrication 10 years later of ultra-thin silicon fibres which can serve as lightwave conductors. With the further development of very efficient lasers plus continually im- proved techniques to produce thin silica fibres of incredible trans- parency, optical systems can transmit pulses of light as far as 135 kilometers without the need for amplification or regeneration. At present high-capacity optical transmission systems are being installed between many major US cities at a rapid rate. The system most widely used now operates at 147 megabits (thousand bits) per second and accommodates 6,000 circuits over a single pair of glass fibres (one for each direction of transmission). This system will soon be improved to operate at 1.7 gigabits (thousand million bits) per second and handle 24,000 telephone channels simultaneously. A revolution in information storage is underway with optical disk technology. The first digital optical disks were produced in 1982 as compact disks for music. They were further developed as a storage medium for computers. The disks are made of plastics coated with alu- minium. The information is recorded by using a powerful laser to imprint bubbles on the surface of the disk. A less powerful laser reads back the pictures, sound or information. An optical disk is al- most indestructible and can store about 1000 times more informa- tion than a plastic disk of the same size. One CD-ROM disk (650 MB) can replace 300,000 pages of text (about 500 floppies), which represents a lot of savings in databases. The future of optical storage is called DVD (digital versatile disk). A DVD-ROM can hold up to 17 GB, about 25 times an ordi- nary CD-ROM. For this reason, it can store a large amount of mul- timedia software and complete full-screen Hollywood movies in different languages. However, DVD-ROMs are «read-only» de- vices. To avoid this limitation, companies also produce DVD rewritable drives., Besides, it is reported that an optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced and intensive research on optical electronic computers is underway at a number of US companies as well as in countries around the world. It is found that optical technology is cost-effective and versa­ tile. It finds new applications every day — from connecting com­ munication equipment or computers within the same building or room to long-distance transcontinental, transoceanic and space communications. Text IOC Прочитайте текст и расскажите о практическом применении лазеров. An Encyclopedia on а Tiny Crystal Scientists have discovered that a laser beam can be effectively used to record alphanumeric data and sound on crystals. According to Russian researchers a method for recording information on crys­ tals by means of a laser has already been developed, but advanced technologies are needed to make it commercially applicable. At present researchers are looking for the most suitable chemi­ cal compounds to be used as data storages and trying to determine optimum recording conditions. Theoretically, the entire «Great Soviet Encyclopedia» can be recorded on a single tiny crystal. As far back as 1845, Michael Faradey discovered that a light beam reverses its polarization as it passes through a magnetized crystal. Scientists of our day have used this phenomenon to identify crystalline materials capable of storing information. Lasers have been successfully employed to record information on and read it off. No ideal data storage crystal has yet been found, but it is obvi­ ous now that the future of computer engineering lies in lasers and optoelectronics. Text lOD Прочитайте текст и найдите примеры все возрастающей тенденции к более тесному международному сотрудничеству. Почему такое сотрудничество необ­ ходимо? Назовите страны-участницы такого сотрудничества. Запомните произ­ ношение названий стран. Science and International Cooperation One of the most striking features of modern science is the in­ creasing tendency towards closer cooperation between scientists and scientific organizations (institutions) all over the world. In, fact, it is becoming more and more evident that many of the prob­ lems that affect the world today cannot be solved without joining scientific efforts and material resources on a world-wide scale. The exploration of space, world finance, global environment protection problems and the development of new sources of power are the ex­ amples of areas of scientific research which are so costly and com­ plicated that it is difficult for a single country to solve them efficiently and in a short period of time. The renewal of interna­ tional scientific cooperation was demonstrated in the sharing of data which were obtained by Russian, Japanese and European space probes in 1986 on Halley's comet. Many countries were successfully cooperating on a programme called Intercosmos in launching a large number of vertical geo­ physical rockets and satellites. Space exploration programmes were being conducted between Russia and Austria, India, France, Swe­ den and other countries. Joint manned flights by Russian and for­ eign cosmonauts included citizens from numerous countries. Many international crews have worked on orbit and carried out a lot of scientific experiments. Russian and the U.S. engineers are now working side by side on the International Space Station, the largest peacetime engineering project in history. Launched from opposite sides of the world, the first Interna­ tional Space Station components Zarya and Unity have begun a new era of exploration as 16 nations joined their scientific and technological resources in the first truly international space pro­ gram to improve life on Earth. Even before its launch, the Interna­ tional Space Station has opened new spheres of research on Earth by overcoming barriers of language, culture and technological dif­ ferences worldwide. Indeed, it represents unprecedented (беспрецедентный, бес­ примерный) global cooperation and trust. There is no doubt that it is the first step towards a unified «planetary civilization» that will explore space as citizens of Earth, not of individual nations. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте словосочетания из текста 10А и постарай­ тесь понять значения выделенных слов. 1. time to disintegrate 2. the duration of the pulse 3. to be encountered 4. in just a fraction of a second, в. Подберите к каждому выделенномувАслову соответствующее ему по значению. a. to meet unexpectedly b. only, merely c. break up into small parts d. time during which smth lasts or exists Упражнение 2. A. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значение сло­ восочетания off-the-shelf item. Дайте определение или объяснение этому тер­ мину. Laser Propulsion Another approach is to absorb laser light in a plasma «flame» sustained by laser light focused in the center of a flowing stream of propellant gas. Thrust levels as high as 10,000 N with a specific im­ pulse (удельный импульс) of 1,000 sec appear achievable using hydrogen as the propellant gas. Laser power as low as 1 MW would be useful for low Earth orbit launching without relay optics. 10-100 MW lasers can launch small payloads from the ground. With up to 100 launches a day, a 20 MW launcher weighing 20 kg could place several hundred tons in orbit per year. Low-gigawatt lasers could launch multi-ton spacecraft with the same ease that present multi-gigawatt chemical rockets do. Laser rockets will have much better payload fraction since the heavy power plant is left on the ground and the higher specific impulse results in lower propellant fraction. Although gigawatt lasers are not off-the-shelf items, there is no doubt they could be built if the need were strong enough. B. Выберите соответствующие контексту A значения выделенных слов. approach a. coming near to b. approximation, a way to solve a problem с way, path, road sustain a. enable to keep up, maintain b. suffer, undergo с keep from falling relay a. supply of fresh horses to take the place of tired ones b. device which receives signals and transmits them with greater strength, thus increasing the distance over which they are carried с place from which radio programs are broadcast after being received from another station, payload a. passengers and cargo, but not fuel b. bomb in a missile с crew and instruments of a spaceship item a. each single thing, part or object in a list b. detail or paragraph (of news) с number of a program off-the-shelf a. commercially available b. ready to use с possible or likely Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски словами. А. capacity as well laser infonnation light existing advantage space doubt amplified cost conventional Optical fibres are made of glass and use (1) ... (usually from a (2) ... ) to transmit messages. There is no (3) ... optical fibre sys­ tems have enormous (4) ... over (5) ... transmission systems. They have a much higher (6) ... than copper wires, can carry much more (7) ... and have a potentially lower material (8) ... Besides, optical fibres occupy far less (9)... The quality of transmission is high (10) ... The signal does not need to be (11)... as often as with (12)... ca­ bles. Optical fibres do not suffer from interference. heat treatment distance melt identify beams vaporize displays light communication Nowadays, lasers are used to (1) ... targets in military uses. In engineering, powerful laser (2) ... can be focused on a small area. They can (3) ..., (4) ..., or (5) ... material in a very precise way. La­ sers are ideal for (6) ... in space. Laser light can travel long (7) ... without losing signal strength. In medicine, laser beams can be used for the (8) ... of damaged tissue (ткань) in a fraction of a sec­ ond without causing harm (вреда) to healthy tissue. In the arts, la­ sers can provide fantastic displays of (9) ... Pop concerts are often accompanied by laser (10) ..., Упражнение 4. Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ киАисуществительных из колонки В.

В

1. come to a. information, data, sound 2. overcome / encounter b. into orbit 3. record / store / carryсaproject 4. realize d. reality 5. place e. difficulties, differences Упражнение 5. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Adjective identify vaporous amplify idealization strong variety limitless — precision treat — Упражнение 6. A. Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «Laser applications». В. Speak about: Laser as a means of propulsion., LESSON 11 Сложное подлежащее и сложное дополнение Значение слов either, neither и их сочетаний Text ПА. Superconductivity Text 11В. Text ПС. New Hope for Energy Text 11D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения со сложным дополнением. 1. We know Morse to have been a painter by profession. 2. Sci­ entists expect lasers to solve the problem of controlled thermonu­ clear reaction. 3. M. Faraday supposed a beam of light to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 4. Designers expect dirigibles to be used for exploration of new territories. 5. Japanese designers believe a new ceramic engine to replace the conventional one. 6 Engineers suppose a new «night vision» system to enable drivers to see better after dark. 7. Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine. 8. We know the first digital optical disks to have been produced as disks for music. 9. They believed him to be capable. Упражнение 2. Найдите инфинитив в предложениях, переведите. А. 1. Hundreds of radio navigation stations watch the airplanes find their destination and land safely. 2. Twice a year people see birds fly south and north, but we don't know how they find their way. 3. At the Paris Exhibition people watched the cargo airplane «Ruslan» carry a great amount of cargo. 4. When you stand near a working engine you feel it vibrate. 5. Making experiments with electric telegraph Morse noticed a pencil make a wavy line when, connected to an electric wire. 6. Nowadays people watch on televi­ sion cosmonauts work in space, «Lunokhod» move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic games take place on the other side of the globe. B. L A force applied to a body causes it to move in a straight line. 2. The unsatisfactory results of Bell's experiments forced him to change the method of testing. 3. The excellent properties of Da­ mascus steel made metallurgists of the whole world look for the lost secret of the steel. 4. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break. 5. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic control. Упражнение 3. Обратите внимание на инфинитивный оборот, состоя­ щий из предлога for, дополнения и инфинитива. L It was the only thing for us to do. 2. The students were wait­ ing for the lecturer to describe the properties of a new composite material. 3. It is for you to decide which of the two methods to use. 4. It is necessary for the students to know the properties of various alloys. 5. A system of satellites is provided for people to watch the central TV program. Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения со сложным подлежащим. A. 1. Students of Cambridge are supposed to wear gowns at lec­ tures. 2. The first pocket-size colour television sets were reported to have been developed. 3. Today's aircraft is expected to be replaced by a new model of hypersonic aircraft in a few years. 4. Intensive research on optical-electronic computer is said to be going on in a number of US companies. 5. A method for recording information on crystal by means of a laser is known to have been developed by a Russian researcher. 6. The annual output of personal computers is expected to reach millions in the near future. 7. The laser is known to be a device producing an intensive beam of light by amplifying radiation. 8. Optical technology has been found to be cost-effec­ tive. 9. The optical equivalent of a transistor is reported to have been produced. B. 1. Our present-day life seems to be quite impossible without telephone, radio, and television. 2. Nowadays the principle of radio operation seems to be quite simple. 3. The term «radar» is known to be composed of the first letters of «radio, detection and ranging». It happens to reflect its basic principle, that is, the location of an ob­ ject at a distance. 4. About 50 per cent of Lake Baikal water proved to have been polluted since the Baikal plant has begun its work., 5. Lasers appeared to be highly useful for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction and communication. 6. A sys­ tem of Earth satellites appears to have solved the problem of trans­ mitting the central TV program to any part of the world. 7. Electricity proved to be able to travel instantly over a long piece of wire. C. 1. Dirigibles are likely to be used for taking tourists to distant and beautiful places. 2. Lasers are unlikely to be used in our every­ day life soon. 3. Superconductivity is certain to bring about new discoveries in science and technology. Упражнение 5. Прочитайте, запомните выделенные слова. А.: Do you know what the words either and neither mean? В.: Yes, I do. Either means каждый, любой, любой из двух, while neither stands for ни один, ни один (из). А.: That's correct. Can you give examples? В.: Yes I can. For example: There is a number of lecture rooms on either side of the corridor. Which of these dictionaries can be used for translating a technical article? You may use either. A.: And in what way is either translated when it is used with or? For instance: «Please, bring some dictionaries either from the library or from the reading room.» В.: Either ... or... means либо ... либо, или ... или. А.: Now let us speak about neither, it is the negative form of either, meaning ни тот ... ни другой. For instance: I was offered two books, but I took neither of them, as I did not like them. В.: And neither connected with nor means ни ... ни, for example: These problems seemed difficult neither to my friend, nor to me. A.: Are these words used in any other way? В.: Yes, they may be used in short negative sentences such as: «I don't like this book», said Peter. «Neither do I», said Ann, which means мне тоже (не нравится). I shall not go to the library to­ morrow. He won't go either. Он тоже (не пойдет). Упражнение 6. Переведите, обращая внимание на разные значения слов тоге и much. 1. One more present-day complicated problem to be solved is that of combining laser and thermonuclear reaction to produce a practically limitless source of energy. 2. A Japanese company is planning to install several more electronic devices on the car in­ strument panel. 3. The Voice Warning System is one more elec­ tronic device. 4. If you make half-hour breaks while getting ready for your exams, your brain will work much more efficiently., 5. Aerodynamics is one more problem to be taken into consider­ ation when designing a hypersonic craft. 6. The wheel-computer­ ized system is much more efficient than those used previously. 7. Cryogenic fuels used both as coolant and propellant make the so­ lution of the superliner surface cooling problem much easier to solve. 8. The fact that dirigibles are much larger in size and their staying power is much longer than those of an aircraft makes them ideally suited for exploration. Упражнение 7. Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний. the physics discoveries, discoveries that led to, the scientific ad­ vantage, advantage could well come to nation, to bring the man­ kind to, mercury wire, unexpected phenomenon, to return to normal state, by passing electric current, by applying magnetic field, to make a great contribution, they introduced a model, a model proved to be useful, a theory won for them the Nobel Prize, research in superconductivity, research became especially active, the achieved record of 23 K. исследования особенно активизировались; исследования в области сверхпроводимости; теория, за которую они получи­ ли Нобелевскую премию; привести человечество к ...; преиму­ щество в науке; открытия в области физики; достигнутая рекордная отметка в 23 К; открытия, которые привели к...; преимущество могла бы получить нация (страна); ртутная проволока; вернуться в обычное состояние; пропуская элек­ трический ток; внести большой вклад; неожиданное явление; они предложили (ввели) модель; прикладывая магнитное по­ ле; модель оказалась эффективной. Упражнение 8. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. prestige [pres'ti:3], nation ['neijan], Nobel prize [neu'bel praiz], absolute zero ['aebs9lu:t 'ziereu], phenomenon [fi'nominen], normal, magnetic, electromagnetic, theory ['Gieri], theorists ['Gierists], fundamental theory, physics, physicist, model ['modi], metallic [mi'taelik], ceramic [si'raemik], colleagues ['koli:gz], laboratory, critical temperature, fabricate, extremely [iks'tri.mli], process ['prauses]. Упражнение 9. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов: latest ['leitist], spectacular [spek'taekjule], breakthrough ['breik'Gru:], compare [кэт'реэ], award [9'wo:d], research, [ri'se:^], mercury ['me:kjuri], wire ['waia], below [bileu], 5 °C ['faiv di'gri:z 'sentigreid], completely [kem'pli:tli], return [Г1Чэ:п], either ['aiSe], finally ['faineli], Zurich ['zju9rik], previ­ ously ['pri:vjasli], throughout [9ru:'aut], liquid ['likwid], nitrogen ['naitrec^an], lose [lu:z], moreover [mo:'r9uv9], lack [laek]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ achievement п — достижение present V — представлять below adv — ниже, внизу previously adv — ранее, предва­ benefit п ~ выгода, польза рительно boil V — кипеть prominent a — выдающийся, continue V — продолжать известный cool V — охлаждать random a — беспорядочный, current п — электрический случайный ток resistivity n — удельное сопро­ discover v — открывать, обна­ тивление руживать return V — возвращаться finally adv — наконец satisfactory a — приемлемый, introduce v — вводить удовлетворительный lack V — нуждаться suddenly adv — вдруг, внезапно likely adv — вероятно sufficiently adv — достаточно lose V — терять tend V — стремиться, иметь master v ~ овладевать тенденцию moreover adv — более того wire n — провод pass V — пропускать at once — сразу, немедленно Text llA прочитайте текст. Расскажите об основных этапах развития сверхпроводимостииотех ученых, которые внесли свой вклад в исследование сверхпроводимости. Superconductivity According to the prominent scientist in this country V.L. Ginz- burg the latest world achievements in the field of superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. Recent spectacular breakthroughs^ in superconductors may be compared with the physics discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. They, are likely to bring the mankind to the threshold of a new technolog­ ical age. Prestige, economic and military benefits could well come to the nation that first will master this new field of physics. Super­ conductors were once thought to be physically impossible. But in 1911 superconductivity was discovered by a Dutch physicist K. Onnes, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his low- temperature research. He found the electrical resistivity of a mer­ cury wire to disappear suddenly when cooled below a temperature of 4 Kelvin (-269 °C). Absolute zero is known to be 0 K. This dis­ covery was a completely unexpected phenomenon. He also discov­ ered that a superconducting material can be returned to the normal state either by passing a sufficiently large current through it or by applying a sufficiently strong magnetic field to it. But at that time there was no theory to explain this. For almost 50 years after K. Onnes' discovery theorists were unable to develop a fundamental theory of superconductivity. In 1950 physicists Landau and Ginzburg made a great contribution to the development of superconductivity theory. They introduced a model which proved to be useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. Finally, in 1957 a satisfactory the­ ory was presented by American physicists, which won for them in 1972 the Nobel Prize in physics. Research in superconductors be­ came especially active since a discovery made in 1986 by IBM^ sci­ entists in Zurich. They found a metallic ceramic compound to become a superconductor at a temperature well above^ the previ­ ously achieved record of 23 K. It was difficult to believe it. However, in 1987 American physi­ cist Paul Chu informed about a much more sensational discovery: he and his colleagues produced superconductivity at an unbeliev­ able before temperature 98 К in a special ceramic material. At once in all leading laboratories throughout the world superconductors of critical temperature 100 К and higher (that is, above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen) were obtained. Thus, potential technical uses of high temperature superconductivity seemed to be possible and practical. Scientists have found a ceramic material that works at room temperature. But getting superconductors from the laboratory into production will be no easy task. While the new superconductors are easily made, their quality is often uneven. Some tend to break when produced, others lose their superconduc­ tivity within minutes or hours. All are extremely difficult to fabri­ cate into wires. Moreover, scientists lack a full understanding of how ceramics become superconductors. This fact makes develop-, ing new substances largely a random process. This is likely to continue until theorists give a fuller explanation of how supercon­ ductivity is produced in new materials. Notes to the Text 1. spectacular breakthroughs - захватывающие открытия, достижения (переворот) 2. IBM — компания Ай Би Эм 3. well above — намного выше

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 10. Просмотрите текст НА и ответьте на вопросы. 1. What is this text about? 2. What is the phenomenon of super­ conductivity? 3. Who was the first to discover the phenomenon? 4. What scientists do you know who have worked in the field of su­ perconductivity? 5. What materials are the best superconductors? 6. Is it possible to return superconducting materials to the normal state? 7. How can it be done? 8. In what fields of science and tech­ nology can the phenomenon of superconductivity be used? Упражнение 11. Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста ПА. Исправьте неправильные утверждения. 1. The latest achievements in superconductivity mean a revolu­ tion in technology and industry. 2. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. 3. The achievements in super­ conductivity cannot be compared with the discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. 4. The electrical resistivity of a mer­ cury wire disappears when cooled below 4 K. 5. A superconducting material cannot be returned to the normal state. 6. Landau and Ginzburg introduced a model which was useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. 7. Scientists from IBM found a ceramic material that became a superconductor at a temperature of 23 K. 8. Potential technical uses of high tempera­ ture superconductivity are unlikely to be possible and practical. Упражнение 12. Найдите в тексте НА инфинитивные конструкции. Упражнение 13. Сравните пары предложений, переведите. 1. Designers report а new manned craft to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. A new manned craft is reported to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. 2. We know radio navigation, stations to be located at different places around the world to guide the pilots. Radio navigation stations are known to be located all over the world to guide the pilots. 3. People considered dirigibles to be too slow and unreliable, that is why they were not used for a long time. Dirigibles were considered to be slow and unreliable. 4. Ex­ perts expect the new submersible craft to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. The new submersible craft is expected to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. 5. Scientists in many countries consider propeller engines to be much more economical. Propeller engines are considered to be much more economical. 6. We know propeller planes to fly slower than jet planes, therefore, a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built. But as pro­ peller planes are known to fly slower than jet planes a new ventila­ tor engine with a propeller has been built. Упражнение 14. Найдите предложения со сложным подлежащим, пере­ ведите. 1. The phenomenon of superconductivity appears to have been discovered as early as 1911. 2. Before 1911 superconductivity was as­ sumed to be impossible. 3. Recent discoveries in superconductivity made scientists look for new conducting materials and for practical applications of the phenomenon. 4. The latest achievements in the field of superconductivity are certain to make a revolution in tech­ nology and industry. 5. Recommendations from physicists will al­ low the necessary measures to be taken to protect the air from pollution. 6. Lasers are sure to do some jobs better and at much lower cost than other devices. 7. M. Faraday supposed a light beam to reverse its polarisation as it passed through a magnetised crystal. 8. Superconductors are likely to find applications we don't even think of at present. 9. A Dutch physicist found a superconducting material to return to normal state when a strong magnetic field was applied. 10. Properties of materials obtained in space prove to be much better than those produced on Earth. 11. There are prospects for lasers to be used in long distance communication and for trans­ mission of energy to space stations. 12. The electrical resistivity of a mercury wire was found to disappear when cooled to —269 °C. 13. Additional radio transmitters let the pilot make his approach to an aiфort by watching his flight instruments. 14. There seems to be a lot of alloys and compounds that become superconductors under certain conditions., УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражненве 15. Определите, к какой части речи относятся слова. resistant, resist, resistance, resistor, resistivity; superconduc­ tivity, superconductive, superconductor, superconducting; theory, theorist, theoretical, theorize; physics, physicist, physical, physi­ cally; explain, explainable, explanation; store, storage, storable. Упражнение 16. Найдите русскому слову соответствующее английское. достижение — achievable, achievement, achieve; электронный — electronics, electronic, electron; легче — easily, easy, easier; удовлетворять — satisfy, satisfactory, satisfaction; действительно — reality, realise, really. Упражнение 17. Переведите слова с суффиксом -ward (-wards), обозна­ чающим направление. toward(s), forward(s), backward(s), afterward(s), downward(s), outward(s), northward(s), southward(s), rearward(s), home- ward(s), sideward(s), windward(s), upward(s). Упражнение 18. Найдите слова с нестандартным образованием множест­ венного числа. There are а few words taken over from Latin and Greek that still retain their original plurals in English. In some cases we can use either. Formulas is seen more often than formulae. Antenna — antennae (pi). Many think that media, strata and phenomena are all singular. They aren't. Data, a plural, is used both ways. Here are some foreign singular and plural forms of words often used in English. Latin: medium (a means of mass communication) — media, nucleus (ядро атома) — nuclei; Greek: analysis — analyses; axis — axes; crisis — crises; hypothesis — hypotheses; phenomenon — phenomena. Упражнение 19. Найдите синонимы и антонимы, below — above; useful — useless; easy — difficult; field — sphere; to meet demands — to meet requirements (needs); full — complete; to use — to apply; to get — to obtain; moreover — be­ sides; sufficient — enough; likely — unlikely; to continue — to dis­ continue; conductivity — nonconductivity; to vary — to change; to lead to — to result in; recent — latest; advantage — disadvantage;, low — high; believable — unbelievable; to lose — to find; tiny — huge; liquid - solid; unexpected — expected; common — ordinary. Упражнение 20. Запомните выделенные слова и словосочетания. 1. The climate in this part of the world is the most suitable for people to live in. It is neither too hot, nor too cold. 2. Many lasers give off invisible radiation either infrared or ultraviolet. 3. There is the tropical zone on either side of the Equator. 4. It is possible to divide all countries into classes: developed and developing coun­ tries. Various criteria may be used to include a particular country in either of the two categories. 5. The numbers are either odd or even. 6. Such satellites can contain either television cameras or photo­ graphic equipment for transmitting pictures to Earth. «I see you are not a scientific person, my friend». «Why do you say that?» «You do not take good care of your car. You have no water in your radiator». «I thought that I had plenty of water». «You have no oil either. You will ruin your car if you run it without oil». «Have I plenty of water in the storage battery?» «No, you haven't a drop». «I haven't any air in my spare tire, either». «Have you any extra tubes?» «No, I haven't, but I have a good tube in the spare tire. I had four new tubes when I met a man who was having tire trouble. He hadn't an extra tube. I let him have my tubes. I suppose he was not a scientific person either. His car was in a worse condition than mine is.» How Did It All Begin? Do you ever wonder why people do or wear, or say certain things? Why do they shake hands when they meet? Many things you say and do could have reasons that date back thousands of years. For example, it is very strange to think that shaking hands — a friendly custom (обычай) today — was originally a means of keep­ ing a stranger's (незнакомец) weapon hand where it could do no harm., In primitive times, man never went about without some weapon of defence — usually a club (дубинка). Upon meeting a stranger a man could either stand and fight or turn away before discovering if the stranger was a friend or an enemy, or greet the stranger and possibly become friends. But how could he be sure the stranger would be friendly and how could the stranger trust in return? There was only one way to show friendly intentions and that was for both men to lay down their weapons and hold out empty hands. For added insurance, each would reach for the other's right hand. As long as both men's hands were safely clasped, neither could harm the other. Therefore, a handshake originally was a means of self-defence. Упражнение 21. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов и запомните их. teach, fighting, wore, frozen, letting, carried on, laid down. Упражнение 22. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. The ancient Greeks are known to have been great watchers of the sky and also great thinkers. As they watched the sky night after night, it was natural for them to think that the Earth stood and the stars, planets, sun and moon were moving round the earth in space. They thought the sun to be between Venus and Mars. To explain the movement of the planets, however, was very difficult. Then one day a young scientist named Copernicus at Krakow University in Poland supposed that the sun and not the Earth should be the centre of everything. He was the first to explain properly our solar system. The ancient Greeks had made the mistake of thinking that because the stars and planets seemed to move as they looked at the sky, the Earth must stand. If you sat in a train and looked out at the trees, it would be easy to understand their mistake. The trees seem to be moving backwards, but really it is the train that is moving for­ wards.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What field of science studies the phenomenon of supercon­ ductivity? (physics) 2. What can a nation have if it is the first to master this new field of science? (prestige, scientific advantage, economic and military benefits) 3. What is superconductivity? (the loss of electrical resistivity by a material on being cooled to temper-, atures near absolute zero) 4. What is absolute zero? (0 Kelvin or -273 °C) 5. What scientists worked in thef ield of superconductivity research? (Dutch physicist K. Onnes, Russian physicists L. Landau and V. Ginzburg, and a number of American scientists) 6. What materials are the best super conductors? (ceramic materials) 7. What are the potential technical uses of superconductivity? (nu­ clear research, power generation, electronics, etc.) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. Recent achievements in super­ 1. fundamental theory to explain conductivity research are this unexpected phenomenon. 2. They may be compared with 2. found the electrical resistivity of mercury to disappear when cooled to the temperature of 4 Kelvin. 3. Superconductivity is known 3. to the development of super­ to conductivity theory. 4. While carrying out his low 4. have been discovered by a temperature research he Dutch physicist. 5. For 50 years after the discov­ 5. of great importance for science ery there was no and technology. 6. In the 1950s Russian and 6. since the discovery of a super­ American physicists made a great conductive metallic ceramics. contribution 7. Research in thef ield of super­ 7. physics discoveries that led to conductivity became especially the development of electronics active and nuclear power. Exercise 3. Read and learn. Professor Brown: Hello, glad to meet you, prof. Smith, haven't seen you for ages, since I left the University. Prof. Smith: How do you do, prof. Brown, I haven't expected to see you here. Are you interested in superconductiv­ ity problems? By the way, how are you making your living? I haven't heard anything about your work lately. I spent the last two years in Geneva as a member of a special UN committee. Pr. В.: I am with Bell Telephone company. It is a global leader in electrical engineering. And I deal with new technologies., Pr. S.: Oh, your work is so important nowadays. Mankind needs en­ ergy for producing light, heat and transportation. This is the basis of our civilization. Pr. В.: Sure, that's so. And as the population grows, so does the de­ mand for better quality of life. Energy consumption increases daily. Pr. S.: But with it the threat to clean air, pure water and soil in­ creases too. These natural resources are not inexhaustible. Pr. В.: Of course. We are developing new industrial systems to im­ prove productivity, reducing the amount of raw materials and energy required. Our new advanced systems help to conserve energy too. Pr. S.: In Geneva one of the problems I studied was the problem to generate, transmit and distribute energy with great efficiency. I think Doctor Carter's work in this field is the most promis­ ing. From the Agenda (повестка дня) we have all just re­ ceived you can see that Dr.Carter will speak on his work tomorrow, Pr.B.: I have already seen this paper on the program, 1 won't miss (пропустить) it. Have you attended the morning session? Pr. S.: The most interesting was the discussion on the problems of the balance between the needs of mankind and the conserva­ tion of the natural resources. Pr. В.: Have you taken part in it? Pr. S.: Certainly. I've spoken about clean and efficient technology in the field of electrical engineering. Exercise 4. Comment on the following statement. The teaching routine procedures (заведенный порядок, об­ щеизвестная и установившаяся практика) ought to be the main aim of education. One point of view : Routine makes life and experiments easier, it saves energy; ex­ perience of past generations takes on the form of routine; routine helps us to avoid risks; thanks to routine we don't have to rediscover things; routine ensures efficiency while experimenting, it enables us to achieve a high level of predictabiUty. A contrary point of view : Routine kills invention and discovery, it is opposite to creativity; it is necessary to avoid routine so that the world can be changed for the better; young people ought to develop their imagination, but not learn routine; routine is the exact opposite of youthfulness; routine is boring; the best idea would be to com­ bine routine with improvisation., Exercise 5. Conduct a round-table discussion on «Superconductivity Re­ search». Use texts 11 A, B, С as a basis for the preparation of oral talks and discussion. Useful words and phrases of scientific communication are given in exercise 5 (see Les­ son 10 «Conversation»). Exercise 6, Read and smile. For a long time Edison's visitors wondered (удивлялись) why the gate (калитка) to his garden was so difficult to open. Once his friend said: «The gate to your garden is so heavy. I have to use all my strength to open it. I cannot understand this. You are such a brilliant man. You can invent something better». «The gate seems to be all right», Edison answered with a smile. «The fact is that it is a brilliant invention.» «You are laughing at me, sir!» «No, I am not. The gate is connected to a pump. Every­ body who comes in pumps twenty litres of water out of the well (колодец).» An absent-minded (рассеянный) professor was once travelling by electric train, and when the conductor came the professor couldn't find his ticket. «It's all right, sir», said the conductor who knew the professor very well, «I'll come at the next station». But at the next station there was the same difficulty, the profes­ sor couldn't find his ticket anywhere. «It's all right, sir, it doesn't matter (не имеет значения)», said the conductor. «No, no I must find the ticket, I must know where I'm going to!» Text IIB Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. Superconductivity is а state of matter that chemical elements, compounds and alloys assume on being cooled to temperatures near to absolute zero. Hence, a superconductor is a solid material that abruptly loses all resistance to the flow of electric current when cooled below a characteristic temperature. This temperature differs for different materials but generally is within the absolute zero (-273 °C). Superconductors have thermal, electric and magnetic properties that differ from their properties at higher temperatures and from properties of nonsuperconductive materials., Now hundreds of materials are known to become superconduc­ tors at low temperature. Approximately 26 of the chemical ele­ ments are superconductors. Among these are commonly known metals such as aluminium, tin, lead and mercury and several less common ones. Most of the known superconductors are alloys or compounds. It is possible for a compound to be superconducting even if the chemical elements constituting it are not. Textlieпрочитайте текст и найдите информацию о применении сверхпроводни­ ков в будущем. Изложите кратко содержание текста по-английски. New Норе for Energy Recently some ceramic materials have been found to be super­ conductors. Superconducting ceramics are substances which can transmit electric currents with no loss of energy at temperatures much higher than conventional superconductors (that is, at the temperature of liquid nitrogen). One use for the new superconductors would be to replace those that need the extreme cold of liquid helium — huge superconduct­ ing electromagnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance research, atomic particle acceleration and research reactors. Other types of electromagnets made with superconductors could be used to lower the cost of electric generation and storage. Such uses may take 10 years of research, a quicker use will probably be in electronics. Researchers now estimate that tiny but immensely powerful highspeed computers using superconductors may be three to five years away. Further off are 300 m.p.h. trains that float on magnetic cushions which now exist as prototypes but may take at least a de­ cade to perfect. Power lines that can meet a city's electric needs with superconductor cables may be even further in the future. Meanwhile, scientists around the world are trying to turn the new materials into useful products. Among the most notable is a micron-thin film to transmit useful amounts of electric current without losing superconductivity. The film could be used in the mi­ croscopic circuitry of advanced computers as high-speed pathway (маршрут, соединение) between computer chips. Several nations are known to be very active in superconductor research. For example, the United States is spending millions of, dollars on such research, much of it for military uses: projectile ac­ celerators, lasers, ship and submarine propulsion. Text IID Прочитайте текст и расскажите по-английски о Массачусетском Техно­ логическом Институте. Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT is an independent university located in Boston area. It was founded in 1861 by William Barton Rogers, a distinguished natural scientist, who believed professional competence to be best fostered (воспитывать) by the combining of teaching, research, and the ap­ plication of knowledge to real-world problems. MIT held its first classes in 1865 after having delayed opening because of the Civil War. There were approximately 15 students enroled at that time. Today MIT has about 9,700 students, a faculty (профессор­ ско-преподавательский состав) of approximately 1,000 and sev­ eral thousand research staff. The total teaching staff numbers more that 1,800. The institute is broadly organized into five academic Schools — Architecture and Planning, Engineering, Humanities and Social Science, Management and Science — and a large num­ ber of interdisciplinary programs, laboratories, and centers, includ­ ing the Whitaker College of Health Science, Technology and Management. A unique feature of MIT is that undergraduates join with graduate students, faculty, and staff to work on research pro­ jects throughout the institute. Most academic activities take place in a group of intercon­ nected buildings designed to permit easy communication among the Schools and their 22 departments. Across the street from this set of buildings there are athletic fields, the student center, and many of the dormitories. The main puфose of the academic program at MIT is to give students a sound command (прочное усвоение) of basic principles, the habit of continued learning and the confidence that comes from a thorough and systematic approach to learning. This results in continued professional and personal growth, especially in today's rapidly changing world. The two essential parts of all MIT educational programs are teaching and research. Both of these activities carried on together have greater potential than either performed alone. They provide experience in theory and experiment for both students and teaching staff., Each student pursues a degree (стремиться получить степень) in one of the departments.. Undergraduate courses at MIT lead to the degree of Bachelor of Science (S.B.). The academic programs require four years of full-time study for the Bachelor of Science. De­ grees are awarded on the basis of satisfactory completion of general institute and departmental requirements (общеинститутские и ка­ федральные требования) in each program. There is enough flexibility (гибкость), however, to allow each student, in collaboration with the adviser, to develop an individual program in accordance with his or her own interests and preparation. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте словосочетания из текста НА и постарай­ тесь понять значения выделенных слов. 1. the threshold of а new technological age 2. who was awarded the Noble Prize 3. which won for them the Noble Prize 4. their quality is often uneven B. Подберите к каждому выделенномувАслову соответствующее ему по значению. a. give or grant (by official decision) b. irregular, changing с start, beginning d. get by means of hard work or struggle as a result of competition Упражнение 2. A. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значения тер­ минов memory cells, windings, coils. The practical applications of superconductivity are limited be­ cause of the very low temperatures required. Some materials, for example lead, become almost perfect conductors at very low tem­ peratures at the absolute zero (-273 °C). However, a number of uses have been proposed. If a current is induced by a magnetic field in a ring of supercon­ ducting material, it will continue to circulate when the magnetic field is removed. In theory this could be made use of in the memory cells of computers. Memory cells made of superconducting mate­ rial could store information indefinitely. Because of the zero resis­ tivity of the cells, the information could be retrieved quickly, as fast as 10"^ seconds., 90 per cent of the total losses in modern transformers is due to the resistance of the windings. Transformers could be made with windings cooled to the low temperature at which superconductivity occurs. The resistance would be zero and the transformer would be almost ideal. Similarly, a 100 % efficient electric motor has been proposed using the magnetic field of superconducting coils. B. Подберите к каждому слову в колонке А соответствующее из колонки В. А В 1. induce a. find, get back 2. remove b. unlimitedly 3. indefinitely с spiral 4. memory cell d. length of wire wound in a spi­ ral to conduct electric current 5. retrieve e. bring about 6. winding f take off, away 7. coil g. the unit of computer which stores data for future use С Найдите в тексте, приведенном в А, три пары синонимов. D. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Adjective гe trieval removable define resistant apply conductive present explanatory t >elief i ntroduction Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски словами conduct, superconductivity, superconductor, superconductive. 1... at high temperatures was almost discovered in 1979. 2. The Russian scientists found an oxide of metal they were experimenting, with to ... electric current. Moreover, the lower the temperature, the less resistance the material had. 3. The resistance continued to fall in liquefied nitrogen. To continue the experiments, they needed liquid helium. To obtain it was quite a problem at that time. So the experiments were stopped. 4. But it was this compound of copper, lanthanum and oxygen that proved to be a ... for which the Swiss physicists were honoured with a Noble Prize in 1987. 5. Later neither efforts nor money were spared (жалеть, экономить) for the study of the ... materials. Moreover, there were no longer any problems with helium. Упражнение 4. A. Назовите 15-20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «Superconductivity research». в. Speak about: Latest achievements in conductivity research., LESSON 12 Сослагательное наклонение Многофункциональность глаголов should, would Особенности пассивного залога Глаголы to involve, result in, result from Text 12A. The International Space Station Text 12B. Benefits of Building the ISS Text 12C. Living Aboard the Space Shuttle and the ISS Text 12D. Time Travel and New Universes ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в сосла­ гательном наклонении. A. 1. Would you like to come with us? 2. Would you be so kind as to tell me how to get to the Red Square? 3. Could you tell me the way to the main building of the University? 4. Would you mind giving me your dictionary for a minute? 5. Would you be kind enough to pass me the text-book? 6. I'd like to thank you for your help. 7. He'd like to meet you. B. 1. You are the only person she would listen to. 2. The mate­ rial in that book is very much out of date. The book must have been written a long time ago. 3. He speaks English well. He must have lived in the United States for a long time. 4. You could have done it in a different way. 5. It's strange he is not here. However, he might have forgotten all about it. Or he might have come while I was out. 6. For long journeys in private cars one could use automatic guid­ ance systems. 7. One laser beam could carry all the radio, TV and telephone messages simultaneously. C. 1. Mary wishes she could drive a car. 2.1 wish that, for just a day, I were President of the United States. 3.1 wish I had not spent so much money yesterday. 4. I wish when a boy I had studied, French instead of English. 5. John wishes he had been a mechani­ cal engineer. 6.1 wish I had a car. 7.1 wish you had mentioned this fact to me before. D. 1. If he were better educated, he would get the job. 2. Were I you, I should speak to him about it. 3. I would have called you if I had had your telephone number. 4. Had she felt better, she would have gone with them. 5. If you watched a laser operate, you might be surprised at the simplicity of a device capable of such power. 6. «If I had had a chance to live my life again, I should have tried to combine the study of the history of art, philosophy and science.» «But then you wouldn't be good at either.» «No, you are probably right, I'd be a dilettante.» E. 1. K. Onnes found that it was necessary that a mercury wire be cooled to -265 °C for electrical resistivity to disappear. 2. Tsiol- kovsky proposed that liquid propellants should be used for space travel. 3. Recently it has been improbable that superconductivity should appear at an unbelievable temperature of 98 К in a special ceramic material. 4. The great speeds and high resistance of air de­ mand that new hyperliners be built without windows. 5. It is essen­ tial that a superconductor should be a solid material and it is necessary that it should be cooled to -273 ''C. 6. It was natural for the ancient Greeks to suppose that the stars, planets, the sun and the moon move round the Earth in space. 7. It is possible that a compound should become a superconductor even if the chemical elements constituting it are not. 8. Copernicus suggested that the Sun and not the Earth should be at the centre of everything. Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на союзы in order that, so that, lest. 1. A special system is being developed so that drivers could see after dark. 2. Aircraft designers tend to replace conventional metal alloys by new composite materials in order that an aircraft structure should be lighter. 3. Some materials are cooled almost to -273 °C so that they should become superconductors. 4. Great attention is paid to ecological problems all over the world so that air in supercities should be clean. 5. You must put down this formula lest you should forget it. 6. Metal parts are tested for defects lest they should fail in operation. 7. Students must work hard lest they should fail at examinations. 8. All kinds of safety devices for motor cars are being developed lest accidents should occur. 9. A hyper­ sonic craft will require complicated cooling measures lest it should burn., Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особен­ ности страдательного залога. 1. International cooperation, especially in the field of space and science, may be spoken of as a long-standing tradition. 2. The «night vision» system is being worked at in many design bureaus. 3. The invention of an internal combustion engine was followed by the appearance of a motor car as we know it today. 4. Any flying ve­ hicle is acted upon by aerodynamic forces. 5. The improvement of our working conditions and life is influenced by the achievements of scientific and technological progress. 6. New developments in the field of superconductivity are much written about at present. 7. The invention of a steam engine was followed by the first indus­ trial revolution. 8. The neutron is not influenced by a magnetic field. 9. The appearance of a jet engine was followed by a tremen­ dous increase of aircraft speeds. 10. The problems of interplanetary flight are dealt with in the latest magazine. Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения с глаголом to involve и его про­ изводными (занимать, быть занятым, вовлекать, связанный с этим). 1. While on their last space flight French cosmonauts were mostly involved in carrying out scientific experiments. 2. A pro­ gram to establish an International Lunar Base may involve many nations. 3.The struggle for the protection of Lake Baikal has shown the true position of the organizations involved. 4. To understand the operation of computers one must understand the principles in­ volved.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 5. Переведите производные слова согласно образцу: префикс тиШ- (много-) multi-room — многоместный, multi-national — многонациональный multi-stage rocket, multi-purpose, multi-functional, multi-lat­ eral, multiplex, multimedia, multi-ton vehicle. Упражнение 6. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова. international station [,inta'naejenl 'steijen], civilization [,sivilai'zeij9n], orbit ['o:bit], assembly [e'sembli], shuttle ['jAtI], routine [ru:4i:n], partner ['pa:tn9], multi-national ['mAlti-'naeJenI], majority [me'dsoriti], astronaut ['aestrenoit], mission ['mijen], of­ ficial [e'fijel], object ['obdsikt], visible ['vizibl], module, ['modju:l], process ['preuses], ambitious [aem'bijes], project ['prodjekt], control [kan'traul], commercial [кэ'тэ:/э1], biotech­ nology [,bai9utek'nol9cl5i]. Упражнение 7. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов. launch [lo.nf], extension [iks'tenjen], research [ri'se:^], facil­ ity [fe'siliti], crew [kru:], alternately [o:rt8:netli], expectancy [iks'pektensi], Venus [Viines], awesome ['o:s8m], Canada ['kaenede], Japan [dse'paen], Brazil [bre'zil], European [juare'piien], behave [bi'heiv], trouble [ЧглЫ], citizen ['sitizn], dozen ['dAzn], opportunity [,ope4ju:niti], basic ['beisik], риф08е ['рэ:р9$], investigation [in,vesti'geij9n], adventure [9dVenf9], promote [pr9'm9ut], require [ri'kwai9], billion ['bilj9n], enter­ prise ['ent9praiz], advertise ['aedv9taiz]. СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ add V — прибавлять, присоеди­ implementation п — выполне­ нять ние, осуществление advertise v — рекламировать investigation п — исследование attract V — привлекать, притя­ last V — сохраняться, длиться гивать launch V — запускать behave v — вести себя, maintain v — обслуживать, со­ работать держать broad а — широкий mission п — задача, полет deliver v — доставлять note V — отмечать enterprise п — предприятие opportunity п — благоприятная establish v — учреждать, орга­ возможность низовывать predict V — предсказывать promote V — способствовать, explore V — исследовать, изу­ содействовать чать properly adv — должным обра­ facility п — сооружение, обору­ зом, правильно дование space п — пространство, космос fit V — соединять, подгонять stay V — оставаться, жить flight п — полет supply V — снабжать, обеспе­ follow V — следовать (за) чивать hence adv — следовательно trouble п — неисправность, по­ вреждение alternately — поочередно at least ~ по крайней мере, Text 12A Что вам известно о проекте создания Международной космической стан­ ции? Как осуществляется проект на данный момент? Прочитайте текст, про­ верьте ваши ответы, переведите. The International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS), the most complex and expensive structure that has ever been launched and built in space, is expected to be a permanent off-planet extension^ of human civi­ lization. When completed, it will be a multi-room hotel and re­ search facility orbiting the Earth every 90 minutes. By that time, resupply and assembly flight by shuttles or rockets will have be­ come routine. The Russians and Americans are partners in this international enterprise. The three-person multi-national crews will be alter­ nately composed of two Americans and one Russian followed by a Russian majority. Later a six or seven-person crew will occupy the station. Some astronauts may stay on the ISS up to 187 days, but there are no plans yet for longer missions. The official life expec­ tancy of the station itself is 10 years, but it should last much longer. Five times the size of the Russian space station Mir, the ISS will be one of the biggest objects in the night sky, looking like a supersize Lego set^, almost as long as a football field. Only the Moon and Venus will be bigger and more visible. The fifth-generation station's complexity is as awesome^ as its size. Built by a partnership of 16 nations, the ISS will consist of 36 modules and hundreds of individual elements that come from all over the world. The station involves the most technologically ad­ vanced nations — Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, Brazil, and 11 European nations. There will be many intercon­ nected parts from so many countries that it would be impossible to predict how they would interact. Hence, it is very important that all of these elements made by different suppliers should fit together properly and work exactly as planned. But even if all the parts fitted perfectly, the assembly pro­ cess itself in orbit would be risky. The space station is flown while it is being constructed and each new building block added might change the way the station behaves in flight, which could result in serious trouble. The ISS may be the world's most ambitious engineering project in history, but it could not have been realized without previous ex­ tensive experience in operating the Russian Mir space station. Mir, was a great achievement. Russia learned how to build and maintain complex structures in space. Mir also gave citizens of more than a dozen countries their first opportunity to explore space. It should be noted that Mir has proved to be the perfect training ground for the ISS. For more than a decade, at least two humans were always in low Earth orbit. That is why it was planned that Russia would supply and deliver 12 modules for the future station, each being a key module among its 36 ones. They are: the basic power module, the control, the life support, the service modules and others. What is the puфose of the ISS? It is a political program as well as a science program. This program is no longer only about con­ ducting scientific investigations in the absence of gravity, or about learning how to build a massive project weighing 400 tons in orbit, or about establishing the base for a future trip to Mars. The ISS is more than merely the next great adventure of the space age. It is also about promoting international cooperation and creating thou­ sands of peacetime jobs for highly skilled workers and engineers. The implementation of the broad international program would require more than $40 billion. Some space experts would like to at­ tract commercial users such as, e.g., biotechnology companies in order that the cost of the station should be lowered. And some spe­ cialists have even suggested that the station be used for advertising and Hollywood filmmaking. Notes to the Text 1. off-planet extension — внепланетное продолжение 2. Lego set — конструктор Л его 3. is awesome — поражает, внушает благоговение, трепет

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 8. Определите различные функции глагола should, переведите. 1. It should be said that the importance of Mars studies is ac­ knowledged by all. 2. Reliability of every vehicle should be paid great attention to during the production process. 3. It is required that an airplane should be well balanced dynamically. 4. Should there be even a small deviation (отклонение) in the velocity, the space vehicle would pass the planet. 5. K.E. Tsiolkovsky suggested that man-made rockets for the future space flights should use liquid-propellant engines. 6. We were told that we should take part in the discussion. 7. One should not forget that electricity is the most important source of energy at present., Упражнение 9. Определите различные функции глагола would, переведите. 1. Halley predicted that the comet would appear at regular in­ tervals of 75 years. 2. If you were on the first manned space station your task would be to study the stars and planets including Earth. 3. Some materials cooled to proper temperature would conduct electricity practically without any resistance. 4. In the future it may be possible to build a dirigible with a metal hull that would carry hundreds of passengers round the world. 5. In 1883 Tsiolkovsky wrote that rocket would be the only means able to reach outer space. 6. Popov would make his experiments with radio although the government was not interested in the work. 7. We tried to start the car, but it would not go. 8. We know that a body in motion would continue to travel in a straight line unless some force were applied. 9. Without gravity we would not be able to walk in an up­ right position. 10. Non-equatorial regions of Mars would be diffi­ cult and expensive to reach and explore. Упражнение 10. Найдите предложения, где should является модальным глаголом и где глаголы would, could и might выражают сослагательное накло­ нение. 1. It is essential that international cooperation should be as pro­ ductive as possible. 2. Research and technology should provide the basis for a better life. 3. Military uses of a space station could com­ plicate international cooperation since there are several neutral countries among the participants. 4. It is desirable that interna­ tional space cooperation should give significant economic advan­ tage for the countries involved. 5. NASA agreed that Canada would develop a remote manipulation system for the space Shuttle. 6. It should be pointed out that Japan space programmes are based on close government-industry cooperation. 7. The craft to be launched would essentially be used as a service module for space stations. 8. Typical missions of a new system might include the as­ sembly of space structures. 9. Exploring Phobos would be a difficult problem because of its small gravity field. If an astronaut threw a stone right ahead, it would orbit the entire moon and hit him in the back of the head. 10. Such a vehicle could be operational by the be­ ginning of the next century. 11. One should know that the broader the basis for utilizing a space station is, the better the prospects for economic efficiency of developing it are. 12. After the Challenger tragedy the military experts insisted that a new Shuttle should be built. 13. It was reported that the appearance of photon computers could be expected., Упражнение 11. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особен­ ности страдательного залога. 1. In mechanics the study of kinematics is followed by the study of dynamics. 2. A gas may be looked upon as the vapour of a liquid with a very low boiling point or very great vapour pressure. 3. Lead is very slightly acted upon by the oxygen of the air. 4. The works of Tsiolkovsky were followed by a number of very important works in the field of astronautics. 5. The production of special metallurgi­ cal alloys is seldom influenced by gravity. 6. This article describes design characteristics which are followed by the description of the results of the experiments. This description is followed by a discus­ sion of nontechnical aspects of the lunar programme proposed. Упражнение 12, Переведите предложения с глаголом to resw//с различны­ ми предлогами. 1. It is well known that automation results in higher labour pro­ ductivity. 2. The first manned space flight has resulted from the great achievements in Russian science. 3. This experiment resulted in the discovery of several new properties of the composite mate­ rial, 4. A release of atomic energy results from a very complex pro­ cess. 5. World War II resulted in the victory of the USSR, the US and Great Britain. 6. Such experiments usually result in obtaining new information. 7. The motion of an electron results from a force acting upon it. 8. The growing intensity of air traffic has resulted in the automation of its control. 9. Newton's famous work «Principia» resulted from 40 years of experimental work. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 13. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся слова. gravity, peaceful, permanent, consequence, subatomic, domi­ nant, relative, relativity, flexible, apparently, celebrity, novelty, connection, complicate, desirable, significant, utilize, pressure, fa­ mous, involvement, significance, weightlessness, eaten, recorder, supression, useless, dense, density, depth, damage, shorten. Упражнение 14. Образуйте существительные от слов. appear, explore, prepare, prior, important, implement, transit, propose, create, lighten, encode, structural, useful, discuss, grow, store, differ, electronic., Упражнение 15. Найдите: а) синонимы spacecraft, to call, artificial, significance, area, man-made, satellite, purpose, complicated, importance, space vehicle, ex­ plorer, aim, to guide, to offer, researcher, investigation, to incor­ porate, sophisticated, to propose, to determine, exploration, to define, to gather, to control, to collect, to name, to include, dis­ trict, moon; б) антонимы special, upper, unmanned, natural, last, manned, unequal, conventional, distant, first, lower, civil, equal, inefficient, military, near, efficient, artificial. Упражнение 16. Переведите предложения с глаголом to involve и его про­ изводными. 1. NASA began looking for the way to involve other countries in its post-Apollo space programme. 2. International involvement in the space programme raises a number of questions. 3. The interna­ tional programme has involved Russia, Canada, Japan and some de­ veloping countries, as well as both individual European countries and various European space organizations. 4. There exists a clear trend towards increased international involvement in those uses of space which could be economically beneficial. 5. The aim of the experiment involving dogs, monkeys and other animals aboard Kosmos satellite was to study the way zero gravitation affects the living organisms. 6. An efficient radiator is capable of warming a large room, the process involved is called convection. 7. Work with computers and other sophisticated electronic devices involves two different types of construction: hardware and software. Упражнение 17. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функ­ ции слова only. 1. You are the only person who could help us in solving this problem. 2. The International Academy of Astronautics including nearly one thousand scientists and engineers from 50 countries is the only organization which can plan technical efforts on an inter­ national scale. 3. Only through cooperation on a world-wide scale could space technology be improved. 4. Effective communication across national borders appeared to be the only way for space sci­ ence to develop successfully., Упражнение 18. Найдите глаголы-сказуемые в страдательном залоге, пе­ реведите. Dolly Madison was born in South Carolina while her parents were visiting there. She was soon taken to Virginia where she was educated. She was taught by her Quaker parents to say «thee» and «thou» for «you». Dolly was married to John Payne who died a short time afterwards from yellow fever. Several years later she was married to James Madison, a brilliant lawyer. When Thomas Jef­ ferson was elected President of the US, James Madison became Secretary of State. Mr. Jefferson was a widower, so Dolly was often invited to preside at the White House. When James Madison was elected president, Mrs. Madison was the hostess of the White House on all occasions. People from everywhere were impressed with her sincerity and her love for humanity. Упражнение 19. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. beaten, steal, carrying out, learnt, ate, slept, fly. Упражнение 20. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. Exploration experts suggest that the tiny moon Phobos should be used as a perfect place for gas refilling station. Some scientists think Phobos rocks to contain crystalline ice. If one heats them, it will be possible to produce water. The latter could be divided into hydrogen and oxygen which are necessary components for rocket propulsion. Such a fuel supply would greatly reduce the amount of weight that must be delivered from the Earth for manned missions to Mars. Thus, it might be possible for spacecrafts to leave the Earth for Mars carrying no return fuel. To get home, they should simply fill up at Phobos.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. 1. What is the ISS? (the most complex and expensive structure in space and research facility orbiting the Earth) 2. What will it look like when completed? (a supersize Lego set, almost as long as a football field) 3. What is its size compared with Russian-built Mir space station? (five times the Mir station size) 4. What modules is it expected to consist of? (36 modules) 5. How many countries are in­ volved in the project? (16 countries) 6. What methodology is being, used to build the ISS? (the same methodology as for Mir but on a larger scale) 7. What is the purpose of the ISS? (to promote inter­ national cooperation and create peacetime jobs for highly skilled workers and engineers) Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts. 1. The Russians and Ameri­ 1. to be more than $40 billion. cans are equal partners 2. It is suggested that 2. that all individual elements coming from different suppliers all over the world should fit together properly. 3. It is very important 3. Russia deliver 12 key modules for the station. 4. The multi-national crew 4. the official life of the station to be will occupy 10 years. 5. Space experts expect 5. the station and stay on it up to 187 days. 6. The cost of the station is 6. than merely the next great adven­ likely ture of the space age: it is a political program as well as a science program. 7. The ISS is more 7. in the implementation of this mas­ sive engineering project weighing 400 tons. Exercise 3. Read and learn. Satellites Peter: Hello, Ann. How did you happen to come to California? Ann,: Hello, Peter. How are you? My father got a job here. It is so exciting to meet you here. I've not seen you since you gradu­ ated from the University. P.: I'm working on a newspaper. I cover the space research prob­ lems. Now I study the application of space satellites for scien­ tific puфoses. A.: I think that the best application of satellites is for military pur­ poses. P.: You are absolutely wrong. The most promising field of аррИ- cation of satellites is the scientific one. A.: Oh, Yes, I know satellites look down on everything: the clouds, forests and oceans, the winds, ice on the sea. But don't forget spy (шпион) satellites., p.: Spy and weather satellites gather data for forecasting. The Japanese have a satellite studying the ocean; European and Russian satellites produce radar images of the ground; an American satellite is studying the upper atmosphere. A.: It seems to me that the era of satellites has passed. You see, the Japanese have already delayed the launch of their earth observing mission. P.: Yes, they did, because of cost. The most effective way to gather data is not always with a big satellite. A.: Have you met my elder brother Mike? P.: Of course, I have. We played in the same football team at the college, though he is about three years older than me. A.: He is five years older than you. He takes part in the research programme at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies. They are developing now a small cheap satellite. It would carry three simple instruments to measure clouds, water vapour and surface temperature. P.: Oh, really. I think, that such researches make sense, and help develop a single Global Chmate Observing System. A.: Such a system could change the world or at least see the world changing. Exercise 4. Comment on the following statement. Space exploration ought to be abandoned (откладываться) un­ til more important problems of mankind have been solved. One point of view : Space exploration is very expensive; food production is far more important than Mars studies or Moon walks; it is immoral to spend huge sums of money on space exploration while millions of people suffer hunger (голод); space ex­ ploration is useless anyway because we can't colonize other planets; it would be much better to colonize, for example, the Sahara before trying to colonize the Moon or Mars; mankind must not waste its resources. A contrary point of view: Space exploration is of great significance for scientific and technological development; space exploration gives man new knowledge that he can use for other purposes; we may find 10,000 things to do on the ISS that nobody has thought of or even imagined. Exercise 5. Conduct a scientific conference on: «The potential of space exploration for peaceful purposes». Use texts 12 A, B, C, exercise 3 (Satellites) as a basis for the preparation of oral talks and discussion. Useful words and phrases of scientific communication are given in exercise 5 (see Lesson 10 «Conversation»)., Exercise 6. Read and smile. The Farmer and the Apple Tree A farmer once had a friend who was famous for wonderful apple trees which he grew. One day this friend gave the farmer a fine young tree and told him to take it home and plant it. The farmer was pleased with the gift, but when he got home he did not know how to plant it. If he planted it near the road, people might steal the fruit. If he planted it in his field, his neighbours might come at night and rob (грабить) him. If he planted it near the house, his own children might steal the apples. Finally he planted the tree deep in the woods where no one could see it. But naturally the tree couldn't grow without sunlight and suitable soil. In time, it withered (засыхать) and died. Later his friend was criticising him for planting the tree in such a poor place. «What is the difference», the farmer said. «If I had planted the tree near the road, people would have stolen the fruit. If I had planted it in my field, my neighbours would have come at night and robbed me. If I had planted it near my house, my own children would have stolen the apples». «Indeed! But at least someone could have enjoyed the fruit», said his friend. «Now you have robbed everyone of the apples, and you have destroyed a fine tree». A farmer's wife spent most of her time wishing for things which she did not possess. She wished she were beautiful; she wished she were rich; she wished she had a handsome (красивый) husband. Therefore one day fairies (волшебницы) decided to give her three wishes as an experiment. The farmer and his wife talked for a long time over what she would wish for. But the farmer's wife suddenly became a little hun­ gry (голодный) and wished she had some sausages to eat. At once her plate was full of sausages. Then a heated argument began, be­ cause her husband said his wife had wasted one of the valuable wishes on such a cheap thing as sausages. The argument grew hot­ ter, and finally the wife cried that she wished the sausages were hanging from her husband's nose. At once a row of sausages flew to her husband's nose and stayed there. Nor could they be removed. Now there was the only one thing the poor woman could do. She really loved her husband and so she had to spend her third wish, in removing the sausages from his nose. Thus, except for the few sausages, she got nothing from her three wishes. Text 12B прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря. Назовите наиболее практичные на ваш взгляд исследования на Международной космической стан­ ции. Benefits of Building the International Space Station When studying sound, you go into a quiet room. When studying light, you go into a dark room. When studying the effects of gravity, you would like to go into an «anti-gravity» room. Since there is no such thing on Earth, we have the International Space Station. By flying around Earth at about 17,500 mph the station and ev­ erything in it remain in orbit, a continuous free fall around the planet. In orbit, forces are balanced and the effects of gravity are es­ sentially removed. The result is microgravity, one of the unique phe­ nomena of the ISS environment that promises new discovery. Thus, the ISS allows long-term exposure to a world nearly unexplored. Gravity affects everything. From our bodies to the materials we use to build cars and buildings, to the flames we use to heat our homes, our world is controlled by gravity. Even flames burn differ­ ently without gravity. Reduced gravity reduces convection cur­ rents, the currents that cause warm air or fluid to rise and cool air or fluid to descend on Earth. This absence of convection changes the flame shape in orbit and allows studies of the combustion pro­ cess that are impossible on Earth. The absence of convection allows molten metals or other materials to be mixed more thoroughly in orbit than on Earth, opening the way to a whole new world of com­ posite materials. Scientists plan to study this field, to create better metal alloys and more perfect materials for applications such as computer chips. Investigations that use lasers to cool atoms to near absolute zero may help us understand gravity itself. While investigating our surroundings, we have been limited, until recently, to accepting gravity as a given factor in all our studies. History shows that changing what once was constant can lead to revolutionary discoveries. The 19th century saw temperature and pressure become con­ trolled in new ways to use steam power and revolutionize the way we live. The 21st century offers the hope of controlling gravity's ef­ fects to understand why things behave the way they do. Observing and understanding this behaviour is key to new discoveries in many scientific disciplines and using that knowledge is key to the im-, provement of life on Earth. The station will allow mankind to per­ form research that may result in new medicines, materials and industries on Earth and will benefit people all over the world. The Space Station Mir gave us a platform for long-term micro- gravity research, and important knowledge about how to live and work in space. Like all research, we must proceed one step at a time. As we open one door, answering one question, we are faced with the opportunity of more doors, more questions. The ISS is the next step in that journey of discovery, and repre­ sents a quantum leap (скачок) in our capability to conduct re­ search on orbit. In space, electrical power is key to the quantity and quality of research. When completed, the ISS's enormous solar panels will supply 60 times more power for science than did Mir. This and the large space available for experiments will provide sci­ entists with unprecedented access to this unique environment. Aboard the ISS scientists will explore basic questions in the fields of biotechnology, biomedical research, fluid physics, funda­ mental biology, physics. Earth science and space science. Observa­ tions of the Earth from orbit are expected to help the study of large-scale, long-term changes in the environment. The effects of air pollution, such as smog over cities; the cutting and burning of forests, and of water pollution are visible from space and can pro­ vide a global perspective unavailable from the ground. Thanks to its research and technology the station is certain to serve as an absolutely essential step in preparation for future human space exploration. Text 12C Прочитайте текст и опишите жилые отсеки Шаттла и Международной кос­ мической станции. Living Aboard the Space Shuttle and the ISS We often see the cosmonauts carry out their complicated work in space, but what do they do in their off-duty hours? What do they eat, where do they sleep? One of the main features of the Shuttle is the relatively low forces of gravity during launch and reentry. These are about 3 g, that is within the limits that can be withstood by people. Its living accommodation is relatively comfortable. The crew cabin is 71.5 m. There are two floors inside the cabin. On the top level, the commander and pilot monitor and control sophisticated equipment. Behind their seats is a work area where the crew can carry out experiments., The bottom level is the living area. It contains facilities for sleeping, eating and waste disposal. Living in such a kind of cabin requires only ordinary clothing. Air pressure is the same as the Earth's at sea level. This air is made of 80 % nitrogen and 20 % oxygen. The air is cleaner than the Earth's. Temperature can be regulated between 16 and 32 °C. The Shuttle meals are eaten in a small dining area consisting of a table and restraints (ограничители) which function as chairs while eating in zero-gravity. Meals are served in a special tray which separates different food containers and keeps them from floating around in the weightless cabin. Most foods can be eaten with ordinary spoons and forks as long as there are no sudden starts and stops. Just as on Earth recreation and sleep are important to good health in space. Different games, books and cassette-recorders to listen to music are available. In zero-gravity there is no «up» position and the cosmonaut is oriented in the sleeping bag as if he or she were sleeping up. Now beds are built into the walls with an individual light, communica­ tions, fan, sound suppression, blanket and sheets. They even have pillows. Experiences on the space shuttle have helped prepare astro­ nauts for life aboard the International Space Station. Let's imagine the life at the station in several years. Life-support systems on the ISS can supply cleaner air, purer water, better food and more sanitary toilet facilities than on the space shuttle. Life aboard the station may not be easy, but it is sig­ nificantly healthier and more pleasant than in the past, allowing astronauts to focus on the scientific research and station mainte­ nance that occupy them for about 9 hours a day. The kitchen on the station, for the first time in space history, has refrigerators and freezers. It may not sound like much, but it is a giant step forward. For the first 30 years in space, all food was kept at room temperature. Only now, in the 21st century, can re­ frigerator allow NASA to supply milk to help with bone loss in space flight. A glass of nice cold milk was asked for years. And the refriger­ ator proved to be an easier solution than a lot of experiments to make good powdered (порошковое) milk for a number of years. Later in the day, thanks to another kitchen appliance, cosmo­ nauts will eat a frozen dinner just like the ones sold in supermar­ kets. The combination convection/microwave oven automatically thaws (размораживать) your food (using heat), than heats it with microwaves (just as they do on Earth)., The refrigerator, freezer, and oven mean that astronauts eat a healthier diet. The shuttle food was low in fiber. «The ISS food can overcome that with salads, fruit, vegetables, apples, oranges, etc.,» a space expert had predicted. Now, with these food delivered by the space shuttle a few times a year, you no longer have to take special tablets. There is no dishwasher in the kitchen. Instead, you wash your magnetic silverware (столовые приборы) with antiseptic towelet- tes (салфетка). It does not seem very hygienic, but the shuttle as­ tronauts just had to lick their silverware clean. The empty food containers will be either ejected into space to burn up on re-entry to the atmosphere or returned to Earth on the shuttle. The next step in life support will be a completely closed air- and-food cycle, with plants grown in space. Plants and microor­ ganisms could even help remove contaminants from the water sup­ ply. It is that sort of research that will be necessary if people are ever to establish settlements far beyond Earth. Biological approaches to supplying food, water, and air could not only save power aboard the station, but could also reduce the number of resupply trips required. May be some day astronauts will have fresh bread on the sta­ tion. But even with today's frozen dinners, they already spend 4 hours a day on meals and hygiene. Exercise takes 2 hours more a day. That leaves them just an hour of free time for the simple plea­ sures of life in space: The view of Earth through the window. A let­ ter e-mailed from their family. Microwave popcorn with a movie. And the friendship of the crew members with whom they share this tiny world. Text 12D Прочитайте текст, выскажите свое мнение о его содержании. Time Travel and New Universes It is known that for a long time well before Albert Einstein scien­ tists were studying the ideas that seemed strange. Consider a few of such ideas now accepted by the scientific community: clocks that tick slower when they are on rockets in outer space, black holes with the mass of a million stars compressed into a volume smaller than that of atom and subatomic particles whose behaviour de­ pends on whether they are being watched. But of all strange ideas in physics, perhaps, the strangest one is the hole in the structure of space and time, a tunnel to a distant, part of the universe. American researchers have determined that it will apparently be possible in principle for mankind to create an entirely new universe by using the idea of wormhole (ход, проры­ тый червем; червоточина) connection. Such a universe will auto­ matically create its own wormhole, squeeze through it, and then close the hole after it. Although to many people such an idea may seem useless and fantastic, it can help scientists to develop their imagination and ex­ plore how flexible the laws of physics are. It is such an idea that could give answers to some of the fundamental questions of cos­ mology: how the universe began, how it works and how it will end. The idea of wormhole comes directly from the accepted con­ cepts of general relativity. In that theory A.Einstein proved that very massive or dense objects distort space and time around them. One possible distortion is in the form of a tube that can lead any­ where in the universe — even to a place billions of light years away. The name «wormhole» comes about by analogy: imagine a fly on an apple. The only way the fly can reach the apple's other side is the long way over the fruit's surface. But a worm could make a tunnel through the apple and thus shorten the way considerably. A worm- hole in space is the same kind of tunnel; it is a shortcut (кратчай­ шее расстояние) from one part of the universe to another that reduces the travel time to about zero. In fact, instantaneous travel leads to the idea of wormhole as time machine. If it were possible to move one end of a wormhole at nearly the speed of light, then, according to general relativity, time at that end would slow down and that part of the tunnel would be younger than the other end. Anything moving from the faster-aging end of the wormhole to the slower one would essentially go back­ ward on time. The type of travel, however, could be nothing like the mechanical time machine described by H. Wells. It is difficult to imagine how a human being could move through a wormhole, since it would theoretically be narrower than an atom and it would tend to disappear the instant it formed. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ Упражнение 1. A. Прочитайте словосочетания из текста 12А и постарай­ тесь понять значения выделенных слов. 1. life expectancy 4. life-support module 2. risky process 5. the next great adventure 3. key module 6. merely, в . Подберите к каждому выделенномувАслову соответствующее ему по значению. a. essential to d. expected period during which b. activity full of risk, danger smth. is active and useful and excitement e. only, simply с full of risk -̂ equipment providing an envi­ ronment astronauts may live in. Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте 12А: A. Прилагательные с суффиксами -о/, -ous и -/ve, соответствующие словосочетаниям: 1. between different countries 2. connected with one person or part of smth. 3. connected with one country 4. that supplies reliable information 5. of technology 6. of the state, government and politics 7. coming earlier in time 8. important because of possible danger 9. full of strong desire to be or to do smth. 10. broad, extending in various or all directions 11. high priced B. Словосочетания с этими прилагательными и приведите свои примеры. Упражнение 3. А. Прочитайте текст и найдите слова, означающие: height, propelling force, wished, be greater than, pressing, what remains, force di­ rected forward, remain in space at one place, spending or using, thrust without losses, braking, small (not serious or important). Solar Sails If we are going to open the solar system to rapid economic travel, we need to find advanced space propulsion systems. Solar sails may be among the keys to future inteфlanetary flights. Solar sail propulsion uses large, lightweight reflectors attached to spacecraft that react to the light pressure from solar photons to obtain thrust. By tilting (наклонять) the sail to change the force direction, the light pressure can be used to increase the orbital speed of the spacecraft, sending it outward from the Sun, or de­ crease its orbital speed, allowing it to fall inward., А new type of solar sail, called a solar photon thruster, has a large sail that always faces the Sun for maximum light collection. The collector sail has a slight curvature (кривизна) that focuses the sunlight down onto a much smaller sail, which redirects the sunlight to provide the net thrust vector desired. Besides being more efficient than a standard sail, a solar photon thruster can be launched at Shuttle altitudes. Standard sails can only operate above 1,000 km where the light pressure exceeds the atmospheric drag. Were a solar sail made light enough, it could «hover» without orbiting, the light pressure from the solar photons balancing the gravity attraction of the Sun and/or Earth. Then it would be possi­ ble to use solar sails first for communication, broadcast, and weather satellites, second for scientific stations hovering over the Sun and the rest of the solar system, and third for transporting cargo to and from Earth, the planets, and asteroid belt — without an expenditure of fuel. B. Найдите к словам в колонке А антонимы из колонки В. А В 1. long a. absence 2. forward b. permanent 3. increase с rapid 4. heavy d. short 5. slow e. lightweight 6. invisible f. complexity 7. changing g. rearward 8. with h. inward 9. simplicity i. visible 10. rise j . without 11. presence k. decrease 12. outward 1. fall C. Составьте словосочетания глаголов из колонкиАисуществительных из колонки В. А В 1. launch a. study, investigation, research, ex­ 2. promote periment, test 3. conduct b. speed, thrust, pressure, cost, drag 4. increase/lower с satellite, spacecraft, space sta­ tion, rocket d. cooperation, development, tech­ nical progress, Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски словами. aboard life-support key facilities assembly supply maintenance stays weightless tool 1 systems of the ISS are expected to be the most ad­ vanced, they can ... cleaner air, purer water, better food, and more sanitary toilet ... than on the space shuttle. 2. Life ... the station may not be easy, but it is significantly healthier and more pleasant than in the past, allowing astronauts to focus more on the scientific research and station ... that occupy them for about 9 hours a day. 3. Thanks to the long ... on Mir station researchers learned that bone loss did not lessen over time as previously thought. 4. In the ... environment of space, everyday activities present new challenges. 5. The Mobile Servicing System to be supplied by Canada is a four-piece robotic ... that will play a ... role in ... and maintenance of the ISS. Упражнение 5. A. Назовите 15-20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «The International Space Station». В. Speak about: Solar sail propulsion systems., REVISION OF LESSONS 10-12 Упражнение 1. Повторите инфинитив, инфинитивные конструкции, со­ слагательное наклонение и особенности пассивного залога. Переведите пред­ ложения. 1. The Internet is а great place to find and hear hit songs, mov­ ies and recorded interviews. 2. It is imperative that the experiment begin at once. 3. If I were you, I should stop the experiment. 4. He wished he were a cosmonaut. 5. A new car model was much spoken about. 6. Nobody saw the professor enter the laboratory. 7. It seems to be an interesting comparison. 8. His experience in the field of materials science can be relied upon. 9. This theory is hard to prove. 10. The new discovery was often referred to. 11. We expect this book to appear in bookshops very soon. 12. Scientists appear to know very little of this phenomenon yet. 13. The main problem is for the report to be published as soon as possible. 14. Materials to be brought back to Earth from space laboratories will have some stable properties. 15. It is unusual for a program to work correctly the first time it is tested. 16. Some experiments on the ISS could re­ sult in the development of clocks a thousand times more accurate than today's atomic clocks. 17. There are all kinds of life-support­ ing equipment aboard a spacecraft as it is essential that cosmonauts should feel themselves as comfortable as possible. 18. Lasers are supposed to be able to solve a number of very complicated prob­ lems connected with medicine. 19. One of the most important re­ quirements for hypersonic craft is a sophisticated cooling system lest extreme temperatures should destroy the craft. 20. Educational system suggested by William Rodgers, the founder of MIT, proved to be very effective and to give a sound command of the basic prin­ ciples of science and technology. 21. People always wished that there were a device that could vaporize the hardest and the most heat-resistant material. 22. A number of important innovations such as reducing the weight of aiфlanes and spacecrafts would have been impossible unless composite materials had been developed. 23. Scientists discovered superconductors to possess thermal, elec­ tric and magnetic properties quite different from the non-conduct­ ing materials. 24. The cost of electricity generation has been influenced by the development of electromagnets made with super­ conductors. 25. To produce the superconductive effect, a Dutch physicist cooled a mercury wire below a temperature of —269 °C. 26. We know optical disks to store much more information than a plastic disk of the same size. 27. Laser was dreamt of by mankind, for centuries. 28. The applications of laser in industry and science are known to be numerous and varied. 29. The appearance of laser was followed by the fabrication of ultrathin silicon fibers capable of servicing as lightweight conductors. 30. Some metals and glasses to be cooled down to the point of solidification in space can be brought back to Earth. Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на ин­ финитивные конструкции. Programming Languages The only language computers can understand directly is called machine code. It is known to consist of the Is and Os (binary code) that are processed by the CPU. However, machine code as a means of communication is very difficult to write. That is why it is neces­ sary to use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then, by using a special program, these languages can be translated into machine code. Basic languages, in which the program is similar to the machine code version, are known as low-level languages. In these languages, each instruction is equivalent to a single machine code instruction, and the program is converted into machine code by a special pro­ gram called an assembler. These languages are considered to be still quite complex and restricted to particular computers. To make the program easier to write and to overcome the prob­ lem of intercommunication between different types of machines, higher-level languages were developed such as BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal, Ada, С and others. A higher-level language is a problem oriented programming language, whereas a low-level language is machine oriented. This means that a high-level lan­ guage is a convenient and simple means of describing the informa­ tion structures and sequences of actions to be performed for a particular task. A high-level language is independent of the architecture of the computer which supports it. This has two advantages. Firstly, the person writing the program does not have to know anything about the computer the program will be run on. Secondly, programs are portable, that is, the same program can (in theory) be run on differ­ ent types of computer. Programs written in one of these languages should be converted by means of a compiler into a lower-level lan­ guage or machine code so that the CPU could understand it., с, а high-level programming language, seems to be very popu­ lar today because it is small, so it is not too hard to learn, it is very efficient and portable so one can use it with all kinds of computers. A lot of software engineers use С to write commercial applications programs for mini, micro and personal computers. There are also various versions of С — C"*"̂ and Objective C, which represent a new style of programming. At present there is a tendency towards an even higher level of programming languages, which might be called specification lan­ guages, and an increasing use of software development tools. People communicate instructions to the computer in symbolic languages and the easier this communication can be made, the wider the application of computers will be. Scientists are reported to be already working on Artificial Intelligence and the next gener­ ation of computers may be able to understand human languages. Упражнение 3. A. Прочитайте текст упражнения2изаполните пропуски словами. programming compiler programmed program assembler language programmers portable low-level machine code 1. A computer ... is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do. 2. Converting an algorithm into a sequence of instruc­ tions in a programming language is called ... 3. Most computer ... make a plan of the program before writing it. 4. Coding is the trans­ lation of the logical steps into a programming ... 5. In the next century computers will be ... in natural languages like English or French. 6. A ... is a special program that converts a program written in a high-level language into a program written in a lower level lan­ guage. 7. It is difficult to use ... , which is the only language un­ derstood by the processor. 8. A special program called ... converts a program written in a low-level language into machine code. 9. If the same program can be used for different computers, it is called ... 10. In a ... language each instruction has a corresponding ma­ chine code equivalent. B. Speak about: The new programming language you have heard of or read about., SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS To be read after Lesson 1 Education Most Americans start to school at the age of five when they en- ter kindergarten. Children do not really study at this time. They only attend for half the day and learn what school is like. Children attend elementary school for next six years. They learn to read and write and work with numbers. They also study the world and its people. After they leave elementary school, children go to junior high school for three years and senior high school for another three years. This is called secondary education. In some places the chil- dren go to elementary school for eight years and high school for four. At any rate, elementary and secondary education together take twelve years to complete excluding kindergarten. In their secondary schooling children get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests. They usually study further in history, geography, government and Eng- lish language and literature. They may choose to study foreign languages, advanced mathe- matics or science, such as physics or chemistry. Students who plan to go on to college or professional training must take some of these courses in order to enter college. Other students who do not intend to go on with school may take classes in accounting or typing or other subjects that will help them in the business world. Some se- nior high schools are vocational. Boys may learn to operate ma- chines or do other work. Girls may learn cooking, sewing or office work. High schools have athletic teams which play against teams from other schools. Many boys enjoy playing football, basketball or baseball. These games take place after school hours. Girls are given physical education too, but they do not usually play teams from an- other schools. In the most places in the US children must attend school until they are sixteen, or until they finish high school, usually at the age of seventeen or eighteen. Some children who are not good students drop out of school at the age of sixteen. This is a growing problem, for it is harder and harder for people to find work when they have not finished their high school education. Public schools are free for all boys and girls, but some parents prefer to send their children to private schools. Some private schools are connected with churches and children receive religious, instruction as well as their regular studies. Other private schools are not religious, but have small classes and very good teachers so that the parents think their children will get a better education there than in the larger classes of the public schools. The private schools do not receive any tax money, so most of them must charge the stu­ dents several hundred dollars a year to pay for the cost of the school. Boys and girls attend the public schools together, but many private schools are for girls only or for boys only. To be read after Lesson 2 The Trees Fell — So Did the People Early civilisations may have killed themselves off by plundering (хищнически уничтожать) local plants and animals. New archeo- logical findings suggest that far from living in perfect harmony with nature, prehistoric civilisation dealt major and sometimes fatal blow to natural surroundings. Many investigators now question the idea that environmental problems began only with the industrial revolution in the 19th century. Long before the appearance of industrial civilization prehistoric societies were destroying (уничтожать) forests, plants, animals and farmland. Such destruction sometimes destroyed them in turn. The mysterious disappearance of Anasasi Indians may be a dra­ matic example of this. In territories that are now New Mexico and Arizona the Indians built a complex of roads, irrigation systems and giant «houses» with 800 rooms and more. All were abruptly left by them around A.D. 1200. Until now, the majority of archeologists have believed that the reason was a prolonged drought (засуха), but by using an electron microscope to analyze the tree rings Amer­ ican scientists found that over two centuries or so the Indians were systematically deforesting the canyon where they lived until the forests' ability to replenish itself was destroyed. Some Words About Words With about 200,000 words in current usage English is generally regarded as the richest of the world's languages. Few other lan­ guages can match this word power. Chinese comes close. German has a vocabulao of only 184,000 words, and French has fewer than 100,000 words. English owes its exceptionally large vocabulary to its ability to borrow and absorb words from outside. Atomic, jeans, khaki, sput-, nik, perestroika, glasnost are just a few of the many words that have come into use during this century. They have been taken or adopted from Italian, Hindi, Creek and Russian. The process of borrowing words from other languages has been going on for more than 1,000 years. When the Normans crossed over from France to conquer England in 1066, most of the English spoke old English or Anglo-Saxon — a language of about 30,000 words. The Normans spoke a language which was a mixture of Latin and French. It took about three centuries for the language to become one that is the an- cestor of the English they speak today. The Normans gave us words such as «city», and «palace». The Anglo-Saxon gave us «ring and town». Latin and Greek have been a fruitful source of vocabulary since the 16th century. The Latin word «mini», its opposite «maxi» and the Greek word «micro» have become popular adjectives to de- scribe everything from bikes to fashion. To be read after Lesson 3 Nuclear Power? Well, Yes Although nuclear reactors have generated electricity commer- cially for more than 40 years and nearly 400 now in operation, two major accidents — in the US in 1979 and Chernobyl in the USSR in 1986 — have put the industry under a radioactive cloud. In the popular imagination, reactors are nuclear bombs; even if they don't explode, they go on accumulating waste that will finally cause a global catastrophe. As a result, an energy source once considered as the fuel of the future became questionable. But not everywhere. Nuclear power provides nearly a quarter of the electricity generated in the indus- trialized Western world by the 24-member countries of the Organi- zation for Economic Cooperation and Development. In France more than 76 % of electric power is nuclear-generated, in Belgium — 62 %, Sweden — 50 %, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and Fin- land come in at one third, Japan — a little less; Britain, the US and Canada — under 20 %. Some countries have no nuclear power plants at all and don't want any. Not only the strong emotions of fear have worked against nu- clear power. Energy demand grew more slowly than expected in the past decade. Prices of oil and coal have reduced. However, energy prices can rise. Moreover, supplies of fossil fuel are limited, while, energy needs and tide (прилив) can't meet the increasing require­ ments. Besides, nuclear power doesn't add to global warming. All this causes the people to believe that the worid can't live and work without nuclear power. To be read after Lesson 4 Telecommunication A group of people enter a room, the lights go down, the screens come... the videoconference is under way. Tomorrow's scientific fiction has become today's new technol­ ogy -a daily reality for global companies who recognise the impor­ tance of regular communication between groups of people in different locations around the world. Essentially the videoconference room resembles a usual confer­ ence room. Delegates sit along one side of a table facing their col­ leagues on screen on the other side. They can see, hear and talk to each other simultaneously and can present slides of diagrams, even pieces of equipment. The technology is relatively simple. A device called videocodec takes the picture, digitalizes it for transmission over a special network and reforms the picture at the other end. The problem today is to manufacture codec to the new interna­ tional standard and to improve picture quality through faster trans­ mission speeds. Research and development is also focusing on mobile videoconferencing with broadcast quality pictures which enable to have instant communication with colleagues around the world. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of videoconferencing, as the videoconference eliminates the working time lost through travel. The First Travelling Post Office The first travelling post office in the United States was Abra­ ham Lincoln's hat. That was a strange place, indeed, for mail; but that is where it was kept. Lincoln was appointed postmaster of New Salem, a small Western town, about the year 1833. The postman visited the place once a week and brought the mail — a dozen let­ ters, perhaps, and two or three newspapers — in his saddle (седло) bags. He was always met by Postmaster Lincoln who put the letters into his hat for safekeeping. Lincoln was also the clerk in the coun­ try store, so he had a good opportunity to distribute the mail. But if, people did not come for it, he put on his hat and delivered it. So New Salem was the first town in the US to have rural free delivery, even though the postmaster received very small pay for his work. At that time, stamps and envelopes were not used. When the sender of a letter paid the postal charges, the postmaster wrote PAID in the large letters on the face of the letter. But the postal rates were so high that the sender seldom paid them. Thus, the mailing charges were usually collected from the person who received the mail. The postmaster always held his postal receipts until a government rep­ resentative came for them. The Internet The Internet is a magnificent global network with millions and millions of computers and people connected to one another where each day people worldwide exchange an immeasurable amount of information, electronic mail, news, resources and, more impor­ tant, ideas. It has grown at a suфrising rate. Almost everyone has heard about it and an increasing number of people use it regularly. The current estimate is that over 70 million people are connected, in some way, to the Internet — whether they know it or not. With a few touches at a keyboard a person can get access to ma­ terials in almost everywhere. One can have access to full-text news­ papers, magazines, journals, reference works, and even books. The Web is one of the best resources for up-to-date information. It is a hypertext-based system by which you can navigate through the Internet. Hypertext is the text that contains links to other docu­ ments. A special program known as «browser» can help you find news, pictures, virtual museums, electronic magazines, etc. and print Web pages. You can also click on keywords or buttons that take you to other pages or other Web sites. This is possible because browsers understand hypertext markup language or code, a set of commands to indicate how a Web page is formatted and displayed. Internet Video conferencing programs enable users to talk to and see each other, exchange textual and graphical information, and collaborate. Internet TV sets allow you to surf the Web and have e-mail while you are watching TV, or vice versa. Imagine watching a film on TV and simultaneously accessing a Web site where you get in­ formation on the actors of the film. The next generation of Internet-enabled televisions will incorporate a smart-card for, home shopping, banking and other interactive services. Internet- enabled TV means a TV set used as an Internet device. The Internet is a good example of a wide area network (WAN). For long-distance or worldwide communications, computers are usually connected into a wide area network to form a single inte­ grated network. Networks can be linked together by telephone lines or fibre-optic cables. Modern telecommunication systems use fi­ bre-optic cables because they offer considerable advantages. The cables require little physical space, they are safe as they don't carry electricity, and they avoid electromagnetic interference. Networks on different continents can also be connected via sat­ ellites. Computers are connected by means of a modem to ordinary telephone lines or fibre-optic cables, which are linked to a dish ae­ rial. Communication satellites receive and send signals on a trans­ continental scale. To be read after Lesson 5 Harnessing (обуздание) the Speed of Light When American engineer Alan Huang revealed his plans to build an optical computer, most scientists considered this idea as hopeless. It was impractical, if not possible, they said, to create a general-purpose computer that could use pulses of light rather than electrical signals to process data. During one of the scientist's lec­ tures on the subject, a third of the audience walked out. At another one, some of the scientists laughed, calling the researcher a dreamer. That was several years ago. Now the scientist demonstrated his experimental computing machine based on optics. It took him five years to develop it. The device — a collection of lasers, lenses and prisms — can serve as the basis for future optical computers 100 to 1,000 times as powerful as today's most advanced supercomputers. The potential applications are remarkable: robots that can see, computers that can design aircraft, processors that can convert spoken words into written text and vice versa. Such practical opti­ cal computers are still years away — some would say light-years. Yet many scientists are predicting that the device will have an impact similar to that of the integrated circuit which made small personal computers possible. Photons, the basic unit of light beams, can in theory be much better than electrons for moving signals through a computer. First of all, photons can travel about the times as fast as electrons. And, while electrons react with one another, beams of photons, which have no mass or charge, can cross through one another without in- terference. Thus, photons can move in free space. This could open the door to radically new and different computer designs, including so-called parallel processors that could work on more than one problem at a time instead of one after another, as today's new gen- eration computers do. How Transistors Work Microprocessors are essential to many of the products we use every day such as TVs, cars, radios, home appliances and of course, computers. Transistors are the main components of microproces- sors. At their most basic level, transistors may seem simple. But their development actually required many years of thorough research. Be- fore transistors, computers relied on slow, inefficient vacuum tubes and mechanical switches to process information. In 1958, engineers put two transistors onto a silicon crystal and created the first inte- grated circuit that led to the microprocessor. Here on a tiny silicon chip there are millions of switches and pathways that help computers make important decisions and perform helpful tasks. Transistors are miniature electronic switches. They are the building blocks of the microprocessor which is the brain of the computer. Similar to a basic light switch, transistors have two oper- ating positions, on and off. This on/off function enables the pro- cessing of information in a computer. The only information computers understand are electrical sig- nals that are switched on and off. To understand how transistors work, it is necessary to have an understanding of how a switched electronic circuit works. Switched electronic circuits consist of sev- eral parts. One is the circuit pathway where the electrical current flows — typically through a wire. Another is the switch, a device that starts and stops the flow of electrical current by either com- pleting or breaking the circuit's pathway. Transistors have no mov- ing parts and are turned on and off by electrical signals. The on/off switching of transistors facilitates the work performed by micropro- cessors. Something that has only two states, like a transistor, can be re- ferred to as binary. The transistor's «on» state is represented bya1and the «off» state is represented by a 0. Specific sequences and patterns of I's and O's generated by multiple transistors can repre- sent letters, numbers, colours and graphics. This is known as binary notation., More complex information can be created such as graphics, au­ dio and video using the binary, or on/off action of transistors. Many materials, such as most metals, allow electrical current to flow through them. These are known as conductors. Materials that do not allow electrical current to flow through them are called in­ sulators. Pure silicon, the base material of most transistors, is con­ sidered a semiconductor because its conductivity can be modulated by the introduction of impurities. Adding certain types of impurities (примесь) to the silicon in a transistor changes its crystalline structure and improves its ability to conduct electricity. The binary function of transistors gives microprocessors the ability to perform many tasks; from simple word processing to video editing. Microprocessors have developed to a point where transistors can carry out hundreds of millions of instructions per second on a single chip. Automobiles, medical devices, televisions, computers and even the Space Shuttle use microprocessors. They all rely on the flow of binary information made possible by the tran­ sistor. To be read after Lesson 6 Ceramic Application The application which has captured the imagination of engi­ neers, as well as the general public, is certainly the ceramic engine, that is the adiabatic turbo-diesel engine and the ceramic turbine for automotive use. There are some successful phototypes on the road, however, applications on a large scale have been held back by prob­ lems of cost and reliability. Steady progress is being made in the in­ crease of the reliability of ceramics. But the cost factor is likely to remain a problem for some time. One should mention here that the long-term reliability in ser­ vice still needs to be defined for those applications where the mate­ rial must withstand very high temperatures and dynamically changing mechanical and thermal loads in a chemically aggressive environment. Ceramic engines and turbines are but the top of the pyramid with respect to applications. At lower levels of performance there are numerous other applications, in which the operating conditions are less severe, for example, ceramic heat exchangers for chemical plants. Ceramics finds application in bearings and engine parts be­ cause of its high hardness and high abrasion resistance., There are three main materials used in making pipes: metal, rubber and plastic. Metal is stronger than rubber and plastic. It is also heavier and more rigid than rubber and plastic. Metal is the strongest material, but it is also the heaviest, and the most rigid. It is also the most ex­ pensive of the three materials. Rubber is weaker than metal or plastic. It is also more flexible than the other two materials. Rubber is the most flexible of the three materials, but it is the weakest. Plastic is lighter than metal. It is also less expensive than steel or rubber. Plastic is the lightest material. It is also the least expen­ sive of the three materials. Glass is used for making windows because you can see through it, and it is very hard and therefore cannot be cut easily. But at the same time it is very brittle and therefore it can break easily. Wood is soft and therefore it can be cut easily. It can be used in fires because it is combustible. Car tyres are made of rubber because rubber is flexible. A car panel is made by three methods. First, sheet steel is made. This is done by pushing a piece of steel between two rollers, which squeeze the metal and make it longer and thinner. This method is called rolling. Not all metals can be rolled. For example, iron can­ not be rolled because it is too brittle. But steel can be rolled because it is tough and malleable (ковкий) enough. Next, the steel is cut into a flat shape. This is done by placing the sheet onto a die, and then cutting a hole in it with a punch. The method is called punching. The steel can be cut easily because it is now very thin. Finally, the sheet steel is bent and pressed into a rounded shape. This is done by putting the sheet onto a die and then bend­ ing the sheet around the die with a press. This method is called pressing. It is not difficult to press sheet steel because it is thin and malleable. To be read after Lesson 7 Electric Car The electric car is not a new idea. It had success with American women in the early 1900s. Women liked electric cars because they were quiet and, what was more important, they did not pollute the, air. Electric cars were also easier to start than gasoline-powered ones. But the latter was faster, and in the 1920s they became much more popular. The electric car was not used until the 1970s, when there were serious problems with the availability of oil. The General Motors Co. had plans to develop an electric car by 1980. However, soon oil became available again, and this car was never produced. Today there is a new interest in the electric car. The Toyota Co. recently decided to spend $800 million a year on the development of new car technology. Many engineers believe that the electric car will lead to other forms of technology being used for transportation. Car companies are working at developing a supercar. A super- efficient car will have an electric motor. Four possible power sources are being investigated. The simple one is batteries. Another possibility is fuel cells, which combine oxygen from air with hydro­ gen to make electricity. Yet another approach would be a flywheel (маховик), an electric generator consisting of free-spinning wheels with magnets in the rims that can produce a current. A fourth pos­ sible power source for the super-car would be a small turbine en­ gine, running on a clean fuel like natural gas. It would run at a constant speed, generating electricity for driving vehicles or for feeding a bank of batteries, storing energy for later use. Engines Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called the «water wheel». This was an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it, and the current of a river turned it. These first engines were used for irrigating fields. Then a wind-powered engine was invented. This was a wheel, but a very small one. Long wide wooden blades were attached to it. The new engine was driven by the wind. Some of these ones can still be seen in the country. Both of these, the water- and wind-operated engines are very economical. They do not need fuel in order to function. But they are dependent on the weather. Many years passed and people invented a new engine, one op­ erated by steam. In a steam engine, there is a furnace and a boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam which does some useful work., The more coal is put in the furnace, the stronger the fire is burning. The more steam there is, the faster a train or a boat is moving. The steam engine drove all sorts of machines, for example, steam ships and steam locomotives. Indeed, the very first aeroplane built by A.F. Mozhaisky also had a steam engine. However, the steam engine had its disadvantages. It was too large and heavy, and needed too much fuel. The imperfections of the steam engine led to the design of a new type. It was called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel ignites and burns inside the engine itself and not in a furnace. It is smaller and lighter than a steam engine because it does not have a boiler. It is also more powerful, as it uses better-quality fuel: petrol or kerosene. The internal combustion engine is now used in cars, diesel lo- comotives and motor ships. But to enable aeroplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound another, more powerful engine was needed. Eventually, one was invented and it was given the name «jet en- gine». The gases in it reach the temperature of over a thousand de- grees. It is made of a very resistant metal so that it will not melt. To be read after Lesson 8 The Driving Lesson Miss Green: Good afternoon. My name is Miss Green and I'm your driving instructor. Is this your first lesson? Simon It is my first lesson at this driving school. M. G.: Oh, you've been to another one? S.: Yes. The Greenwich school of driving. But I stopped going there. M. G.: Why? Weren't the lessons good enough? S.: They were good but my instructor left. M. G.: Really? Well, let's see what you can do. I want you to drive down this road and turn left at the end. S.: Yes, all right. M. G.: You drive very well! I'm sure you'll pass your test. All my pupils pass their tests. Oh, look out! That lorry! S.: You said turn left at the end. M. G.: When you want to turn a corner, slow down and look first. You nearly hit that lorry. Please, be careful. Now turn right at the traffic lights... Right, not left!, S.: Sorry it was too late. I've turned left now. M. G.: Didn't you see the No Entry sign? This is a one-way street. S.: Why are those drivers shouting? M. G.: Because you're driving the wrong way down a one-way street. Stop the car, please, and turn it round. S.: I'm not very good at that. M. G.: Mind that red car! S.: Madman! He nearly hit me! M. G.: He was right and you were wrong. Why didn't you wait? Now you are blocking the road. You want re- verse gear. Turn the wheel... more ... more ... Not too fast! Oh, what have you done now? S.: It is all right. I went into the lamp-post but it is still standing. I didn't knock it down. M.G.: Oh, but look at the back of the car. S.: Sorry, but you said «reverse». M.G.: I didn't say «drive into the lamp-post». Well, you've turned the car round now, so drive back to the traffic lights and go straight across. S.: Are we going to the park? M.G.: The roads are quiter near the park. Oh, not too fast! S.: The lights are green. M.G.: Slow down! The lights are changing! S.: I can't slow down. There! We are across. M.G.: The lights were red! S.: It's all right. There were no policemen. M.G.: I know why your last instructor left. He wanted to stay alive. S.: That's not a very nice thing to say. And it's not true. He left because he wasn't very well. M.G.: Stop the car, please. Oh, gently! S.: Sorry. Did you hit your head on the roof? M.G.: No. Luckily I was wearing the seat belt. Now I want you to practise driving backwards. Reverse the park gates. Look first, than reverse in. S.: Right. M.G.: Oh, you've hit the gate!... Now you are driving on the grass! S.: I'm going backwards down the hill and I can't stop! Help me! M.G.: Use the brakes! Don't drive into the lake!, S.: Too late. M.G.: Look what you've done. You reversed into a lamp post. You hit the park gate. Now you've driven into the lake. Oh, why didn't you stay with the other driv­ ing school? S.: They had no more cars left. Heavy-Lift Dirigible Unlike other new dirigible projects the giant CargoLifter CL 160 (Germany) is aimed at heavy-lift cargo applications, not at tourism or advertising. It will be the beginning of a new era in freight transport. The 260-meter-long, 65-meter-diameter semi-rigid airship will be capable of transporting 160 ton loads-equivalent to 36 standard 40-ft containers — to out-of-the-way (remote) construction sites 10,000 km away. With a cruise speed of just 80-120 km/hr the CL 160 would not get the load to its destination nearby as fast as a heavier-than-air craft such as Antonov An-124, but it would also not require the landing facilities needed for the unusually large air­ craft. Moored (причаливать) above the delivery site, the airship will lower loads using an onboard crane without actually having to touch down. A crew of five, including navigator and two cargo- masters (высококвалифицированные рабочие) would man the ship. In fact, the CargoLifter project was bom of a logistics need ex­ pressed by manufacturers of electric generators, turbines and other outsized (i.e., larger than the usual size) machinery. Rolls-Royce-Turbomeca turboshaft engines are to be used for maneuvering the big airship, cruise being provided by diesel power- plants. What Is GPS? The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navi­ gation system made up of a network of 24 satellites. GPS was origi­ nally intended for military applications, but now the systems is available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to Earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact lo­ cation. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal, was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user's position and display it on the unit's electronic map. A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track (прослеживать) movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the user's 3D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the user's position has been deter­ mined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing (пеленг), track, trip distance, distance to destina­ tion, sunrise and sunset time and more. Today's GPS receivers are extremely accurate within an aver­ age of three to five meters thanks to their parallel multi-channel design. The 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbit­ ing the earth about 12,000 miles above us. They are constantly moving, making two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. These satellites are travelling at speeds of roughly 7,000 miles an hour. GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. They have backup batteries onboard to keep them running in the event of a solar eclipse (затмение), when there's no solar power. Small rocket boosters on each satellite keep them flying in the correct path. Here are some other interesting facts about the GPS satellites: 1. The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978. 2. A full constellation (созвездие) of 24 satellites was achieved in 1994. 3. Each satellite is built to last about 10 years. Replacements are constantly being built and launched into orbit. 4. A GPS satellite weighs approximately 2,000 pounds and is about 17 feet across with the solar panels extended. 5. Transmitter power is only 50 watts or less. GPS satellites transmit two low power radio signals. The signals travel by line of sight, meaning they will pass through clouds, glass and plastic but will not go through most solid objects such as build­ ings and mountains. A GPS signal contains three different bits of information — a pseudorandom code, ephemeris data and almanac data. Some factors that can degrade the GPS signal and thus affect accuracy include the following: 1. The satellite signal slows as it passes through the atmosphere., 2. The GPS signal is reflected off objects such as tall buildings or large rock surfaces before it reaches the receiver. This increases the travel time of the signal, thereby causing errors. 3. A receiver's built-in clock is not as accurate as the atomic clocks onboard the GPS satellites. Therefore, it may have very slight timing errors. 4. The more satellites a GPS receiver can «see,» the better the accuracy. Buildings, terrain, electronic interference, or sometimes even dense foliage (листва) can block signal reception, causing po­ sition errors or possibly no position reading at all. GPS units typi­ cally will not work indoors, underwater or underground. To be read after Lesson 9 Getting into Deep Water The dark depths of the Gulf of Mexico, once frequented by only the sea creatures, are now alive with human activity. Miniature submarines and robot-like vehicles move around the ocean bottom while divers make their way around incredible underwater struc­ tures — taller than New York City skyscrapers, but almost totally beneath the surface of the waves. Modem-day explorers are using technology worth of Jules Verne and Jacques Cousteau to find fresh supplies of oil and natural gas. Until recently, drilling in the Gulf was concentrated close to shore in water as deep as 9 m. But now the scientists are looking to hundreds of meters deep and 160 km and more from land. The deep water research began in 1984. Since then many Ame­ rican companies have built the world's deepest production plat­ forms of more than 100 storeys high. Finding gas and oil deposits at large depth is not an easy technological task. Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea There is an American project of one-person submarine, which will «fly» to the bottom on inverted wings rather than simply sink­ ing under its own weight as the bathyscaphes did. This design is more like an aeroplane than a balloon. It could one day make ex­ ploring the ocean depth as easy as flying a plane is today. The most difficult problem is to find a material that is also light enough to allow the craft to float back to the surface if there is a loss of power or some other emergency. Alumina, a hard ceramic, was chosen for the vessel., The pilot's capsule is about a meter in diameter, 5 centimeters thick and about 2 meters long. It is capped at one end with a ce­ ramic hemisphere and at the other with a glass viewing dome. The rest of the craft, including the wings on either side and the casing at the rear for the motors, are made of a lightweight composite material. In addition to the pilot, the pressure vessel houses the controls and instrument panel, the life-support system and a 24-volt power supply. The pilot effectively operates the craft by radio control. The batteries feed a pair of electric motors that can drive the craft at up to 14 knots (25 kilometers per hour). The craft could dive vertically but this would be uncomfortable for the pilot who lies face downwards in the cylindrical chamber. So it descends at an angle of up to 45\ «Deep Flight» is designed to be as stream­ lined as possible. This means making the submarine's cross section as small as possible and providing as little equipment as possible on the hull. At a cruising speed of 10 knots «Deep Flight» will descend at a rate of 200 meters per minute and reach 11,000 meters in about an hour in the Mariana Trench (Марианская впадина), the deepest site on Earth. The weight of the craft is 2.5 tonnes, which is about the same as a large car. This will allow it to be launched from any vessel. To be read after Lesson 10 Laser Technology In the last decade there was outstanding progress in the devel­ opment of laser technology and its application in science, industry and commerce. Laser cutting, welding and machining are begin­ ning to be big business. The market for laser systems represents around 2.5 % of the world machine tool market. Which country is the biggest producer and consumer of lasers? Why, Japan, naturally: Japan produced 46 % of world's lasers in 1989, while figures for Europe and the USA are 32 % and 22 %. Ja­ pan is building 1,200 to 2,000 CO2 lasers per year of which some 95 % are over 500 W power and 80 % of them are used for cutting operations. Europe is the second largest user and the third largest producer. In 1990 Europe's market for lasers was $128 million, of which Germany consumed about $51 million, and Italy — $12 million., The Germany met 90 % of its demands through domestic produc­ ers. Growth rate of the European market is estimated at 10 to 15 % per year. In the future the main trend influencing the industry will be la­ ser source prices. The prices are dropping. There appear lasers of modular construction. The complexity of laser machines is rising. Multi-axes systems are in more use now. Recently a 7-axis CNC la­ ser machining center has been introduced. In addition to X,Y and Z axes, there are two rotary axes, A and C, and two more linear axes, и and V, to give a trepanning (прорезать большие отвер­ стия) motion to the laser. Optical Disks and Drives Optical disks can store information at much higher densities than magnetic disks. Thus, they are ideal for multimedia applica­ tions where images, animation and sound occupy a lot of disk space. Besides, they are not affected by magnetic fields. This means that they are secure and stable, e.g. they can be transported through aiфort metal detectors without damaging the data. However, opti­ cal drives are slower than hard disks. While there are hard drives with an average access time of 8 milliseconds (ms), most CD-ROM drives have an access time of 150 to 20 ms. There are various types of optical drives, which have become a reality. CD-ROM systems use optical technology. The data is re­ trieved using a laser beam. To read CD-ROM disks, you need an optical drive (a CD-ROM player). A typical CD-ROM disk can hold 650 MB (megabytes) of sound, text, photographs, music, mul­ timedia materials and applications. In addition, most CD-ROM drives can be used to play audio CDs. Do you remember that CD stands for compact disk? Yet CD-ROM technology has one disadvantage. The data on a CD-OM cannot be changed or «written» to, i.e. it is impossible to add your own material to what is on the disk. It is like a music CD. It is not designed for you to write on, it is designed to hold a lot of information that the user doesn't need to change. Magneto-optical (MO) drives use both a laser and an electro­ magnet to record information. Consequently, MO disks are rewritable, that is they can be written to, erased, and than written again. They are available in two formats. Their capacity may be more than 2 GB (gigabyte) or 230 to 640 MB. Such combined de­ vices are good for back up purposes and storage of large amounts of information such as a dictionary or encyclopaedia., То be read after Lesson 11 Space Cooling A new method of cooling that can generate cryogenic tempera­ tures of 200 °C below zero without the use of electricity and with almost no moving parts has been tested at the Jet Propulsion Labo­ ratory in Pasadena, California. The refrigerator used for the pur­ pose was recently tested to — 253 °C, only 20 degrees above absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature. In space such cooling system could increase the life of future space station refuelling ports by cooling the large liquid-hydrogen fuel tanks which are likely to be in service. In future earth applications it could be used for cooling hydro­ gen-powered cars and planes, as well as for cooling superconduct­ ing motors and computers. According to the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) experts the key lies in the use of hydrides, materials that interact with hydro­ gen. These materials absorb tremendous amounts of hydrogen gas at room temperature. The engineers of the JPL have taken advan­ tage of this property to build a series of devices that act as compres­ sors and provide a continuous cooling stream of liquid hydrogen. The system saves weight in space since it can use direct solar heat instead of electricity from heavier, inefficient electric systems. Because it has so few moving parts and uses the same supply of gas in a closed cycle, it could operate for many decades. Because of its long potential lifetime, the system could be used to cool infrared sensors during missions to the other planets, which may take 10 years or more to complete. The Propulsion Challenge^ Magsails are a form of solar sails that use a completely different type of physical interaction with the Sun. Magsail is a simple loop (петля, контур) of high-temperature superconducting wire carry­ ing a persistent^ current. The charged particles in the solar wind are deflected^ by the magnetic field, producing thrust. Although the thrust density in the solar ion wind flux is 5,000 times less than the thrust density in the solar photon flux^, the mass of a solar sail goes directly with the area, whereas the mass of the magsail rises with the perimeter of the enclosed area. The effective cross-sectional area of the magnetic field around the magsail is about a hundred times the physical area of the loop. As a result, preliminary calculations show the thrust-to-weight ra-, tio of a magsail can be an order of magnitude (порядок величины) better than a solar sail. Recent thermal balance calculations indi­ cate that a properly Sun-shielded^ cable can be passively main­ tained at a temperature of 65 К in space, well below the supercon­ ducting transition point for many of the new high temperature su­ perconductors. Notes to the Text 1. problem, difficulty, invitation to see which is better 2. continuing 3. cause to turn away from 4. flow 5. protected Computer Graphics Computer graphics are known to be pictures and drawings pro­ duced by computers. A graphics program interprets the input pro­ vided by the user and transports it into images that can be displayed on the screen, printed on paper or transferred to microfilm. In the process the computer uses hundreds of mathematical formulas to convert the bits of data into precise shapes and colours. Graphics can be developed for a variety of uses including illustrations, archi­ tectural designs and detailed engineering drawings. Mechanical engineering uses sophisticated programs for appli­ cations in computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). In the car industry CAD software is used to develop, model and test car designs before the actual parts are made. This can save a lot of time and money. Basically, computer graphics help users to understand complex information quickly by presenting it in more understandable and clearer visual forms. Electric engineers use computer graphics for designing circuits and in business it is possible to present informa­ tion as graphics and diagrams. These are certain to be much more effective ways of communicating than lists of figures or long expla­ nations. Today, three-dimensional graphics along with colour and com­ puter animation are supposed to be essential for graphic design, computer-aided engineering (CAE) and academic research. Com­ puter animation is the process of creating objects and pictures which move across the screen; it is used by scientists and engineers to analyze problems. With appropriate software they can study the structure of objects and how it is affected by particular changes., А graphic package is the software that enables the user to draw and manipulate objects on a computer. Each graphic package has its own facilities, as well as a wide range of basic drawing and paint­ ing tools. The collection of tools in a package is known as a palette. The basic geometric shapes, such as lines between two points, arcs, circles, polygons, ellipses and even text, making graphical objects are called «primitives». You can choose both the primitive you want and where it should go on the screen. Moreover, you can specify the «attributes» of each primitive, e.g., its colour, line type and so on. The various tools in a palette usually appear together as pop-up icons in a menu. To use one you can activate it by clicking on it. After specifying the primitives and their attributes you must transform them. Transformation means moving or manipulating the object by translating, rotating and scaling the object. Translation is moving an object along an axis to somewhere else in the viewing area. Rotation is turning the object larger or smaller in any of the horizontal, vertical or depth direction (corresponding to the X, у and z axis). The term «rendering» describes the tech­ niques used to make your object look real. Rendering includes hid­ den surface removal, light sources and reflections. To be read after Lesson 12 The Space Age Russia was the first nation into space and is recognized as the world's leader in building space stations and conducting long- duration space missions. Since Yury Gagarin's epic flight Russian space science and engineering have come a long way. Space tech­ nology remains Russia's deepest source of pride (гордость). Russia has launched a great number of space vehicles designed to perform a variety of functions. Unmanned satellites have been of great sig­ nificance in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space. They help us learn more about the relations between processes occurring on the sun and near the earth and study the structure of the upper atmosphere. These satellites are provided with scientific equipment for space navigation of civil aviation and ships, as well as explora­ tion of the World Ocean, the earth's surface and its natural re­ sources. In April 1971, history's first space station, Salyut 1, was launched and over the next 15 years six its subsequent versions op­ erated in space. Many orbital manned flights were performed, aboard these stations involving a lot of cosmonauts, most of them having flown several times. Russian cosmonauts are known to hold the record for the longest time in space (L. Kizim has worked 375 days) and for continuous stay in space (V. Titov and M. Manarov — 365 days, i.e. a year). The knowledge of Russian doctors and re­ searchers about the medical and psychological consequences of longterm space flight far exceed that of American scientists. In 1973, two years after Salyut 1, the United States launched Skylab, the Western World's first space station which was used for three highly successful missions. All these manned missions paved the way for even longer stays aboard the Russian Mir space station and, then, aboard the International Space Station. The most successful Mir space station was launched in Febru­ ary 1986. It was expected to have a lifetime of only five years but it had been in orbit for 15 years before its controlled re-entry into the atmosphere. This space station was equipped with an astronomical observatory module named Kwant. It incoфorated all the novelty that could be offered by designers and engineers. To keep produc­ tivity high, Russian designers paid much attention to the space sta­ tion livability. The interior of Mir was painted in two colours to provide the crew with a sense of floor and ceiling. On Mir cosmo­ nauts got two days off each week and had a special radio so that they could talk to their families and with any sportsman, scientist or celebrity they wanted. With the twin Vega space probes being successfully launched in 1986, Russian scientists conducted close-range studies of Halley's comet and gathered impressive scientific data about Venus. Vega 1 and Vega 2 carrying more than 30 research instruments passed within 10,000 kilometers of the comet's heart, transmitted high- quality pictures to Earth and revealed for the first time the dimen­ sions and dynamics of its ten-mile-long nucleus. The relative speed of approaching the comet was equal to 78 km/sec. It should be pointed out that the study of Halley's comet was conducted on the basis of extensive cooperation of scientists. Scientists from nine countries, including the U.S, joined the Vega project. When the 170-million horse power launch vehicle called «Energia» was successfully tested in 1987, Russia has gone far ahead of the United States in the space race. With the new multi-purpose Energia rocket it became possible to put into orbit a 100-ton payload (one must know that the first satellite carried 83,6 kg). The first International Space Station components, Zarya and Unity, have opened a new era of space exploration. The three-stage, Russian Proton booster was used to launch the Zarya module. The rocket was designed by the Salyut Design Bureau and is manufac- tured by the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Centre in Moscow. The Proton is among the most reliable heavy-lift launch vehicles in operation with its reliability rating about 98 per cent. Proton measures about 180 feet tall, 24 feet in diameter at its widest point and weighs about 1,540,000 pounds when fully fueled for launch. The engines use nitrogen tetroxide, an oxidizer, and dimethyl hydrazine, a fuel, as propellants. The first stage includes six engines providing about 1.9 million pounds of thrust at launch. Four engines creating 475,000 pounds of thrust power the Proton's second stage. The Proton's third and final stage is powered by a single engine that creates 125,000 pounds of thrust. Assembling the station will be unprecedented task, turning the Earth orbit into a constantly-changing construction site. More than 100 elements will be joined over the course of 45 assembly flights using the Space Shuttle and two types of Russian rockets. An international team of astronauts and cosmonauts will do much of the work by hand, performing more space works in just five years than have been conducted throughout the history of space flight. They will be assisted by a new generation of robotic arms, hands and perhaps even free-flying robotic «eyes». The international partners, Canada, Japan, the European Space Agency, are supposed to contribute the following key ele- ments to the ISS: Canada is to provide a robotic arm to be used for assembly and maintenance tasks on the station. The European Space Agency is building a pressurized laboratory to be launched on the Space Shuttle. Japan is building a laboratory module with an attached platform where experiments can be exposed to space as well as logistics transport vehicles. Scientists believe the ISS to be the most advanced base for de- veloping technologies, systems and procedures to enable safe, effi- cient and permanent human presence in space. Cryptography From e-mail to cellular communications, from secure Web ac- cess to digital money, cryptography is an essential part of today's information systems. The only way to protect a message is to en- code it with some form of encryption. Data encryption is very im- portant for network security, particularly when sending confidential information. Encryption is the process of encoding data so that un- authorized users can't read it. Decryption is the process of decod-, ing encrypted data transmitted to you. The most common methods of protection are passwords for access control, encryption and de­ cryption systems, and firewalls. Firewall is a software and hardware device that allows limited access to an internal network from the Internet. Cryptography helps provide accuracy and confidentiality. It can prove your identity or protect your anonymity. It can prevent vandals from changing your Web page and industrial competitors from reading your confidential documents. And in the future, as commerce and communications continue to move to computer networks, cryptography will become more and more vital. But the cryptography now on the market does not provide the level of security it advertised. Most systems are not designed and implemented together with cryptographers. Present-day computer security is a house of cards; it may stand for now, but it can't last. Electronic vandalism is an increasingly serious problem. Computer vandals take advantage of technologies newer than the system they attack, using techniques the designers never thought of and even invent new mathematics to attack the system with. No one can guarantee 100 % security. But we can work toward 100 % risk acceptance. Fraud (обман) exists in current commerce systems. Yet these systems are still successful, because the benefits and conveniences are greater than the losses. Some systems are not perfect, but they are often good enough. A good cryptographic sys­ tem provides a balance between what possible and what is acceptable. The good news about cryptography is that we already have the algorithms and protocols we need to secure our systems. The bad news is that that was the easy part; implementing the protocols suc­ cessfully requires considerable expertise. Thus, there is an enor­ mous difference between a mathematic algorithm and its concrete implementation in hardware and software. Design work is the main support of the science of cryptography and it is very specialized. Cryptography combines several areas of mathematics: number theory, complexity theory, information the­ ory, probability theory, abstract algebra, and formal analysis, among others. Unfortunately, few can do the science properly, and a little knowledge is a dangerous thing: inexperienced cryptogra­ phers almost always design imperfect systems. Quality systems use published and well-understood algorithms and protocols. Besides, only when cryptography is designed with careful consideration of users' needs and then integrated, can it protect their systems, re­ sources, and data., КРАТКИЙ ПОУРОЧНЫЙ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ

СПРАВОЧНИК

LESSON 1 § 1. Глагол to be Глагол to be в Present, Past и Future Indefinite (Simple) име­ ет следующие формы: Личное местоимение Present Past Future I am was shaU (wm) be 1 fhe 1 \ she \ is was will be

П̂ 1

we are were shaU (wiU) be Г you111they J are were will be В вопросительной форме глагол to be ставится перед под­ лежащим: Are they students? Они студенты? Where were you yesterday? Где вы были вчера? В отрицательной форме после глагола to be ставится отри­ цание not: They are not in the library. Они не в библиотеке. § 2. Глагол то have Глагол to have в Present, Past и Future Simple имеет следую­ щие формы:, Личное местоимение Present Past Future I have had shall have [he ] \ she \

И̂ 1 has had will have

we have had shall have Г you11Itheyj have had will have Вопросительная форма глагола to have образуется двумя способами: 1) путем постановки глагола to have перед подлежащим: Have you а dictionary? У Вас есть словарь? 2) с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do: Do you have a dictionary? У Вас есть словарь? Отрицательная форма глагола to have также образуется двумя способами: 1) с помощью отрицательного по перед существительным: I have по dictionary У меня нет словаря. 2) с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do: I do not have a dictionary У меня нет словаря. § 3. Оборот There + be в Simple Active Число Present Past Future Единственное there is there was there will be Множественное there are there were there will be Оборот there + be переводится есть, находится, имеется, существует. Перевод предложений с оборотом there + be сле­ дует начинать с обстоятельства места или со сказуемого, если обстоятельство отсутствует. Слово there — вводная частица — на русский язык не переводится. Например: There is а large reading room in В этой библиотеке большой this library. читальный зал. There are many methods of do­ Существует много способов ing it. сделать это. There will be meeting tomorrow Завтра будет собрание., § 4. Личные и притяжательные местоимения (Personal and Possessive Pronouns) В английском языке личные местоимения имеют два паде­ жа: именительный (nominative) и объектный (objective). Лич­ ные местоимения в именительном падеже употребляются в предложении в качестве подлежащего; личные местоимения в объектном падеже употребляются в предложении в качестве дополнения (прямого, косвенного или предложного). Существуют также соответствующие притяжательные ме­ стоимения и их абсолютные формы. Притяжательные место­ имения служат определениями к существительным. Если возникает необходимость употребить притяжательные место­ имения без существительного, то употребляется специальная форма, которая называется абсолютной формой. Личные местоимения Притяжательные Абсолютные Именительный Объектный местоимения формы падеж падеж 1лтеменя, мнетумой, моя, мое, mine мой, моя, мои мое, мои you ты. Вы you тебя. Вас, your твой(-я), yours твой('Я), тебе. Вам Ваш(-а), (-е) Ваш('а) he он him его, ему his его his его she она her ее, ей her ее hers ее it он, она, оно it его, ее, ему, ей its его, ее its •— его, ее we мы us нас, нам our наш(-а), (-е), ours наш(-а). (-и) you вы you вас, вам your ваши yours ваши they они them их, им their их theirs их Объектный падеж личных местоимений соответствует ви­ нительному и дательному падежам в русском языке. Местоимения в объектном падеже с предлогами соответст­ вуют в русском языке местоимениям в косвенных падежах без предлоговиспредлогами: I asked him to come and see me. Я попросил его прийти и на­ вестить меня. She told me to bring the book to Она сказала мне принести her. книгу ей., They went to the laboratory and Они пошли в лабораторию и we went with them. мы пошли вместе с ними. That is her book, not yours. Это ее книга, не ваша. Неге is your notebook. Вот твоя тетрадь. I cannot find mine. Я не могу найти мою. § 5. Времена группы Simple Active Времена группы Simple обозначают факт совершения дей­ ствия в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем без уточнения, как оно протекает во времени. The Present Simple Tense (Настоящее неопределенное время) The Present Simple Tense выражает обычное, повторное дей­ ствие. Часто употребляется со словами always всегда, usually обычно, every day (week, year) каждый день {неделю, год) и т. д.: We live in Moscow. Мы живем в Москве. Утвердительная форма глагола в the Present Simple Tense совпадает с инфинитивом без частицы to: to study — учиться; I study — я учусь. В 3-м лице единственного числа к глаголу добавляется окончание -s (-es): to speak — he speaks, to see — she sees, to wash — she washes, to dress — she dresses, to do — he does, to pay — he pays, to study — he studies. Вопросительная и отрицательная формы глагола в the Pre­ sent Simple образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do в форме do и does (для третьего лица единственного числа) и смыслового глагола в инфинитиве без частицы to. В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол вы­ носится перед подлежащим, а в отрицательном — стоит после подлежащего и между ним и смысловым глаголом ставится отрицательная частица not: Do you study EngUsh? Вы изучаете английский? Does he study English? Он изучает английский? We do not study English. Мы не изучаем английский. Не does not study English. Он не изучает английский., The Past Simple Tense (Прошедшее неопределенное время) The Past Simple Tense выражает действие в прошлом и обычно употребляется со словами yesterday вчера, the day be­ fore yesterday позавчера, last year, month, week в прошлом году, месяце, неделе, ago тому назад, the other day на днях. Правильные глаголы образуют утвердительную форму в the Past Simple путем прибавления окончания -ed к инфини­ тиву без частицы to для всех лиц единственного и множест­ венного числа: to ask •— asked, to study — studied. Например: He entered the Moscow Uni- Он поступил в МГУ в про- versity last year. шлом году. Утвердительная форма неправильных глаголов в the Past Simple образуется особым способом и для каждого глагола приведена в таблице неправильных глаголов (см. приложе­ ние 10). Вопросительная и отрицательная формы в the Past Simple образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола did для всех лиц и чисел: Did he enter the Moscow Uni- Он поступил в МГУ в про- versity last year? шлом году? Не didn't enter the Moscow Он не поступил в МГУ в про- University last year. шлом году. The Future Simple Tense (Будущее неопределенное время) The Future Simple Tense выражает будущее действие со сло­ вами tomorrow завтра, the day after tomorrow послезавтра, to­ night сегодня вечером, next year, month, week в следующем году, месяце, неделе, in ... days (hours) через ... дней {часов) и т.д. Утвердительная форма в the Future Simple образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall (для первого лица единственного и множественного числа) и will (для всех дру­ гих лиц) и инфинитива глагола без частицы to: I shall go to the library tomorrow. Завтра я пойду в библиотеку. Не will go to the library next Он пойдет в библиотеку на week. следующей неделе. Вопросительная форма глагола в the Future Simple образу­ ется путем вынесения вспомогательного глагола shall или will перед подлежащим:, Shall we go to the library to­ Мы пойдем завтра в библио­ morrow? теку? Will he go to the Ubrary next Он пойдет в библиотеку на week? следующей неделе? Отрицательная форма глагола в the Future Simple образует­ ся при помощи отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола shall или will: We shaU not go to the library Мы не пойдем в библиотеку tomorrow. завтра. He will not go to the library Он не пойдет в библиотеку на next week. следующей неделе. Глаголы в the Present, Past и Future Simple переводятся как совершенным, так и несовершенным видом глагола в настоя­ щем, прошедшем и будущем времени соответственно. The Simple (Active) Present Past Future Утвердительная форма {I, we, you, they} write I, he, she,] {I, we} shall write {he, she, it} writes it, we, } wrote he, she, it,l ^ ^ ^^^^ you, they J you, they J Вопросительная форма fl, we, youl Do [I, you, 1 Shall {I, we} write? they I \ J>write? Did !^^'^^^4 write? [he, she,] It, we, Ш ^ it, you, > write?

Does[f'̂ ^̂ ' Ithey J [they J

Отрицательная форма I, we,l you, \ do not write {I, we} shall not write I, he, she,l they it,we, [•did not write he, she,] it, you, I will not write he, she,l you, they J does not write they it J, § б. Порядок слов в утвердительном, вопросительном и отрицательном предложениях Отличительной чертой английского языка является твер­ дый порядок слов в предложении. В английском языке твер­ дый порядок слов имеет большое значение, так как он являет­ ся одним из основных способов выражения отношений между словами в предложении, члены которого часто определяются только по занимаемому ими месту в предложении. Порядок слов в утвердительном предложении таков: под­ лежащее, сказуемое, дополнение и обстоятельства (при нали­ чии косвенного дополнения оно стоит после прямого). Об­ стоятельства места и времени могут быть также и перед подлежащим. Определение, выраженное прилагательным или местоимением, всегда стоит перед определяемым им сущест­ вительным. Порядок слов в предложениях Вопро­ Вспомо­ сительное гательный Подле­жащее Сказуемое Допол­ нение Обстоятельство слово глагол My friend studies English at the institute, Does my friend study English at the institute? Where does my friend study EngHsh? My friend does not study English at the institute. В английском языке существуют два основных типа во­ просов: общие и специальные. Общиевопросытребуют ответа «да» или «нет» и начи­ наются с глаголов to have, to do, to be или модальных глаголов: Have you a dictionary? У тебя есть словарь? Yes, I have. No, I have not. Да, есть. Нет, нету. Are you busy now? Вы заняты сейчас? Yes, I am. No, I am not. Да, занят. Нет, не занят. Can you speak English? Вы умеете говорить по-анг­ лийски? Yes, I can. No, I cannot. Да, я умею. Нет, не умею. Do you study at the University? Вы учитесь в Университете? Yes, I do. No, I don't. Да, я учусь. Нет, я не учусь. Специальныевопросыставятся к какому-либо члену предложения и начинаются с вопросительного слова, who кто, whom кого, кому, whose чей\ what что, какой', which ко­ торый (из двух или нескольких); where куда, где; when когда; why почему; how как; how many, how much сколько. Специаль­ ные вопросы требуют полного ответа: Where do you study? Где вы учитесь? I study at the MSTU named Я учусь в МГТУ имени Бау­ after Bauman. мана. § 7. Основные формы глаголов В английском языке глаголы имеют четыре основные фор­ мы: 1) инфинитив, 2) прошедшее время, 3) причастие II, 4) причастие I. У правильных глаголов вторая и третья формы совпадают (оканчиваются на -ed). Каждый неправильный гла­ гол имеет свои формы Past Simple и причастия II, у отдельных глаголов вторая и третья формы иногда тоже совпадают, но не оканчиваются на -ed. Четвертая форма у всех без исключения глаголов образуется с помощью окончания -ing, прибавляе­ мого к основе глагола (инфинитив без частицы to). Основные формы глагола Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Participle I to use used used using to send sent sent sending § 8. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice) Страдательный залог в английском языке употребляется тогда, когда внимание говорящего сосредоточено не на субъ­ екте, а на объекте действия. Глагол в страдательном залоге по­ казывает, что подлежащее подвергается действию, а не само его выполняет. Сравните: Не translates а book. Он переводит книгу. The book is translated. Книгу переводят. Страдательный залог образуется с помощью вспомогатель­ ного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия II смыслового глагола, т. е. по формуле to be + Par­ ticiple П., The Passive Voice (Simple) Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple I am asked ^s&he^,\ It \J was asked I, we shall be asked !^^'S^^4 is asked It J he, she, i t , | ^th^e'yУ ^МJ were asked you, they J ^щ be asked they J Меня спрашивают Меня спрашивали Меня спросят Глагол в страдательном залоге можно переводить на рус­ ский язык тремя способами: 1) глаголом с окончанием -ся, -сь; 2) глаголом быть (в прошедшем и будущем времени) и краткой формой причастия; 3) неопределенно-личной формой глагола. При переводе следует выбирать тот способ, который луч­ ше всего подходит в каждом отдельном случае. Например: Present Many houses are built Много домов строится (строят) in this city. в этом городе. Past Many houses were built Много домов было построено last year. (построили, строилось). Future Many houses will be Много домов будет построено built soon. (будет строиться) скоро. § 9. Особенности перевода пассивной конструкции Следует помнить, что подлежащее в предложении с глаго­ лом в страдательном залоге переводится на русский язык ви­ нительным или дательным падежом: Не was sent to the library. Его послали в библиотеку. Не was sent а book. Ему послали книгу. § 10. Предлог (The Preposition) Предлоги — это служебные слова, которые указывают на связь существительных (или местоимений) с другими словами в предложении. Например:, We met at the door of my house. Мы встретились у двери моего дома (род. над.). По своей форме предлоги делятся на простые, сложные и составные. К простым предлогам относятся большей частью односложные предлоги, такие, как in, on, at, by, to, with, from и т.д. Сложные предлоги образуются путем сочетания двух слов: inside внутри, outside снаружи, throughout через, upon на, into в, out of из и т.д. Составные предлоги — это предлоги, представляющие в основном сочетание существительного, прилагательного, причастия или наречия с простыми предлогами или союзами: by means of с помощью, посредством; because of из-за; within внутри, в; instead of вместо; during в течение; in spite of не­ смотря на; in front of перед; in accordance with в соответствии с, согласно чему-либо; thanks to благодаря; owing to благодаря; according to в соответствии, no словам и т.д. У большинства предлогов есть свои конкретные значения, например: from от, из; under под; above над; after после; before перед, до; about о, около; on в, на; through через; towards к; round вокруг; without без и т.д. У некоторых предлогов (of, by, for, with и др.) значения конкретизируются только в контексте, например: Here's а letter for you. Вот письмо для тебя. She's been here for two weeks. Она находится здесь в течение двух недель. How much do they pay for the Сколько они платят за работу? work? They went out for a walk. Они пошли на прогулку. There is a man waiting for you. Тебя ждет какой-то человек. Хотя предлоги обычно ставятся перед существительными, в английском языке есть несколько конструкций, в которых предлог отделяется от того существительного, к которому он относится. Это происходит в следующих случаях: 1) в специальных вопросах: What are you looking at? Ha что ты смотришь? What is this article about? О чем эта статья? 2) в придаточных предложениях: I don't know what problems Я не знаю, с каких проблем they are going to begin with. они собираются начать., 3) в пассивных конструкциях: The laboratory assistant was sent for. 3a лаборантом послали. LESSON 2 § 11. Времена группы Continuous Времена группы Continuous образуются с помощью вспо­ могательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия I, т. е. по формуле to be + Participle I (-ing). The Continuous (Active) Present Past Future Утвердительная форма I am writing I, he, 1 ^' jshaUbe writing ?J^>shej is writing she, it J was writing wej He, she,1 Wê , you,l it, you, \ will be writing ^^ 'У«^4 are writing they theyJУJwere writing they Вопросительная форма Am I writing? [he,] Shall Я ' j be writing? Is «j she, }> writing? Was W^^i ] writing? [^ J [she, itj fhe, 1 she, [we,] Were |^^'У^^»1 writing? Are \ you } writing? [they J WiU^it, ^ be writing? you, [theyj ItheyJ Отрицательная форма I am not writing shaU not be writing He, she,| ^̂ ̂ ^^ writing weJ sIh e, .i tj\ was not writing He, 1 Ythe^y^ y ^ SJ are not writing? We., you,l she, I they were not writingУJit, } will not be writing you, theyj, Времена группы Continuous употребляются для выраже­ ния действия, происходящего в какой-то определенный мо­ мент времени в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем. Этот мо­ мент может подразумеваться из контекста или может быть обозначен либо конкретным указанием на время, например: в 10 часов, либо указанием на другое однократное действие, на­ пример: когда мы вошли, когда мы вернулись и т.д. В the Present Continuous момент может быть выражен сло­ вами now сейчас, at the present moment в настоящий момент, at this moment в этот момент. Например: They are doing grammar ехег- Они делают грамматические cises now. упражнения сейчас. They were doing grammar ехег- Они делали грамматические cises when he came in. упражнения, когда он вошел. They will be doing grammar ex- Они будут делать грамматиче- ercises at 10 o'clock tomorrow. ские упражнения завтра в де­ сять часов. Глаголы, выражающие чувства: to love любить, to like нра­ виться, to hate ненавидеть и т. п.; восприятия: to see видеть, to hear слушать, to feel чувствовать, to know знать, to remember помнить, to understand понимать и т. п.; a также глаголы to be­ long принадлежать, to contain содержать, to consist состоять, to possess обладать, как правило, в форме Continuous не упот­ ребляются. Например: Thank you, I feel much better Благодарю Вас, я чувствую се- now. бя гораздо лучше. На русский язык времена группы Continuous переводятся глаголами несовершенного вида настоящего, прошедшего или будущего времени. Длительный характер действия пере­ дается словами сейчас, в данный момент, в это время и т. п.: You can talk to him. He is not Вы можете поговорить с ним. working. Он не работает в данный мо­ мент. Не was getting ready for his fi- Он готовился к выпускным nal exam, when I came in. экзаменам, когда я пришел. She will be working at her arti- Завтра в это время она будет с1е at that time tomorrow. работать над своей статьей., The Continuous (The Passive) to be + being + Participle II I ami Present he, she, it -i- is > being written we, you, they are J I, he, she, it + was jijeijj^ written Past we, you, they werej В страдательном залоге the Future Continuous не употреб­ ляется. Три способа перевода страдательного залога (см. § 8) справедливы и для перевода времен группы Continuous, но последние переводятся глаголом несовершенного вида: The book is being read. Книгу читают. § 12. Фунюши и перевод it В предложении it может употребляться: 1) как личное местоимение в функциях подлежащего (именительный падеж) и дополнения (объектный падеж); пе­ реводится словами он, она или его, ее\ Take this book. Возьми эту книгу. It is interesting. Она интересная. Read it. Прочти ее. We shall speak about it next Мы поговорим о ней в следую- time. щий раз. 2) как указательное местоимение (переводится словом это): What is it? It is our new labora- Что это? Это наша новая лабо- tory. ратория. 3) как формальное (вводящее) подлежащее в выражениях типа It is cold. Холодно. It is getting dark. Темнеет. It is winter. Зима It is necessary to... Необходимо... It seems... Кажется... It is known that... Известно, что... В этих предложениях it не переводится., 4) в составе усилительной конструкции it is ...that (it не пе­ реводится): It is this book that I want to Именно эту книгу я хочу про- read. читать. 5) как формальное дополнение в выражениях типа make it possible делать возможным; make it difficult затруднять; findi t useful считать (находить) полезным (здесь it также не перево­ дится). § 13. Фун1щии и перевод one Слово one может быть: 1. Числительным. В этом случае one стоит перед существи­ тельным, является его определением и переводится словом один: I have only one dictionary. У меня есть только один сло­ варь. 2. Неопределенным местоимением. Тогда one употребля­ ется в качестве подлежащего в неопределенно-личных пред­ ложениях и на русский язык не переводится: One can read such a text with- Можно читать такой текст без out а dictionary. словаря. 3. Заменителем существительного. В этом случае one упот­ ребляется вместо ранее упомянутого существительного, что­ бы избежать его повторения. Перед словом-заменителем мо­ жет стоять артикль и оно может употребляться в форме множественного числа (ones). Переводится one тем существи­ тельным, которое заменяет, или не переводится вообще, на­ пример: You may take my dictionary Вы можете взять мой словарь (dictionaries). (словари). Thank you, I have one (ones). Спасибо, у меня есть словарь the one that Peter gave me yes- (словари), тот, который дал terday. мне вчера Петя. § 14. Функции и перевод that That может быть: 1. Указательным местоимением. В этом случае оно стоит перед существительным и является определением. Во множе­ ственном числе употребляется слово those. На русский язык, that (those) переводится словами тот, та, то (те)', этот, эта, это (эти): That house was built in 1970. Тот дом был построен в 1970 году. Сап you repeat all those ques- Можете вы повторить все те tions which the teacher asked? вопросы, которые задал пре­ подаватель? 2. Относительным местоимением. В этом случае that стоит после существительного, вводит определительное придаточ­ ное предложение и переводится словом который: The book that you gave me yes- Книга, которую вы мне вчера terday is interesting. дали, интересная. 3. Союзом дополнительного придаточного предложения. В этом случае that стоит после глагола и переводится на русский язык словом что: We know that he studies at the Мы знаем, что он учится в Moscow University. МГУ. 4. Союзом подлежащего придаточного предложения. В этом случае that стоит в начале предложения и переводится словами то, что: That the profession of an engi- To, что профессия инженера neer requires a special training требует специальной подго- is a well-known fact. товки — хорошо известно. 5. Союзом сказуемого придаточного предложения. В этом случае that стоит после глагола to be и переводится словами то, что: The feature of higher education Особенностью высшего обра- in this country is that it is avail- зования в нашей стране явля- able to all. ется то, что оно доступно всем. 6. Заменителем существительного, чтобы избежать по­ вторения существительного в единственном числе; чтобы не повторять существительное во множественном числе упот­ ребляются those и these. В этом случае обычно за этими слова­ ми следует дополнение с предлогом. That, those and these пе­ реводятся на русский язык тем существительным, которое они заменяют, или вовсе не переводятся: The climate of this part of the Климат этой части страны от- country differs from that of our личается от климата нашего region. района., 7. Частью усилительной конструкции it is (was) that, где that не переводится: It was you that said so. Это вы так сказали. It was the invention of the Именно изобретение парового steam engine that revolutionized двигателя коренным образом production processes. изменило все производствен­ ные процессы. § 15. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий (Comparison Degrees of Adjectives and Adverbs) Прилагательные в английском языке имеют три степени сравнения: положительную, сравнительную и превосходную. Сравнительная и превосходная степени образуются двумя способами: 1. Путем прибавления суффикса -ег в сравнительной сте­ пени и суффикса -est в превосходной степени к основе одно­ сложного прилагательного или наречия: Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная степень степень степень fast faster fastest быстрый, быстро более быстрый, быстрее самый быстрый, быстрее всего hot hotter hottest горячий, горячо более горячий, горячее самый горячий, горячее всего happy happier happiest счастливый счастливее самый счастливый large larger largest большой больший самый большой 2. С помощью слов тоге в сравнительной степени и most в превосходной степени перед многосложными прилагательны­ ми и наречиями: Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная степень степень степень difficult more difficult most difficult трудный более трудный самый трудный Некоторые прилагательные образуют степени сравнения не по общему правилу:, Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная степень степень степень good, well better best 1 хорошийу хорошлоу чший, лучше самый лучший, лучше всего bad, badly worse worst плохой, плохо худший, хуже самый худший, хуже всего little less least маленький, мало меньший, меньше самый маленький, меньше всего much, many тоге most много больше наибольший, больше всех far farther, further farthest (о расстоянии), furthest (о вре­ далекий, далеко более далекий, мени и расстоянии) дальше самый далекий, дальнейший, дальше всего near nearer nearest (о расстоянии), next (о порядке близкий, близко более близкий, следования) ближе ближайший, самый близкий, ближе всего late later latest (о времени), last (о порядке сле­ поздний, послед­ более поздний, дования) ний, поздно позже самый последний, поздний, позднее всего

LESSON 3

§ 16. Времена группы Perfect

Времена группы Perfect образуются с помощью вспомога­

тельного глагола to have в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия II смыслового глагола, т. е. по формуле: to have + Participle П. The Perfect (Active) Present Past Future Утвердительная форма I, we,] you, \ have written ^' i shall have written they J I, he, she 1 wej it, we, you, \ had written he, she,l he, 1 they J it, you, \ will have written she, \ has written they J 1" J, Present Past Future Вопросительная форма [I, we,] Have \ you \ written? Shall Я' 1 have written? [they J [I, he, 1 H^^jlshe,it [^;^tten? [he, she,] fhe, ] 1 we, you 1 Will \ it, you, > have written? Has \ she,} written? [they J [they J [it J Отрицательная форма I,we,j I, he, 1 '̂ i shall not have written you, } have not written ^^'^^ I had not written wej they J we, you he, 1 he, 1 they J she, 1 she, }> has not written it, !• will not have written you, \ ^ they Времена группы Perfect употребляются для выражения действия законченного, завершенного к какому-то моменту времени в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем. The Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, законченного к настоящему моменту и связанного с настоящим своим ре­ зультатом: I have read the book. Я прочитал эту книгу. Действие закончилось к настоящему моменту, и результат действия налицо (книга прочитана). The Present Perfect упот­ ребляется с наречиями неопределенного времени: today сего­ дня, this year в этом году, this week на этой неделе, already уже, always всегда, never никогда, so far до сих пор, ever когда-либо, just только что, often часто, not yet еще нет. Например: I have met him today. Я встретил его сегодня. The Past Perfect употребляется для выражения прошедше­ го действия, которое совершилось до определенного момента в прошлом. Этот момент может обозначаться: 1) обстоятельством времени с предлогом by к (by the begin­ ning of, by the end of the month, by 10 o'clock, etc.):, By the beginning of the lecture К началу лекции лаборант при­ the lab assistant had brought all нес все схемы. the diagrams. 2) другим (более поздним по времени) прошедшим дейст­ вием в Past Simple: They had translated the article Они уже перевели статью, ко- when he came. гда он пришел. The Future Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое будет закончено к какому-то моменту в будущем: I shall have done all my work by К семи часам я уже сделаю всю seven o'clock. свою работу. На русский язык времена группы Perfect переводятся гла­ голом совершенного вида. The Present и Past Perfect перево­ дятся глаголом, как правило, прошедшего времени, а the Fu­ ture Perfect — глаголом будущего времени. The Perfect (Passive) to have + been + Participle II Present I we you, they ^ have! ^^^^ ^^tten he, she, it has J I, he, she, it I had been written Past we, you, they J {I, we} + shaUl Future he, she, it \ have been written + wiU you, they J Три способа перевода страдательного залога справедливы и для перевода времен группы Perfect. Однако последние, как правило, переводятся глаголом совершенного вида: The work will have been К концу недели работа будет finished by the end of the week, закончена., § 17. Соответствие английских временных форм временным формам глагола в русском языке Русский язык Английский язык Примеры They play tennis on Sunday. Present Simple Они играют в теннис по воскресеньям. Настоящее They are playing tennis now. Present Continuous Они играют в теннис сейчас. 1 время They have lived in this town for ten Present Perfect years. Они живут в этом городе 10 лет. They played tennis last Sunday. Past Simple Они играли в теннис в прошлое вос­ кресенье. They were playing tennis at 10 o'clock last Sunday. Past Continuous В прошлое воскресенье в десять часов Прошедшее они играли в теннис. время They have akeady played tennis today. Present Perfect Они сегодня уже играли в теннис. They had played tennis before we re­ turned. Past Perfect Они играли в теннис до того, как мы вернулись. They will play tennis tomorrow. Future Simple Они будут играть в теннис завтра. They will be playing tennis at this time tomorrow. Будущее Future Continuous Завтра в это время они будут играть время в теннис. They will have played tennis by the time we return home. Future Perfect Они уже сыграют в теннис, когда мы 1 вернемся домой., оо § 18. Сводная таблица образования и употребления времен (изъявительное наклонение) Active Voice to ask Simple to ask Continuous to be asking Perfect to have asked Present Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future asks msked skkaaU \ skali ] wUl Г is ) asking , I asking will j be asking have asked had asked shaU 1 has ^ wUl \ have asked are J Passive Voice to be asked Simple to be asked Continuous to be being asked Perfect to have been asked Present Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future asked ,} asked shaU 1 wiU , be asked] b \ being asked .} beinga sked have has been asked had been asked ShaU will I have beat asked] \are j are j Употребление Действие как факт (обычное, постоян­ Действие как процесс (незаконченное, длящееся) Действие, предшествующее какому-то моменту, свя­ ное, повторяющееся) занное с ним результатом usually, ev­ yesterday, last tomorrow, next at 4 o'clock, from 6 o'clock till 7 today, this week, by 4 o'clock ery day, of­ week, 5 days week o'clock already, ever, .. when Bob came back . ten, seldom, ago ... when Bob came ... never, just, not sometimes yet, LESSON 4 § 19. Согласование времен (Sequence of Tenses) В английском языке существует правило согласования вре­ мен. Оно касается дополнительных придаточных предложений и заключается в том, что глагол-сказуемое придаточного пред­ ложения согласуется во времени с глаголом-сказуемым главно­ го предложения. Это согласование выражается в следующем. 1. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в на­ стоящем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного предло­ жения может стоять в любом требуемом по смыслу времени: We know that he works hard. Мы знаем, что он много рабо­ тает. We know that he worked hard Мы знаем, что он много рабо- yesterday. тал вчера. We know that he will work Мы знаем, что он будет много hard tomorrow. работать завтра. 2. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в про­ шедшем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного предложения также должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен, а именно: а) если действие, выраженное глаголом-сказуемым прида­ точного предложения совпадает по времени с действием, вы­ раженным глаголом-сказуемым главного предложения, то в придаточном предложении он употребляется в the Past Simple или в the Past Continuous и переводится на русский язык гла­ голом в настоящем времени: Wx̂re ,k new t^hua t^ иh e worked haWe knew that he was work1i • r d. jМ, . ng ы знали, что он много ^р а ^б о- hard. •^»«^- б) если действие, выраженное глаголом-сказуемым прида­ точного предложения, предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым главного предложения, то в придаточном предложении глагол-сказуемое стоит в the Past Perfect и пе­ реводится на русский язык глаголом прошедшего времени: We knew that he had worked Мы знали, что он много рабо- hard. тал. в) если действие, выраженное глаголом-сказуемым прида­ точного предложения, является будущим по отношению к действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым главного пред­ ложения, то в придаточном предложении употребляется гла­ гол в the Future in the Past (будуш^ее в прошедшем). Это время, употребляется только при согласовании времен и переводится на русский язык глаголом будущего времени. The Future in the Past образуется с помощью вспомогательных глаголов should для 1-го лица единственного и множественного числа и would для 2-го и 3-го лица единственного и множественного числа и инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to: We knew that he would work Мы знали, что он будет много pa- hard tomorrow. ботать завтра. Правила согласования времен соблюдаются при переводе предложений из прямой речи в косвенную: She says, «I work today». Она говорит: «Я работаю сегодня». She says that she works today. Она говорит, что она работает се­ годня. She said, «I work today». Она сказала: «Я работаю сегодня». She said that she worked that Она сказала, что она работает се- day. годня. Предложения, выражающие общий вопрос в прямой речи, в косвенную вводятся союзом whether или if ли: Не asked me, «Do you speak Он спросил меня: «Вы говорите Enghsh?» по-английски?» Не asked me whether (if) I Он спросил меня, говорю ли я spoke EngHsh. по-английски. § 20. Согласование времен { he works (is workiiig) работает (одновременное действие) Не says (that) \ ^^ '^""^ ^^'^ ^'"^^^ ^^"^ I (предшествующее действие) he wffl work (will be working) будет работать (будущее действие) f he worked (was working) работает (одновременное действие) He said (that) | he had worked работал I (предшествующее действие) he would work (would be working) будет работать [ (будущее действие), § 21. Дополнение (The Object) В английском языке различают прямое (отвечает на вопро­ сы кого! что!), косвенное (кому! нему!) и предложное (с кем! для кого! о чем!) дополнения. Прямое дополнение в английском языке соответствует в русском языке дополнению, выраженному существительным или местоимением в винительном падеже без предлога: Ann met а friend. Аня встретила друга. We saw him yesterday. Мы видели его вчера. The engineer stopped the machine. Инженер остановил механизм. Косвенное дополнение в английском языке выражается именем существительным в общем падеже или местоимением в объектном падеже, которые соответствуют русским именам существительным или местоимениям в дательном падеже. Косвенное дополнение не употребляется без прямого допол­ нения и всегда стоит перед ним. John sent the manager a report. Джон послал менеджеру доклад. Mother bought us new books. Мама купила нам новые книги. Предложное дополнение выражается сочетанием предлога с существительным или местоимением: The teacher read а story to the Учитель прочитал рассказ де- children. тям. We spoke about him (to him). Мы говорим о нем (с ним). Местоимение it в функции дополнения употребляется в сочетании с прилагательными после глаголов make, find, think, consider и др. В этом случае местоимение it на русский язык не переводится. make it possible делать возможным, давать воз­ можность make it difficult (easy) затруднять (облегчать) No one thought (found, consid- Никто не считал нужным об- ered) it necessary to discuss the суждать проблему сейчас, problem now. LESSON 5 § 22. Определение (The Attribute) Определение обычно относится к существительному. Оно может быть расположено перед определяемым существитель-, ным или после него. Определение отвечает на вопросы what? what kind? какой, whose? чей, which? какой, который? ж др. Определение может быть выражено: 1) прилагательным а difficult work трудная работа Многосложные прилагательные типа available, necessary, possi­ ble, reliable и т. д. могут стоять и после определяемого существи­ тельного: books avaUable in this li- книги, имеющиеся в этой биб- brary лиотеке 2) местоимением his book его книга some students некоторые студенты at that time в то время 3) числительным (количественным и порядковым) several thousand students несколько тысяч студентов the first locomotive in Rus- первый паровоз в России sia 4) существительным в притяжательном падеже the professor's lecture лекция профессора the students' notes записи студентов 5) существительным в общем падеже а football match футбольный матч Особенностью английского языка является частое упот­ ребление существительного перед другим существительным в качестве определения к нему. Функция такого существитель­ ного в предложении зависит только от его места перед суще­ ствительным: а test instrument испытательный прибор instrument test испытание прибора Существительное в общем падеже в функции определения переводится на русский язык прилагательным, существитель­ ным в родительном падеже или причастным оборотом. 6) существительным с предлогом the building of the institute здание института the train from Moscow поезд из Москвы the text book for beginners учебник для начинающих the method in use используемый метод, 7) существительным-приложением, поясняющим стоящее перед ним существительное The Cherepanovs, the inven­ Черепановы, изобретатели tors of the first Russian loco­ первого русского паровоза, motive, were workers. были рабочими. We must translate this article Мы должны перевести эту ста­ by the end of the week, which тью к концу недели, что явля­ is not an easy task. ется нелегкой задачей. 8) причастием (Participle I или Participle II), которое может стоять как перед определяемым существительным, так и по­ сле него а fast running taxi быстромчащееся такси students going to the Univer­ студенты, которые идут (иду­ sity щие) в Университет illustrated journal иллюстрированный журнал the book translated in 1980 книга, переведенная в 1980 году 9) герундием a way of reading манера чтения the possibility of using возможность использования 10) инфинитивом an article to translate статья для перевода И) определительным придаточным предложением, кото­ рое присоединяется к главному предложению при помощи союзных слов who который; whom которого; whose чей, кото­ рого; when когда; where куда, где; why почему или бессоюзным способом I have read the article which you recommended. Я прочел статью, ко­ I have read the article you recom­ торую вы рекомендо­ mended. вали. The town in which I live is not far from Moscow. The town which I live in is not far Город, в котором я жи­ from Moscow. ву, (находится) неда­ The town I live in is not far from леко от Москвы. Moscow., § 23. Неопределенные местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные Местоимение some и его производные (somebody, someone, something) употребляются в утвердительных предложениях, any и его производные (anybody, anyone, anything) — в вопроситель­ ных и отрицательных предложениях, а по и его производные (nobody, по one, nothing) — в отрицательных предложениях (в по­ следнем случае глагол-сказуемое стоит в утвердительной форме). Сложные местоимения, в состав которых входит body или one, употребляются только в отношении лиц, а сложные ме­ стоимения, в состав которых входит thing, — в отношении не­ одушевленных предметов. Any и его производные в утвердительном предложении имеют значение любой: Which journal do you want? Какой журнал вам нужен? Any will do. Любой подойдет. Употребление местоимений some, any, no, every Тип предложения Местоимение Перевод some некоторый, несколько, какой-то somebody, someone кто-то something что-то somewhere где-то Утвердительное every каждый, всякий everybody, everyone всякий, каждый, все everything все everywhere везде, всюду any какой-нибудь anybody, anyone кто-нибудь Вопросительное anything что-нибудь anywhere где-нибудь no никакой nobody, no one никто Отрицательное nothing ничего nowhere нигде LESSON 6 § 24. Модальные глаголы (The Modal Verbs) Модальные глаголы выражают не само действие или со­ стояние, а отношение к ним со стороны говорящего. С помо-, щью модальных глаголов можно показать, что действие воз­ можно или невозможно, обязательно или не нужно, вероятно или неправдоподобно, желательно и т.д. Модальными явля­ ются глаголы сап, may, must, ought, should, would, need. Особенностью модальных глаголов является то, что они: 1) не имеют полного самостоятельного значения и упот­ ребляются в сочетании с инфинитивом смыслового глагола (без частицы to); 2) не имеют инфинитива, причастия, герундия; 3) не имеют окончания -s в 3-м лице единственного числа настоящего времени; 4) не имеют формы прошедшего времени, кроме сап и may (could, might), и будущего времени; 5) образуют вопросительную и отрицательную формы без вспомогательного глагола to do: May I take your dictionary? He cannot drive a car. Рассмотрим примеры употребления модальных глаголов. Can Глагол can имеет значение мочь, обладать физической или умственной способностью: сап (настоящее время) могу, мо­ жет, можем и т.д.; could (прошедшее время) мог, могла, могло и т.д. Например: Even а child can lift it. Даже ребенок может поднять это (это легко сделать). Сап you speak English? Вы можете говорить по-анг­ лийски? Сочетание to be able быть в состоянии с последующим ин­ финитивом с частицей to является эквивалентом глагола сап и восполняет его недостающие формы: We shall be able to do it Мы сможем сделать это только only tomorrow. завтра. May Глагол may имеет значения разрешения и возможности: may (настоящее время) могу, может, можем и т.д.; might (про­ шедшее время) мог, могли и т.д. Например: May I come in? Можно мне войти?, Не may be at home. Он, может быть, дома Сочетания to be allowed и to be permitted с последующим инфинитивом с частицей to являются эквивалентом глагола may и восполняют его недостающие формы в значении мочь, иметь разрешение: Не was allowed to come in. Ему разрешили войти. Must Глагол must выражает необходимость, моральную обязан­ ность и соответствует в русском языке словам должен, нуж­ но, надо. Глагол must имеет только одну форму настоящего времени: You must do it yourself. Вы должны это сделать. Наряду с глаголом must и взамен его недостающих форм употребляются его эквиваленты to have (должен в силу об­ стоятельств) и to be (должен в силу запланированности, наме- ченности действия), а следующий за ними инфинитив имеет частицу to: It was raining heavily and we Шел сильный дождь, и мы had to stay at home. должны были остаться дома. Не is to take his exam in Он должен сдавать этот экза- June. мен в июне. Ought Глагол ought выражает моральный долг, желательность действия, относящиеся к настоящему и будущему времени. На русский язык ought переводится словами следовало бы, сле­ дует, должен. После ought инфинитив всегда употребляется с частицей to: You ought to see a doctor. Тебе следовало бы обратиться к врачу. Should Глагол should в качестве модального глагола выражает обя­ занность, желательность действия, совет, рекомендацию. На русский язык should переводится как следует, должен, обязан: You should know about it. Вам следует знать об этом., Would Глагол would в качестве модального глагола может выра­ жать: а) обычные и повторяющиеся действия в прошлом (в этом значении он является синонимом выражению used to): Не would spend hours in the Он обычно проводил многие Tretyakov Gallery. часы в Третьяковской галерее. Не used to spend hours in the Он любил проводить многие Tretyakov Gallery. часы в Третьяковской галерее. б) упорное нежелание выполнить какое-то действие: I asked him to do it but he Я попросил его сделать это, но wouldn't. он ни за что не хотел. в) присущее свойство, характеристику (часто встречается в технической литературе): Paper would bum. Бумага хорошо горит. Need Need может употребляться как модальный глагол и как правильный глагол. Как модальный глагол need имеет только одну форму. Он в основном употребляется в отрицательных предложениях: You needn't come here to- Тебе не нужно приходить сюда day. сегодня. § 25. Функции глагола to be Функция Пример Перевод Смысловой глагол The book is on the ta­ Книга находится на (be + предлог + сущест­ ble. столе. вительное) This problem is of Эта проблема имеет great importance. огромное значение. Глагол-связка He is a student. Он — студент. (be + существительное The speed of an elec­ Скорость электромо­ или прилагательное) tric car was not high. биля была невысокая. The speed of an elec­ Скорость электромо­ tric car is about биля составляет 60 km/h. 60 км/ч., функция Пример Перевод Вспомогательный глагол: Continuous Tenses He is writing a new Сейчас он пишет но­ (be + Participle I) article now. вую статью. Passive Voice The article is written Статья написана на­ (be + Participle II) by our professor. шим профессором. Модальный глагол He is to come to the Он должен прийти в ла­ (be + инфинитив lab at 10 o'clock. бораторию в 10 часов. j с частицей to) § 26. Функции глагола to have Функция Пример Перевод Смысловой глагол These laboratories Эти лаборатории имеют (have + существи­ have modem equip­ современное оборудова­ тельное) ment. ние. Вспомогательный гла­ These laboratories have Эти лаборатории закупи­ гол (have + Participle bought modem equip­ ли современное оборудо­ П) ment. вание. Модальный глагол These laboratories Эти лаборатории должны (have + инфинитив have to buy modem закупить современное с частицей to) equipment. оборудование.

LESSON 7

§ 27. Причастие (The Participle)

Причастие является неличной формой глагола, которая

обладает свойствами глагола, прилагательного и наречия. По­ добно прилагательному, причастие может быть определением к существительному или именной частью составного сказуе­ мого: а broken cup разбитая чашка а cup was broken чашка была разбита, Подобно наречию, причастие может быть обстоятельст­ вом, характеризующим действие, выраженное сказуемым: Reading the text he wrote out Читая текст, new words. он выписывал новые слова. Подобно глаголу, причастие имеет видовременные и зало­ говые формы, может иметь прямое дополнение и определять­ ся наречием. В английском языке существует два вида при­ частий: ParticipleIиParticiple II. Participle t образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к основе глагола: to speak — speaking, to stop — stopping, to begin — beginning, to travel — travelling, to drive — driving, to lie — lying. Participle II правильных глаголов образуется путем добав­ ления окончания -ed к основе глагола: to ask — asked, to train — trained. Participle II неправильных глаголов образуется особыми способами; это третья форма неправильных глаголов: to give — given, to build — built. Bee другие сложные формы Participle I образуются с помо­ щью вспомогательных глаголов to be или to have и Participle II смыслового глагола. Формы причастий Participles Active Passive Participle I developing being developed Participle П developed Perfect Participle having developed having been developed § 28. Функции причастия в предложении. Основные способы перевода Причастие выполняет две функции в предложении — оп­ ределения и обстоятельства. 1. Причастие в функции определения может занимать ме­ сто перед определяемым существительным или после него. В этом случае Participle I обычно переводится на русский язык причастием действительного залога настоящего или прошед­ шего времени, оканчивающимся на -ущий, -ющий, -ащий, 'Ящий, 'вший:, The waiting man is in the library. Ожидающий человек — в биб­ лиотеке. The man waiting for you has Человек, ожидающий вас, при- come from Moscow. ехал из Москвы. The man waiting for you asked Человек, ждавший вас, спра- for your telephone number. шивал ваш номер телефона. Сложная форма Participle I пассивного залога в функции определения (после существительного) может переводиться также придаточным определительным предложением: The house being built in this Дом, который строится (строя- street now will be a new library, щийся) сейчас на этой улице, будет новой библиотекой. Participle II в функции определения (перед или после су­ ществительного) переводится на русский язык страдательным причастием настоящего или прошедшего времени, оканчи­ вающимся на -емый, -имый, -нный, или придаточным опреде­ лительным предложением: The discussed problems are in- Обсуждаемые проблемы инте- teresting. ресны. The problems discussed at the Проблемы, обсуждаемые (кото- conference are interesting. рые обсуждаются) на конферен­ ции, интересны. The problems discussed at the Проблемы, обсужденные (кото- last conference were interesting, рые обсуждались) на последней конференции, были интересны. They spoke of the problems dis- Они говорили об обсуждаемых cussed. проблемах. 2. Причастие в функции обстоятельства обычно стоит в са­ мом начале предложения, т. е. предшествует подлежащему, или следует за группой сказуемого. В этом случае причастие может выполнять функцию обстоятельства времени, причи­ ны, условия и т.д. В этой функции причастию могут предше­ ствовать союзы when, while, if, unless, once, though и т.д. При­ частие (с союзом или без него) переводится на русский язык или полным придаточным предложением времени, причины, условия, или деепричастием, оканчивающимся на -я, -в, или существительным с предлогом при: While reading this book I met Читая (при чтении) эту книгу, я many new facts. встретил много новых фактов., Crossing the street first look to Переходя улицу, посмотрите the left. сначала налево. When crossing the street, first Когда переходите (при переходе) look to the left. улицу, посмотрите сначала на­ лево. Being heated magnetised mate­ Если нагревать (при нагреве) на­ rials lose their magnetism. магниченные материалы, они размагничиваются. Having finished the test he put Закончив испытание, он записал down the results. результаты. When (if) insulated, the wire Когда (если) провод изолирован may be used as a conductor. (при изоляции), его можно ис­ пользовать в качестве провод­ ника. The motor gets overheated, un­ Мотор перегревается, если его less cooled. не охлаждать. Сопоставление перевода причастий в функции определения и обстоятельства Participle I Participle II В функции определения А lot of students from developing Some American countries get help countries (из развивающихся from developed countries (из разви­ стран) study in this country. тых стран). An electric car developing the speed The mechanism developed in our lab­ of 50 km/h (развивающий скорость oratory (разработанный в нашей 50 км/ч) is being designed. лаборатории) is mass-produced. The device being developed (разра­ The method developed (разработан­ батываемый, который разрабаты­ ный метод) provided good results. вается) will be tested at the plant. В функции обстоятельства (While, when) developing (Разраба­ (When, if) developed (Когда (если) тывая, Когда Белл разрабатывал) будут разработаны. При удачной transmitter for deaf people Bell in­ разработке) successfully, space plat­ vented the telephone. forms may be very useful for national Being developed (Когда будет разра­ economy. ботан), a new supercomputer will be very powerful., § 29. Независимый причастный оборот Независимый причастный оборот — это сочетание сущест­ вительного в общем падеже (или местоимения в именитель­ ном падеже) с Participle I или Participle II, в котором сущест­ вительное (или местоимение) выполняет роль подлежащего по отношению к причастию и не является подлежащим всего предложения. Такой оборот логически связан с предложени­ ем и по существу является его обстоятельством. Подобно об­ стоятельству, независимый причастный оборот может пред­ шествовать подлежащему, т. е. стоять в начале предложения или следовать за группой сказуемого в конце предложения. Этот оборот всегда отделяется запятой от остальной части предложения. В начале предложения в функции обстоятельства на рус­ ский язык этот оборот переводится, как правило, придаточ­ ным предложением причины, времени, условия с союзами так как, когда, если и др.: The weather being fine, we went Так как погода была хорошая, for а walk. мы пошли погулять. Weather permitting, the airplane Когда погода позволит, само- will fly. лет вылетит. В конце предложения независимый причастный оборот переводится на русский язык чаще всего самостоятельными предложениями или присоединяется союзами а, и, причем: The cars at that time were very Автомобили в то время были small, the engine being placed очень маленькими, (и) двига- under the seat. тель размещался под сиденьем. Некоторые независимые причастные обороты, начинаю­ щиеся предлогом with, переводятся так же, как и независимые причастные обороты без предлога with: With supersonic planes flying at a Когда сверхзвуковые самолеты speed Ave to six times above the будут летать со скоростью, в speed of sound, it will be possible 5—6 раз превышающей ско- to cover the distance between рость звука, можно будет про- Токуо and Moscow in less than летать расстояние между То- two hours. кио и Москвой меньше, чем за два часа. The article deals with micro- Статья посвящена микровол- waves, with particular attention нам, (причем) особое внимание being paid to radio location. уделено радиолокации., LESSON 8 § 30. Герундий (The Gerund) Герундий — это неличная форма глагола, обладающая свойствами как существительного, так и глагола. Герундий выражает действие, представляя его как назва­ ние процесса. Герундий образуется путем прибавления окон­ чания -ing к основе глагола. В русском языке нет формы гла­ гола, соответствующей английскому герундию. Подобно существительному, герундий может быть в предложении под­ лежащим, частью сказуемого, прямым дополнением; перед ним может стоять предлог в функции определения или об­ стоятельства и, наконец, герундий может иметь в качестве оп­ ределения существительное в притяжательном или общем па­ деже или притяжательное местоимение. Подобно глаголу герундий имеет видовременные и залого­ вые формы, прямое дополнение и может определяться об­ стоятельством, выраженным наречием. В предложении The energy of body is its capacity Энергия тела — это его спо- for doing work. собность совершать работу. герундий doing выполняет функцию определения существитель­ ного capacity (именное свойство герундия) и в то же время име­ ет прямое дополнение work (глагольное свойство герундия). Формы герундия Tense Active Passive Simple driving being driven Perfect having driven having been driven Функции герундия Герундий может выполнять в предложении следующие функции: 1) подлежащего Reading English is necessary for Чтение (читать) по-английски every engineer. необходимо каждому инженеру. His having read that article To, что он прочел эту статью, helped him with his term work. помогло ему с курсовой рабо­ той., в функции подлежащего герундий переводится на русский язык существительным или неопределенной формой глагола, прида­ точным предложением, если перед герундием стоят определяю­ щие его слова. 2) части составного сказуемого His favourite occupation is Его любимое занятие — чтение reading. (читать). В функции именной части составного сказуемого герундий пе­ реводится на русский язык существительным или неопределен­ ной формой глагола. 3) прямого и предложного дополнения Не likes reading. Он любит чтение (читать). В функции прямого и предложного дополнения герундий пере­ водится на русский язык существительным или неопределенной формой глагола. В функции предложного дополнения герундий обычно употребляется после глаголов с послелогами to depend on зави­ сеть от, to insist on настаивать на, to agree to соглашаться, to object to возражать против, to think of думать о, to succeed in удаваться, to prevent from мешать и т. д.: Не thinks of reading his report at Он думает прочитать свой док- the next conference. лад на следующей конферен­ ции. 4) обстоятельства On (after) reading the article he После чтения (прочитав ста- made а short summary of it. тью), он кратко изложил ее со­ держание. By reading much we learn much. Много читая, мы многое уз­ наем. Перед герундием в функции обстоятельства всегда стоит один из следующих предлогов: after, before, on, at, in, for, by, without и др. В этой функции герундий обычно переводится существи­ тельным с предлогом или деепричастием несовершенного или совершенного вида. 5) определения I Ике his way of reading. Мне нравится его манера чи­ тать (чтения). Г т glad to have the opportunity Я рад возможности прочитать of reading this book. эту книгу., ... а means of doing work. ... средство для выполнения ра­ боты. Герундию в функции определения обычно предшествует пред­ лог of (иногда for). В этой функции герундий переводится на русский язык существительным в родительном падеже, сущест­ вительным с предлогом или неопределенной формой глагола. Герундий с последующим существительным указывает на назначение предмета, отвечает на вопросы для чего?, для какой цели? VI переводится либо существительным в именительном или родительном падежах, либо прилагательным: reading hall читальный зал writing paper почтовая бумага, писчая бума­ га, бумага для письма. Герундиальный оборот Герундиальный оборот — это сочетание притяжательного местоимения или существительного в притяжательном или общем падеже с герундием. Такой оборот переводится обычно придаточным предложением: We knew of his having read his Мы знали, что он прочитал report at the conference. свой доклад на конференции. We know of the earth behaving as Мы знаем, что земля ведет се­ a large magnet. бя как большой магнит. We knew of Newton's having Мы знаем, что Ньютон напи­ written «the Principia» in a very сал «Начала» за очень корот­ short time. кое время. Фунгадии герундия и причастия Синтаксическая функция Герундий Причастие Подлежащее Driving а саг is а profession Сказуемое His hobby is driving He is driving to Kiev now Дополнение He writes articles about driving Определение His plan of driving to Kiev The man driving a car is our is not good chief engineer Обстоятельство Before driving a car one Driving a car one must be must leam to do it properly very attentive, LESSON 9 § 31. Условные придаточные предложения (Conditional Sentences) Условные придаточные предложения присоединяются к главному предложению следующими союзами: if если, unless если не, provided (that), providing (that) при условии, что; при ус­ ловии, если. Различают три типа условных придаточных пред­ ложений. 1. Условные предложения первого типа (реальные) выра­ жают вероятные (осуществимые) предположения, относя­ щиеся к настоящему, прошедшему и будущему времени. В этом случае сказуемые главного и придаточного предложений выражаются глаголами в изъявительном наклонении: If I come earlier, I'll have time Если я приду пораньше, у меня to read. будет время почитать. (В английском языке в условном предложении первого типа употребляется настоящее время для выражения значения буду­ щего действия.) If I come late, I have no time to Если я прихожу поздно, у меня read. нет времени почитать. If I came late, I had no time to Если я приходил поздно, у ме- read. ня не было времени почитать. 2. Условные предложения второго типа (маловероятные) выражают маловероятные предположения, относящиеся к на­ стоящему или будущему времени. В этом случае сказуемыеивглавном, и в придаточном предложениях употребляются в со­ слагательном наклонении, т. е. в условном предложении ис­ пользуется либо were для глагола to be для всех лиц и чисел, либо форма, совпадающая с Past Simple, для всех других гла­ голов. В главном предложении употребляется сочетание should + Infinitive без частицы to для 1-го лица единственного и множественного числа и would + Simple Infinitive для осталь­ ных лиц. В современном английском языке сочетание would + + Simple Infinitive употребляетсяис1-м лицом единственного и множественного лица, как бы вытесняя глагол should. Раз­ личие между ними исчезает совсем, когда в разговорной речи should, would сокращаются до d: If I were free (today, tomor- Если бы я был свободен, я бы row), I should gb to the cinema, пошел в кино (сегодня, завтра)., If they had a car, they would go Если бы у них был автомобиль, to the country. они бы поехали за город. 3. Условные предложения третьего типа (нереальные) вы­ ражают неосуществимые предположения, относящиеся к про­ шедшему времени. В этом случае в условном придаточном предложении используются формы, совпадающие с Past Per­ fect, а в главном — сочетание should/would + Perfect Infinitive без частицы to: If I had been here yesterday, I Если бы я был здесь вчера, я should have helped you. бы помог вам. Второй и третий типы условных предложений, как относя­ щиеся к настоящему и будущему времени, так и относящиеся к прошедшему времени, переводятся на русский язык одина­ ково, так как в русском языке существует только одна форма сослагательного наклонения — форма прошедшего времени глагола в сочетании с частицей бы. Эта форма в русском языке употребляется как в главном, такивпридаточном предложе­ ниях. Ниже для сравнения приведены условные предложения трех типов: If we are free (today, tomorrow). Если мы будем свободны, мы we shall go to the cinema. пойдем в кино (сегодня, зав­ тра). If we were free (today, tomor- Если бы мы были свободны, row), we should go to the cin- мы бы пошли в кино (сегодня, ema. завтра). If we had been free (yesterday), Если бы мы были свободны, we should have gone to the cin- мы бы пошли в кино (вчера), ema. В условных предложениях второго и третьего типов союзы provided, if могут отсутствовать. В этом случае в условном предложении глаголы were, had, should ставятся перед подле­ жащим: Were I you, I should not do it. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы не делал этого. Had he been here, he would Если бы он был здесь, он бы have helped you. помог вам. Should the temperature drop. Если бы температура понизи- the metal would set. лась, металл бы затвердел., LESSON 10 § 32. Инфинитив (The Infinitive) Инфинитив представляет собой основу глагола, которой обычно предшествует частица to, и относится к его неличным формам. Формы инфинитива Tense Active Passive Simple to help to be helped Continuous to be helping Perfect to have helped to have been helped 1. The Simple Infinitive Active и Passive употребляется для выражения действия, одновременного с действием, обозна­ ченным глаголом-сказуемым в предложении, в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени: I am glad to help him, Я рад помочь ему. I was glad to help him. Я был рад помочь ему. I'll be glad to help him. Я буду рад помочь ему. I am glad to be helped. Я рад, что мне помогают. 2. The Continuous Infinitive Active употребляется для выра­ жения действия в процессе его развертывания, происходяще­ го одновременно с действием, обозначенным глаголом-ска­ зуемым в предложении: I am glad to be helping him. Я рад, что сейчас помогаю ему. It was pleasant to be helping him Было приятно снова помогать again. ему. 3. The Perfect Infinitive Active и Passive употребляется для выражения действия, которое предшествует действию, обо­ значенному глаголом-сказуемым в предложении: I am glad to have helped him. Я рад, что помог ему. I am glad to have been helped. Я рад, что мне помогли. Фун1щии инфинитива Инфинитив может выполнять в предложении следующие функции:, 1) подлежащего То translate such an article with­ Переводить (перевод) такую out a dictionary is difficult. статью без словаря трудно. To work with computer was new Работать (работа) с компьюте­ to many of us. ром было новым для нас. В этом случае инфинитив стоит в самом начале предложения во главе группы слов перед сказуемым. Инфинитив в функции подлежащего можно переводить как неопределенной формой глагола, так и отглагольным существительным. 2) обстоятельства цели То translate such an article with­ Чтобы переводить такую статью out a dictionary, you must know без словаря, вы должны хорошо EngUsh well. знать английский язык. One must work hard to master a Нужно много работать, чтобы foreign language. овладеть иностранным языком. To increase the speed, the de­ Чтобы увеличить скорость, signers have to improve the air­ конструкторы должны улуч­ craft shape and engine efficiency. шить форму самолета и КПД (эффективность) двигателя. Once a week a student of Cam­ Раз в неделю студент Кем­ bridge is to go to his tutor to dis­ бриджа должен встретиться со cuss his work. своим наставником, чтобы об­ судить свою работу. В этом случае инфинитив может стоять как в самом начале предложения перед подлежащим, такивконце предложения. В функции обстоятельства цели инфинитиву могут предшество­ вать союзы in order to, so as чтобы, для того чтобы, 3) части сказуемого (простого и составного) Our aim is to translate technical Наша цель — переводить (пе- articles without a dictionary. ревод) технические статьи без словаря. He can translate this article Он может переводить такую without a dictionary. статью без словаря. He will translate the article next Он будет переводить (переве­ week. дет) эту статью на следующей неделе. В этом случае инфинитив стоит либо после глагола to be, либо после модальных глаголов, либо после вспомогательных глаго­ лов., 4) дополнения Не doesn't like to translate OH не любит переводить тех­ technical articles. нические статьи. The article was not difficult to Эту статью было нетрудно пе­ translate. реводить. I am glad to have spoken to our Я рад (а), что поговорил (а) с на­ lecturer about my work. шим лектором о моей работе. В этом случае инфинитив стоит после глагола или прилагатель­ ного. 5) определения Не was the first to translate this Он первым перевел эту статью, article. В этой функции инфинитив стоит после слов the first, the sec­ ond, the last и т. д. или после существительного. После существительного инфинитив чаще всего стоит в пассивной форме, обычно имеет модальное значение и выра­ жает действие, которое должно произойти в будущем. В этом случае инфинитив переводится определительным придаточ­ ным предложением: Не gave me some articles to OH дал мне несколько статей, translate. которые нужно было перевести (для перевода). Here is the article to be trans­ Вот статья, которую нужно пе­ lated. ревести. Here is the article to translate. Вот статья для перевода. Gagarin was thef irstt o orbit the Гагарин первый облетел Землю. Earth. The device to be tested has been Прибор, который будет (дол­ made in our lab. жен) испытываться, сделан в нашей лаборатории. § 33. Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом for Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом for представляет со­ бой сочетание предлога for с существительным в общем паде­ же или местоимением в объектном падеже и инфинитива. Ин­ финитив показывает, какое действие должно быть совершено лицом, обозначенным существительным или местоимением. Этот оборот переводится на русский язык придаточным пред­ ложением обычно с союзом что, чтобы: Не waited for her to speak. Он ждал, что она заговорит., We stopped for them to pass by. Мы остановились, чтобы они могли пройти. It is difficult for students to leam Студентам трудно выучить FORTRAN. FORTRAN. LESSON 11 § 34. Инфинитив как часть сложного дополнения (The Complex Object) В английском языке суждение, мнение, предположение о чем-то или о ком-то можно выразить двумя способами: 1) сложноподчиненным предложением с дополнительным придаточным предложением We know that Professor V. is a Мы знаем, что профессор В. good specialist in this field. хороший специалист в этой об­ ласти. 2) простым предложением со сложным дополнением, которое представляет собой сочетание существительного (в общем падеже) или местоимения (в объектном падеже) с инфинитивом. На русский язык сложное дополнение с ин­ финитивом переводится точно так же, как и сложноподчи­ ненное предложение с дополнительным придаточным пред­ ложением We know Professor V. (him) to Мы знаем, что профессор В. be а good specialist in this field, (он) хороший специалист в этой области. Сложное дополнение с инфинитивом употребляется по­ сле следующих глаголов: to know знать, to want хотеть, to find находить, устанавливать, to like любить, нравиться, to think думать, to believe полагать, to assume допускать, пред­ полагать, to consider считать, to expect предполагать, to allow позволять, to enable давать возможность, to cause заставлять и др.: They expect the meeting to be Они предполагают, что собра- over soon. ние скоро закончится. Особенностью употребления сложного дополнения с ин­ финитивом является то, что после некоторых глаголов опус­ кается частица to перед инфинитивом. К ним относятся гла-, голы чувственного восприятия: to feel чувствовать, to hear слышать, to see видеть, to watch наблюдать, to notice заме­ чать, to let позволять, to make заставлять: The students heard the professor Студенты слышали, как про- speak about his experimental фессор говорил о своей экспе- work. риментальной работе. Не made us do this work. Он заставил нас сделать эту работу. § 35. Инфинитив как часть сложного подлежащего (The Complex Subject) В английском языке мнение или предположение группы неопределенных лиц о чем-то или о ком-то можно выразить двумя способами: 1) сложноподчиненным предложением It is known that he is a good spe- Известно, что он хороший ciahst. специалист. It is expected that the experiment Предполагают, что экспери- will be over soon. мент скоро закончится. 2) простым предложением со сложным подлежащим, ко­ торое включает имя существительное (в общем падеже) или местоимение (в именительном падеже) и инфинитив. Инфи­ нитивный оборот «сложное подлежащее» употребляется после следующих глаголов в страдательном залоге: to know знать, to say говорить, to report сооби^ать, to find находить, устанавли­ вать, to assume, to suppose предполагать, to consider, to think считать, думать, to expect ожидать, полагать и др.: Не is known to be a good spe- The experiment is expected to be ciaUst. over soon. Перевод таких предложений следует начинать со сказуе­ мого предложения и переводить его неопределенно-личным предложением известно, предполагают, установлено, считают и т. д., за которым следует придаточное предложение, вводи­ мое союзом что: Известно, что он хороший специалист. Предполагают, что эксперимент скоро закончится. Возможен и другой способ перевода этих предложений (начиная с подлежащего):, Он, как известно, хороший специалист. Эксперимент, как полагают, скоро закончится. Глагол-сказуемое может бытьивдействительном залоге, если употребляются следующие глаголы: to seem, to appear ка­ заться, по-видимому, очевидно', to prove, to turn out оказывать­ ся', to happen случаться, оказываться: They seem to work very hard. Они, кажется, много работают. The method appears to be of Этот метод, по-видимому, пред- some interest. ставляет интерес. Наконец, глагол-сказуемое может быть составным: to be likely вероятно, to be unlikely невероятно, маловероятно, едва ли, to be sure, certain несомненно, непременно, обязательно: Our professor is likely to take Наш профессор, вероятно, part in this discussion. примет участие в этом обсуж­ дении. LESSON 12 § 36. Сослагательное наклонение (The Subjunctive Mood) Сослагательное наклонение показывает, что говорящий рассматривает действие не как реальный факт, а как предпо­ лагаемое, желательное или нереальное. В русском языке имеется только одна форма сослагатель­ ного наклонения — сочетание формы глагола прошедшего времени с частицей бы {сделал бы, хотел бы и т.д.) Эта форма может относиться к настоящему, прошедшему или будущему времени. В английском языке имеется несколько форм сослагатель­ ного наклонения. При выражении предположения, желания или возможно­ сти в настоящем или будущем времени простые формы сосла­ гательного наклонения совпадают с формой инфинитива без частицы to для всех лиц и чисел или с формой Past Simple. Глагол to be в этом случае имеет формы be и were для всех лиц и чисел. Сложная форма сослагательного наклонения пред­ ставляет собой сочетание should (would) с Simple Infinitive без частицы to: It is high time he were here. Давно пора ему быть здесь., They could take this exam. Они могли бы сдать этот экзамен. I should come with pleasure. Я бы пришел с удовольствием. При передаче действия нереального, относящегося к про­ шлому, простая форма сослагательного наклонения совпадает с формой Past Perfect, а сложная форма представляет собой сочетание глаголов should и would с Perfect Infinitive без части­ цы to: They had taken the text-books, Они взяли бы учебники, но биб­ but the Ubrary was closed then. лиотека была тогда закрыта. We should have come. Мы бы пришли. § 37. Употребление различных форм сослагательного наклонения Формы сослагательного наклонения употребляются: 1) в простых предложениях I should like to get this book. Мне бы хотелось достать эту книгу. He would like to join us. Он хотел бы присоединиться к нам. He could do it tomorrow. Он смог бы сделать это завтра. They would have helped you, Они бы помогли вам, но не смог­ but they couldn't come. ли прийти. You could have done it. Why Вы могли бы это сделать, почему didn't you try? же вы не попытались? 2) в сложноподчиненных предложениях: а) в придаточных предложениях после безличных оборо­ тов типа necessary Необходимо, чтобы... important Важно, чтобы... essential Существенно, чтобы... desirable Желательно, чтобы... possible Возможно, что... It is improbable that. Маловероятно, что... suggested Предполагается, что... proposed Предполагается, чтобы... required Требуется, чтобы... demanded Требуется, чтобы... ordered Необходимо, чтобы... В этом случае сложная форма сослагательного наклонения об­ разуется с помощью should для всех лиц:, It is desirable that he should be Желательно, чтобы он при­ present here. сутствовал здесь. б) в дополнительных придаточных предложениях после глаголов to suggest предполагать, to propose предлагать, to de­ sire желать, to require, to demand требовать, to order приказы­ вать, to insist настаивать и т. д.: The engineer demanded that the Инженер потребовал, чтобы test be (should be) repeated. испытание повторили. в) в дополнительных придаточных предложениях после глагола wish: I wish he were with us. Мне жаль, что его с нами нет. I wish you had brought your Мне жаль, что ты не принес camera. свою камеру. I wish he would tell us everything. Я бы хотел, чтобы он нам все рассказал. I wish he could come to the party. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы он пришел на вечер. I wish you had done it more care­ Мне бы хотелось, чтобы вы бо­ fully. лее тщательно сделали это. г) в придаточных предложениях цели после союзов so that, in order that так, чтобы, lest чтобы не, В этом случае should употребляется для всех лиц: Send him out of the room so that Отошли его из комнаты, чтобы he should not hear what we talk он не слышал, о чем мы разго­ about. вариваем. She put the letter away lest her Она убрала письмо, чтобы его husband should see it. не увидел муж. д) в придаточных сравнения с союзами as if или as though как будто, словно: The house is so quite as if there В доме было так тихо, как буд- were nobody in it. то в нем никого нет. е) в обеих частях сложноподчиненного предложения с ус­ ловными придаточными второго и третьего типов: If I were not so tired, I should go Если бы я так не устал, я бы with you. пошел с вами. If they had а car, they would go to Если бы у них был автомобиль, the country. они бы поехали за город., If he hadn't phoned her, she Если бы он не позвонил ей, она wouldn't have come. бы не пришла. § 38. Особенности страдательного залога В английском языке в страдательном залоге могут упот­ ребляться непереходные глаголы с предлогами и послелогами. К таким глаголам относятся: to send for посылать за, to follow by следовать за, to look at смотреть на, to speak of, about гово­ рить 0, to rely on положиться на, to refer to ссылаться на, to act upon действовать на, to influence by влиять на, to deal with иметь дело с, рассматривать, to work at, on работать над и др. В этих случаях перевод предложения следует начинать с пред­ лога: The doctor was sent for. За доктором послали. His project was much spoken О его проекте много говорили. about. This reference-book can be relied Ha этот справочник можно on. положиться.,

АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ

а adjective - имя прилагательное adv adverb - наречие cj conjunction — союз п noun — имя существительное р1 plural - множественное число рр — причастие II ргоп — местоимение ргр preposition — предлог V verb — глагол access ['aekses] n доступ, подход; abandon [o'baendon] v покидать, ~ time время выборки, время об­ оставлять ращения abbey ['aebi] п аббатство, мона­ accessible [ok'sesobl] a доступ­ стырь ный, достижимый ability [e'biliti] п способность accident ['aeksident] n несчастный able ['9ibl] а способный; to be - случай быть в состоянии accomodate [e'komodeit] v при­ about [e'baut] adv около, прибли­ спосабливать, предоставлять жи­ зительно, относительно; ргр во­ лье круг, о accomodation [e^kome'deijen] n по­ above [эЪлу] ргр над; выше; adv мещение, жилье ~ mentioned вышеупомянутый accompany [э 'клтрэш] vсопрово­ abruptly [o'brAptli] adv внезапно, ждать резко accomplish [e'komplij] v заканчи­ absence ['aebsons] п отсутствие вать, завершать absent ['aebsent] а отсутствую­ accomplishment [e'kompiijment] n щий; достижение, выполнение, завер­шение absolute Taebseluit] а полный, со­ вершенный, абсолютный accordance [e'koidens] /i in ~ with согласно чему-либо, в соответст­ absorb [9b'so:b] vпоглощать, впи­ вии с чем-либо тывать according (to) [e'ko:diT|] в соот­ academic [^aeke'demik] а академи­ ветствии с чем-либо ческий; ~ year учебный год accordingly [e'ko.dnili] adv соот­ accelerate [ek'seloreit] v ускорять ветственно, в соответствии; та­ acceleration [ok^sele'reijen] n ус­ ким образом, следовательно корение account [o'kaunt] л on ~ of из-за, accelerator [ok'selereito] n уско­ вследствие; v - for отчитываться ритель, акселератор за что-либо; объяснять что-либо accept [ek'sept] v принимать accounting [9'kauntiT|] п учет, от­ {предложение) четность, accumulate [8'kju:mjuleit] v акку­ advanced [ed'va:nst] а передовой, мулировать, накапливать прогрессивный accuracy ['aekjuresi] n точность advantage [ed'vainticfe] п преиму­ accurate ['aekjunt] a точный щество; to take - воспользоваться achieve [e'^iiv] v достигать преимуществом achievement n advantageous [^aedvan'teidjas] а [e'^iivment] дости­ выгодный, благоприятный жение advice [edVais] п совет acknowledge [ek'nolidj] v призна­ вать advisable [adVaizabI] а рекомен­дуемый acquire [e'kwaie] v приобретать (значение, авторитет) advise [ed'vaiz] v советовать, ре­комендовать across [e'kros] prp через; adv по­ перек adviser [edVaize] п консультант, научный руководитель act [aekt] v действовать; ~ (on, upon) воздействовать, влиять aerial ['еэпэ!] п антенна aeronautics [,89r9'no:tiks] п аэро­ action ['аек/эп] n действие навтика active ['aektiv] a активный affect [e'fekt] v влиять на activity [aek'tiviti] n деятельность что-либо, воздействовать actual ['aek^uel] a действитель­ afloat [9'fl9ut] adv на. плаву, на во­ ный, фактический де actually ['aekq'ueli] adv в действи­ after ra:ft9] prp, cj, adv после; по­ тельности, действительно сле того как; потом; - all в конце add [aed] v добавлять, прибавлять, концов складывать afterwards ['a:ft9W9dz] adv кроме addition [e'dijon] n сложение, до­ того, к тому же бавление; in ~ to после, потом, в again [9'gen] adv снова, опять дополнение к against [9'genst] prp против, на, к adapt [e'daspt] v приспосабли­ (чему-либо) вать, прилаживать, подгонять; age [eic^] п возраст, at the ~ of в адаптировать возрасте; век, период, эпоха address [e'dres] v обращаться к ago [9'g9u] adv тому назад кому-либо; п адрес agree [9'gri:] v соглашаться adequate ['aedikwit] а соответст­ agreement [9'gri:m9nt] n соглаше­ вующий, адекватный ние adjust [e'djASt] v регулировать ahead [9'hed] adv вперед, впере­ admiral ['aedmerel] n адмирал ди; a few years - через несколько adopt [e'dopt] v принимать (cue- лет тему, концепцию) aid [eid] v помогать; n помощь advance [9d'va:ns] v выдвигать aim [eim] v направлять, нацели- (идею, теорию), продвигать впе­ вать(ся); n цель; to be ~ed at пред­ ред; in ~ вперед, заранее назначаться для чего-либо, air [ЕЭ] n воздух, атмосфера; - drag among [9'тлт|] ргр среди, между аэродинамическое сопротивле­ amount [9'maunt] v достигать; п ние количество, степень, величина aircraft ['eekroift] = airplane n са­ amplification [^aemplifi'keij9n] п молет, аэроплан; ~ construction увеличение, расширение, усиле­ [lon'strAkJen] самолетостроение ние airfield ['eefiild] n аэродром amplifier ['aemplifai9] «усилитель alive [olaiv] a живой, в живых amplify ['aemplifai] v расши- all [о:I] pron весь, все, вся, все; рять(ся), усиливать - kind of = ~ sorts of самые разно­ analyse ['aen9laiz] v разбирать, образные, всякие; - of them все; анализировать; рассматривать ~ over again снова и снова; ~ over analysis [9'nael9Sis] п анализ the world во всем мире; ~ right хо­ рошо, ладно; in - полностью, все­ ancestor raensist9] п предок го; at - вообще, совсем ancient ['eij9nt] а древний, ста­ allow [э1аи] v позволять, разре­ ринный, старый шать angle Гает̂ д!] п угол allowance [э1аиэп$] п содержание announce [9'nauns] v объявлять, {годовое, месячное), карманные заявлять деньги; разрешение, позволение announcement [9'naunsm9nt] п alloy ['aeloi] п сплав объявление almost ['oilmoust] adv почти annually ['aenjugli] adv ежегодно alone [9l9un] a один, одинокий; another [9'плб9] a другой; еще adv только один along [9'1от|] prp по, вдоль; ~ with antenna [депЧеп9] {pi antennae) п наряду с; параллельно с антенна alphabet raelf9bit] п алфавит anticipate [aen'tisipeit] v предви­деть, предвосхитить alphanumerical [,aelf9'njumerik9l] а буквенно-цифровой {алфавит) anyway ['eniwei] adv во всяком случае already [oiTredi] adv уже apart [9'pa:t] adv на расстоянии, also ['o:ls9u] adv тоже, также отдельно; ~ from не говоря уже о, alternative [o:rt9:n9tiv] a другой кроме, не считая {при выборе), переменный, раз­ apparatus [,aBp9'reit9s] п аппарат, ный; п выбор прибор, устройство although [о:Гбэи] с/хотя; несмот­ apparently [9'paer9ntli] adv явно, ря на то, что очевидно, по-видимому, видимо, altogether [,o:lt9'ge59] adv совер­ вероятно шенно, совсем appear [9'pi9] v появляться, ка­ aluminium [,aelju'minj9m] п алю­ заться; - useful оказаться полез­ миний ным a.m. (ante meridiem) время от 12 appearance [9'pi9r9ns] п появле­ ночи до 12 дня (до полудня) ние, наружность, внешний вид, appliance [e'plaiens] л устройство, artillery [o/tilori] n артиллерия; приспособление a артиллерийский applicable ['aeplikebl] a примени­ artist ['a:tist] n художник мый, пригодный, подходящий as [aez] cj так как; - adv как, по ме­ application [^aepli'keijen] n приме­ ре того как, в то время как, когда, нение; заявление в качестве {чего-либо, кого-либо)', apply [e'plai] v применять, ис­ ~ а consequence ['konsikwons] в пользовать; ~ to обратиться к (с результате, как результат; - far - просьбой) так далеко, до; ~ early [B\\I] еще approach [э'ргэи^] v подходить, давно {о времени)', -^ far back ['fa: приближать(ся); п приближение, baek] еще; - follows ['folouz] сле­ подход {к решению задачи) дующим образом; ~ if как если approve [o'pruiv] v одобрять бы; - long - пока (по времени)', - approximate [o'proksimit] a при­ much - possible как можно боль­ близительный; - calculation при­ ше; - а result [ri'zAlt] в результате; ближенные вычисления - а rule [ru:l] как правило; ~ soon - arc [о:к] п дуга как только; - soon ~ possible как architect ['ckitekt] п архитектор можно скорее; ~ though [беи] как architecture Га:кПек^э] п архи­ если бы; - to что касается; ~ well а тектура также; ~ well ~ так же как area ['еэпэ] п площадь, участок, ascend [o'send] v подниматься, место, пространство двигаться вверх arise (arose, arisen) [a'raiz, e'reuz, ascent [o'sent] п подъем; движе­ 9'rizn] V возникать ние вверх arm [a:m] n рука; рычаг ask [a:sk] v спрашивать, просить; armoured ['о:mod] a бронирован­ ~ for (smth.) просить что-либо ный aspect ['aespekt] п вид, особен­ army ['a:mi] n армия ность, аспект around [o'raund] adv кругом; prp assemble [o'sembi] v собирать вокруг assembling [o'sembiir)] n сборка arrange [e'reindj] v устанавли­ assembly [o'sembli] n сборка; a вать, устраивать, располагать сборочный; - shop сборочный arrangement [o'reincfement] n уст­ цех; - line конвейер ройство, расположение assist [o'sist] V помогать arrival [e'raivol] n приход, прибы­ assistance [a'sistens] n помощь тие assistant [o'sistont] n преподава­ arrive [o'raiv] (at, in) v прибывать, тель, ассистент, помощник приезжать associated [e'seujieitid] a to be art [a:t] n искусство, умение ~ with быть связанным с чем- article Го:tiki] n статья; изделие либо artificial [,a:ti'fijel] a искусствен­ assume [o'sjuim] v допускать, по­ ный лагать, принимать, assumption [e'sAmpJen] «допуще­ audible ['oidabl] a слышимый, ние, предположение достаточно громкий astronomer [es'tronomo] n астро­ audience ['oidjons] n публика, ау­ ном дитория (о людях) astronomy [os'tronemi] n астроно­ author ['0:69] п автор мия automatic [,o:t9'maetik] а автома­ at [aet] prp y, около, во, на; ~ last тический [la:st] наконец; ~ least [li:st] no automatically [^oito'maetikoli] ccfv ав­ крайней (меньшей) мере; ~ once томатически; - controUed [ken'treuld] [wAns] сейчас же, сразу; ~ present с автоматическим управлением ['preznt] в настоящее время; automation [^oito'meijen] n авто­ - one time or another ['wAn taim матизация о:гэ'пА&е] в то или иное время automatize ['oitametaiz] v автома­ atmosphere raetmosfie] п атмо­ тизировать сфера automobile ['o:temaubi:l] n авто­ atmospheric [^aetmos'ferik] а атмо­ мобиль; a автомобильный; ~ body сферный кузов автомобиля automotive [,o:ta'mautiv] a само­ atom ['aetom] п атом движущийся, автомобильный atomic ['aetomik] а атомный availability [a^veila'biliti] n нали­ attach [эЧае ]̂ v прикреплять, чие присоединять available [a'veilabi] a существую­ attachment [o'tae^mont] п прикре­ щий, наличный, доступный пление, приспособление; при­ average ['aevaricfe] a средний, при­ надлежность близительный; V выводить сред­ attain [эЧеш] v достигать, полу­ нее число, в среднем равняться, чать составлять attempt [o'tempt] п попытка aviation [,eivi'eijan] п авиация attend [e'tend] v посещать avoid [aVoid] v избегать attention [e'tenjen] n внимание award [a'wo:d] n награда; v награ­ждать; to be ~ed получать награду attentive [o'tentiv] a вниматель­ away [a'wei] (from) adv далеко от, ный в стороне от, в сторону от attentively [a'tentivli] adv внима­ axis ['aeksis] п (pi axes) ось {гео­ тельно метрическая) attitude ['aetitjuid] n отношение (к axle ['aeksl] п ось; вал, на котором чему-либо) вращаются колеса attract [o'traekt] v притягивать; ~ attention привлекать внимание В attractive [e'traektiv] a привлека­ back [baek] ady обратно, назад тельный, притягательный, за­ backup [Ъаек'Ар] v поддерживать; манчивый дублировать; п дублирование, backward ['baekwed] adv в обрат­ behaviour [bi'heivje] n поведение ном направлении; a отсталый, behind [bi'haind] adv сзади, по­ обратный сле; prp за, сзади bag [baeg] n мешок, сумка, чемо­ believe [bi'liiv] уверить, полагать, дан считать balance ['baelens] n равновесие, belong [bi'loTj] у принадлежать, весы; ~d a уравновешенный относиться к чему-либо balloon [be1u:n] n воздушный below [bi'leu] adv ниже, внизу; шар, неуправляемый аэростат prp под, ниже (о качестве, поло­ bank [baerjk] n берег, банк жении) barrel [ЪаегэП n бочка, баррель belt [belt] п пояс, ремень, зона {мера жидких, сыпучих материа­ bend (bent, bent) [bend, bent] У из- лов) гибать(ся), сгибать(ся), гнуть; base [beis] п основание; v осно­ п сгиб, изгиб вывать; to be -d (on) [t9 bi: beist beneath [bi'ni.G] adv внизу; prp под, (on)] основываться на чем-либо ниже basic ['beisik] a основной benefit ['benifit] п польза, выгода, basis rbeisis] n основа, база благо; у получать, приносить battle ['baetl] n битва, сражение, пользу; извлекать пользу, выгоду бой binary [Ъатэп] а двоичный, би­ beam [bi:m] n луч, пучок лучей, нарный балка besides [bi'saidz] adv, prp помимо, bearing ['Ьгепт]] п подшипник кроме beat (beat, beaten) [bi:t, bi:t, bi:tn] beyond [bi'jond] prp за пределами, V бить, победить; to be -en про­ вне играть bicycle ['baisikl] n велосипед beautiful ['bju.tefui] a красивый, bike [baik] n (сокр. от bicycle) ве­ прекрасный лосипед because [bi'koz] c/так как, потому bird [b9:d] n птица что; - of prp вследствие, из-за bit [bit] n кусочек, часть become (became, become) [Ьх'клт, blade [bleid] n лезвие, клинок, bi'keim, Ьх'клт] установиться лопасть before [bi'fo:] adv впереди, рань­ blank [Ь1аег|к] ^ пустой, свобод­ ше; prp перед, до; cj прежде чем ный; п пропуск; ~ space пустое begin (began, begun) [bi'gin, (незаполненное) место bi'gaen, Ьх'длп,] v начинать(ся); blanket ['blaerikit] п шерстяное to ~ with прежде всего, во-пер­ одеяло вых, сначала blow (blew, blown) [bleu, blu:, beginning [bi'giniTi] n начало bleun] у дуть; n удар beg pardon ['beg 'pa:dn] просить board [bo:d] n борт (корабля), дос­ прощения, извиняться ка; on - на борту, body ['bodi] n тело, корпус, группа bring (brought, brought) [briri, людей, состав, организация, адми­ bro:t] V приносить, приводить, нистративный орган; - of а саг = привозить; ~ about вызывать (ка­ = саг body кузов (автомобиля) кое-либо явление); - in вводить; ~ boil [boil] V кипятить(ся); кипеть to доводить до boiler [Ъо11э] п котел (паровой); brittle [Ът1] а хрупкий, ломкий бойлер broad [bro:d] а широкий bomb [bom] п бомба; v бомбарди­ bubble [ЪлЬ1] п пузырек воздуха ровать или газа bone [Ьэип] п кость build (built, built) [bild, biit] устро­ booster ['bu:st9] п ускоритель; ить; - up построить, создать, со­ rocket ~ стартовый (ракетный) ставить ускоритель built-in рр встроенный border [Ъо:с1э] граница; - line гра­ building ['bildiTj] п здание, строи­ ница, пограничная зона тельство; а строительный boredom ['bo:dam] п скука bumper [Ълтрэ] п бампер, амор­ born [bo:п] to be - родиться тизатор borrow [Ъогэи] V занимать, заим­ bureau [bjue'reu] п бюро; отдел ствовать burn (burnt, burned) [be:n, be:nt, both [Ьэиб] ргоп оба; adv, cj be:nd] V гореть, сжигать; ~ out = - - .and как ... так и; и ... и up сгорать; - t gas отработанный bother [Ъобэ] V беспокоить, при­ газ чинять беспокойство businessman ['biznismen] n дело­ bottom ['botem] п низ, дно, ниж­ вой человек, коммерсант няя часть; а нижний but [Ьл1] adv всего лишь; prp кро­ brain [brein] п мозг ме; cj но, а, однако brake [breik] п тормоз; v тормо­ button ['bAtn] п кнопка, пуговица зить; parking ~ стояночный тор­ buy (bought, bought) [bai, bo:t] v моз покупать branch [bra:n^] п ветвь, отрасль buzzer [Ъл2э] n гудок, сирена, break (broke, broken) [breik, звонок, зуммер Ьгэик, Ъгеикэп] ломать, разру­ by [bai] prp около, у, возле, к (оп­ шать; ~ out разразиться (о войне); ределенному времени), до (опреде­ п перерыв, пауза ленного времени); ~ all means лю­ breakthrough ['breik'9ru:] п круп­ быми (всеми) способами; ~ day ное достижение, открытие, шаг (night) днем (ночью); ~ means of вперед, прорыв при помощи, посредством че­ bright [brait] а яркий, блестящий го-либо; - now к настоящему вре­мени; ~ the beginning of к началу; brightness ['braitnis] п яркость - the end of к концу; - the middle of brilliant ['brilj9nt] а блестящий, к середине; ~ that time к тому вре­ великолепный мени; ~ the time к тому времени, как; ~ the way между прочим, саге [кгэ] л, v забота; to take ~ за­ кстати ботиться by-product rbai,prodAkt] п побоч­ careful ['keeful] а тщательный, ный продукт внимательный, осторожный carefully ['kesfli] adv тщательно cargo ['ка:дэи] п груз; а грузовой cabin ['kaebin] п кабина, каюта carrier ['каепэ] п транспортный cable ['keibl] п кабель самолет, транспортер calcium ['kaelsiem] п кальций carry ['kaeri] УВОЗИТЬ, НОСИТЬ, пе­ calculate ['kaelkjuleit] v считать, ревозить; - out проводить, вы­ подсчитывать полнять работу (эксперимент); calculation [^kaeikju'ieijdn] п вы­ - on продолжать, вести дело числение, подсчет, расчет case [keis] п случай, судебное де­ call [ко:1] п сигнал, телефонный ло; in (the) - of в случае звонок; V называть; - one's atten­ cast (cast) [ka:st] v бросать, от­ tion (to) [e'tenjen] привлекать брасывать (тень) (обращать) чье-либо внимание catch (caught) [кае ,̂ ko:t] v ло­ на что-либо вить, захватывать called [ко:Id] /7/7 so ~ так называе­ cathode ['kasGeud] n катод; a ка­ мый тодный; - ray катодно-лучевой cancel ['kaensel] v аннулировать, cause [ko:z] n - дело, причина; отменять V вызывать (какое-либо явле­ capability [,keip9'biliti] п способ­ ние), доставлять, причинять ность ceiling ['siili-n] п потолок capable ['keipebl] а способный; to celebrity [si'lebriti] п знамени­ be - быть в состоянии тость, известность capacity [ke'paesiti] п производи­ celestial [si'lestjel] а небесный; тельность, мощность, способ­ ~ body небесное тело; ~ mechanics ность небесная механика capital ['kaepitl] п столица cell [sel] п элемент; ячейка; акку­ мулятор capture Гкаер^э] v захватывать силой, захватить cellular ['seljule] а клеточный, ячеистый, сотообразный; - phone саг [ко:] п автомобиль, кар; - body сотовый телефон кузов (автомобиля) centigrade ['sentigreid] а стогра­ carbon ['ка:Ьэп] п углерод дусный, разделенный на сто гра­ carburetter ['koibjuirete] п карбю­ дусов ратор central ['sentrel] а центральный career [кэ'пэ] п карьера centre ['sente] п центр card [ka:d] п карточка centrifugal [sen'trifjugel] а цен­ cardboard rka:dbo:d] п картон; тробежный а картонный century ['sen^uri] п столетие, век, ceramic [si'raemik] a керамиче­ choice [^ois] п выбор ский choose (chose, chosen) [^u:z, certain ['S8:tn] a некоторый, оп­ ^9uz/^auzn] V выбирать ределенный; to be - быть уверен­ ным church [^э:^] n церковь certainly ['se:tnli] A^V конечно circle ['S9:kl] n круг, кольцо, кру­жок; V обходить вокруг, вра­ chain [^ein] n цепь щаться chamber ['^eimbe] n палата (nap- circuit rs9:kit] п электрическая ламентская), камера цепь chance [^a:ns] n случай, случай­ ность, удача, возможность, веро­ circuitry rs9:kitri] п схемы ятность, шанс circular ['S9:kjul9] а круговой, chancellor Г^а:п$э1э] п канцлер кольцевой, дисковый change [^eindj] п изменение, пе­ circumference [s9'kAmf9r9ns] п ремена; V менять(ся) окружность channel T^aenl] п пролив, канал, circumstance ['S9k9mst9ns] п об­ желоб стоятельство, случай character ['kaerikte] п знак, буква; citizen ['sitizn] п гражданин характер civil ['sivl] а гражданский; - engi­ characteristic [,kaerikt9'ristik] л ха­ neer инженер-строитель; - engi­ рактеристика; а характерный neering гражданское строитель­ charge [^cidj] п заряд, топливная ство смесь {в двигателе), обязан­ claim [kleim] v претендовать, за­ ность; to be in - of нести ответст­ являть венность за что-либо; v заряжать; classify ['klaesifai] v классифици­ взимать плату ровать chassis ['Jaesi] п шасси, рама {ав­ clean [kli.n] a чистый томобиля) clear [kli9] a ясный, понятный cheap Щ\\^] а дешевый clearly ['к 11911] А^УЯСНО, отчетливо check up ['^ек 'лр] v проверять; п проверка click [klik] n щелчок; v щелкать chemical ['kemikl] а химический; climate ['klaimit] n климат п химический элемент, химика­ close [kl9us] V закрывать(ся); лий; ~ composition химический a близкий, пристальный состав; ~ engineering химическое closely rkl9usli] ^^v тесно, вплот­ машиностроение ную; пристально, внимательно chemist ['kemist] п химик {наблюдать)', - related тесно свя­ chemistry ['kemistri] п химия занный chess [^es] п шахматы clothes [kl9u5z] л, pi одежда chief [^i:f] п начальник; а главный coal [k9ul] п уголь chip [^ip] п кристалл, интеграль­ coast [k9ust] п морской берег, по­ ная схема бережье, coat [keut] v покрывать {краской и commerce ['kome.s] п торговля, т.п.); п покрытие, слой коммерция code [keud] п код; v кодировать commercial ['кэтэ:/91] а торго­ coin [кош] п монета вый, коммерческий; - aviation coincide [^keuin'said] v совпадать гражданская авиация cold [k9uld] n холод; a холодный committee [ke'miti] п комитет collect [ke'lekt] v собирать common ['коmen] а обычный, все­общий, общепринятый college ['kolicfe] n колледж; выс­ шее специальное учебное заведе­ commonly ['komenli] adv обычно; ние; ~ training обучение в выс­ ~ used широко используемый шем учебном заведении communicate [ka'mjuinikeit] (with) collaboration [kejaebe'reijen] п со­ V сообщаться, держать связь трудничество communication [ke^mjuinfkeijan] collision [кэ11зэп] п столкнове­ п связь, сообщение ние, коллизия community [ke'mju'.niti] п общи­ colour ['кл1э] п цвет, оттенок, тон на, объединение, сообщество combination [,kombi'neiJan] п со­ compact ['kompaekt] а компакт­ четание, комбинация, соедине­ ный, плотный; сплошной, мас­ ние сивный combine [кэтЪаш] v соединять, compare [кэт'реэ] v сравнивать; сочетать, объединять; -d with в (as) ~d to по сравнению с сочетании с competence ['kompitens] п способ­ combustion [кэтЪлз^эп] п сгора­ ность, умение, компетентность ние competition [^kompi'tijen] п со­ come (came, come) [клт, keim, ревнование, состязание, конку­ back ренция клт] V приходить; - возвра­ щаться; ~ in входить; - through compiler [kem'paile] п состави­ проходить сквозь; проникать; тель; компилятор ~ to а conclusion прийти к заклю­ complete [kam'pliit] v завер- чению; - to light появиться, вы­ шать(ся), заканчивать(ся); а пол­ явиться; ~ off сходить ный, законченный, готовый comet ['komit] п комета completely [kam'pli.tli] t^rfvполно­ comfortable ['kAmfetebl] а удоб­ стью, целиком ный, уютный, комфортабельный completion [кэт'рГк/эп] п завер­ comforting ['kAmfetiTi] а утеши­ шение, окончание тельный complex ['котpieks] а сложный commemorate [ke'memereit] v complexity [kem'pleksiti] п слож­ праздновать, отмечать, чтить па­ ность мять complicated ['komplikeitid] а слож­ comment ['koment] п замечание, ный отзыв; V делать замечание, вы­ component [кэт'рэипэш] п часть, сказывать мнение деталь, компонент (машины, уст-, ройства); - parts составные час­ conduct [ken'dAkt] v проводить ти, компоненты (машины) (ток), вести; ['kondAkt] п пове­ compose [кэш'рэиг] v составлять, дение to be ~d of состоять из conductivity [,kondAk4iviti] п про­ composite ['kompezit] a состав­ водимость ной, сложный, композитный; conference ['konfarens] п конфе­ п композиционный материал, ренция композит confidence ['konfidans] п доверие composition [^kempe'zijan] п со­ став, смесь; сочинение confident ['konfidant] а уверен­ный, самоуверенный comprehensive [^kempri'hensiv] а всеобъемлющий, исчерпываю­ confine [kan'fain] v ограничивать щий, обширный confirm [ken'faim] v подтвер­ ждать, утверждать compress ['kem'pres] v сжимать connect [ka'nekt] v соединять compression ['kom'prejen] n сжа­ тие; —ignition engine дизель connection [ka'nekjen] n связь, со­единение, присоединение comprise [kem'praiz] v включать в себя, состоять из conquer ['кот|кэ] v завоевывать, покорять, подчинять; побеждать computation [,kompju:4eij9n] п подсчет consequence ['konsikwans] п след­ствие; in ~ of в результате, вслед­ compute [kem'pju:t] v вычислять, ствие подсчитывать consequently ['konsikwentli] adv computer [kem'pju:te] n электрон­ ная вычислительная машина, следовательно ЭВМ, вычислительное устройст­ consider [ken'side] v считать, по­ во, компьютер лагать, рассматривать, учитывать computing device [kem'pjuitirj considerable [ken'sidarebi] а зна­ di'vais] счетно-решающее уст­ чительный; а - distance ahead на ройство значительном расстоянии впе­ concentrate ['konsentreit] vcocpe- реди доточивать(ся), концентриро- consideration [kan^sida'reijen] п вать(ся) расчет; in - of принимая во вни­ concept ['konsept] n концепция, мание; take into ~ принимать во понятие внимание, учесть (в расчете) concern [ken's8:n] v касаться, consist [ken'sist] (of) v состоять иметь отношение; заботиться, из, заключаться в чем-либо беспокоиться constant ['konstent] а постоянный conclusion [кэп'к1и:зэп] п заклю­ constantly ['konstentli] adv посто­ чение янно, все время condenser [ken'dense] п конден­ constituent [ken'stitjuent] п со­ сатор ставная часть condition [ken'dijen] п условие, constitute rkonstitju:t] v состав­ состояние лять, основывать, учреждать, construct [ken'strAkt] v строить, cook [kuk] V стряпать, приготов­ сооружать лять пищу, варить construction [ken'strAkJen] n стро­ cool [ku:l] V охлаждать; ~ down ос­ ительство тывать constructional [kan'strAkJeni] a coolant ['ku:l9nt] n смазочно-ох- конструктивный; ^ steel конст­ лаждающая жидкость рукционная сталь cooling ['kuiliTi] n охлаждение consumer [ken'sjuime] потреби­ тель cooperation [keu^ope'reijen] n со­трудничество, совместные дейст­ consumption [кэп'БАшр/эп] n по­ вия требление, расход coordinate [k9u'o:dineit] v коор­ contain [kan'tein] v содержать динировать, связывать contaminant [ken'taeminent] n за­ coordinated [keu'o.dineitid] a грязняющее вещество взаимосвязанный, согласован­ content ['kontent] n содержание, ный количество copper ['корэ] n медь; a медный; - continually [ken'tinjueli] adv не­ alloy медный сплав прерывно, постоянно copy ['kopi] n копия, экземпляр continuation [ken^tinju'eijen] n продолжение corner ['ко:пэ] n угол; - stone краеугольный камень continue [ken'tinju:] vпродолжать corporation [^ko.pe'rei/en] n кор­ continuous [ken'tinjues] a непре­ порация рывный contribute [ken4ribju:t] vсодейст­ correct [ke'rekt] v исправлять; вовать, способствовать; делать a правильный вклад correlate ['korileit] v соотно- contribution [,kontri'bju:/9n] вклад сить(ся) control [ken'treul] v управлять, correspond [,koris'pond] v соответ­ регулировать; n управление; ~ en­ ствовать gineering техника управления; corresponding [^koris'pondirj] a со­ ~ station (unit) управляющее уст­ ответствующий ройство cost (cost) [kost] V стоить; n стои­ controlled [ken'treuld] a управляе­ мость, цена мый, регулируемый council ['kaunsi] n совет controls [kan'treuiz] n приборы country ['kAntri] n страна управления, пульт управления countryside ['kAntrisaid] n сель­ convenient [kenVi.njant] A удобный ская местность conventional [ken'ven/eni] a обыч­ course [ko:s] n течение, ход, курс ный, общепринятый, традицион­ (наук); - of lectures курс лекций; ный - of studies курс обучения; train­ convert [ken'vait] v преобразовы­ ing - курс подготовки; in the ~ of в вать, превращать ходе ..., в процессе чего-либо, cover ['клуэ] v покрывать, укры­ D вать, охватить, пройти {програм­ daily ['deili] а ежедневный; adv му), ~ the course пройти курс ежедневно craft [kra:ft] п ремесло, умение, искусство; суда любого назначе­ damage ['daemids] п повреждение ния, самолет danger ['deincfee] п опасность create [kri/eit] v создавать, творить dangerous ['deindbres] а опасный creation [kri/eijen] п создание dark [do:к] а темный creature Гкг1:̂ э] п живое сущест­ darken ['doiken] v затемнять; ~ed во, создание затемненный crew [kru:] п судовая команда, dash [dae^ ^ черта, тире, штрих экипаж data ['deitd] n, /?/данные (от datum critical ['kritikel] а критический; ['deitem]) - point [point] критическая точка; date hack ['deit Ъаек] v относить­ ~ temperature [Четрп^э] крити­ ся {к определенной эпохе) ческая температура cross [kros] V пересекать, перехо­ day [dei] n день; ~ before yesterday позавчера, накануне; - by - день дить; —section поперечное сече­ за днем; one ~ однажды; - off сво­ ние бодный день cruising ['kru:ziT|] - speed средняя скорость, скорость установивше­ deal (dealt) [di:l, delt] v (with) гося движения, крейсерская ско­ иметь дело с; a good - довольно рость много, значительно cryogenic ['kraiou'dsenik] а охла­ dean [di:n] n декан ждающий death [de0] n смерть crystal ['kristi] п кристалл; а хру­ decade ['dekeid] n десятилетие стальный decide [di'said] v решать crystalline ['kristelain] а кристал­ decision [di'si3en] n решение, за­ лический; прозрачный ключение, решимость; to make a - cultivate ['kAltiveit] v возделы­ принять решение вать, культивировать declare [di'klee] v заявлять, объ­ cultivation [̂ kAltiVeiJen] п возде­ являть лывание, разведение decline [di'klain] v отклонить current ['клгэп1] п ток {электриче­ {предложение) ский)', а современный, текущий, decorate ['dekereit] v украшать, нынешний отделывать {дом) currently ['kArantli] adv сейчас, в decrease [di:'krj:s] ууменьшать(ся); настоящее время n ['di:kri:s] уменьшение curriculum [ke'rikjulem] {pi cur­ defect [di'fekt] л дефект, недоста­ ricula) n курс обучения, учебный ток план defend [di'fend] n защищать(ся) cushion ['kujen] п подушка define [di'fain] v определять, да­ cycle ['saikl] п цикл вать определение, устанавливать, definite ['definit] a определенный, derive [di'raiv] v устанавливать точный, отчетливый (выводить) закон (происхожде­ definition [,defi'nij9n] n определе­ ние) ние; резкость, четкость (техн.) descend [di'send] v опускаться degree [di'gri:] n градус, степень; descendant [di'sendant] n потомок to get a - получить ученую сте­ descent [di'sent] n спуск пень describe [dis'kraib] v описывать, delay [di1ei] n задержка, препят­ изображать, характеризовать, на­ ствие, замедление, промедление; зывать; to be ~ed as называться V откладывать, отсрочивать; за­ держивать, препятствовать description [dis'kripjen] n описа­ние, обозначение, вид, тип deliver [di'live] v представлять, descriptive [dis'kriptiv] a описа­ доставлять; ~ а lecture прочитать тельный; - geometry начертатель­ лекцию; ~ а report сделать доклад ная геометрия demand [di'ma:nd] v требовать; п design [di'zain] v конструировать, требование проектировать, предназначать; n demonstrate ['demenstreit] v де­ проект, план, расчет, конструк­ монстрировать, показывать ция, эскиз; - office конструктор­ demonstration п ское бюро [^demens'treijen] демонстрация, показ desirable [di'zaierabi] а желатель­ ный dense [dens] а плотный, насы­ щенный desire [di'zaie] v желать, -ed же­ лательный, желаемый; п желание density ['densiti] п плотность, удельный вес desk [desk] п письменный (рабо­чий) стол deny [di'nai] v отрицать, отре­ каться despite [dis'pait] prp несмотря на, вопреки department [di'pa:tmant] п отдел, destination [^desti'neijen] п место отделение, факультет, цех назначения, цель (путешествия) depend [di'pend] (on, upon) v зави­ destroy [dis'troi] v разрушать, сеть (от); ~ing on в зависимости уничтожать dependence [di'pendans] n зависи­ destruction [dis'trAkJen] п разру­ мость шение dependent [dependent] a зависи­ detail ['di:teil] п подробность; мый; to be ~ on зависеть (от) а ~ed подробный deposit [di'pozit] n залежь, место­ detect [di'tekt] v обнаруживать, рождение выявлять depression [di'pre/en] n снижение, detection [di'tekjen] п обнаруже­ падение (давления)] депрессия, ние, выявление, распознавание угнетенное состояние determination [di,t9:mi'neijen] п depth [depG] п глубина определение, determine [di't9:min] v опреде­ dimension [di'menjen] n измере­ лять, устанавливать ние; ~s размеры, величина, объ­ develop [di'velep] v развивать, раз­ ем, протяжение рабатывать, создавать, проявлять direct [di'rekt] v руководить, на­ {фото) правлять; a прямой, непосредст­ development [di'velepment] п соз­ венный; in - consequence как пря­ дание, разработка, развитие, дос­ мое следствие тижение, открытие direction [di'rekjen] п направление deviation [,di:vi'eij9n] п отклоне­ directly [di'rektii] adv прямо, не­ ние, девиация посредственно device [di'vais] п устройство, ме­ disadvantage [,diS9d'va:ntid3] n не­ ханизм, прибор достаток devote [di'veut] v посвящать; - disagree [^dise'gri:] v не согла­ one's attention (to) уделять вни­ шаться мание disappear [,disa'pi9] v исчезать diagonal [dai'aegeni] a диагональ­ disappoint [^dise'point] v разоча­ ный, идущий наискосок ровываться diagram ['daiegraem] n диаграмма disappointment [^disappointment] n разочарование dial ['dai9l] n циферблат, круго­ вая шкала, диск discourage [dis'kAridj] v обескура­живать, расхолаживать diameter [dai'aemite] n диаметр disconnect ['diska'nekt] v разъеди­ dictionary ['dikjenri] n словарь нять die [dai] n штамп, матрица, пуан­ discover [dis'kAva] v открывать, сон обнаруживать diff'er ['dife] v отличаться {от) discovery [dis'kAvari] a открытие difference ['difrens] n отличие, discuss [dis'kAs] v обсуждать разница discussion [dis'kAjan] n обсужде­ different ['difrent] a различный, ние иной, другой, неодинаковый; to disintegrate [dis'intigreit] уразде- be - from отличаться от; to be of лять(ся) на составные части, - composition иметь иной (дру­ дезынтегрировать, раздроблять, гой) состав разрушаться differential [^dife'renjel] a диффе­ disobey ['disa'bei] уне слушать(ся) ренциальный; - equation диффе­ disorder [dis'o:da] п беспорядок ренциальное уравнение display [dis'plei] v показывать, difficult ['difikalt] a трудный выставлять, демонстрировать; п показ, выставка, выставление difficulty ['difikelti] n трудность, напоказ, дисплей затруднение disposal [dis'pauzal] п избавление digital ['didjitl] a цифровой {от чего-либо), устранение, уда­ dime [daim] n монета в 10 центов ление, distance ['distens] n расстояние; a drawing ['dro:iT]] п рисунок, рисо­ long - ahead далеко впереди, на вание, черчение большое расстояние вперед dream [dri:m] п мечта; (dreamt or distant ['distent] а отдаленный; dreamed) [dremt, dremd] v меч­ ~ controlled с дистанционным уп­ тать равлением drill [dril] V сверлить; n сверло distinct [dis'tirikt] а отчетливый, drive (drove, driven) [draiv, dreuv, ярко выраженный 'drivn] V ездить (на автомобиле); distinguish [dis'tirigwij] v разли­ приводить в движение; - а саг во­ чать, распознавать, характеризо­ дить автомобиль; п поездка (на вать, отличать автомобиле) distort [dis'toit] V искажать, из­ вращать drive [draiv] п привод; дисковод; накопитель distribute [dis'tribju:t] v распреде­ лять, размещать driver [draivo] п водитель distribution [,distri'bju:j9n] п рас­ drop [drop] V бросать, оставлять; пределение, размещение - the idea перестать думать, отка­заться от мысли; п капля district ['distrikt] п район drum [drAm] п барабан divide [di'vaid] уделить dividend ['dividend] п доход, при­ dry [drai] а сухой быль, дивиденд due to ['dju: tu] prp из-за, благода­ division [di'vi3en] п деление ря, вследствие; to be ~ to являться результатом чего-либо; to be ~ domestic [dou'mestik] а домаш­ направляться куда-либо ний, семейный, внутренний, оте­ чественный duration [djue'reijen] n продолжи­тельность dominant ['dominont] а господ­ ствующий, доминирующий, пре­ during ['djuariT)] prp в течение, во обладающий время dormitory ['do.mitri] п спальня, Dutch [dA^] a нидерландский, спальный корпус, общежитие голландский dot [dot] п точка duty ['dju:ti] n долг, обязанность; double off - вне службы, свободный от ['dAbI] v удваивать; а двой­ ной работы doubt [daut] п сомнение Е down [daun] adv вниз each [i:^] каждый; ~ of каждый из; dozen ['dAzn] a дюжина ~ one каждый; - other друг друга; drag [draeg] утащить(ся) (сусили­ - time каждый раз; ~ year каждый ем), тянуть(ся) год, ежегодно draw (drew, drawn) [dro:, dru:, early ['e:li] а ранний; adv рано; - dro:n] V чертить, рисовать, про­ in 19... в начале 19...; as - as еще водить линию; тянуть, натяги­ (так давно, как) вать earth [э:9] п земля, easily ['iizili] adv легко electron [I'lektron] п электрон easy ['i:zi] a легкий; AĈV легко electronic [ilek'tronik] а электрон­ ecological [^eko'locb îkol] a эколо­ ный гический electronics [ilek'troniks] п элек­ ecology [I'koledsi] n экология троника economical [Jiko'nomikol] a эко­ element ['elimont] п элемент, номический; ~ly [Jiko'nomikoli] часть, узел; ~s of machines детали adv экономически, экономно машин economy [I'konomi] n экономика; elemental [,eli'mentl] а основной, экономия начальный, элементарный edge [edj] n кромка, край, лезвие elementary [^eli'mentori] а про­стой, элементарный editing ['editiT|] n монтаж; редак­ тирование; video - видеомонтаж elevator ['eliveito] п подъемник, лифт educate ['edjuikeit] v обучать, да­ вать образование, воспитывать; eliminate [I'limineit] v устранять, ~d образованный; to be -'d иметь исключать, ликвидировать образование, быть образованным elongate [liloiigeit] v растяги- education [,edju/keij8n] п образо­ вать(ся), удлинять(ся), продле­ вание вать (срок) effect [I'fekt] «действие, влияние, else [els] adv еще воздействие, последствия, ре­ emission [I'mijon] n выделение, зультат; V воздействовать, осуще­ распространение, эмиссия ствлять emit [I'mit] v испускать, излучать, effective [I'fektiv] а удачный, ус­ выделять пешный, эффективный; - means empire ['emраю] n империя эффективный способ employ [im'ploi] v использовать, efficiency [I'fijonsi] п КПД, про­ употреблять, применять изводительность empty ['empti] a пустой efficient [I'fijont] а эффективный, enable [I'neibl] v помогать, давать продуктивный, с высоким коэф­ возможность фициентом полезного действия enclose [in'kleuz] v вкладывать (в effort ['efet] п усилие письмо и т.п.), помещать, заклю­ elect [I'lekt] vвыбирать, избирать чать (внутрь чего-либо) electric [I'lektrik] а электриче­ encode [in'koud] v кодировать, ский; - conductivity электропро­ шифровать водность; - current электриче­ encounter [in'kaunto] v встре- ский ток тить(ся), сталкиваться electrical [I'lektrikal] а ~ engineer end [end] v кончать, кончаться; инженер-электрик; ~ engineering, п конец электротехника enemy ['enimi] п враг; а враже­ electricity [ilek'trisiti] п электри­ ский чество energy ['enocfei] п энергия, сила, engine ['endjin] n двигатель, мо­ environmental [in^vaieren'mentl] тор; jet ~ реактивный двигатель; а относящийся к окружающей ventilator - турбовентиляторный среде двигатель; propeller ~ пропеллер­ envisage [in'vizicfe] v рассматри­ ный двигатель вать, предусматривать, смотреть engineer [^encfei'nia] n инженер, прямо в глаза механик, машинист equal Г1:к\л/э1] травный, одинако­ engineering [^encfei'nieriTj] «техни­ вый; V равняться ка, строительное дело, машино­ equation [I'kweijen] п уравнение строение, конструирование equip [I'kwip] v оборудовать, ос­ enjoy [iri'd^oi] V получать удоволь­ нащать, снабжать ствие, наслаждаться equipment [I'kwipment] п обору­ enlarge [in1a:d5] уувеличивать(ся), дование расширять(ся) enormous [i'no:m9s] а огромный, equivalent [fkwivalent] п эквива­ колоссальный лент; а равноценный, равный по величине (значению), эквива­ enough [I'nAf] adv достаточно, до­ лентный вольно era Гюгэ] п эра, эпоха enrol(l) [in'reul] v зачислять, вно­ erase [I'reiz] v стирать; вычерки­ сить в списки; to be -ed быть за­ численным (в списки) вать (из памяти) enrolment [in'raulment] п прием error Гегэ] п ошибка, заблужде­ (новых членов), регистрация, вне­ ние сение в списки escalator ['eskeleite] п эскалатор ensure [in'Jue] v обеспечивать, га­ escape [is'keip] v выходить, вы­ рантировать рываться, ускользать, давать enter ['ente] v входить, поступать утечку (в учебное заведение) especially [is'pejeli] a^v особенно, enterprise ['entepraiz] п предпри­ специально ятие essential [I'senjel] а основной, су­ entire [in'taie] а весь, целый, пол­ щественный ный essentially [I'senjeli] adv в основ­ entirely [in'taiali] adv всецело, ном, по существу полностью, совершенно establish [is'taeblij] v устанавли­ entrance ['entrens] п вход, посту­ вать, учреждать, основывать пление; ~ examinations вступи­ establishment [is'taeblijment] «ус­ тельные экзамены тановление, учреждение entrust [in'trASt] V поручать, вве­ estimate ['estimeit] v определять, рять, оказать доверие оценивать; ['estimit] п оценка envelope ['envaleup] п конверт, etc. (сокр. лат. et cetera) = and so оболочка on и так далее environment [in'vaierenment] п ок­ evaluate [I'vaeljueit] v оценивать, ружение, окружающая среда определять, even n:v9n] adv даже exhaust [ig'zo:st] п выхлопной; event [I'vent] n событие, случай - gas выхлопной (отработанный) газ; - pipe выхлопная труба eventually [I'ven^eli] adv в конеч­ ном счете, в конце концов; со exhibition [,eksi'bijan] п выставка временем exist [ig'zist] v существовать evidence ['evidens] п очевидность, existence [ig'zistans] n существо­ свидетельство, основание вание evident ['evident] а очевидный, expand [iks'paend] урасширять(ся) ясный expansion [iks'paenjan] n расши­ exact [ig'zaekt] а точный рение, растяжение, распростра­ examination [ig^zaemi'neijan] п эк­ нение замен, проверка expect [iks'pekt] v ожидать, ждать, examine [ig'zaemin] v осматри­ предполагать, надеяться, думать вать, проверять expensive [iks'pensiv] а дорогой, example п for дорогостоящий [ig'za:mpl] пример; ~ например experience [iks'piarians] п (при­ обретенный) опыт; ~d а опытный exceed [ik'si:d] v превышать, пре­ восходить experiment [iks'perimant] п опыт, эксперимент; v делать опыты, excellent ['ekselent] а отличный, экспериментировать превосходный experimental [eks^peri'mantl] а экс­ except [ik'sept] prp за исключени­ периментальный, основанный на ем, исключая; ~ for за исключе­ опыте нием; ~ that за исключением (не считая) того, что explain [iks'plein] v объяснять exception [ik'sepjen] п исключение explanation [,ekspla'neijan] n объ­яснение exceptional [ik'sepjani] а исклю­ чительный explode [iks'plaud] v взрываться exceptionally [ik'sepjanli] adv ис­ exploit [iks'ploit] v эксплуатиро­ ключительно вать, разрабатывать excess [ik'ses] n избыток; a лиш­ exploration [^eksplo/reijan] n ис­ ний следование explore [iks'pio:] v исследовать exchange [iks'^eincfe] n обмен explorer [iks'plo:ra] n исследова­ exchanger [iks'^einc^a] n heat ~ те­ тель плообменник explosion [iks'plau3an] n взрыв, exclude [iks'kluid] v исключать вспышка excuse [iks'kju:s] vизвинять, про­ explosive [iks'plausiv] a взрывча­ щать тый; n взрывчатая смесь exercise ['eksasaiz] «упражнение expose [iks'pauz] v подвергать exert [ig'za:t] v оказывать (дейст­ (действию) вие, влияние), прилагать (усилие) express [iks'pres] v выражать, extend [iks'tend] v простираться, fair [fee] п ярмарка распространяться, выступать (за fall (fell, fallen) [fo:l, fel, 'fo:ln] пределы чего-либо) V падать, понижаться; n падение; extensive [iks'tensiv] а обшир­ осень (амер.) ный, пространный fame [feim] n слава, известность extent [iks'tent] п степень, мера familiar [fe'milje] a ~ хорошо зна­ external [iks'temi] а внешний, на­ комый, известный, близкий; to ружный be - with хорошо знать что-либо extract [iks'traekt] v извлекать family ['faemili] n семья, семейство extreme [iks'tr'r.m] a крайний, famous ['feimes] a знаменитый чрезвычайный, экстремальный fan [faen] n вентилятор extremely [iks'tri:mli] Âfv чрезвы­ fantastic [faen'taestik] a фантасти­ чайно, крайне, очень ческий, невероятный far [fo:] a далекий, дальний; adv далеко; ~ away далеко; as - fable ['feibl] n басня, миф back as еще в ... (году) fabricate ['faebrikeit] v произво­ farther ['fa:69] a дальнейший, бо­ дить, изготавливать лее отдаленный fabricating ['faebrikeitiT|] n изго­ fashion ['faejan] n стиль, мода; ма­ товление, производство; - proces­ нера, способ ses производственные процессы fast [fa:st] a быстрый; adv быст­ fabrication [/aebri'keijen] n про­ ро; ~ acting = - operating быстро­ изводство, изготовление действующий face [feis] n лицо, поверхность, fasten ['fa:sn] v прикреплять, грань; V стоять лицом к чему- привязывать, сжимать либо, сталкиваться с чем-либо fault [fo:lt] n недостаток, дефект; facilitate [fe'siliteit] v облегчать повреждение, неисправность facility [fe'siliti] n оборудование, favourite ['feiverit] a любимый приспособление, аппаратура fear [fi9] n страх, боязнь, опасе­ fact [faekt] n факт; in - в действи­ ние тельности feature ['fi:^e] n особенность, ха­ factory ['faekteri] n завод, фабри­ рактерная черта ка; ~ grounds территория завода feed (fed) [fi:d, fed] v питать, по­ faculty ['faekelti] n факультет; давать (топливо, сырье); п подача преподавательский состав фа­ (материала), питание культета (амер.) feel (felt) [fi:l, felt] v чувствовать, fail [fell] V разрушаться, ломать­ сознавать, ощущать ся, не выполнять чего-либо, не feeling ['fi:liT|] n чувство, ощуще­ суметь сделать чего-либо, прова­ ние, сознание литься на экзамене female ['fhmeil] A женский failure ['feilje] п разрушение, по­ ferromagnetic ['fereumaeg'netik] вреждение, выход из строя a ферромагнитный, few [fju:] adv мало; a - несколько, flight [flait] п полет, перелет небольшое {число) flirt [fle:t] V флиртовать, кокетни­ fibre ['faibe] n волокно, нить; - чать structure волокнистая структура; ~ glass стекловолокно float [fleut] V плавать, держаться на поверхности воды; п поплавок fiction ['fikjen] n беллетристика, художественная литература; вы­ floor [flo:] п этаж, пол мысел flow [fleu] утечь, истекать; птече­ field [fi:ld] n область, отрасль, по­ ние ле {электрическое) flower ['flaue] п цветок, цветение; fight (fought) [fait, fo:t] v бороть­ V цвести ся; n борьба fluid ['flu:id] п жидкость; а жид­ fill [fil] V наполнять(ся); запол­ кий нять; - in заполнять fly (flew, flown) [flai, flu:, Лэип] film [film] n пленка, легкий слой, V летать; ~ up взлететь оболочка; фильм flying ['flaiiTi] n полет(ы); a лета­ final ['fainI] a окончательный, по­ тельный; - machine летательный следний, заютючительный; п -s аппарат выпускной экзамен flywheel ['flaiwl:!] n маховое колесо finally ['fainali] adv наконец, в за­ focus ['feukes] n (pi foci) фокус, ключение, в конце концов центр find (found) [faind, faund] v нахо­ дить; ~ out выяснить, обнару­ follow ['folau] V следовать (за), жить, понять следить, наблюдать (за), as ~s следующим образом finger ['fiTjge] n палец follower ['foleue] п последователь finish ['finij] V заканчивать following ['foleuiTi] а следующий; firearm ['fai9ra:m] n огнестрель­ the ~ day на следующий день; the ное оружие - year в будущем году; in the ~ way first [feist] a первый; at - сперва, следующим образом на первых порах, вначале; adv сна­ food [fu:d] п пища, питание, еда чала, прежде всего, впервые fisherman ['fijemen] п рыбак for [fo:] prp для, за, в течение; - а long time в течение долгого вре­ fit [fit] V приспосабливать, прила­ мени; - а number of years в тече­ живать, подгонять; ~ with снаб­ ние ряда лет;- example, - instance жать, оборудовать чем-либо например; ~ the first time впер­ fix [fiks] V устанавливать, закреп­ вые; ~ good навсегда; cj так как лять; ~ed неподвижный force [fo:s] п сила, действие; уда­ flame [fleim] п пламя вить, заставлять, вынуждать; to flat [flaet] а плоский; ~ battery be -d быть вынужденным разряженный аккумулятор foreign ['form] а иностранный, flexible ['fleksabi] а гибкий, гну­ посторонний щийся, эластичный forest ['forist] п лес, forget (forgot, forgotten) [fe'get, freshman ['frejmen] n первокурс­ fe'got, fe'gotn] v забывать ник fork [fo.k] n вилка friction ['frikjen] n трение form [fo:m]v придавать (прини­ front [fPAnt] a передний; n перед­ мать) форму, образовывать; няя сторона, фасад; in ~ of перед, п форма, вид; in the ~ of в виде впереди formal [7о:тэ1] а формальный, frost [frost] n мороз, иней официальный fruitful ['fruitful] a плодовитый, former ['fo:me] а прежний, быв­ плодотворный ший, первый {из двух)\ the - ... fuel [fjuel] n топливо the latter первый ... последний fulfil [ful'fil] V выполнять formula ['fo:mjula] (pi formulae full [ful] a полный rfo:mjuli:]) n формула fully ['full] adv полностью formulate ['fo:mjuleit] v формули­ ровать furnace ['feinis] n печь, топка fortification [/o:tifi'keiJen] n укре­ further ['fe.'Se] a более дальний, пление, фортификация дальнейший, добавочный fortune [То:^эп] n богатство, со­ стояние, удача forward ['fo:w9d] a передовой, пе­ game [geim] n игра редний; adv вперед gap [gaep] n пропуск, пробел, пус­ fossil ['fosl] n окаменелость, иско­ тое место паемое gas [gaes] n газ, бензин (амер.); found [faund] v основывать а газовый foundation [faun'deijen] n основа­ gasolene ['gaBseuli:n] п бензин; ние ~ powered бензиновый, работаю­ щий на бензине founder ['faunda] n основатель, основоположник gather ['даейэ] v собирать, соби­ раться, скапливаться fraction ['fraekjan] n доля, часть, дробь gear [gie] п шестерня, зубчатая передача; - wheel зубчатое коле­ frame [freim] n рама со, передача free [fri:] a свободный, бесплат­ general ['с^епэгэ!] а общий, глав­ ный; ~ of charge бесплатно ный, основной; ~ engineering sub­ freedom ['friidem] n свобода jects общетехнические дисцип­ freight [freit] n груз; a грузовой; лины; in - вообще ~ transport грузовые перевозки generally ['cfeenereli] adv обычно, frequency ['friikwensi] n частота; вообще; ~ speaking вообще говоря частотность generate ['cfeenereit] v вырабаты­ frequent ['fri.kwent] a частый; вать, производить, создавать часто посещаемый generation [^cfeene'reijen] п поко­ frequently ['fri:kwentli] aJv часто ление; получение, производство, generator ['dsenereite] n генератор a degree присуждать ученую сте­ genius ['d^iinjes] n гений пень gently ['cfeentli] adv мягко, вежливо gravitation [^graevi'teijen] n притя­ geography [dji'ogrefi] n география жение, тяготение gravity ['graeviti] n сила тяжести, get (got) [get, got] v получать, земное притяжение достигать; - an idea получить great [greit] a большой, великий, представление; ~ back вернуть­ ся; ~ interested заинтересоваться; крупный; а ~ number of очень ~ lost потеряться, заблудиться; много, большое число; to be of - off выходить, сходить; ~ out вы­ ~ importance иметь большое зна­ ходить; - ready готовиться, при- чение; to be of ~ interest представ­ готовить(ся); ~ sure убедиться; лять большой интерес ~ up встать; взобраться greatly ['greitli] adv очень, значи­ giant ['djaient] а громадный, ис­ тельно, в значительной степени полинский greet [grJ:t] v приветствовать, здо­ go (went, gone) [geu, went, gon] роваться V ходить, ездить; - away уходить; group [gru:p] п группа, тип - down опускаться; - on продол­ grow (grew, grown) [дгэи, gru:, жать, происходить; - out выхо­ дгэип] V расти; - into разрастать­ дить; ~ over (to smb.) пойти к ко­ ся, превращаться в му-либо, перейти; - through the growth [дгэиб] п рост university окончить университет; it goes without saying само собой guidance ['gaidens] п руково­ разумеется; to be going + Infinitive дство, наведение; ~ system систе­ собираться сделать что-то ма наведения gold [gauld] n золото, a золотой guide [gaid] п руководитель; v вес­ти, направлять good [gud] a хороший; a ~ deal of много; for ~ навсегда; - luck же­ Н лаю удачи govern Гдлуэп] v управлять, опре­ half [ha:f] п половина делять hall [ho:l] п зал government ['gAvnment] n прави­ hammer ['Иаетэ] п молот; v вби­ тельство вать, прибивать, стучать gown [gaun] n мантия (судьи) hand [haend] п рука; on the one ~ .graduate ['graedjueit] v окончить on the other ~ с одной стороны..., (учебное заведение); с другой стороны; v вручать ['graedjuet] n выпускник учебного заведения handle ['haendI] v обращаться с чем-либо, управлять, регулиро­ graduation [^graedju'eijen] n окон­ вать чание; - project дипломный про­ ект handling ['haendliTj] п обращение с чем-либо, транспортировка; - de­ gram [graem] n грамм vice транспортировочное сред­ grant [grcint] n стипендия; v да­ ство, устройство; - equipment вать, разрешать, предоставлять; - транспортировочное оборудова-, ние; - unit транспортировочное higher ['hai9] a высший; ~ educa­ устройство tion высшее образование; - school hang (hung) [hasTi, Илт]] v вешать, высшее учебное заведение подвешивать, висеть highway ['haiwei] n шоссе happen ['Ьаерэп] v происходить, historical [his'torikel] a историче­ случаться ский happy rhaepi] а счастливый history ['histeri] n история hard [ha:d] а твердый, трудный, hold (held) [heuld, held] v дер­ тяжелый; adv упорно, трудно жаться, удерживать; ~ a meeting hardly rha:dli] advQ^Ba, едва ли, с устраивать собрание; ~ a post за­ трудом нимать должность hole [haul] n дыра, отверстие hardness ['ha:dnis] п твердость hope [heup] n надежда; v надеять­ hardships ['ha:djip] п {pi) труд­ ся; ~ for the best надеяться на луч­ ности шее hate [heit] v ненавидеть horizontal [,horfzontl] a горизон­ head [hed] n голова, глава, руко­ тальный водитель; at the - of BO главе; horology [ho'rolecfei] n искусство V возглавлять измерения времени, часовое дело headlight ['hedlalt] n фара hose [heuz] п шланг health [he 19] n здоровье hostel ['hostel] п общежитие hear (heard) [hie, heid] услышать hot [hot] а горячий heart ['ha:t] я сердце, центр, ядро house [haus] п дом; v вмещать, размещать; to be -ed размещать­ heat [hi:t] n тепло, температура, ся, помещаться нагрев; v нагревать; - resisting жаропрочный; ~ treatment термо­ hover ['hove] v парить, зависать, обработка находиться в режиме парения heating ['hi:tir|] п нагревание how [hau] adv как, каким обра­зом; - far насколько {о расстоя­ heavy ['hevi] а тяжелый нии) ; ~ long сколько {о времени)', heel [hi:I] n пята - many сколько {по количеству)', height [halt] n высота, вершина - old сколько лет {о возрасте) helium ['hi:lj9m] n гелий however [hau'eve] adv однако; cj тем не менее help [help] n помощь; v помогать huge [hju:c!5] а огромный hence [hens] adv следовательно, hull [hAl] п корпус {корабля), кар­ отсюда кас hidden [hidn] pp скрытый human ['hjuimen] а человеческий; high [hai] a высокий; ~ tempera­ ~ life жизнь ture alloy жаропрочный сплав; humanity [hjui'maeniti] п челове­ - quality steel высокосортная (ка­ чество; the humanities гуманитар­ чественная) сталь ные науки, hydraulic [hai'dro.lik] a гидравли­ implement ['impliment] v выпол­ ческий нять, осуществлять, обеспечи­ hydraulics [hai'droiliks] n гидрав­ вать выполнение лика implementation [^implimen'teijen] hydrogen ['haidricfeon] n водород п осуществление, выполнение hypersonic ['haipoi'saunik] д ульт­ importance [im'poitons] п значе­ развуковой, сверхзвуковой ние, важность; to be of ~ иметь значение I important [im'poitont] а важный, idea [ai'dio] n мысль, представле­ значительный ние impose [im'peuz] v налагать (обя­ identical [ai'dentikol] a одинако­ зательство) вый, идентичный impossible [im'posabi] а невоз­ identify [ai'dentifai] v устанавли­ можный вать тождество, опознавать, ото­ impress [im'pres] v производить ждествлять впечатление; поражать i.e. = that is ['6aet 'iz] то есть impressible [im'presobi] а впечат­ ignite [ig'nait] v воспламенять ляющий, впечатлительный, вос­ ignition [ig'nijen] n воспламене­ приимчивый ние, зажигание impression [im'prejen] п впечатле­ illuminate [i'lju:mineit] v осве­ ние щать, иллюминировать imprint [im'print] v отпечатывать, image ['imids] n образ, изображе­ оставлять след ние improve [im'pruiv] vулучшать, со­ imagination [i^maed^i'neijen] n во­ вершенствовать ображение, фантазия improvement [im'pruivmont] n imagine [I'maedsin] v представлять улучшение, усовершенствование (себе), воображать impurity [im'pjuoriti] n загрязне­ immediately [I'miidjotli] adv не­ ние, примесь медленно, сразу же, непосредст­ венно in [in] prp в; - a year через год; ~ any case во всяком случае; ~ de­ immensely [I'mensli] adv чрезвы­ tail подробно; - order to (that) для чайно, очень, безмерно того, чтобы; ~ service в эксплуа­ impact ['impaekt] n удар, воздей­ тации; - spite of несмотря на; - ствие, толчок; а ударный the meantime между прочим, impassable [im'pa:sebl] а непро­ кстати; ~ time вовремя; ~ what way ходимый, непроезжий как, каким образом imperative [im'peretiv] а настоя­ inaccuracy [in'aekjuresi] а неточ­ тельный, императивный, обязы­ ность вающий inattentive [,ina'tentiv] а невнима­ imperfect [im'pe:fikt] а несовер­ тельный шенный inch [in^] п дюйм (2,54 см), incline [in'klain] v наклонять(ся), industrial [in'dAStri9l] а промыш­ склонять(ся) ленный, индустриальный; - train­ include [in'klu:d] v включать ing производственное обучение incomplete [,ink9m'pli:t] a непол­ industry rind9Stri] п промышлен­ ный, незавершенный ность inconvenient [,ink9nVi:nj9nt] a не­ ineffective [^ini'fectiv] а неэффек­ удобный тивный, безрезультатный incorporate [in'ko:p9reit] v соеди- inertia [i'n9:Jj9] п инерция нять(ся), объединять(ся), вклю­ inertness [i'n9:tnis] п инертность чать influence rinflu9ns] v влиять, воз­ incorrect [,ink9'rekt] a неправиль­ действовать; п влияние, воздей­ ный ствие increase [in'kri:s] v увеличи- inform [in'fo:m] v сообщать, ин­ вать(ся); ['inkri:s] n возрастание, формировать рост, увеличение, прибавление information [,inf9'meij9n] п сооб­ increasingly [in'kri:siT|Ii] adv все в щение большей степени inhabit [in'haebit] ужить, обитать, incredible [in'kredgbl] а невероят­ поселяться ный, неправдоподобный initial [i'nij9l] а начальный, пер­ indeed [in'di:d] adv действитель­ воначальный но, в самом деле initiate [I'nijieit] v вводить, поло­ indefinite [in'definit] а неопреде­ жить начало, приступить к че­ ленный, неограниченный му-либо independence [,indi'pend9ns] п не­ inject [in'cfeekt] v впрыскивать, зависимость вводить, впускать inlet ['inlet] п впуск, впускное от­ independent [,indi'pend9nt] а не­ верстие; ~ pipe впускная труба; зависимый - valve впускной клапан indestructible [,indis'trAkt9bl] а не­ input ['input] п ввод; - section уст­ разрушимый ройство для ввода информации indicate Tindikeit] v показывать, inside ['in'said] п внутренняя указывать часть; а внутренний; adv, ргр indicator ['indikeit9] п индикатор, внутрь, внутри указание, счетчик insist [in'sist] (on, upon) v настаи­ indirect [^indi'rekt] а косвенный, вать на чем-либо непрямой inspect [in'spekt] v осматривать, individual [,indi'vidju9l] а отдель­ проверять ный, индивидуальный install [in'sto:!] v устанавливать, induction [in'dAkj9n] п всасыва­ помещать, монтировать ние, индукция; - motor индукци­ installation [,inst9'leij9n] n уста­ онный мотор новка, сборка, instance ['instens] n пример; for ~ interdisciplinary [,inte,disi'plin8ri] например а междисциплинарный instant ['instant] n мгновение, interest ['intrist] п интерес; to be момент of ~ представлять интерес; to be instead [in'sted] adv вместо; ~ of ~ed in интересоваться чем-либо, вместо, взамен кем-либо; to get ~ed заинтересо­ ваться institute ['institju:t] v учреждать, основывать; n институт interesting ['intristiT|] a интерес­ный institution [,insti'tju:j9n] n учреж­ дение, общество interference [^inta'fiarens] n вме­шательство, препятствие, поме­ instruct [in'strAkt] V обучать, да­ ха, интерференция вать указания interior [шЧхэпэ] п внутренняя instruction [in'strAkJan] n обуче­ сторона; а внутренний ние, инструкция, указание, рас­ поряжение internal [in'tainl] а внутренний; ~ combustion engine двигатель insulate ['insuleit] v изолировать, внутреннего сгорания (ДВС) отделять interrelate [^intari'leit] v взаимо­ intake ['inteik] n впускное устрой­ связывать ство, впуск, всасывание interrupt [,int9'rApt] V прерывать integrate ['intigreit] v соединять, interval ['intevar] n промежуток, интегрировать, объединять перерыв, интервал intelligence [in'telidjens] n ум, ин­ interview ['intavju:] n беседа, ин­ теллект, разум тервью intend [in'tend] v намереваться, introduce [,intra'dju:s] v вводить, предполагать (сделать что-либо); внедрять предназначить invade [inVeid] v вторгаться, за­ intensify [in'tensifai] v усили- хватывать, оккупировать вать(ся) invent [inVent] v изобретать intensity [in'tensiti] п интенсив­ invention [inVenJan] n изобрете­ ность, напряженность ние intensive [in'tensiv] а интенсив­ investigate [in'vestigeit] v иссле­ ный, напряженный довать, расследовать intent [in'tent] а полный решимо­ investigation [in^vesti'geijan] n ис­ сти, целеустремленный следование, расследование intention [in'tenjan] п намерение investment [inVestmant] n капи­ interaction [^intar'aekjen] п взаи­ таловложение, помещение денег, модействие вклад interchangeable [^inta/^eincfeabl] invisible [in'vizabi] a невидимый а взаимозаменяемый invite [in'vait] v приглашать interconnect [^inta.ka'nekt] v свя- involve [inVolv] v вовлекать, вклю­ зывать(ся), взаимосвязывать чать в себя; ~d (in) связанный с, чем-либо, данный; to be ~d in kindergarten ['kind9,ga:tn] п дет­ быть связанным с чем-либо ский сад iron ['aian] п железо; чугун (амер.); knock [пок] V ударять(ся), сту­ а железный чать; ~ down сломать, разрушать; issue ['iju:] v выдавать сбить с ног item ['aitem] n пункт, параграф, know (knew, known) [neu, nju:, отдельный предмет пэип] V знать; ~n a известный knowledge ['nolicfe] n знания jam [djaem] п затор, «пробка»; V заклинивать(Ья), заедать jet [cfeet] п струя, сопло; а реак­ label Heibl] n ярлык, этикетка тивный; ~ engine реактивный laboratory = lab [le'boretari] n ла­ двигатель; - propelled реактивный боратория, a лабораторный; ^ as­ (самолет) sistant лаборант, препаратор job [cfeob] п работа, дело, задание; labour [1eib9] n труд, работа операция; деталь join [djoin] V присоединяться (к), lack [laek] v испытывать недоста­ заниматься (в), поступать; ~ to­ ток; нуждаться; не иметь, не хва­ gether соединять одно с другим тать, недоставать joint [cfeoint] п место соединения; lane [lein] п линия уличного дви­ стык; а общий, объединенный, жения; полоса дороги совместный land [laend] п земля, страна; а на­ journey ['cfeeini] п поездка, путе­ земный; V приземляться шествие language ['laerigwicfe] п язык junior ['dsuinje] а младший, юни- lantern [laenten] п фонарь орный large [la ids] ^ большой, крупный; а ~ variety самые разнообразные keep (kept) [ki:p, kept] удержать, largely rio.cfeli] adv в значитель­ сохранять; ~ in mind помнить, ной степени, широко иметь в виду; - + Gerund продол­ laser [1ei29] п лазер жать (делать) что-то; - on про- должать(ся) last [la:St] V продолжаться; а про­шлый, последний; - month (year и key [ki:] п ключ, а ключевой т.п.) в прошлом месяце ( году и kick [kik] п удар, толчок т.п.); ~ time в прошлый раз; at ~ kill [kil] V убивать наконец kilometer ['kileu^mi.te] п километр late [leit] а поздний; adv поздно; kind [kaind] п вид, тип, разновид­ to be - опаздывать; in the ~ sixties ность, сорт, класс, характер; all в конце 60-х годов; ~ег on позд­ ~s of всякие, самые разнообраз­ нее, потом, в дальнейшем ные; what - of какой; а ~ of что-то lately ['leitli] adv в последнее вре­ вроде; the - that такой, который мя, недавно, later ['leite] a более поздний; adv lifeboat ['laifbeut] n спасательная позже; - on позднее, после, шлюпка как-нибудь потом lifetime ['laiftaim] n продолжи­ latter (the latter) [laeta] a послед­ тельность жизни, целая жизнь; ний (из двух) срок службы latitude ['laetitjuid] n широта lift [lift] п поднятие, подъем; v laugh [la:f] v смеяться, рассме­ поднимать яться light [lait] п свет; (lit, lighted) [lit, launch [lo:n^] v запускать; n запуск laitid] V зажигать, зажигаться, law [lo:] n закон освещать, светить; а светлый; легкий lay (laid) [lei, leid] v класть, поло­ жить; ~ the foundation заложить lighten [1aitn] v облегчить, осве­ основу, фундамент щать lead lighting ['laitiTj] п освещение [led] n свинец; a свинцовый like [laik] v любить, нравиться; lead (led) [li:d, led] v вести, воз­ а подобный; to be ~ быть похо­ главлять, приводить к чему-либо жим; look ~ выглядеть как ... leader [1i:de] п руководитель likely [laikli] adv вероятно, воз­ learn (learnt) [1э:п, 1э:п1] v учить, можно научиться; узнавать что-либо, limit ['limit] v ограничивать; n пре­ овладевать чем-либо дел learning ['1э:п1г|] п учение, изуче­ limitation [Jimi'teijen] n ограни­ ние чение least [li:st] п наименьшее количе­ line [lain] n линия, строчка, чер­ ство; at ~ по крайней мере (по та; assembly - сборочная линия меньшей мере) linear ['lima] a линейный leave (left) [li:v, left] v уходить, link [liT|k] V связывать, соединять; уезжать, оставлять n звено, связь lecture [Чек^э] п лекция; v читать лекцию liquid [likwid] a жидкий; n жид­кость left [left] л левый list [list] n список, перечень length [1ет|0] п длина; отрезок, listen ['lisn] (to) слушать кусок lithium ['liGiem] n литий lengthy [1ет|01] а очень длинный, растянутый little ['litl] adv мало, немного; a небольшой, маленький; ~ by ^ lest [lest] с/чтобы ... не понемногу, постепенно let (let) [let] v давать, разрешать, livability [livebiliti] n пригод­ позволять; - ' s begin начнем; - ' s ность для жизни; условия, при­ go пойдемте емлемые (удобные) для жилья letter [1ete] n буква, письмо live [liv] V жить level [1evl] n уровень load [l9ud] V нагружать; п груз; lie (lay, lain) [lai, lei, lein] улежать ~ing загрузка, погрузка, local Г1эикэ1] a местный luxury [Члк/эп] п роскошь; боль­ locate [leu'keit] v поместить, рас­ шое удовольствие положить, определить местопо­ ложение М location [leu'keijen] n локация, machine [me'Jî n] v обрабатывать, обнаружение, определение ме­ подвергать механической обра­ стонахождения, размещение ботке; п машина, станок ; ~ build­ lock [lok] V запирать(ся); стопо­ ing машиностроение; ~ tool ста­ рить, блокировать нок logistics [lau'c^istik] п материаль­ madman ['maedman] п сумасшед­ но-техническое обеспечение ший, безумец long [1ог|] а длинный; adv долго; magazine [^maego'zi.n] «журнал ~ ago давно; - before задолго до ...; magnetic [maeg'netik] а магнит­ ~ distance communication дальняя ный связь; по -ег больше не magnificent [maeg'nifisnt] а вели­ longitude [londjitjuid] п долгота колепный, величественный longitudinal [Jond5i'tju:dinl] а про­ mail [meil] п почта, почтовая кор­ дольный респонденция, почтовое отправ­ longstanding Hori'staencliTi] а дав­ ление нишний main [mem] а основной, главный; look [luk] п взгляд, выражение the ~ thing самое главное лица, вид; v смотреть, выглядеть mainly ['meinli] adv главным об­ ~ at смотреть; - for искать; - upon разом смотреть как на..., рассматривать как...; ~ up искать в словаре; - maintain [mein'tein] v поддержи­ here! послушайте! ~ like быть по­ вать; обслуживать, содержать в хожим исправности lorry Поп] п грузовой автомо­ maintenance ['meintanens] п со­ биль, грузовик хранение в исправности, техни­ческое обслуживание; эксплуата­ lose (lost) [lu:z, lost] утерять, ли­ ция шаться major ['meicfee] а главный, основ­ loss [los] n потеря ной lot [lot] a lot of = very much очень majority [ma'cfeoriti] п большин­ много ство love [IAV] V любить make (made) [meik, meid] v де­ low [leu] a низкий; ~er нижний лать, производить, изготовлять, lower [1эиэ] V спускать {шлюпку, заставлять; - difficult затруднять; парус, флаг)', снижать - every effort приложить все уси­ lubrication [Ju'.bri'keijen] п смазка лия; - friends подружиться; - sure убедиться; ~ up one's mind при­ luck [1лк] п везение, удача нять решение; - use of использо­ lunar [1и:пэ] а лунный ; ~ motion вать; - up составлять, собирать, движение Луны комплектовать, management ['mdenidjment] n means [mi:ns] n средство, способ, управление, заведование, прав­ устройство; by - of посредством, ление, дирекция, администрация при помощи; by no - ни под ка­ maneuver [me'nuive] v маневриро­ ким предлогом, ни за что; by all - вать любым способом, обязательно mankind [maen'kaind] n человече­ meanwhile ['mi:n'wail] adv тем ство временем; между тем manned [maend] pp (от man) пило­ measure ['тезэ] п мера; to take ~s тируемый {человеком), с людьми принимать меры; v измерять на борту, обитаемый measuring ['тезэпт!] а измери­ manner ['таепэ] п способ, образ тельный; - devices измеритель­ действия, манера; in а - different ные приборы from не так, как ..., иным спосо­ measurement ['тезэтэги] п изме­ бом, по-другому рение manufacture [,maenju'faek^a] v про­ medicine ['medsin] п медицина изводить, обрабатывать, изготов­ medium ['mi:djэm] п среда {веще­ лять; п производство, изготовле­ ство) ние, обработка meet (met) [mi:t, met] v встре­ manufacturer [^maenju'faek^ere] чаться, знакомиться; ~ the re­ п изготовитель, производитель quirements (demands, needs) удов­ marine [me'riin] а морской, судо­ летворять требованиям вой meeting ['mr.tiTi] n собрание; to hold mark [ma:k] п отметка; vотмечать a - устраивать собрание marking Гта:к1Т|] п разметка, от­ melt [melt] n расплавленный ме­ метка, маркировка талл, расплав; v плавить(ся) mass [maes] п масса; а массовый; member ['тетЬэ] n член, часть, - production массовое производ­ деталь, элемент конструкции ство memorial [mi'moiriel] п памятник, master ['mcste] v овладевать мемориал match [mae^] v соответствовать, memory [ 'тетэп] л память, запо­ подходить минающее устройство ЭВМ material [тэЧхэпе!] n материал; mention ['menjen] v упоминать; a существенный, значительный п упоминание; ~ should be made mathematics [̂ maeGi'maetiks] n ма­ следует упомянуть тематика mercury ['m9:kjuri] п ртуть matter ['maete] n вещество, дело, metallurgist [me'taeiddjist] п ме­ вопрос таллург meal [mi:I] n принятие пищи, еда metallurgy [me'tael9cfei] п метал­ mean (meant) [mi:n, ment] v озна­ лургия чать; a средний meter ['mi:t9] п метр, измеритель, meaning ['mi:niT|] n значение, датчик смысл method ['me09d] п метод, способ, microchip ['maikreu^ip] n микро­ moreover [mo/rouve] adv кроме схема, микрокристалл того, более того middle ['midI] a средний; n сере­ most [meust] п большая часть, дина наибольшее количество; ~ of mile [mail] n миля большинство, большая часть; military ['militeri] a военный - widely used самый распростра­ненный; adv наиболее, более mind [maind] n память, мнение, всего мысль; to keep in ~ помнить, иметь в виду; never - ничего, не mostly ['maustli] adv главным об­ обращайте внимания, не беда разом, большей частью minute ['minit] п минута motion ['moujen] п движение minute [mai'nju:t] а мелкий, кро­ motor ['mouto] п мотор, двига­ хотный, мельчайший тель, автомобиль; - саг автомо­биль (легковой) missile ['misail] п ракета, снаряд mission ['mijen] п миссия, цель, motorway ['moutowei] п автостра­ задача; полет да, автомагистраль mistake [mis'teik] п ошибка; to be mount [maunt] v устанавливать, ~n ошибаться монтировать mixture ['miks^o] n смесь mounting ['mauntiTi] п монтаж, сборка, установка mobile ['maubail] a подвижный, мобильный, передвижной move [mu:v] v двигаться, передви­гаться, переезжать; ~ down опус­ mobility [mou'biliti] n подвиж­ каться; to be on the - находиться в ность, мобильность движении modest ['modist] a скромный, уме­ movement ['muivmont] л движение ренный much [тл^] а много; - more гораз­ modular ['modjule] a модульный до больше modul(e) ['modju:!] n модуль, multitude ['mAltitju:d] п множест­ блок; модульный отсек; ~ drive во, большое число привод модуля money ['тлш] п деньги mural ['mjuorol] п фресковая жи­вопись, фреска monitor ['monita] п староста; кон­ трольное устройство, контроль­ mysterious [mis'tiorios] а таинст­ но-измерительное устройство, венный, непостижимый монитор; V осуществлять теку­ щий контроль, контролировать N monitoring ['monitorirj] п кон­ nail [neil] п гвоздь троль name [neim] п имя; v называть; moor [тиэ] v причаливать, при- - after называть в честь кого-то швартовывать(ся) namely ['neimli] adv а именно, то more or less [то:(г)э1е$] adv более есть или менее; more than более чем natural ['nae^rol] а естественный, nature Гпех^э] n природа, тип, notebook ['neutbuk] п записная вид книжка, тетрадь navigation [^naevi'geijen] п море­ nothing ['пле1Г|] ничего; - to be done ходство, судоходство, навигация ничего нельзя сделать navy ['neivi] п военно-морской notice ['neutis] v замечать флот not only... but also ['not enli bet' near [шэ] adv около, близко o:ls9u] не только ..., но и nearly ['niali] adv почти novelty ['novelti] n новизна, но­ necessary ['nesiseri] a необходи­ вость, новинка, нововведение, мый новшество necessity [ni'sesiti] n необходи­ now [паи] adv теперь, сейчас мость nowadays ['nauedeiz] adv в на­ need [ni:d] n необходимость, v ну­ стоящее время, теперь ждаться nowhere ['neuwse] adv нигде needle ['ni:dl] n игла, стрелка nuclear ['nju:klie] a ядерный; - en­ negative ['negetiv] a отрицатель­ gineering ядерная техника; ~ power ный ядерная энергия network ['netwe:k] n сеть, сетка nucleus ['njuiklies] n (jpl nuclei) ядро, центр, атомное ядро never ['neve] adv никогда; ~ mind ничего, не обращайте внимания number ['плтЬэ] п номер, число; а ~ of ряд, несколько; in а - of new [nju:] о новый; -man новичок ways несколькими способами; news [nju:z] n новость, новости V насчитывать newspaper ['njuis^peipe] n газета numerical [nju/merikel] а число­ next [nekst] a следующий; ~ year в вой следующем году numerous ['nju:meres] а много­ nickel ['nikl] n монетав5центов численный night [nait] n ночь О non-traditional ['nontra'dijenl] a obey [e'bei] v повиноваться нетрадиционный object ['obcfeikt] n предмет, допол­ nose [neuz] n нос, носовая перед­ няя часть {лодки, самолета, ма­ нение; [eb'cfeekt] v возражать, шины) протестовать notable ['neutebl] а заметный, observation [,obze:VeiJen] n на­ значительный, достопримеча­ блюдение тельный observatory [eb'ze:vetri] n обсер­ notation [neu'teijen] п binary ~ ватория двоичная система изображения observe [eb'ze:v] v наблюдать чисел obtain [eb'tein] v получать, при­ note [neut] v делать заметки, за­ обретать писывать, отмечать, обращать obvious ['obvies] a очевидный, яв­ внимание, замечать ный, ясный, occasion [э'кехзэп] n случай; on the opportunity [,op9'tju:niti] п воз­ ~ no случаю можность occupy ['okjupai] v занимать; to be oppose [э'рэиг] v противодейст­ occupied быть занятым вовать, возражать occur [э'кэ:] v происходить, слу­ opposite ['opezit] а противопо­ чаться, иметь место ложный ocean ['eujen] п океан opposition [,орэ'21/эп] п противо­ offer ['ofe] V предлагать, выражать действие, оппозиция, сопротив­ готовность ление office ['ofis] п контора, кабинет; oppress [э'ргез] v угнетать post ~ почта, почтовое отделение oppressive [9'presiv] а гнетущий, official [a'fijel] п чиновник, а угнетающий, тягостный официальный optical ['орПкэП а оптический; often ['ofn] adv часто - fiber оптическое волокно oil ['oil] n масло, смазка; v смазы­ optics ['optiks] п оптика вать oral ['о:гэ1] а устный old [euId] a старый; how - сколько orange ['orinds] а оранжевый лет orbit ['о:bit] п орбита on [on] prp на, при, по; - the occa­ order ['o:d9] in - to, in ~ that для sion no случаю; ~ the other hand с того, чтобы другой стороны; - the part of со ordinary ['o:dnri] a обычный стороны; ~ the way no дороге, no organization [^o:g9nai'zeij9n] n ор­ пути; onward вперед, дальше ганизация once [wAHs] adv однажды, один organize ['о:дэпа1г] v организовы­ раз; ~ again, ~ more еще раз; at - вать сразу; ~ a week раз в неделю origin ['oridjin] n возникновение, one [wAn] ~ another друг друга; ~ by происхождение, начало - no одному, постепенно; - day original [э'г1с!59п1] a самостоя­ однажды; ~ more еще один; ~ thing тельный, первоначальный одно other ['лбэ] а другой; others п дру­ only ['eunli] a единственный; the гие, остальные ~ way единственный способ; not ~ ... but also не только ..., но и otherwise ['A69waiz] adv иными словами, иначе, в противном open ['эйрэп] а открытый, v от- случае крывать(ся) ought [o:t] V модальный глагол, вы­ operate ['орэгехг] v действовать, ражающий долженствование работать, приводить в действие outer ['aut9] а внешний, наруж­ operation [,op9'reij9n] п работа, ный; - space космическое про­ операция, действие странство, космос operator ['орэге11э] п рабочий, outline ['autlain] п очертание; vo6- оператор рисовывать(ся), очерчивать, опи­ opinion [э'pInjэn] п мнение сывать, output Tautput] n производитель­ part [pa:t] п часть, деталь; to take ность, выход (продукции) - принимать участие outside ['auf said] a внешний, на­ partial ['po'.Jel] а частичный ружный; adv снаружи partially ['pa:Jeli] at/v частично outstanding [aut'staendiT|] a вы­ particle ['pa:tikl] n частица дающийся, знаменитый particular [pe'tikjule] a особен­ over ['9UV8] prp no, над, выше; to be ный, данный, определенный; in ~ ~ оканчиваться в особенности, в частности overall ['euvero:!] a полный, об­ particularly [pe'tikjueli] adv осо­ щий, предельный, всеобщий; п бенно, в особенности спецодежда, комбинезон pass [pa:s] v проходить; - exami­ overcome (overcame) [,эиУ9'клт, nations сдавать экзамены ^euva'keim] v преодолевать passage ['paesicfe] n абзац, проход overestimate ['euver'estimeit] v passenger ['paesincfee] n пассажир; переоценивать ~ car легковой автомобиль overload ['euveleud] v перегру­ passive ['paesiv] a пассивный жать past [poist] a прошлый, прошед­ owing to reunite] prp благодаря, ший; adv через, сквозь, мимо вследствие path [ра:0] п путь, дорога, на­ own [eun] a собственный; v вла­ правление деть, иметь pathway ['pa:6wei] п траектория; рабочий мостик (для сообщений) pattern ['paeten] п модель, обра­ pack [раек] n пакет, пачка, связка, зец кипа, вьюк pave [peiv] v - the way проклады­ package ['paekicfe] п пакет, модуль, вать путь, подготавливать почву программный пакет (для проведения чего-либо) paint [peint] v писать красками, pay (paid) [pei, peid] v платить; красить, окрашивать ~ attention обращать внимание; painter ['peinte] п художник, жи­ n плата, выплата, заработная плата вописец payload ['peileud] п полезная на­ palace ['раеlis] п дворец грузка panel ['paeni] п панель; щит управ­ peace [pi:s] п мир ления, приборная панель pearl [ре:1] п жемчуг paper ['peipe] п бумага, статья; peculiar [pi'kju.lje] а особый а бумажный peculiarity [pi,kju:li'aeriti] п осо­ parents ['peerents] п родители бенность, отличительная черта park [ра:к] v поставить на дли­ pedagogical [^pede'godjikei] а пе­ тельную стоянку (автомашину) дагогический parking ['pa:kir|] п стоянка, сто­ penetrate ['penitreit] v проникать янка автотранспорта people ['pi:pl] n люди, народ, per [рэ:] prp за, в, на; - hour (mile) pick up [рхк'лр] V собирать, подоб­ в час, на милю и т. п. рать per cent [pe'sent] п процент picture ['pik^e] n картина, изо­ perfect ['p9:fikt] а прекрасный, бражение совершенный piece [pi.s] n деталь, узел, кусок, perfect [pe'fekt] v усовершенство­ устройство вать, улучшать pillow ['pilau] n подушка perform [pe'fo:m] v выполнять pilot ['pallet] V пилотировать; n performance [pe'fo:mans] n харак­ пилот теристика {работы машины); по­pipe [paip] n труба, трубка ведение piston ['pisten] n поршень perhaps [pe'haeps] acfv может быть place [pleis] v помешать period ['pieried] n срок, период, plan [plaen] v планировать, пред­ время полагать periodical [,pi9ri'odilol] a перио­ planning ['plaeniTj] n планирова­ дический (закон) ние, проектирование periodicity [,pi9ri8'disiti] n перио­ plane [plein] n плоскость, a пло­ дичность ский permanent ['рэ:тэпэп1] a посто­ plane [plein] = aeroplane ['eereplein] янный n самолет permission [pe'mi/эп] n разрешение planet ['plaenit] n планета permit [pe'mit] v разрешать planetary ['plaeniteri] a планетный, persist [persist] v настаивать, про­ планетарный должать plant [pla:nt] n растение; завод, person ['pe:sn] n человек фабрика; установка, агрегат personal ['pa:snl] a личный plate [pleit] п пластинка, плитка petrol ['petrel] n бензин platform ['plaetfo:m] п платформа phase [feiz] n фаза, стадия, сте­ play [plei] V играть; - role играть пень роль phenomenon [fi'nominen] n (/?/phe­ please [pli:z] пожалуйста; to be ~d nomena) явление быть довольным philosophy [fi'losefi] n философия pleasure ['р1езе] п удовольствие Ph.D. ['pi'ei^'di:] доктор филосо­ plug [р1лд] v~ in закупоривать, за­ фии (ученое звание) тыкать; п пробка, стопор;spark -свеча зажигания photo ['fauteu] n фотография p.m. (post meridiem) adv после по­ photographic [/auta'graefik] a фо­ лудня, пополудни тографический pocket ['pokit] п карман physical ['fizikal] a физический point [point] п конец, острие, точ­ physicist ['fizisist] n физик ка, вопрос; V - out указывать physics ['fiziks] n физика pole [peul] п полюс, policy ['polisi] n политика practically ['praektikali] adv прак­ polite [pa'lait] a вежливый тически pollute [p9'lu:t] V загрязнять practice ['praektis] n практика pollution [pe'lujen] n загрязнение pre-arranged ['pri-.a'reincfed] a пре­ polygon ['poligen] n много­ дусмотренный, заранее состав­ угольник ленный popular ['popjule] a популярный, precede [pri:'si:d] vпредшествовать общественный precision [pri'si3an] n точность population [^popju'leijen] n жите­ predetermined ['prr.di'taimind] a за­ ли, население. ранее установленный, предопре­ portable ['po:t9bl] a портативный, деленный переносной, передвижной; съем­ predict [pri'dikt] v предсказывать, ный прогнозировать position [pe'zijen] n место, пост, prediction [pri'dikjan] n предпо­ должность, позиция ложение, предсказание possess [p9'zes] v обладать prefer [pri'fa:] v предпочитать possibility [,posa'biliti] n возмож­ preliminary [priliminari] a пред­ ность варительный possible ['posabi] a возможный; as premium ['pri.mjam] n премия, на­ much as ~ как можно больше града post [peust] n почта; свая, под­ preparation [,prepa'reijan] n под­ порка готовка postmaster ['peust,moista] n на­ prepare [pri'psa] v подготавли­ чальник почты вать, готовить postoffice rpaust,ofis] n почтовое preparatory [pri'paeratari] a под­ отделение, почта готовительный, предваритель­ный pound [paund] n фунт (453 г) presence ['prezns] n присутствие, power ['paua] n мощность, энер­ наличие гия, способность, власть; - gene­ ration производство энергии; present [pri'zent] v представлять ~ engineer инженер-энергетик; ~ (статью, доклад) engineering энергомашинострое­ present ['preznt] a присутствую­ ние; ~ plant электростанция, си­ щий; to be ~ присутствовать; ~ day ловая установка; - station элек­ a современный, настоящий; at ~ тростанция; ~ source источник в настоящее время энергии; а силовой, энергетиче­ preset [,pri:'set] a заранее уста­ ский новленный, заданный, програм­ powerful Tpauaful] а мощный, мированный сильный pressure ['preja] n давление; - practical ['praektikal] а практиче­ measuring device манометр ский; ~ training практика, прак­ prevent [priVent] v мешать, пре­ тические занятия дотвращать, previous rpri:vj9s] a предшест­ program(me) ['preugraem] n про­ вующий грамма, составлять программу; previously ['pri:vj9sli] adv предва­ программировать рительно programmable ['preugraemebi] price [prais] n цена a программируемый, с програм­ prime mover ['praim 'mu:v9] n пер­ мным управлением вичный двигатель progress ['preugres] п прогресс, primitive ['primitiv] a простой, успех, развитие примитивный project ['procfeekt] п проект; principal ГрппБэрэ!] a главный [рг9'С|зек1] V проектировать обду­мывать план principle ['prinsepi] n принцип projectile ['prodsiktail] п реактив­ print [print] n гравюра, эстамп ный снаряд priority [prai'oriti] n приоритет, prolonged [pr9u'lor|d] /?/? продлен­ порядок срочности (очередно­ ный; затянувшийся, длительный сти) prominent ['promin9nt] а выдаю­ private ['praivit] a частный, лич­ щийся ный promise ['promis] v обещать; п privately ['praivitli] adv частным обещание образом promising ['promisiTj] многообе­ prize [praiz] n премия, награда щающий, подающий надежды probe [preub] n проба, зонд; авто­ promptly ['promptli] adv сразу, матическая исследовательская быстро, точно ракета (станция) proof [pru:f] п доказательство problem ['ргэиЫэт] п задача; проблема propagation [,prop9'geij9n] п рас­пространение (движения), про­ proceed [pre'siid] v продолжать, движение продвигаться вперед; ~ to а degree получать ученую степень propel [рг9'ре1] V приводить в движение, продвигать вперед, process [presses] v обрабатывать; толкать ['pr9uses] п процесс propellant [pre'pelent] п топливо, processing [pr9'sesir|] п обработка горючая смесь, горючее produce [pr9'dju:s] v производить, proper ['ргор9] а правильный, создавать надлежащий producer [pr9'dju:s9] n произво­ properly ['prop9li] adv надлежа­ дитель, изготовитель щим образом product ['prodAkt] n продукт, из­ property ['prop9ti] п свойство делие, продукция proportion [pr9'po:j9n] п пропор­ production [pr9'dAkj9n] n произ­ ция, соотношение; in ~ пропор­ водство ционально productivity [^prodAk'tiviti] n про­ propose [prg'peuz] v предлагать, изводительность вносить предложение, propulsion [ргэ'рл1/эп] «движение вперед, толчок qualification [^kwolifi'keijen] n prospects Tprospekts] п возмож­ квалификация ности, перспективы qualified ['kwolifaid] a квалифи­ prospective [pres'pektiv] а пред­ цированный полагаемый, ожидаемый, отно­ quality ['kwoliti] n качество сящийся к будущему, будущий quantitative ['kwontitetiv] a коли­ protect [pre'tekt] v защищать чественный protection [pra'tekjen] n защита quantity ['kwontiti] n количество proton ['preuton] n протон question ['kwes^en] n вопрос; in ~ prove [pru:v] v доказывать, оказы­ рассматриваемый (данный) во­ ваться прос provide [preVaid] v снабжать questionable ['kwes^enebl] a со­ provided [preVaidid] cj в том слу­ мнительный, подозрительный чае, если quick [kwik] a быстрый public ГрлЫхк] а общественный, quiet ['kwaiet] a спокойный, ти­ народный хий publication [^pAbli'keiJen] п опуб­ quite [kwait] adv вполне; ~ a num­ ликование, издание ber довольно много publish ['pAbliJ] V издавать, опуб­ ликовывать pulley Tpuli] п шкив, блок race [reis] n состязание, гонка pump [рлтр] п насос, помпа; v radar ['reide] n радар накачивать radiate ['reidieit] v излучать, рас­ punch [рлп^] V пробивать отвер­ ходиться из центра стие, штамповать; п пробойник, radiation [/eidi'eijen] n радиация пуансон radically ['raedikeli] at/v коренным punching ['рлп 1̂Г|] п перфориро­ образом вание, пробивание (отверстий); штамповка radio ['reidieu] n радио; - engi­neering радиотехника; ~ receiver = pupil rpju'.pl] «ученик, учащийся - set радиоприемник pure [pjue] а чистый random ['raendem] a случайный; purity rpjueriti] п чистота, бес­ беспорядочный примесность range [reincfe] n радиус действия, purpose Грэ:рэ$] п цель, назначе­ расстояние, ряд, диапазон; v про­ ние стираться, колебаться в извест­ push [puJ] V толкать; ~ out вытал­ ных пределах; close - на близком кивать расстоянии put (put) [put] V класть; - down за­ rapid ['raepid] а быстрый писать; - into effect осуществ­ rate [reit] п темп; скорость; twice лять; - into service пустить в экс­ the ~ в два раза быстрее; at any ~ плуатацию во всяком случае, rather ['га:бэ] adv весьма, до­ reconstruct ['riikans'trAkt] v ре­ вольно, очень; - than а не ... конструировать, переделывать, ratio ['reijieu] п отношение, соот­ восстанавливать ношение record [ri'ko:d] v записывать, ре­ гау [rei] п луч; cathode- -tube элек­ гистрировать; ['reko:d] n запись тронно-лучевая трубка recreation [/ekri'eijan] n восста­ reach [ri:^] v достигать новление сил, отдых read (read) [ri:d, red] v читать recycle [ri:'saikl] v повторить readily ['redili] adv охотно цикл; возвратить в исходное со­ reading ['rJ:diT|] n чтение; ~ room стояние; перерабатывать читальня reduce [ri'dju.s] v уменьшать, ready снижать ['redi] a готовый; to be - быть готовым; to get - готовиться reduction [ri'dAkJan] п снижение, к чему-либо уменьшение real [rial] a действительный, на­ re-entry [ri:'entri] п вход, возвра­ стоящий щение в плотные слои атмосфе­ры reality [rj/aeliti] n действитель­ ность, реальность refer [ri'fe:] v ссылаться, упоми­нать realize ['rialaiz] v понимать, от­ четливо представлять, осуществ­ reference book ['refrens buk] n лять справочник really ['rieli] flcfv действительно, в reflect [ri'flekt] v отражать(ся), самом деле размышлять rear [пэ] а задний reflection [ri'flekjen] n отражение rearward ['riewed] л^у назад, в об­ refuse [ri'fju:z] v отказывать(ся) ратном направлении regard [ri'gaid] v рассматривать, reason ['ri:zn] п причина считать, полагать reasonable ['riiznebl] а разумный, regulate ['regjuleit] v регулиро­ приемлемый вать, упорядочивать receive [ri'si:v] v получать relate [ri'leit] v рассказывать, свя­зывать, относить к чему-либо receiver [ri'si:v9] n приемник relation [ri'leijen] п отношение, recent ['ri:snt] a последний, не­ соотношение, взаимосвязь, род­ давний ство recently ['riisntli] at/v недавно relative ['relativ] а относительный recognition [/ekeg'nijen] n при­ relatively ['relativli] adv сравни­ знание тельно, относительно recognize ['rekegnaiz] v призна­ вать relativity [/ela'tiviti] п относи­тельность, теория относительно­ recollect [/ekelekt] v вспоминать сти recommendation [/ekemen'deijan] relax [ri'laeks] v расслабляться, n рекомендация снижать напряжение, reliability [rijaie'biliti] n надеж­ вести исследовательскую работу; ность a научно-исследовательский reliable [ri'laiebl] a надежный, resemble [ri'zembi] v походить, прочный иметь сходство rely [ri1ai] (on, upon) v полагаться resist [ri'zist] V сопротивляться; (па) оказывать сопротивление remain [ri'mein] v оставаться resistance [ri'zistens] n сопротив­ remains [ri'meinz] n остатки ление remarkable [ri'moikebl] a замеча­ resistant [ri'zistent] a heat ~ теп­ тельный, выдающийся лостойкий remember [ri'membe] v помнить resistivity [/izis'tiviti] n удельное remote [ri'meut] a отдаленный, сопротивление дистанционный, действующий resolve [ri'zolv] урешать(ся), при­ на расстоянии; ~ controlled с дис­ нимать решение танционным управлением resource [ri'so:s] n источник, ре­ remove [ri'mu:v] v удалять, сни­ сурс мать respect [ris'pekt] n отношение; in renewal [ri'njuiel] п возрождение, all ~s BO всех отношениях; in this - обновление в этом отношении; in many ~ во repair [п'реэ] v обновлять, вос­ многих отношениях; with - to что станавливать, ремонтировать касается repeat [ri'pj.t] v повторять responsible [ris'ponsebl] a ответ­ replace [ri'pleis] v заменять, вы­ ственный; to be - for отвечать за теснять что-либо replenish [ri'plenij] v снова напол­ rest [rest] n покой, отдых; the - нять, пополнять остальное, остаток reply [ri'plai] n ответ; v отвечать restore [ris'to:] v восстанавли- report [ri'po:t] vдокладывать; «до­ вать(ся) клад result [ri'zAlt] n результат; v - in represent [/epri'zent] v представ­ приводить к чему-либо; ^ from лять, изображать быть результатом чего-либо representative [/epri'zentetiv] n retain [ri'tein] v удерживать, со­ представитель; a характерный, хранять, поддерживать показательный retire [ri'taie] v уходить в отставку require [ri'kwaie] v требовать (на пенсию) requirement [ri'kwaiement] n тре­ retrieve [ri'triiv] v отыскивать (ин­ бование формацию) rescue ['reskju:] ~ craft спасатель­ return [ri't9:n] v возвращаться; n ное судно возвращение; a обратный research [ri'se:^] v исследовать; n reveal [ri'vi:l] v показывать, обна­ исследовательская работа; do ~ руживать, reverse [riVa:s] v поворачиваться в противоположную сторону safe [self] а безопасный, надеж­ revision [riVisen] л повторение, ный обзор safely ['seifli] adv благополучно rich [ri^] а богатый safety ['seifti] n безопасность; right [rait] а правый, правиль­ - device предохранительное уст­ ный; п право; - kind of правиль­ ройство; - measures меры безо­ ный; - on сразу ; in the - way пра­ пасности, меры предосторожно­ вильно сти; - warning сигнал предупреж­ ring [riri] f^ кольцо дения rise (rose, risen) [raiz, reuz, 'rizn] sail [sell] v плыть под парусами; V подниматься, увеличиваться, - boat парусное судно вставать sailor ['seile] п матрос road [reud] n дорога same [seim] а такой же; the - то rocket ['rokit] n ракета; a реактив­ же самое; in the ~ way так же, та­ ный, ракетный ким же способом roll [raul] V прокатывать; вальце­ sample ['sa:mpl] п образец, проба вать sand [saend] п песок roller ['raule] n ролик; валик satellite ['saetelait] п спутник rolling ['rauliT]] n прокатка, валь­ satisfactory [,saetis'faekt9ri] а удов­ цевание; a роликовый; вращаю­ летворительный щийся; поворотный satisfy ['saetisfai] v удовлетворять roof [ru:f] n крыша rotary ['гэuteri] a вращательный, save [seiv] v экономить, спасать ротационный saving ['seiviT|] a экономный, бе­ round [raund] a круглый; adv во­ режливый; n экономия, сбереже­ круг ние, спасение route [ru:t] n маршрут, курс, путь, scale [skeil] n масштаб, шкала, дорога размер row [reu] n ряд scan [skaen] vразлагать изображе­ние, сканировать, пристально ruin [ruin] n гибель, крушение; разглядывать, изучать V разрушать, разорять scanning ['skaeniri] п развертка, rule [ru:l] n власть, правило; as a - сканирование как правило; v править, управ­ лять scarcely ['skeesli] adv едва, как только run (ran, run) [глп, raen, глп] убе­ жать, бегать; работать (о маши- scattered ['skaeted] а разбросан­ не), действовать, эксплуатиро­ ный вать; ~ing engine работающий schedule ['Jedjuil] п график, план двигатель scheme [ski:m] п схема, план rural ['гиэгэ!] а сельский, дере­ scholar ['skole] п ученый; образо­ венский ванный человек, school [sku:l] n школа; училище; send (sent) [send, sent] v посы­ научное направление лать; отправлять; передавать (no science ['saions] n наука радио); - back возвращать; - for scientific [^saion'tifik] a научный посылать за чем-либо (кем-либо) scientist ['saiontist] n ученый senior ['si:nj8] п старший; студент последнего курса; ~ assistant screen [skrj:n] n экран, щит, пере­ старший преподаватель в универ­ городка; V защищать, отгоражи­ ситете вать, прикрывать sense [sens] п чувство, ощущение screw [skru:] п винт; vзавинчивать sensitive ['sensitiv] а чувствитель­ sea [si:] п море; а морской ный, восприимчивый seagoing rsiî geuiT]] п мореходст­ во sensor ['sense] п сенсор, датчик seal [si:l] п изоляция; v изолиро­ sensory ['senseri] а чувствитель­ вать; запечатывать ный, сенсорный seaman ['si:men] п моряк separate ['seporeit] уотделять(ся), разъединять(ся); ['seprit] а от­ search [зэ:^] п поиск; исследова­ ние; изыскание; v искать, иссле­ дельный довать sequence ['si:kw9ns] п последова­ seat [si:t] п место для сидения, тельность; ход событий сиденье; v усаживать, сесть, са­ series ['si9ri:z] п ряд, серия; а - of диться несколько, ряд secondary ['sekondori] а средний serious ['siories] а серьезный; (об образовании) важный section ['sekjon] п разрез, сече­ serve [S9:v] v служить ние, профиль, отдельная деталь, service ['so:vis] n служба, заслуги, узел (машины), блок эксплуатация; v обслуживать; in ~ seem [si:m] v казаться в эксплуатационных условиях seize [si:z] v схватывать, ухватить session ['sejon] n заседание, сес­ seldom ['seldam] f̂lfv редко сия select [si'lekt] v выбирать set [set] n набор, комплект, уста­ self-governing ['seifgAvoniTj] a са­ новка, приемник; v помещать, моуправляющийся устанавливать; ~ а task поставить перед кем-либо задачу; начи­ self-moving ['self mu:vir|] a само­ наться, наступать, устанавли­ движущийся ваться; - in motion приводить в self-propelled ['seifpre'peld] a са­ движение; ~ up учреждать, уста­ моходный навливать, организовывать sell (sold) [sel, seud] v продавать settlement ['setlmont] п поселе­ semiconductor ['semiken'dAkto] n ние, колония полупроводник; a полупровод­ several ['sevrel] а несколько; никовый ^ times несколько раз, severe [si'vie] a жесткий, тяже­ show (showed, shown) [Jau, Jeud, лый, сильный; - stresses большие 'Jeun] V показывать напряжения shower ['Jaue] n душ sewing ['seuiTi] n шитье shut (shut) [jAt] V затворять; за­ shaft [Joift] n вал, ось крывать shake (shook, shaken) [Jeik, Juk, 7eikn] V качать(ся), потрясать; side [said] n сторона, бок; a бо­ковой ~ hands пожать руки; - one's head покачать головой в знак отрица­ sight [salt] n вид ния; to be -en быть потрясенным sign [sain] V подписывать shape [Jeip] n форма, очертание, signal ['signI] n сигнал; v сигнали­ конфигурация; v придавать фор­ зировать, подавать сигнал му signature ['signi^e] n подпись share [/8э] п часть, доля; ~ of data significance [sig'nifikans] n значе­ обмен данными ние, значимость sharp [Ja:p] а резкий; острый significant [sig'nifikent] a важ­ shatter ['Jaete] v расшатывать, по­ ный, значительный колебать, разрушить (представ­ silicon ['siliken] n кремний ление) silver ['silve] a серебряный sheet [Ji:t] п лист (бумаги, метал­ similar ['simila] a подобный, оди­ ла), простыня наковый shell [Jel] п оболочка, снаряд; v similarity [,simi'laeriti] n подобие, обстреливать сходство shine (shone) [Jam, Jon] v све- similarly ['simileri] advтакж^, по­ тить(ся), сиять, блестеть добным образом ship [Jip] п корабль, пароход; on simple ['simpi] a простой; ~ shape board ~ на борту корабля; v от­ изделие простой конфигурации правлять, перевозить simplicity [sim'plisiti] n простота shipbuilding ['Jip,bildir|] п кораб­ simplify ['simplifai] v упрощать лестроение simulate ['simjuleit] v моделиро­ shipyard ['Jipjaid] п верфь, судо­ вать, воспроизводить строительный завод simultaneous [,simarteinj9s] a од­ shock [Jok] п удар, толчок, потря­ новременный сение; ~ resistance ударостойкий since [sins] adv с тех пор; prp с, shop [Jop] п магазин, цех, мастер­ после; cj с тех пор как, так как, ская поскольку shore [Jo:] п берег; а береговой single ['sirigl] а один, единствен­ short [Jo:t] а короткий ный, отдельный shortage ['Joitids] п нехватка, не­ sink (sank, sunk) [snik, sder)k, достаток, дефицит SATik] утонуть, погружаться shot [Jot] п выстрел site [salt] n участок; местонахож­ shout [Jaut] V кричать дение; delivery ~ место доставки;, construction ~ строительная пло­ soon [su:n] adv скоро, вскоре; щадка ~ after вскоре после того, как; as situated ['sitjueitid] a располо­ - as как только, как можно скорее женный, находящийся sophisticated [S9'fistikeitid] рр situation [,sitju'eij9n] n ситуация, сложный, изощренный, утончен­ положение ный size [saiz] n размер sorry ['son] to be ~ сожалеть skill [skil] n умение, искусство, sort [so:t] n сорт, тип, вид; all -s of мастерство, квалификация всякие, самые разнообразные skilled [skild] a квалифицирован­ sound [saund] n звук; a звуковой, ный, умелый хороший, прочный; ~ education skin [skin] n кожа хорошее образование sky [skai] n небо, небеса source [so:s] n источник skyscraper ['skai^skreipe] n небо­ space [speis] n космос, простран­ скреб ство; ~ craft космический ко­ slightly ['slaitli] adv слегка, не­ рабль; - engineering космическая много техника; - exploration космиче­ slow [sl9u] a медленный; ~ down v ское исследование; ~ flight кос­ замедлить мический полет; - ship космиче­ский корабль; - probe космиче­ small [smo:l] a небольшой ский зонд smile [small] vулыбаться; «улыбка spark [spa:к] п искра; - plug свеча smog [smog] n густой туман с ды­ зажигания мом и копотью; смог special ['spejol] а специальный, smoke [smeuk] v курить; п дым особый snappy ['s пае pi] лживой, энергич­ speciality [,speji'aeliti] п специаль­ ный ность so [S9u] adv так, таким образом; specialization [^spejelai'zeijon] п -' as to так, чтобы; - called так на­ специализация зываемый; - that так, чтобы specialize ['spejelaiz] v специали­ society [se'saieti] п общество зироваться soft [soft] а мягкий; - landing мяг­ кая посадка specific [spi'sifik] a особый, харак­терный, специфический; ~ impulse soil [soil] п почва, земля, грунт удельный импульс solar ['seulo] а солнечный specification [,spesifi'kei/en] п де­ solid ['solid] а твердый, плотный, тализация; инструкция по обра­ сплошной; п твердое тело щению; спецификация solidification [sojidifi'keijon] п за­ specify ['spesifai] v точно опреде­ твердевание, застывание лять, устанавливать, давать спе­ solution [se1u:j9n] п решение; цификацию раствор specimen ['spesimin] п образец, solve [solv] V решать {задачу) экземпляр, spectacular [spek'taekjule] a эф­ starter ['sta:te] п стартер, пуско­ фектный, захватывающий вой прибор speed [spi:d] n скорость; - up v ус­ state [steit] п государство, поло­ корять жение, состояние; а государст­ spend (spent) [spend, spent] v венный; V гласить, устанавли­ проводить, тратить вать, излагать, формулировать spill (spilt, spilled) [spil, spilt, statement ['steitment] п формули­ spild] V проливать(ся), распле- ровка, определение, утвержде­ скивать(ся) ние; ^ of the problem постановка задачи splendid ['splendid] a великолеп­ state-of-art [,steit 9v 'a:t] n совре­ ный, роскошный менное состояние; a современ­ spoke [speuk] n спица ный sponsor ['sponse] n устроитель, station ['steijen] n станция, пункт, организатор, покровитель позиция, местоположение spoon [spu:n] n ложка stationary ['steijneri] a неподвиж­ spread (spread) [spred] v pacnpo- ный, закрепленный, стационар­ странять(ся) ный square [skwse] n площадь, квад­ stay [stei] V оставаться, остано­ рат; a квадратный; ~ rooting из­ виться, гостить у кого-либо влечение квадратного корня staying ['steiiii] а ~ power возмож­ ность оставаться в воздухе дли­ squeeze [skwi:z] v сжимать, сдав­ out тельное время ливать; - выдавливать steady ['stedi] а устойчивый, по­ stable ['steibl] a стойкий, устой­ стоянный чивый, прочный, постоянный, стабильный steam [sti:m] п пар; а паровой; ~ generation парообразование stabilizer ['steibilaize] п стабили­ затор steel [sti:l] п сталь; stainless - кор­розионно-стойкая сталь; а сталь­ staff [sta:f] п персонал, штат ной stage [steids] п стадия, ступень step [step] п шаг, ступень; v шаг­ stamp [staemp] п марка; postage - нуть почтовая марка still [stil] adv все еще, однако, до standard ['staended] п стандарт, сих пор норма, образец; ~ of living жиз­ stone [st9un] п камень; а камен­ ненный уровень ный standpoint ['staendpoint] п точка stop [stop] V останавливаться, зрения прекращать start [sta:t] v начинать, запус­ storage ['stoiridj] п склад, храни­ кать, отправляться, заводить дви­ лище; - section запоминающее гатель; ~ for отправляться ку­ устройство ЭВМ да-либо; ~ ing point начало, от­ store [sto:] v накапливать, соби­ правная точка рать, хранить; п магазин, storey ['sto:ri] n этаж submerge [seb'maids] v погру- story ['sto:ri] n рассказ, история жать(ся) straight [streit] a прямой; adv submersible [seb'me:s9bl] а погру­ прямо жаемый, пригодный для дейст­ strange [streindj] a странный вия под водой; п спускаемый, по­гружаемый аппарат stream [stri:m] n поток, струя streamlined ['stri:mlaind] a обте­ subsequent ['sAbsikwent] а после­ каемый дующий strength [streT|0] n прочность; - of substance ['SAbstens] п вещество materials сопротивление мате­ substitute ['SAbstitju.t] v заменять риалов suburb ['5АЬЭ:Ь] п пригород; р1 strengthen ['streTjGen] v укреплять предместья, окрестности stress [stres] n напряжение, уси­ succeed [sek'siid] (in) v удаваться лие, стресс; v подвергать нагруз­ (сделать что-либо), следовать; ке, напряжению, давлению -ing последующий stretch [stre^] v растягивать, на­ success [sek'ses] п успех; to be а ~ тягивать, удлинять иметь успех, быть удачным strike (struck, stricken) [straik, such [SA ]̂ такой; ~ as такой как, strAk, 'strikn] V наносить удар, подобный; in - а way таким обра­ поражать, производить впечатле­ зом ние sudden ['sAdn] а внезапный striking ['straikiTj] а поразитель­ suddenly ['SAdnli] adv внезапно, ный вдруг stroke [streuk] п удар; ход (порш­ ня), такт suffer ['SAfe] V страдать, испыты­вать, претерпевать strong [stroT|] а сильный, проч­ ный sufficient [se'fijent] а достаточ­ный; п достаточное количество structural ['strAk^erel] а структур­ ный; - parts конструкционные suffix ['SAfiks] п суффикс детали suggest [sa'cfeest] v предлагать, ре­ structure ['strAk^e] п сооружение, комендовать, советовать конструкция, структура suit [sju:t] V удовлетворять требо­ student body ['stjuident bodi] чис­ ваниям, быть удобным, устраи­ ло студентов (в учебном заведе­ вать, быть пригодным нии) suitable ['sju.tebl] а подходящий, study ['stAdi] п изучение, исследо­ пригодный, удобный вание; V изучать, учить sum [sAm] п сумма; v ~ up склады­ stupid ['stju'.pid] а глупый, бес­ вать, суммировать толковый superintendent [,sju:p9rin'tend9nt] subject ['sAbd5ikt] п предмет, те­ п управляющий ма, вопрос; V [sab'djekt] подвер­ superior [sjui'pierie] а лучший, гать превосходный, превосходящий, supplement ['SApliment] n допол­ выключать; ~ on включать; ~ over нение, добавление; v ['SApliment] переключать(ся) пополнять, добавлять sword [so:d] п меч, сабля, шпага supply [se'plai] v снабжать, дос­ system ['sistim] п система тавлять, поставлять, сообщать (энергию); п запас support [s9'po:t] V поддерживать; table ['teibl] п стол; таблица п опора, подставка; life ~ жизне­ обеспечение take (took, taken) [teik, tuk, 4eikn] V брать; ~ away забирать, убрать; ~ supporter [s8'po:t9] п приверже­ care of позаботиться о; - courses нец, сторонник прослушать курс; - examinations suppose [se'peuz] v предполагать, сдавать экзамены; ~ interest in за­ полагать интересоваться чем-либо; ~ into suppression [se'prejen] п подавле­ account принять во внимание (в ние расчет); - the opportunity исполь­ sure [Jue] а уверенный; to be ~ зовать возможность; - part при­ быть уверенным; to get - удосто­ нимать участие; - pity on пожа­ вериться, убедиться леть; - place происходить; - steps предпринимать шаги; - time от­ surely rjueli] adv конечно, непре­ нимать время; - а train садиться в менно поезд; take off п взлет; v взлетать surface ['seifis] п поверхность; а talk [to:к] v разговаривать, бесе­ наружный довать; п беседа surpass [s9*/pa:s] v превышать, tank [taerik] п бак, бассейн, танк превосходить tape [teip] п лента, пленка {для surprise [S9'praiz] v удивлять, по­ магнитной записи) ражать, п неожиданность tape-recorder ['teipri^koidg] п маг­ surprising [s9'praiziT|] а удиви­ нитофон тельный, поразительный task [ta:sk] п задача surprisingly [s9'praiziT|li] A^V уди­ вительно, необычайно, неожи­ tax ['taeks] п налог данно tea [ti:] п чай surround [S9'raund] v окружать teach (taught) [ti:^, to:t] v учить, surrounding [S9'raundi^] a близле­ обучать, преподавать жащий, соседний teacher [41:̂ 9] п преподаватель survey ['S9:vei] n обозрение, об­ technical [4eknik9l] а технический следование, изыскание; [s9Vei] v technique [tek'niik] п техника, спо­ осматривать, делать обзор, про­ собы, методы, технические прие­ изводить изыскания мы survival [s9Vaiv9l] п выживание, technological [̂ tekng'locfeikgl] а тех­ оставшийся в живых, выживший нологический switch [swi^] п выключатель, пе­ technology [tek'nol9Cl5i] п техно­ реключатель; V переключать; ~ off логия, telegram ['teligraem] «телеграмма thorough ['0лгэ] a глубокий, тща­ telegraph [4eligra:f] n телеграф тельный; ~ knowledge глубокие telephone ['telifeun] n телефон; знания a телефонный thoroughly ['0лгэ11] fl^v тщательно, television ['teli,vi39n] n телевиде­ глубоко, основательно ние; a телевизионный though [бэи] cJ хотя; as - как если tell (told) [tel, tould] v сказать, со­ бы, как будто общить thought [00 :t] п мысль temperature [Четрп^э] n темпе­ threshold ['0rejheuld] п порог, от­ ратура правной пункт, начало tend [tend] v иметь тенденцию (к through [0ru:] prp через, сквозь чему-либо) throughout [0ru:'aut] adv всюду, tendency ['tendensi] n тенденция, по, на протяжении, по всему (се­ стремление чению) term [t9:m] n термин, выражение, thrust [0rASt] п давление, нагруз­ семестр; long -' долгосрочный ка, тяга territory ['terit9ri] n территория thus [бл$] adv таким образом, так test [test] V испытывать, исследо­ till [til] prp до; cj до тех пор пока вать, пробовать, проверять; п ис­ пытание, проба, проверка; -work time [taim] п время, период вре­ контрольная работа мени, раз; many -s много раз; ^ table расписание; v рассчиты­ than [Saen] cj чем; he is taller - you вать по времени; by the ~ к тому OH выше вас (чем вы) времени как; in ~ вовремя; for the thank [9ает|к] v благодарить; thanks ~ being в данное время to благодаря tin [tin] п олово that is (i.e.) то есть; that is why вот почему tiny [4aini] а крошечный then [йеп] adv тогда, затем; the - tired ['taied] а утомленный, уста­ тогдашний, существовавший в то лый время title ['taitl] п заглавие, название, thereby ['бЕэЪах] adv таким обра­ заголовок зом to-day [te'dei] adv в настоящее therefore [btefo:] adv поэтому время, сегодня; of-современный thermal ['6э:тэ1] а тепловой, тер­ together [te'gebe] вместе мический too [tu:] adv тоже, также, слишком thick [0ik] а толстый tool [tu:l] п инструмент, станок thin [Gin] а тонкий top [top] п верхушка, верх, верх­ thing [6ir|] п вещь; one ~ одно няя часть think (thought) [вщк, 0o:t] v ду­ total ['teuti] п сумма, итог; v под­ мать считывать, насчитывать, рав­ thinking ['GiTikiTi] n мышление няться; а весь, целый, touch [tA ]̂ V притрагиваться, при­ transmit [traenz'mit] v передавать касаться; n прикосновение; -down {no радио) посадка, приземление transparency [traens'peeransi] n tough [tAf] a вязкий, тягучий; же­ прозрачность сткий, плотный; упругий, стой­ кий, крепкий transparent [traens'peerent] a про­зрачный toughness ['tAfnis] п ударная вяз­ кость, тягучесть, жесткость, проч­ travel ['traevi] v путешествовать, ность перемещаться, двигаться; n путе­шествие, передвижение, переме­ tour [tue] п обход, прогулка щение towards [t9'wo:dz] prp по направ­ tray [trei] п поднос лению к чему-либо, по отноше­ нию к чему-либо treat [tri:t] v обрабатывать, обра­щаться с чем-либо tower [Чаиэ] п башня, вышка; the Tower Тауэр (в Лондоне) treatment ['tri:tment] п обработка track [traek] п след; дорожка; сле­ tremendous [tri'mendes] а громад­ жение, сопровождение ный trade [treid] п ремесло, профес­ trend [trend] п направление, тен­ сия; торговля денция tradition [tre'dijen] п традиция triangulation [trai^aetigju'leijen] п разбивка на треугольники; триго­ traditional [tre'dijeni] а традици­ нометрическая съемка онный trick [trik] п хитрость, обман; to traffic ['traefik] п движение (улич- play а ~ сыграть шутку, обмануть нов) trouble [ЧГАЫ] п неприятности, train [trein] п поезд; v обучать затруднение, беда training ['treiniTj] п подготовка; true [tru:] а правильный, истин­ ~ course курс обучения ный transducer [traenz'djuise]72 преоб­ разователь, датчик truly ['tru:li] flfifv поистине transform [traensToim] v преобра­ trust [trASt] n доверие; ответст­ зовывать венность, долг; V доверять, пола­гаться transformation [^traensfe'meijen] n преобразование try [trai] V пытаться, пробовать transformer [traensTo:ma] n пре­ tube [tju:b] п трубка, труба образователь, трансформатор tuition [tju:'ij9n] п обучение transistor [traen'ziste] n транзи­ turn [t9:n] V поворачиваться; стор, транзисторный приемник - against обернуться против; transition [traen'si39n] n переход - one's attention обратить внима­ние на; - back обернуться, снова transitional [traen'si39nl] a пере­ обратиться; - into превратиться; ~ ходный, промежуточный round обернуться ; ~ off (on) вы­ transmission [traenz'mijen] n пере­ ключить (включить); ~ out оказы­ дача ваться; ~ to обратиться к чему-, либо; - up выявиться, оказаться; uneven ['An'i.ven] a неровный, ше­ in its - в свою очередь роховатый tutor ['tju:te] п наставник {в Окс­ unexpected ['Aniks'pektid] a не­ форде, Кэмбриджё) ожиданный TV [4iVi] п телевидение, телеви­ unfortunately [An'fo:^nitli] adv к зор; а телевизионный несчастью, к сожалению twice [twais] adv дважды uniform ['ju:nifo:m] a равномер­ twin [twin] fl двойной, сдвоенный ный, однородный, одинаковый type [taip] n тип, вид unit ['ju:nit] n единица измере­ typical ['tipikel] a типичный ния; единица; агрегат, блок, ус­ тановка, узел, устройство, при­ typing ['taipiTi] n переписка на ма­ шинке, машинопись бор universal [ju:ni've:s9l] а всеоб­ и щий unable ['An'eibl] а неспособный; universally [ju:ni'v9:s9li] adv вез­ to be - не быть в состоянии де, всюду unamenable ГАПэ'т1:пэЬ1] а непо­ universe ['ju:niv9:s] п мир, вселен­ датливый, непослушный ная unbelievable [,Anbi'li:v8bl] а неве­ university [ju:ni'v9:siti] п универ­ роятный ситет; а университетский uncertain [АП'5Э:1П] а неуверен­ unknown ['Ап'п9ип] а неизвестный ный; to be ~ сомневаться unless [9n'les] cj если не under ['Ande] prp под; ~ certain unlike ['An'laik] а неодинаковый; conditions при определенных ус­ prp в отличие от ловиях; - consideration данный, unlikely [An'laikli] ^Jv едва ли, ма­ рассматриваемый; ~ investigation ловероятно исследуемый; to be ~ way прово­ диться, строиться в данный мо­ unlimited [An'limitid] а безгранич­ный, беспредельный мент undergo (underwent, undergone) unload rAnl9ud] v разгружать [/nde'geu, ,Ande'went, ,Ande'gon] unquestionable [An'kwes^9n9bl] a V подвергаться чему-либо несомненный, неоспоримый undergraduate [^Ande'graedjuit] n unsolved ['An'solvd] a нерешенный студент unthinkable [An'0iT|k9bl] a невооб­ underground ['Andegraund] n мет­ разимый, немыслимый ро; a подземный until [9n'til] cj до тех пор пока не; underwater ['Ande'woite] a подвод­ ргрло ный unused ['An'juizd] а неиспользо­ undiscovered [,Andis'kAV9d] a не­ ванный открытый, необнаруженный unusual [An'ju:3U9l] а необычный undoubtable ['An'dautebl] a несо­ up to ['АР t9] prp до; up-to-date а мненный, бесспорный современный, upon [э'роп] prp на vehicle ['vi: ikl] n любое средство urban ['a:ben] a городской передвижения {автомобиль, ле­ usable [Juizebl] a пригодный для тательный аппарат и т.п.) употребления velocity [vi'lositi] п скорость usage ['ju:zicl5] n употребление, Venus [Viinas] п Венера использование versatile [Vaisetail] а разносто­ use [ju:s] n польза, употребление; ронний, гибкий in ~ в эксплуатации; v [ju:z] ис­ versatility [,ve:se'tiliti] п много­ пользовать, употреблять сторонность useful ['juisful] a полезный version ['vajen] п вариант; версия usefulness ['juisfulnis] n польза vertical [Vaitikal] д вертикальный useless ['ju:slis] a бесполезный very [Veri] adv очень; the ~ тот са­ user ['juize] n потребитель мый; - much очень много usual Пи:зиэ1] a обычный via [Vaia] prp через {лат,) usually nu:3ueli] adv обычно vibrate [vai'breit] v вибрировать utilize ['juitilaiz] v использовать vibration [vai'breijan] n колеба­ние, вибрация vice versa [VaisiVa:sa] adv наобо­ рот {лат.) vacation [ve'keijen] n каникулы vicinity [vi'siniti] n соседство, vacuum ['vaekjuem] n вакуум; - chamber вакуумная камера близость; Moscow ~ Подмосковье victory [Viktari] n победа valid [Vaelid] a ценный, обосно­ ванный view [vju:] n вид; v осматривать, рассматривать value [Vaelju:] n ценность, значе­ ние, величина village ['vilicfe] n деревня valve [vaelv] n клапан; электрон­ violin [^vaialin] n скрипка ная лампа virtue [Va:^u:] «достоинство; by- vaporize [Veiperaiz] v испа- благодаря чему-либо рять(ся) virtually [Va:^uali] adv фактиче­ varied [Veerid] a разнообразный, ски, в сущности, поистине различный visible [Vizabl] a видимый variety [ve'raieti] n разнообразие, vision [Vi3an] n зрение, видение; большое число; a large ~ of самые night ~ ночное видение разнообразные visit ['vizit] n посещение, визит; various [Vsaries] a различный, V посещать, навещать разнообразный; - kinds of раз­ visual [VizjuaI] a зрительный, ви­ ные, разнообразные димый vary [Veari] v менять(ся), изме- vital [Vaitl] a жизненно важный; нять(ся) существенный vast [vest] a огромный, обшир­ vocational [vau'keijani] a профес­ ный сиональный, voice [vois] n голос way [wei] п путь, дорога, способ; voltage ['veulticfe] n напряжение, in such а ~ таким образом, так вольтаж что; in this ~ таким образом; ~ out voltmeter [Veult,mi:t9] n вольт­ выход из положения; to be under ~ метр проводиться; to give ~ уступать (дорогу) volume [Voljum] n том, книга, объем weak [wi:k] а слабый weapon ['wepen] п оружие W wear (wore, worn) [w89, wo:, wo:n] wait [weit] v ждать, ожидать V носить (одежду) walk [wo:к] v ходить, гулять; weather ['we&e] n погода ~ about прогуливаться; n прогулка week [wi:k] n неделя; ~ day буд­ wall [wo:I] n стена ничный день; ~ end время от суб­ wander ['wonde] v бродить, откло­ боты до понедельника (уик-энд) няться weigh [wei] v взвешивать want [wont] V хотеть weight [weit] n вес; by ~ no весу war [wo:] n война weightlessness ['weitlisnis] n неве­ warm [wo:m] a теплый сомость warming ['wo:mir|] n нагревание, welding ['weldiT]] a сварной; - подогревание techniques способы сварки, сва­ warmth [wo:m9] n тепло рочные процессы warn [wo:n] vпредупреждать, пре­ well [wei] adv хорошо; as - также; достерегать as ~ as так же как; —known хоро­ warning ['wo:nir|] n предупрежде­ шо известный, популярный ние, предостережение; safety ~ wheel [wi:l] п колесо; v повернуть сигнал предупреждения whenever [wen'ev9] с/когда бы ни, warrior ['worie] n борец, воин всякий раз когда wash [woJ] n мытье; -̂ ing machine whereas [w89r'aez] с/тогда как; не­ стиральная машина смотря на то, что waste [weist] n отходы, отбросы; v whichever [wi^'evg] cj какой угод­ тратить впустую; стать полно­ но, какой бы ни стью непригодным к употребле­ while [wail] cJ в то время как; ~ нию speaking разговаривая; for а ~ на watch [wo^] V наблюдать, следить, время сторожить; п часы whole [houl] а весь, целый; the - of water ['wo:t9] п вода; а водный; весь, целый; as а ~ в целом ~ system водопровод why [wai] adv почему; that is ~ вот watertight ['wo:t9tait] а водоне­ почему проницаемый wide [waid] a широкий, обшир­ wave [weiv] п волна ный; a - range of много, большое wavy ['weivi] а волнистый число; a ~ variety of самые разно-, образные; - screen широкоэкран­ work [wa:k] v работать; n работа; ный ~ out разрабатывать widely ['waidli] adv широко; - dif­ workable ['weikebl] a годный для ferent совершенно различные, обработки неодинаковые; - used широко ис­ пользуемые worker ['W9:k9] n рабочий widen ['waidn] v расширять working ['w9:kiT|] ~ conditions ус­ width [widG] n ширина ловия труда wife [waif] n жена workshop ['w9:kJop] n мастерская, цех will [wil] V хотеть, желать; to be ~ing очень хотеть; n воля; good - world [w9:ld] n мир; a всемирный; добрая воля - wide всемирный; ~ War II вто­ willingly ['wiliTjIi] adv охотно рая мировая война; throughout the - BO всем мире, повсюду win (won) [win, WAn] V выигры­ вать; ~ a prise получить премию; ~ worry ['wAri] n беспокойство, тре­ a recognition завоевать признание вога; V беспокоить(ся), волно­ваться wind [wind] n ветер; - screen ['windskri:n] n переднее ветровое worth [W9:0] a достойный; to be ~ стекло заслуживать, стоить; to be —while иметь смысл wire ['wai9] n проволока, провод; ~ telegraph телеграф wrist [rist] n запястье wise ['waiz] a мудрый, wrong [roTj] a неправильный, не умудренный (опытом) тот, ошибочный wish [wij] V желать, хотеть; я же­ лание within [wi'&in] prp внутри, в пре­ year [j9:] n год; ~s before за ... лет делах до; ... -s old ... лет without [wi'6aut] prp без; ~ heating yellow ['jel9u] a желтый без нагрева yet [jet] adv все еще, однако; cj withstand (withstood) [wid'staend, все же wi6'stu:d] V выдерживать (нагруз­ ки, температуры) wonderful ['wAndeful] a прекрас­ ный, удивительный, замечатель­ zinc [zir|k] n цинк ный zone [z9un] n зона, пояс, полоса, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1 ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ ДЛЯ ФАКУЛЬТЕТА «ИНЖЕНЕРНЫЙ БИЗНЕС И МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ» Text 1 Какое влияние оказывает Интернет на бизнес и глобальную экономику? Приведите примеры последних лет. А. Прочитайте текст и найдите слова, означающие: work (to be in action), large (substantial), terrible (horrible) experience, deal with, payment for professional service, follow, business deal, trade, in the end, keep a secret, re­ duce drastically, reduction, very great, offer a price at an auction sale. Car Giants' Single Online Supply Store General Motors, Ford Motors and Daimler Chrysler compa­ nies have announced plans to open the online auto marketplace, potentially making it the largest Internet business yet created. It will allow suppliers and buyers to automate routine transactions and streamline^ the bidding process for everything from car win­ dows and fuel-injection parts to paper clips and paint through elec­ tronic sales, auctions and «reverse auctions» in which buyers state their needs and receive bids from sellers. Consumers are not likely to see massive price cuts because of the new system. But it should help automakers keep a lid on retail prices as new features are introduced, such as electronic steering, computerized transmission systems and weight-sensitive air bags. It will also make it possible for customers to order more personalized vehicles and to take delivery of them faster. General Motors, Ford and Daimler Chrysler will have an equal share of the new company, which is expected to be running by the end of June. They will also open their virtual marketplace to other automakers and could eventually expand the service into other in­ dustries, such as aerospace, construction and office supplies. The joint marketplace is the most powerful sign of the migra­ tion of commerce from the old world of salesmen and brick stores to the new virtual world of electronic commerce (e-commerce). It is going to change the way businesses interact with each other by taking out the huge inefficiencies that have been built around the old methods of using the phone and mail. By using the speed of Internet communications and the power of large computerized databases to handle global sales and purchasing,, the companies hope to control costs, slash production inefficiencies and reduce the logistical nightmare of tracking millions of parts. «The Internet is transforming every piece of our company and our industry», Ford president said in a statement. In one of the first purchases made by Ford on its own online mar­ ketplace the company was reported to save more than $10 million. There will ultimately be more than 100,000 supply companies on the system. The company could become a profit maker since it will collect a fee or commission for every transaction that takes place over the network. Note to the Text 1. to make more efficient by simplifying B. Найдите в тексте антонимы слов: buy, buyer, sale, wholesale price, waste (use more than needed), destroy, increase, loss, small. C. Составьте возможные словосочетания прилагательных из колонкиАисуществительных из колонки В: А В 1. electronic a. share 2. routine b. sales, commerce 3. retail с price cuts 4. equal d. transactions 5. global e. prices 6. massive f. marketplace 7. virtual/joint g. sales and purchas D. Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизвестные словосочетания или термины. Запомните их. auto ... online ... profit... ... clips ... injection ...-sensitive ... bag Упражнение 1. Прочитайте определения наиболее распространенных терминов по маркетингу. Дайте русские эквиваленты выделенных слов. Пе­ реведите предложения. 1. Market is the total demand for goods. 2. Market economy is one in which prices and quantities are determined by supply and demand. 3. Marketing is a theory and practice of large scale selling., 4. The marketing 4cmixî often referred to as the four Ps includes choosing the right product a company produces; selling it at the right price; using the right kind of promotion, i.e., the ways to make the product popular and well-known by advertising; making it available in the right place, where you sell the product and how it reaches the consumer, which is also known as distribution. 5. People who buy and use products are called consumers. 6. People who buy the products of a particular company are that company's customers or clients. 7. One of the equal parts into which capital of a company is di­ vided is called a share. 8. Market share is the % of a market that a company has, e.g., 25 % market share. 9. Market leader is the company or product with the largest market share. 10. Market research provides information about what people want, need and buy. 11. Profit is money made or gained in business. 12. You call the amount you have sold sales figures. 13. Sales target means the amount you would like to sell in the future. 14. The amount you hope to sell next two years is sales forecast. 15. Sales representative (usually sales rep) is a person who sells a company's products. 16. The person who runs the sales or marketing department is called sales or marketing manager. 17. To launch a new product is to introduce a new car onto the market. 18. The main competitor is the most important company in the same market. 19. The idea that people have of the company is the image of the company. Ущуажиенше 2. Подберите к словам в колонке А слова-партнеры из ко­ лонки В. А В 1. buy а. seller 2. buyer b. wholesale 3. buying с. increase 4. sale d. sell 5. retail e. demand 6. export f. loss, 7. supply g. selling 8. save h. import 9. profit i. purchase 10. reduce j . waste Упражнение 3. Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон- КИAисуществительных из колонки B. А В 1. make a. the service 2. cut b. inefficiency 3.save с goods 4. have d. commission (fee) 5. launch e. money 6. expand f. a profit 7. control g. a new product 8. collect h. prices 9. automate i. a share 10. reduce j . transaction 11. handle k. costs Упражнение 4 . Заполните пропуски словами: market leader image customers buying sales figures sales forecast profit handle product consumers competitors price sales rep retail marketing 1. The company is interested in (1) ... this enterprise, but we find the (2)... to be too high. 2. The wholesale price is always lower than the (3) ... price. 3. Our marketing manager thinks the com­ pany will not make as much (4) ... this year. 4. We do not (5) ... goods of that kind in this company. 5. Everybody was impressed with the (6)... for the new product. 6. What is your company's (7) ... for the next year? 7. Our main (8) ... are going to take part in a (9) ... conference this week. 8. An experienced (10) ... should have an excellent knowledge of his company's (11)., the needs of (12) ... in his particular market and, of course, the needs of their com­ pany's most important (13) ... 9. IBM is one of the (14) ... in the USA computer industry. 10. The (15) ... of a company is very im­ portant in sales and marketing. Упраяшенне 5. Замените одно слово в каждом предложении так, чтобы все предложение приобрело противоположное значение. 1. Nobody thought that the company would lose a lot of money. 2. The company has decided to sell the factory in Leeds. 3. Our sales manager cannot get used to being an unsuccessful businessman., Упражнение б. Заполните таблицы на словообразование: Noun Adjective Noun Adjective competition sense expensive reliable fashion power availability dangerous Упражнение 7. A. Назовите 20—25 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Marketing». В. Speak about: 1. The market leader in the motor car (computer) industry in our country, its market share and main competitors. 2. A car (computer) that has been launched lately. Text 2 Какие преимущества предлагает Интернет в сфере банковских услуг? Прочитайте текст и найдите слова, означающие: а sum of money to be paid in case of accident (loss, etc.), money in one's account, money to be paid for lighting (heating in your house), a manner or way of doing smth., al­ low to. Banking on a Web Lifestyle According to Bill Gates, a well-known winner of MN Golden Certificate from Microsoft, within 5~8 years, and possibly much earlier, many people will manage their finances via the Internet. Each bank will put up Web pages that present its products in an easy-to-use fashion, making it simple for customers to manage money quite well electronically. If you are a customer, your funds will move automatically to meet your needs. You will easily get answers to questions such as: Am I saving enough? Have I gathered all the information I need to file a tax return (налоговая декларация)? Am I keeping to my budget? How does this month's electric bill compare to the bill for the same month last year? These changes won't come at the expense of the banking indus­ try. On the contrary, the Web will let companies offer services that meet individual needs, which is an essential advantage. Productivity improvements tend to produce many more win­ ners than losers. Life gets better when people discover a fundamen-, tally better way to do something important. That is why the Web is unlikely to dehumanize banking or anything else. The Web will offer banks great opportunities, especially as their services expand to include insurance, advice and a broad range of investments. Some banks will offer to manage your assets (иму­ щество, активы баланса) and provide you with credit. If your checking account balance (баланс счета) gets too high, the bank will offer to move funds into investments that have higher yields (процентный доход). Banks will advise you to pay down credit-card balances or other loans (заем, ссуда), and let you do it with a click. They will know that if they do not give you this kind of advice and convenience, you are likely to take your business elsewhere. The Internet is a tool of communication, a place for people as well as for extensive information. Упражнение 1. Дайте русские эквиваленты выделенным словам. Переве­ дите предложения. Запомните ключевые слова и словосочетания. 1. Businessmen can lend (давать взаймы) and borrow (брать взаймы) money. 2. The money to be borrowed from the bank is called a loan. 3. Most companies borrow money to finance (i.e., to pay for) investments (e.g., equipment they buy in order to do business). 4. If you borrow money from the bank you must pay interest. Interest rate is per cent (процентная ставка) you should pay back. 5. Businesses have to make a profit, not to make a loss. 6. To make a profit means to earn or receive more money than you spend. 7. If a company does not make a profit or a loss, it breaks even (рентабельна, безубыточна). 8. The money a company receives for its products is called the turnover. 9. The money spent is called the expenditure. 10. A company spends money on raw materials, labour (work­ ers, employees, staff) and overheads (e.g., rent for buildings, elec­ tricity, telephone, etc.) 11. In order to grow or expand and prosper (do well, be success­ ful) the companies need low inflation or rate of inflation (which means the continuous increase in the price of products), low inter­ est rates, economic and political stability, a healthy economy, not an economy in recession, and tax cuts as well. Recession is a pe-, nod of reduced and slow business activity. Tax is a sum of money to be paid by citizens (according to income, for example) to the gov­ ernment for public purposes. 12. A trend is a change or movement of prices, profits, sales, etc. To describe a trend we can use the following expressions: The government will raise taxes. Taxes will rise (increase, go up) by 2 % (or to 28 %). There will be a sharp rise in inflation. Taxes will fall (go down, decrease) slowly. There will be a slow fall (decrease) in taxes. Prices are up by 5 %; profits are down by $2 million. Inflation will probably remain stable at around 3 %. 13. Expenditure is spending or using money, for example, gov­ ernment expenditure. Упражнение 2. Замените выделенные слова и словосочетания близким по значению словом или словосочетанием. 1. Our company is doing well now. 2. Sales have increased dra­ matically. 3. This came after a dramatic fall last year. 4. Profits have risen considerably. 5. Our turnover has gone up this year. 6. The company is growing very quickly. 7. We expect sales to in­ crease for about two years. 8. Then they will fall slightly. 9. It is necessary to spend more money on R&D (Research and Develop­ ment). Уш|1ажненше 3. Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова или обще­ известные фразы. healthy ... and loss credit... ... stability interest... return break... materials account... economy in... tax... productivity... turn ... over ... Упражнение 4, Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ киАисуществительных из колонки В. А В 1. finance а. money on 2. offer b. services 3. provide withсaprofit / loss 4. gather d. needs 5. make e. investments 6. meet f. information, 7. spend g. opportunity 8. expand h. interest 9. lend/borrow i. credit 10. pay j . money Упражнение 5. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Adjective educate reducible expenditure differ payment comparison comparable expensive Упражнение 6. A. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь догадаться о значе­ нии следующих слов и словосочетаний: unit of account^ value, grains, print, consider, cease, cash, withdraw, bank account. Money as a Unit of Accoimt The most difficuh aspect of money to understand is its function as a unit of account. Money is difficult to define, because the value of anything changes with time and circumstances. Sir Isaac Newton defined the pound steriing (£) in 1717 as 113 grains of pure gold. By the end of the nineteenth century the gold standard had spread around most of the trading worid, with the re- sult that there was a single world money. It was called by different names in different countries, but all these supposedly different cur- rencies were interconnected through their particular definition in terms of a quantity of gold. The end of the gold standard began with the introduction of the agreement in 1946. This fixed the value of all world currencies rela- tive to the US dollar, which in turn was fixed to a specific value of gold (US $ 0.35/oz.) However, in 1971 the US government finally refused to exchange US dollar for gold, and other countries soon followed. Governments printed as much paper money or coinage as they wanted, and the more that was printed, the less each unit of currency was worth., The great advantage of the nineteenth-century gold standard was not just that it defined the unit of account, but that it operated throughout almost the entire world. A price in England was the same as a price in Australia or any other country. Today we can determine price differences between countries by considering the exchange rate of the day. The great advantage of having a single stable world money is that such money has very high information content. It tells people where to invest their time, energy and capital, all around the world, with much greater accuracy and predictability than would other­ wise be possible. Nowadays many specialists believe that within the next decade money, as we know it will probably cease to exist in technologically advanced countries. The familiar coins and notes will soon be re­ placed entirely by plastic money — plastic cards of various kinds. And the shops of the future will be linked directly to the network of banking computers. The shop assistant will simply key in your bank account code number and the amount you have spent, and thank you politely. Banks have invested huge amounts of money in new technol­ ogy. Credit cards are issued by credit card companies such as Visa and MasterCard. These companies work closely with all the major banks. A credit card enables you to pay for goods or services imme­ diately without cash or cheque. You are given free credit for an agreed period. At the end of this period you are charged high inter­ est. Every credit card holder is given a credit limit. Most banks provide their customers with banker's cards. Using PIN (personal identification number) you can use this card to with­ draw cash from the ATMs (Automated Teller Machines). Some banks have already introduced «first generation» smart cards. A smart card contains a computer «chip». It can do all the things other cards can do but it can also store and display each transaction. In the near future you may be using these cards for «home shopping», satellite TV, telephone charges, and as passports and identity cards. B. Подберите к каждому слову и словосочетанию из колонки А соответ­ ствующее ему по значению из колонки В. А В 1. unit of account а. take into account 2. bank account b. take out money from the bank 3. value с money in coin or notes, 4. grains' d. keeping one's money at a bank 5. print e. stop, come to an end 6. consider f. unit of counting 7. cease g. worth of smth. 8. cash h. tiny, hard pieces 9. withdraw i. make books, pictures, etc. Упражнение 7. Заполните пропуски терминами, переведите. 1. ... is money that may be used to start a business. 2. ... is the type of money used in a country. 3. ... is money in coin or notes. 4. ... are metal money, ... is system of coins in use. 5. ... are paper money. 6. ... money is different kinds of plastic cards. 7. ... is to be worth in terms of money. 8. ... is price asked for goods or services. 9. To ... means to ask smb. to pay. 10. To ... money means to keep some of one's money, e.g., for a new computer. 11. To ... money means to use it badly on things that one does not need. 12. The ... of living means how much people pay for things. 13... of living is the level of money and comfort people have. Упражнение 8. Заполните пропуски синонимами или антонимами. value ... waste condition ... lend quantity ... cheap common, often see or heard ... unstable various ... minor Упражнение 9, A. Назовите 20-25 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «Business and finance». В. Speak about: 1. The state of the economy at the moment. Is it strong or is it in recession? 2. The current rate of inflation in the country. Has the govern­ ment reduced company taxes or personal taxes lately? Has public expenditure risen or fallen recently? 3. New technology and money., Text 3 Какое значение имеют электронные средства связи в современной орга­ низации производства? А. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь догадаться о значении в данном контексте слов: vital, corporate^ compile, memo, pace, respond, intranet, empower. Paperwork and the Digital Nervous System Bill Gates states it did not take Microsoft Co. long to get rid of most of the company's paper forms. The move from paper to elec­ tronic forms is a vital step in the evolution of a modem organiza­ tion's nervous system. A corporate system defines how an organization deals with planned and unplanned events alike. It in­ cludes meetings, paperwork and electronic systems. It governs the way information about customers is stored, the way workers are or­ ganized, the way budgets are compiled and activities are coordi­ nated, and the way information is exchanged. In the past, companies were virtually alike in terms of how they managed these activities. Meetings, memos and managers were re­ lied upon heavily. The pace was not usually too fast, and there was lots of paper. But one of the lessons from Darwin is that the excellence of an organism's nervous system helps determine its ability to sense change and quickly respond, thereby surviving or even thriving. Today, new «digital nervous systems» are based on electronic communications tools that help corporations maintain themselves, defend from dangers and take advantage of opportunities rapidly. The Internet and intranets are essential. You can easily bring the people you need together electroni­ cally, even if they are all over the globe. The people in the company can gain a common understanding of what is going on. They can exchange ideas easily. Perhaps the single most important element of a digital nervous system is a customer database. Having all your information about customers in one place gives you the tools to analyze and make de­ cisions. It empowers you to be highly responsive to customers needs. Microsoft's system is far from perfect, but it improves as the company takes better advantage of technology. Its annual budget­ ing process used to take three months. Microsoft invented a new process around electronic forms on the company's intranet., The budget cycle is now a very tense three-week period. The company's digital system lets everybody see immediately what the other people in the company are planning. The managers see com­ parisons of sales and expense forecasts relative to market size in other divisions and regions. The product groups see the numbers organized by product. The subsidiaries see the numbers geographi­ cally. The finance people see them in on a profit-and-loss basis. In other words, information can automatically be analyzed and compared and summarized and brought to the attention of the peo­ ple who need to know about it. B. Подберите к каждому слову или словосочетанию в колонке А соответ­ ствующее по значению из колонки В. А В 1. take smb. to do smth . a. use for one's own benefit 2. get rid of b. be successjful, prosper 3. vital с act in answer to 4. corporate d. necessary for living 5. do alike e. need, require 6. compile f. give power to act 7, be alike g. in the same way 8. memo h. be similar 9. pace i. controlled by a larger company 10. respond j . collect (information) and arrange it in a list 11. thrive k. note for future use 12. empower 1. belonging to a corporation or group 13. take advantage m. become free of 14. subsidiary n. move at an unhurried rate C. Заполните пропуски синонимами. control at once feel, realize excellent virtually most important ... determine similar allow protect D. Составьте возможные словосочетания из глаголов в колонкеАису­ ществительных из колонки В:

В

1. compile a. information 2. take b. understanding 3. manage / organize c. decisions, 4. store / exchange / analyze d. ideas 5. make e. workers, activities 6. gain f. advantage 7. exchange g.a budget E. Составьте возможные словосочетания прилагательных из колонкиАисуществительных из колонки В. А В 1. annual а. forms 2. vital b. budget 3. digital с. understanding 4. common d, communications tools 5. electronic e. step 6. paper and electronic f. system F. Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизвестные слово­ сочетания или термины. Запомните их. profit and ... market... three-week ... group ... forecast paper ... expense ... people Упражнение 1. A. Назовите 10—15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Electronic communication tools». 8. Speak about: The role and importance of electronic communications tools in a modern company organization. Text 4 Что такое логистика? Каковы последние направления в этой области? А. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь догадаться о значении следующих слов: retrieve у storage, package of services, to contract, totality. Flexible Logistics Systems Several organisations are expanding beyond their national bor­ ders as a strategy to improve competitiveness and their ability to of­ fer diverse products to an expanded market. Many companies have become very proficient at supplying products throughout the world. The task requires not only the ability to recognize opportunities, but also an information system to co-ordinate the supply of goods, and materials to places where they are needed throughout the world. Logistics is supply, distribution and replacement of materials, goods and personnel. It is a problem for all organisations, both public and private. For instance, there were tremendous logistics challenges of moving the US military ~ army, navy, and air force — to carry out the military operations called «Desert Storm», prob­ lems which were even more complex when other nations belonging to the United Nations assisted with the operations. Large logistical problems are faced by relief agencies which are trying to give public assistance to people during emergencies. In a small warehouse, improvements can be obtained from better information systems, productivity improvements, inventory (инвентаризация) savings, reductions in returns (возврат, обо­ рот, прибыль), space saving (10-30 per cent), and extra customer service profit. That is, for a warehouse of 80,000 sq. ft, 50 staff, and $100 million sales per annum, and inventory of $40 million, it is possible to save over $2 million per annum from improved meth­ ods. The costs of such improvements can be retrieved after just three months. The logistics aspects of the distribution chain (цепочка) in any organisation relate to the use of information to manage more effec­ tively the functions of transportation, storage, warehousing, and freight forwarding (пересылка груза). The information system has to co-ordinate a distribution network which consists of transporta­ tion services between suppliers to factories, factories to storage fa­ cilities, ports and warehouses, storage services in the warehouses, transportation services between the warehouses and buyers and linkages between countries. As a result of implementing an efficient information system and computer network, McDonald's restau­ rants are able to receive food products from various suppliers, re­ package them to meet McDonald's specifications, and then deliver them to their restaurants throughout the world, and still maintain consistent (соответствующие) standards. Some companies perform logistics services themselves, but many are contracting these services to specialists who have infor­ mation systems to offer a package of services — from simple stor­ age and warehousing to a total package or complete service which might include consolidation (объединение) of cargo, transporta­ tion, storage and inventory management. Companies within the lo­ gistics sector distinguish themselves by the totality of the services they offer. Generally, smaller firms may have less sophisticated, information systems and may only provide services such as ware­ housing and transportation. Large firms have the resources and economies of larger scale to develop more sophisticated informa­ tion and computer systems. However, developing a sophisticated and centralized information and mechanized warehouse may not necessary lead to a success. Certain larger companies choose to rely on more flexible sys­ tems, which allow for learning and adaptation. B. Подберите к словам в колонке А синонимы или близкие по значению слова из колонки В. А В 1. complex a. tremendous 2. total b. of different kind 3. diverse с sophisticated 4. keep up d. assistance 5. profit e. maintain 6. very great, enormous f. returns 7. help g. entirety 8. totality h. complete С Найдите в тексте слова, означающие: 1. help given to those in need and trouble 2. skilled, expert 3. get back, return quickly 4. spread out over a large area 5. a problem, difficulty 6. serious situation, needing action as soon as possible 7. a/per year 8. a building for storing goods before distribution 9. easily changed, adaptable for new needs or conditions D. Заполните пропуски словами: management logistics distribution inventory storage returns transported warehouse 1. We know (1) ... to be a detailed list of goods, parts, equip­ ment, etc. 2. Small profits and quick (2)... is the motto (девиз) for shops that rely on large sales and quick turnover. 3. In the same way, Toshiba might contract with a (3) ... firm so that television sets and other products could be picked up from the factory, taken, to а (4) ... , perhaps repackaged, and then (5) ... to stores in other countries. 4. Many companies are interested in improving cus­ tomer service through better inventory (6)... 5. As a rule, an unpro­ ductive (7) ... chain results in a higher total inventory cost. 6. NAVAIR wants logistics data to be converted to digital form for storage in a «virtual» (8) ... facility — a single set of consolidated databases that could be accessed by sailors aboard ship, support en­ gineers at shore and program managers. Упражнение 1. A. Назовите 15-20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Logistics». В. Speak about: Problems logistics deals with. SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS To be read after Text 1 Finding Opportunity in the Global Economy Bill Gates says today if you had to guess (угадать) somebody's approximate income (i.e., money you receive) and you were lim­ ited to asking one polite question, a good one would be: «What country do you live in?» That is because of the huge difference in average wages (weekly payment for work) from country to country. But a generation from now, if you want to guess someone's in­ come, a more-telling single question might be: «What's your edu­ cation?» «This, at least, is my belief», B. Gates says. Future business opportunity will depend on educational opportunity — for everyone. Compared to almost anything else in a developed society, the cost of investment in education is low — and the returns are high. Even the poorest of countries can develop better schools. Educa­ tion is essential because electronic networks and software-driven technologies are beginning to break down the economic barriers between nations. The Internet and the availability of inexpensive, powerful computers are helping spread opportunity to developing nations. International communication, which is certain to become ex­ traordinary^ cheap in all its forms, will bring suitably educated peo­ ple from every economic region into the mainstream of the world economy. Well-educated, enterprising individuals with access to information technology will do well no matter where they live., Nearly a billion people in rural China may find their lives little changed for decades, but tens of millions of the best-educated Chi­ nese could earn more or less what similarly educated people in the United States or Germany do. As technology breaks down the barriers of distance and national borders, it will be even more important that everybody be given equal educational opportunities. Eventually, being «poor» won't be much a matter of living in a poor country as it will be a matter of having poor skills. Assuming you want to develop those skills, what should you study? There are a lot of opportunities in the knowledge-based global economy, and B. Gates is particularly enthusiastic about the business he knows best — software. Because software is an almost pure expression of logic, the in­ dustry is a great field for almost anyone today. Just about every technical and scientific discipline will apply. The business side is equally exciting and challenging^ because the industry is so dy­ namic. And software jobs are among the highest-paid. It is not a win-lose industry, either. More software development in one re­ gion does not mean reduced software development in another. Rather, software development as a whole helps to grow the world economy. The value and importance of the software industry — and its employees — will continue to grow indefinitely. Software is trans­ forming the workplace in industry after industry, increasing pro­ ductivity and helping globalize the world economy. Notes to the Text 1. unusually 2. interesting and difficult To be read alter Text 2, 3, 4 Ten Attributes of a Good Employee Here are 10 of the qualities Bill Gates finds in the «best and brightest» employees the companies should attract and retain. First, it is important to have a fundamental curiosity^ about the product of your company or group. You have to use the product yourself. Second, you need a genuine (настоящий, подлинный) inter­ est in discussion with customers about how they use your product,, what they like or don't like in order to know where your company's product could be better. Third, once you understand your customer's needs, you have to enjoy thinking through how this product can make work more in­ teresting. These first three points are related. Success comes from under­ standing and caring deeply about your products, your technology and your customers' needs. Fourth, you as an individual employee should develop your own skills and those of the people you work with. If maximizing your next bonus^ or salary increase is all that motivates you, you are likely to lose an opportunity to benefit from teamwork^ that creates success in the long term. Fifth, you need to have specialized knowledge or skills while maintaining a broad perspective. Big companies, in particular, need employees who can leam specialties^ quickly, so a willingness to learn is critical. Sixth, you have to be flexible enough to take advantage of op­ portunities that can give you perspective. At Microsoft Co., they try to offer a person lots of different jobs in the course of a career. Anyone interested in joining management is encouraged (поощ­ рять) to work in different customer units, even if it means moving within the organization or relocating to a different part of the world. Microsoft Co. has many employees working for their US subsidiaries in other countries. This helps them better understand world markets. Seventh, a good employee will want to leam the economics of the business. Why does the company do what it does? What are its business models? How does it make money? And a company, in turn, should educate its employees in the fundamental financial re­ alities of its industry. Eighth, you must focus on competitors, i.e., you must think about what is going on in the marketplace. What are your com­ pany's competitors doing that is smart̂ ? What can we leam from them? How can we avoid their mistakes? Ninth, you've got to use your head. Analyze problems to under­ stand the implications (скрытый смысл, последствия) of poten­ tial tradeoffs^ of all kinds, including the tradeoff between acting sooner with less information and later with more. Use your head in practical ways. Prioritize your time effectively., Finally, don't fail to see the obvious essentials, such as being honest, ethical^ and hard working. These attributes are critical and go without saying. Notes to the Text 1. strong desire to learn / know about smth. 2. addition to usual payment 3. combined effort 4. special activities, operations, products, etc. 5. skillful, clever (=quick in learning and understanding things) 6. compromise, compromising decision, choice 7. of moral principles ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ challenge ['̂ aelinĉ ] п сложная за­ annum ~ per annum [per'aenem] в дача; проблема; v ставить задачу, год сталкиваться с трудностями asset ['aeset] n имущество; активы challenging а сложный, многообе­ баланса щающий, перспективный charge [̂ а:С̂ ] v назначать, запра­ В шивать цену; взимать плату cheque [̂ ек] п чек balance ['baelens] n account ~ ба­ coin [кэш] п монета ланс счета coinage ['koinic ]̂ п монетная сис­ belief [bi'li:f] n вера; мнение, убе­ тема; чеканка монет ждение commerce ['komes] п торговля bid [bid] n предложение цены (на (оптовая); коммерция аукционе) competitor [kem'petite] п конку­ bidding ['bidir\] n предложение рент; участник рынка цены compile [kem'paii] v составлять bill [bil] n счет, расходы (бюджет); собирать материалы, факты bonus ['beunes] n премия, возна­ граждение consumer [ken'sju.me] п потреби­тель buyer ['baie] n покупатель contract ['kontraekt] v заключать договор, сделку, соглашение corporate ['ко:pent] а корпора­ card [ka:d] n карточка; identity тивный, групповой удостоверение личности; credit curiosity [,kju9ri'ositi] л любопыт­ кредитная карточка; smart мно­ ство, любознательность гофункциональная платежная currency Гклгэпз!] п валюта карточка, чиповая карточка customer ['kASteme] п покупатель, cash [kaej] п наличные деньги заказчик, клиент, holder ['haulde] п владелец; credit demand [di'ma:nd] n спрос card владелец кредитной кар­ distribution [,distri'bju:j8n] n сбыт, точки реализация diverse [daiVeis] a различный, разнообразный income ['шклт] п доход division [diVi39n] n подразделение insurance [in'Juerens] п страхова­ ние interest ['intrist] п процент earn [э:п] v зарабатывать intranet [in'traenet] п внутренняя emergency [I'meicfcensi] n чрезвы­ связь чайные обстоятельства inventory ['inventri] п инвентари­ employee [,emploi'i] n служащий; зация; наличные товары (запасы) рабочий; работающий по найму investment [investment] п капита­ловложение, инвестиция, вклад empower [im'paue] v давать право, возможность invest V вкладывать, делать инве­стиции encourage [т'клпс^] v поощрять issue ['iju:]['isju] v выпускать в enterprising ['ent9praizir\] а пред­ обращение приимчивый ethical ['eGikel] а нравственный, этичный expenditure key [kj:] v нажимать кнопку; -in [iks'pendi^e] п расхо­ ды, затраты набирать expense [iks'pens] п расходы, из­ держки; at the - of за счет extraordinary [iks'tro:dnri] а не­ limit [limit] п credit предель­ обычный, чрезвычайный ный размер кредита loan [laun] п заем, ссуда logistics [Ieu'd5istiks] п логистика fee [fi:] п вознаграждение, гоно­ рар; взнос, сбор М forecast ['fo:ka:st] п прогноз, maintain [mein'tein] v сохранять, предсказание поддерживать funds [fAndz] п средства, фонды manage ['maenicfe] v управлять, ру­ководить; money управлять (денежные) деньгами, управлять финансами market ['mo:kit] п рынок, сбыт, продажа gain [gem] v получать, приобре­ тать, добиться marketing ['ma:kitiri] п торговля; предметы торговли; сбыт, прода­ жа Н memo ['miimeu] п меморандум; handle ['haendl] служебная записка, памятная за­ иметь делосVуправлять; писка, N return [ri49:n] п возврат оборота, network ['netwe:k] n сеть прибыль; tax налоговая декла­ number ['плгпЬэ] n personal iden­ рация tification идентификационный номер salary ['sael9ri] п зарплата (служа­ О щему) order ['o:d9] n заказ; распоряже- sales [seilz] п продажа, реализа­ ние ция, сбыт; representative агент overheads [,9uv9'heclz] n наклад­ по продаже; target намеченная ные расходы цифра; цель; количество продаж salesman п коммивояжер save [seiv] v экономить, сберегать saving п экономия pace [peis] n скорость, темп savings п сбережения package ['paekicfe] n пакет; of seller ['sel9] п продавец services пакет услуг share [Js9] п доля, часть; участие; payment Tpeiment] n оплата, пла­ акция; market долевое участие тежи, выплата на рынке в процентах personnel [,рэ:5э'пе1] n персонал, specialty ['spej9lti] п особенность, кадры отличительная черта, отличие price [prais] n цена; retail роз­ (специализация) ничная цена; wholesale оптовая staff [stoif] п состав {служащих); цена штат, персонал productivity [,prodAk'tiviti] n про­ state [steit] v заявлять, сообщать изводительность storage ['stoiricfe] п хранение; proficient [pre'fijent] a опытный, склад умелый streamline ['striimlain] v ускорять, profit ['profit] n прибыль, доход модернизировать promotion [pre'meujen] Ai содейст­ subsidiary [S9b'sidj9ri] п филиал; вие в продаже; продвижение, по­ дочерняя подконтрольная ком­ вышение в должности пания prosper ['prospe] V преуспевать supply [S9'plai] п снабжение, по­ purchase ['p9:^9s] п покупка; v ставка; and demand спрос и покупать предложение supplier [S9'plai9] п поставщик raise [reiz] v поднимать; п повы­ шение teller [Че1э] п кассир, счетчик; relief [ri1i:f] п помощь; пособие; ^ machine банкомат скидки (с налога) tense [tens] а напряженный respond [ris'pond] v отвечать, реа­ thrive [Graiv] (throve, thriven) v гировать процветать, преуспевать retrieve [ri4ri:v] v отыскать (ин- totality [t9u'taeliti] n все количе­ формацию)\ вернуть, восстановить ство, вся сумма целиком, tradeoff ['treidefl n сравнительная W оценка; принятие компромисс­ wages ['weic^ez] п заработная ных решений плата (рабочих) transaction [traen'zaekjen] п дело, warehouse ['w&ahaus] п склад; v сделка, операция (торговая, бан­ помещать на склад, хранить на ковская) складе turnover ['te.n^euve] п оборот, то­ warehousing п складское хозяйст­ варооборот во, складирование и withdraw [wiU'dro:] v изымать из банкомата; забирать деньги из unit rju:nit] п единица; of банка account расчетная денежная еди­ ница yield [ji:ld] п процентный доход value [Vaelju:] п стоимость, цена vital [Vaitl] а жизненно важный, крайне необходимый, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2 ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ ^ЮРИСПРУДЕНЦИЯ)̂ Text 1 Что Вы понимаете под словом «закон»? Прочитайте и переведите текст. What Is Law? The word «law» refers to limits upon various forms of behav­ iour. In all societies, relations between people are regulated by pre­ scriptive laws, laws which prescribe how people ought to behave. For example, the speed limits are laws that prescribe how fast driv­ ers should drive. Some of such laws are customs, that is, informal rules of social and moral behaviour. And some of them are precise laws made by individual nations, governments and enforced against all citizens within their power. The puфose of government-made laws is social control (with­ out laws there would be anarchy in society) and the implementa­ tion of justice. Sometimes laws are simply an attempt to implement common sense. It is obvious to most people that dangerous driving should be punished. But in order to be enforced, common sense needs to be defined in law. The laws made by the government of one country are often very different from the laws of another country. But the law today is, to a large extent, a complex of different and relatively inde­ pendent national systems. Despite major revisions over the centu­ ries, the legal system of England and Wales is one of the oldest still operating in the modern world. English law has directly influ­ enced the law of former British colonies such as Australia, India, Canada and the nation where law plays a bigger part in everyday life than anywhere else, the United States. In addition, although the legal systems of Western Europe and Japan come from rather different traditions, there are enough similarities in principle and institution. Each country in the world, even each state of the United States, has its own system of law. But it should be said that there are two main traditions of law in the world. One is based on English Com­ mon Law, and has been adopted by many Commonwealth coun­ tries and most of the United States. The other tradition, sometimes known as Continental, or Roman law, has developed in most of, continental Europe, Latin America and Africa which have been strongly influenced by Europe. Continental law has also influenced Japan's legal system. In these countries Continental systems have resulted from attempts by governments to produce a set of precise, detailed codes to govern every legal aspect of a citizen's life. Text 2 Какие слова и термины из области правопорядка и преступлений Вы знаете? Прочитайте и переведите текст. Law, Order, Crime When somebody brealLS the law and does something against the law the police must investigate who is responsible for a crime. If they find the person who committed the crime, they arrest him or her. At the police station the person is questioned and charged with the crime. He must then be sent to court for trial. The person charged with the crime is now called the defendant or accused. In court, he must try to prove that he is innocent. The jury listens to all the evidence for and against the defendant and then makes their decision. If the jury decides that the defendant is guilty, the judge will give the sentence. For example, if a person is convicted of murder, the sentence will be many years in prison. The person then becomes a prisoner and the place he lives in is called a cell. For minor of­ fences (that is, crime that is not serious, e.g. illegal parking), the punishment is usually a fine. To fight crime the courts now give tougher punishments for crimes committed than in the past (e.g. bigger fines or longer prison sentences). There is capital punish­ ment (death by electric chair or hanging) for some crimes. If a per­ son convicted of a crime is put on probation, instead of punishment, he must behave well for a period of 1-3 years. If he is convicted of another crime while on probation, he will also be pun­ ished for the original crime. Suspended sentence^ is a prison sen­ tence of less than two years which does not take effect unless the convicted person commits another crime during the period speci­ fied by the court. Corporal punishment consists of causing a person to physical pain, e.g. by whipping. A community service order̂ is a court order to a person convicted of a crime to do a certain number of hours of work without pay in the local community instead of an­ other form of punishment. Common offences like theft, robbery, burglary, shoplifting; more serious offences such as murder, manslaughter and rape, crimes against public morals, pollution and traffic offences are aris-, ing every day in the courts. Thief, robber, burglar, shoplifter, mur­ derer, rapist are criminals. People who defend criminals and present evidence are called barristers (lawyers) or attorneys (in Am Eng). Notes to the Text 1. Suspended sentence — отсрочка исполнения приговора или наказания 2. community service order — направление на общественные работы Упражнение 1. Поставьте следующие события в правильной последова­ тельности. 1. You are convicted of an offence. 2. You are sentenced to punishment for an offence. 3. You are tried for an offence. 4. You are suspected of an offence. 5. You plead guilty or not guilty to an offence at the trial. 6. You are arrested for an offence. 7. You are accused of an offence (You are charged with an of­ fence). Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски. 1. The ... must decide if the accused is innocent or... 2. The po­ lice were sure the man was a ... , but it would be difficult to ... it in court. 3. Two months later the defendant was sent to court for ... 4, If the accused is convicted of rape, the ... may be at least ten years in ... 5... defend people and present... 6. If you park your car illegally, you will have to pay a ... 7. In Britain it is ... the law to drive a motor vehicle without insurance. 8. Fortunately, it was only a minor ... and we were not taken to the police station. 9. The ... sentences people. 10. I have never ... the law and ... a crime. 11. Police are allowed to stop anyone in the street and ... them. Упражнение 3. Подберите к словам и словосочетаниям в колонке А соответствующие по значению из колонки В. А В 1. wrong а. punishment 2. ask questions b. provide facts 3. commit a crime с kill someone by intention 4. arrest d. question 5. evidence e. investigate, 6. sentence f. kill someone by accident 7. theft g. break into a shop / house 8. rob h. take to the police station 9. burgle i. steal from a shop when open 10. steal j . steal from people or places 11. shoplift k. break the law 12. murder 1. illegal, against the law 13. manslaughter m. information about the crime 14. capital punishment n. stealing 15. try to find out what hap­ o.take pened p. death sentence 16. prove Упражнение 4. Заполните пропусю!. 1. We think the driver of a BMW will be charged with ... be­ cause he did not mean to kill the boy. 2. Did he kill his partner? Yes, he has been charged with ... 3. He took the money from women's bags. He has been charged with ... 4. She stole things from a supermarket, so she will be charged with... 5. Two boys have been charged with ... because they broke into a shop in the middle of the night and took money. Упражнение 5. Замените выделенные слова и словосочетания близкими по значению словами или словосочетаниями. 1. If someone commits а crime, the police must try to findo ut what happened. 2. When the police find the persons responsible for the crime they take them to the police station and ask them a lot of questions. 3. To reach their decision, the jury must listen carefully to the information about the crime for and against the accused. 4. It was only a minor offence and a driver had to pay money. 5. If you do something wrong, then you commit a crime. 6. Death sentence is a comparatively rare event now. 7. What can government do to stop crime? Упражвенне 6. Составьте словосочетания глаголов из колонкиАисуще­ ствительных из колонки В. А В 1. make a. the sentence 2. commit b. of the crime 3. break с against the law 4. give d. the law 5. listen to e. decisions, 6. be charged f. the evidence 7. be convicted g. with the crime 8. do smth. h. a crime Упражнение 7. Заполните пропуски антонимами. guilty ... lawful . illegal usual, common minor ... right Упражнение 8. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Verb Noun ' conviction punish accuse commitment question sentence Упражнение 9. A. Назовите 20-25 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему *Law and order, crime». В. Speak about: 1. Individual actions necessary to prevent a crime from happen­ ing (to stop a crime). 2. Capital punishment for some crimes. 3. Do you think people should be allowed to use a gun or knife in self-defence? Texts Какие виды права вы знаете? Прочитайте и переведите текст. The law is the whole body of laws considered collectively. There are many ways in which the law can be classified. It can be divided into common law, civil law, criminal law, constitutional law, sub­ stantive and procedural laws, etc. By the words «common law» we mean law which is common to the whole country — national law in contrast to local law. Com­ mon law (in England) is unwritten law based on judicial decisions made by judges in previous cases (case law) in contrast to the law made by Pariiament or other law-making body (statute law). It dis­ tinguishes the common law legal systems based on precedents from the civil law jurisdictions based on civil codes. Law of equity is the application of principles of justice outside common law or statute, law, used to correct laws when these would apply unfairly in special circumstances. A simple distinction between the criminal law (the foundation of which is the common law), and the civil law is that the latter reg- ulates the relationships between individuals or bodies and the for- mer regulates the legal relationships between the state and individual people and bodies. Examples of the civil law include breaches of contract (the law of contract), tort (literally meaning «wrong»), property or claims for damages for negligent conduct. Consider the following situation. You decide to buy a cellphone from a local shop. You pay the correct price and take the cellphone away. You have entered into a contract with the owner of the shop. After three days the cellphone fails to work. This is a common situ- ation and usually the shopkeeper will replace the cellphone or re- turn your money. If not, you may wish to take legal action to recover your loss. As the law of contract is part of the civil law the parties to the action will be you (an individual) and the owner of the shop (an individual person or body). Hence, the civil law is more concerned with apportioning losses than determining blame. Given that the defendant has damaged the victim's property, the question in the civil law is who should pay for that damage. If the victim is wholly innocent and the defendant even only little to blame, then the defendant should shoulder the liability. Now let us look at some examples of the criminal law. This is the law by which the state regulates the conduct of its citizens. Criminal offences range from the petty (e.g. parking offences) to the very serious (e.g. murder). Look at the following situation. You are driving your car at 70 m.p.h. (112 kilometers per hour) in an area, which has a speed limit of 40 m.p.h. You are stopped by a po- lice officer and subsequently a case is brought against you for dan- gerous driving. This is a criminal offence. The parties to the action will therefore be the state (in the form of prosecuting authority) and you (an individual). Although the division between the civil and criminal law is clear, there are many actions, which will constitute a criminal of- fence and a civil wrong. For example, you are driving your car too fast. Suppose that while you were doing this you knocked over and injured an elderly man. You will have committed a criminal of- fence (dangerous driving) and a civil wrong (negligence). The legal consequences under the criminal and civil law will be different. You would be prosecuted by the state in the criminal courts for dangerous driving and sued by the elderly man in the civil courts for negligence. The two actions will be totally separate., The law of contract and the criminal law are two areas of sub­ stantive law. «Substantive law lays down people's rights, duties, liberties and powers». By this is meant the actual content or sub­ stance of the law. These are the rules on which the courts base their decisions. Procedural law is also a set of rules. Rules of procedure are the rules, which govern such matters as how the case is to be presented, in what court it shall lie, or when it is to be tried. Procedural rules are, in other words, the rules, which govern the machinery as op­ posed to the subject-matter. It is a striking fact that in the earlier stages of legal development these rules assume paramount impor­ tance: form is better understood than substance, and formal re­ quirements, rather than abstract principles, usually determined legal rights. However, the rules of procedure are now more flexible than once they were. Упражнение 1. Прочитайте определения юридических терминов. Дайте русские эквиваленты выделенным словам и словосочетаниям. Переведите предложения. 1. The person charged with the criminal offence is the defen­ dant. 2. A criminal case is brought by a prosecutor. 3. A successful criminal prosecution will result in a conviction. 4. The word «guilty» is used primarily of criminals. The corresponding word in civil cases is «liable», but this word is also used in criminal con­ texts. 5. The party bringing a civil action is the plaintiff. 6. The party is one of the persons or sides in a legal agreement or dispute. 7. The defendant in a civil case is sued by the plaintiff. 8. If the plaintiff is successful, the defendant will be found liable. 9. The dis­ tinction between crimes and civil wrongs relates to the legal conse­ quences. 10. A court order not to do something is an injunction. 11. Judgment is the decision of a judge or court. 12. Procedure is the regular order of doing legal things. 13. A proceeding is a course of action. 14. Damages are money given as legal compensation. 15. To sue is to take legal action against someone in a civil case. Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски следующими словами: judgment prosecutor conviction plaintiff sues prosecution punishment injunction punished 1. In criminal proceedings a (1) ... prosecutes a defendant. 2. The result of the (2) ... if successful is a (3) ... 3. And the defen­ dant may be (4)... by one of a variety of punishments ranging from, life imprisonment to a fine or else may be released or discharged without (5) ... 4. In civil proceedings a plaintiff (6) ... (e.g. brings an action against) a defendant. 5. The proceedings if successful re­ sult in judgment for the plaintiff, and the (7) ... may order the de­ fendant to pay the (8)..money, or transfer property to him, or to do or not to do something [(9) .] , or to perform a contract. Упражненше 3, Заполните пропуски, разместив следующие слова и сло­ восочетания в соответствующую колонку: crime, life imprisonment, to convict, civil wrong, guilty, plaintiff, defendant, to prose­ cute, liable, to punish, prosecution, conviction, judgment for the plaintiff, prosecutor, of­ fence, punishment Civil Criminal Упражнение 4, Составьте словосочетания глаголов из колонкиАису­ ществительных из колонки В. А В 1. bring a. the prosecution 2. conduct b. a criminal 3. investigate с blame/right 4. commit/charge with d. the evidence 5. punish e. a case/an action/a prosecution 6. determine f. legal proceedings 7. give/hear g. a case/a crime 8. take/start h. an offence Упражнение 5. Подберите к словам из колонки А синонимы или близкие по значению слова и словосочетания из колонки В. А В 1. liable a. most important/ greatest 2. damage b. take the responsibility for 3. tort с allowed by law 4. code d. behaviour (moral) 5. legal e. pay no attention to/ fail to do smth. 6. distinction f. carelessness 7. neglect g. for this reason 8. negligence h. civil wrong/ not (generally) a crime 9. breach i. money paid in compensation 10. paramount j . difference 11. petty k. responsible for, 12. crime 1. a system of laws 13. hence m. breaking (an agreement/ duty) 14. conduct n. offence 15. shoulder 0. divide/ distribute 16. apportion p. small Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски антонимами. petty written unjust injustice legal national misconduct unlawftil case law ... based on precedent ... discharge release from prison carefulness ... fair Упражнение 7. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Adjective neglect ... prosecutive separate ... legalization justify ... punishable constitute ... blameless Упражнение 8. A. Назовите 20'-25 ключевы[х слов и словосочетаний на тему «Branches of the law». В. Speak about: Distinctions between the criminal law and the civil law. Give your own examples of both of them. Text 4 Какие судебные институты исполняют закон? Прочитайте и переведите текст. Judicial Institutions (Courts) In all legal systems there are institutions for creating, modify­ ing, abolishing and applying the law. Usually these take the form of, а hierarchy of courts. The role of each court and its capacity to make decisions is strictly defined in relation to the courts. There are two main reasons for having a variety of courts. One is that a particular court can specialize in a particular kind of legal action. The other is so that a person who feels his case was not fairly treated in a lower court can appeal to a higher court for reassess­ ment. The decisions of a higher court are binding upon lower courts. At the top of the hierarchy is a supreme law-making body. The court in which a case is first heard is called the court of first instance. Appellate courts (or Appeal Courts) are civil or crime courts to which a person may go for a reconsideration of the deci­ sion of the original court. The formal courts are not the only means of solving disputes; adjudication increasingly takes place outside the court system. The two main forms of extra-court adjudication are tribunals and arbi­ tration. Tribunals were established to adjudicate on disputes arising out of social legislation which regulates such areas as employment, housing and social security benefits. The disputes in these areas might be settled by ordinary courts but the ordinary courts lack the necessary expertise or are too for­ mal, slow and costly. Hence, the legislation has established a tribu­ nal to do the job. There are numerous types of tribunals, each with its own limited jurisdiction over a particular type of claim. Many tribunals have expert assessors^ sitting along a legally experienced chairman to make up the judging paneP. From the point of view of the ordinary citizens they are the most important courts in the country but from the point of view of lawyers they are perhaps the least important element in the court system of England. In contrast, arbitration is a private means of adjudication, ar­ ranged and agreed between parties involved. Here the parties agree to place their dispute in the hands of an independent third party and invest the arbitrator with the power to decide the issue. The ar­ bitrator is likely to be someone with expertise in the area. The pur­ pose of arbitration is to enable people to have small disputes resolved in an informal atmosphere, avoiding as far as possible the strict rules of procedure usually associated with court proceedings. This does not mean that rules are not observed because the object of all court procedures is to protect the interests of each party to the action and to ensure that the case is tried fairly. Nevertheless, the formalities are kept to the minimum., The advantages of arbitration are similar to those of tribunals: speed, lower costs, flexibility, informality and adjudication by an expert. These advantages must, of course, be balanced against dis­ advantages. There is the argument that cheaper, quicker and less formal hearings result in a poor quality service. Nevertheless, the increasing use of tribunals and arbitration seems to indicate that they are a popular way of resolving disputes. On a wider point, they also increase access to justice for the ordinary people who make up 38 per cent of the plaintiffs. Notes to the Text 1. expert assessor — эксперт-консультант 2. judging panel — состав, список судей Упражнение 1. Дайте русские эквиваленты выделенным словам и слово­ сочетаниям, переведите предложения. 1. А hierarchy of courts is an organization with levels of author­ ity from the highest to the lowest courts. 2. To appeal means to take a case to a higher court in the hope of a new decision. 3. A request to a higher court to reexamine and change the judgment of a previ­ ous court hearing is called an appeal. 4. An appellant is the person or the party that requests an appeal. 5. Adjudicatioii is an act of giv­ ing a judgment or of deciding a legal problem. 6. The courts called tribunals are specialist courts outside the judicial system which ex­ amine special problems and make judgments. 7. To arbitrate is to settle a dispute between parties by referring it to an arbitrator in­ stead of going to court. 8. The word «legislation» means making laws or the laws made. 9. Jurisdiction is administration of justice or the extent of legal authority. 10. An assessor expert helps and ad­ vises a judge on technical matters in a particularly difficult case. 11. Disputes are disagreements or arguments. To be in dispute means to be in opposition to each other. 12. The agreement is bind­ ing on all parties, that is, all parties signing it must do what is agreed. 13. To bind is to place a court under legal obligation to act in accordance with a previous judicial decision. Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски. 1. We have no authority to deal with this matter: it does not come within our ... 2.The person who goes to a higher court to ask, it to change a decision or a sentence of a lower court is known to be called an ... 3. To ... means to take a question to a higher court for rehearing and a new decision. 4. An ... is a person giving a decision on a legal problem in an industrial dispute. 5. The judicial ... im­ plies that judges in the higher courts have more authority than those in the lower courts. 6. Labour ... is laws concerning the em­ ployment of workers. 7. ... is the settlement of a dispute between parties by an outside person, chosen by both parties. 8. He lost his ... for damages against the company. 9. Industrial ... are courts which can decide in disputes between employers and employees. 10. Industrial or labour ... are arguments between management and workers. 11. ... precedent is a decision of a higher court which has to be followed by a judge in a lower court. Упражненве 3. Составьте словосочетания глаголов из колонкиАисуще­ ствительных из колонки В.

В

1. hear/ treat a. interests 2. play b. a rule 3. regulateсacase 4. resolve / settle d. facts 5. make e. relations 6. observe f. with power 7. protect g. a part / role 8. keep h. a dispute / argument 9. invest i. to a higher court 10. assess j . smth. to the minimum 11. appeal k. a decision Упражненве 4. Подберите к глаголам из колонки А близкие по значению слова и словосочетания из колонки В. А В 1. abolish a. express disagreement 2. agree b. consider, deal with 3. argue с legally force to do smth. 4. avoid d. put an end to 5. bind e. say «yes», be of the same opinion 6. establish f. keep away from, escape 7. settle / resolve g. set up 8. treat h. decide, determine, Упражнение 5. Подберите к словам из колонки А синонимы или близкие по значению словосочетания из колонки В.

В

1. issue trial 2. capacity subject of a dispute; question for discussion 3. benefit ability 4. hearing advantage; help 5. extra e. adaptable 6. strict f. highest 7. ordinary g. outside 8. expertise h. precisely limited; exactly defined 9. supreme i. normal, usual 10. flexible j . expert knowledge Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски антонимами, inside ... formal . the latter informality agreement old fairiy dissimilarity Упражнение 7. Назовите прилагательные с суффиксом -able, означаю- щие: 1. that can be argued 2. that can be enforced 3. that can be avoided 4. that can be agreed Упражнение 8. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Adjective legislative avoidance arguable impart agreeable enforcement, Упражнение 9. А. Назовите 20—25 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Judicial institutions and courts». В. Speak about: 1. The difference between courts of first instance and appellate courts. 2. The риф08е of tribunals and arbitration. 3. The advantages of arbitration. Texts Какие требования предъявляют к квалификации юриста в современном обществе? Прочитайте и переведите текст. The Profession of Lawyers The word «lawyer» describes a person who practices law, who has become officially qualified to act in certain legal matters because of examinations he has taken and professional experience he has gained. Most countries have different groups of lawyers who each take a particular kind of examination in order to qualify to do par­ ticular jobs. In Japan, a lawyer must decide whether he wants to take examination to become an attorney, a public prosecutor or a judge. A distinctive feature of the legal profession in England is that it is divided into two groups: barristers and solicitors. Barristers are lawyers who specialize in arguing cases in front of a judge and have an exclusive right to be heard, the right of audience^ in all law courts in England, even in the highest courts. They are not paid di­ rectly by clients, but are employed by solicitors. Judges are usually chosen from the most senior barristers, and once appointed they cannot continue to practice as barristers. Solicitors are lawyers who do much of the initial preparation for cases. They prepare legal documents (e.g. wills, sale of land or buildings), advise clients on legal matters, and speak on their behalf^ in lower courts. In other words, a barrister spends most of his time either in a courtroom or preparing his arguments for the court and a solicitor spends most of his time in an office giving advice to clients and making investiga­ tions. Many people in England believe the distinction between bar­ risters and solicitors should be eliminated, as it has already happened in Australia. In both the United States and other industrialized countries, lawyers are becoming more and more specialized. Working in small firms, lawyers now tend to restrict themselves to certain kinds of work and lawyers working in large law firms or employed in the law departments of a large commercial enteфrise work on highly spe­ cific areas of law. How to enter the profession of lawyers? Lawyers are subject to standardized examination and other controls to regulate their com-, petence. In some countries in order to practice as a lawyer it is nec­ essary to obtain a university degree in law. However, in others, a degree may be insufficient; professional examinations must be passed. In Britain, the main requirement is to have passed the Bar Final examination (for barristers) or the Law Society Final exami­ nation (for solicitors). Someone with a university degree in a sub­ ject other than law needs first to take a preparatory course. Someone without a degree at all may also prepare for the final ex­ amination, but this will take several years. In most countries, law­ yers would say that the time they spent studying for their law finals was one of the worst period of their life. This is because an enor­ mous number of procedural rules covering a wide area of law must be memorized. In Japan, where there are relatively few lawyers, the examinations are supposed to be particularly hard: less than 5 per­ cent of candidates pass. A solicitor in England must then spend two years as an articled clerk ,̂ during which time his work is closely supervised by an ex­ perienced solicitor, and then he must take further courses. A bar­ rister spends a similar year serving as a pupil under an experienced barrister. In most countries, once a lawyer is fully qualified he receives a certificate proving his right to sell his service. There are also insur­ ance provisions so that if a lawyer is ever successfully sued by a cli­ ent for professional incompetence, there will be funds available to enable him to pay damages. Even if a lawyer is very competent, he must take care not to break the many rules of procedure and ethics set by the body which regulates his profession. In England, the body regulating the conduct of solicitors is the Law Society. There is also a Solicitor's Disciplinary Tribunal with the power to suspend or even disqualify a solicitor. In most legal systems, conversations between a lawyer and his client are privileged: the client should know that what he says will not be passed on to someone else without his permission. In theory, it could pose difficult ethical problems for a lawyer. For instance, what should he do in a criminal case if he believes his client guilty? In any case, it is the prosecution's job to prove guilt, not the de­ fence's to prove innocence. A lawyer could therefore defend his cli­ ent simply by trying to point out weaknesses in the prosecution case. Notes to the Text 1. the right of audience — право выступать в суде 2. on their behalf — от их имени, 3. articled clerk — служащий конторы солиситора, выпол­ няющий свою работу в порядке платы за обучение профессии солиситора Упражнение 1. Составьте словосочетания глаголов из колонкиАисуще­ ствительных из колонки В. А В 1. enter а. advice 2. prepare/ prepare for b. a degree in law 3. become с time 4. gain d. a problem 5. give e. examinations 6. argue f. a job 7. pose g. on one's behalf 8. speak h. a profession 9. get/ obtain i. guilt/ innocence 10. prove j . a case 11. take/ pass k. experience 12. do 1. arguments, documents/ the final exam 13. spend m. a lawyer Упражнение 2. Назовите 5 словосочетаний со словами law и legal. Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски. 1. ... is а general term for а member of the legal profession, e.g. a judge, barrister, solicitor, law teacher, etc. 2. The common pur­ pose of a barrister and a solicitor is to provide professional service and advice on legal... 3. Barrister is a lawyer who can speak and ... a case in one of the higher courts. 4. Attorneys are persons who are legally allowed to act on ... of someone else. 5. Solicitors may now have a right of... in certain courts. 6. At present a solicitor may choose any ... to advise his client or to appear for the client in court. 7. ... is a clerk who has passed the examination to become a solicitor but has to work in a solicitor's office for some years to learn the law. 8... means protected by privilege, e.g. a letter from a client to his lawyer. 9. Jurors are members of a ... 10. Jurist is an ex­ pert in ... 11. Jurisprudence is science and philosophy of human ... Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски следующими словами: legal, legally, legalize, legalization. 1. To ... is to make something legal. 2. To sue means to take ... action against someone in a civil court. 3. The directors of large commercial enterprises are ... responsible. 4. The ... of labour rela­ tions is reflected in the law of employment., Упражнение 5. Заполните пропуски синонимами или словами, близкими по значению. higher in authority some remove discuss / debate limit rule / order need / require not general hand / give to smb. else control systematically show / direct attention to think Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски антонимами. sufficient ... guilt incompetent ... strength weak ... competence ... lower court ... junior qualify ... different final exam ... very small Упражнение 7. Заполните таблицу на словообразование. Verb Noun Adjective exclude practice arguable restriction advisory preparation specify qualification weaken ... Упражнение 8. A. Назовите 20-25 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Professional titles in legal systems». В. Speak about: How to become a lawyer in different countries. SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS To be read after Text 2 Computer crime Computers can be used to commit all kinds of crimes. It is sug­ gested that one could commit murder by computer if one hacked, into an air-traffic controller's computer system and caused aero­ planes to crash, with the intent^ to kill the passengers. Not surpris­ ingly crimes that specifically relate to computers are relatively recent creations of statute. Some specific computer crimes are set out in the Computer Misuse Act 1990. It is designed to protect information kept on computers. There are three particular reasons why such informa­ tion needs protection by the criminal law. Firstly it is said to be very hard to safeguard information stored on a computer, particu­ larly as often the information is intended to be accessed by a num­ ber of authorized people. By contrast information on paper can be kept in a safe or other secure^ place. Secondly the ease of destroy­ ing or corrupting data on a computer means it deserves^ special protection, particularly as it is not always possible for the owner of the computer to realize that the data have been looked at. Thirdly the highly confidential"* nature of the kind of information kept on computers (often concerning many members of the public) is such that it needs particular protection. The act prohibits^ «hacking», i.e., gaining^ unauthorized access to computer material. The offence is committed if a defendant is en­ tering the computer just to see what he can find. The Act also con­ tains a more serious offence of doing this with the intent to commit another offence. The most common example is likely to be a decep­ tion (обман) offence or theft. A defendant who obtained data which he intended to use in the future to commit an offence of obtaining property by deception will still be guilty of the more serious offence. There is also an offence of modifying computer material in an unauthorized way. This section is clearly aimed at people who alter^ computer data with intent to corrupt a program. The intent does not need to be directed towards any particular computer or data. Modification is defined as including removal of any program or data on a computer and includes adding to the contents or erasing^ them. It also includes temporary^ modification. It would appear to cover sending someone a disc with a virus on it that was intended to damage the working of the computer. It is possible to be guilty of criminal damage of computers if there has been a physical change to some components of the com­ puter. Notes to the Text 1. (legal) puфose, intention 2. safe, 3. have a right to 4. (to be kept) secret 5. say that smth. must not be done (by rules of regulations) 6. obtain 7. change 8. removing 9. lasting for a short time only To be read after Text 3 The Jury The jury has a long history within the English legal system, al­ though its role has changed significantly during that time. Ori­ ginally, members of the jury were witnesses^ Today, they are a group of twelve ordinary people with no special knowledge, chosen at random to act as impartial^ judges of the facts of a case. In a jury trial, the jury is advised by the trial judge on the relevant^ law; that is, the judge's function is to explain the law to the jury and ensure that the trial is conducted according to the rules of procedure and evidence. The function of the jury is then to apply the law to the facts and then decide, in criminal cases, whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty and, in civil cases, whether the defendant is lia­ ble to the plaintiff. The decision of a jury is called a verdict^. The juries do not need to give reasons for their verdict. In civil cases the jury will also decide on the amount of damages to be awarded to the plaintiff. «Shadow» («теневой») juries are sometimes used to research the adequacy of the jury system; a random group of twelve people sits in the court and hears a case and reaches a verdict which is then compared to the verdict of the real jury. Although the jury continues to have much symbolic importance in the English legal system, in practice its role has been greatly dimished^ over recent years. Notes to the Text 1. a person who gives evidence in court 2. just, fair; not favouring one side more than the other 3. (closely) connected with what is being discussed, done, etc. 4. decision reached by a jury 5. make or become less, То be read after Text 4, 5 Judges Judge is a public officer with authority to hear and decide cases in a law court. In the British system of law judges are chosen from lawyers who have gained considerable experience as legal practitio­ ners before being appointed to the judiciary. Judges must be independent of the parties to a dispute (this en­ sures a fair and just trial). They must be independent of the execu­ tive. This enables the judges to exercise control over government action. Judges must be free of any political bias (пристрастность, предубеждение). Most of the work of the judges is judicial in the sense that they have to adjudicate upon disputes. To do this they are required, im­ partially, to find the facts based on the evidence presented to the court, to apply the law to the facts and then to give the right deci­ sion. Their role is therefore limited to ensuring that there is a fair trial, reaching a decision on the fact as presented to them and ap­ plying this to the law. Judges do not investigate the cases they are trying but they do not play a completely passive role; they may, sometimes, question witnesses and they must ensure that the trial is conducted accord­ ing to the rules of procedure and evidence. ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ A argue ['a:gju:] v аргументировать; abolish [e'bolij] v аннулировать; приводить доводы отменять; упразднять assessment [e'sesmant] п оценка; accused [e'kju:zd] п обвиняемый определение; reassessment п пе- adjudicate [e'cfeudikeit] v судить, Р^^^^^р выносить приговор attorney [e'teini] п поверенный; alter ['o:lt9] v изменять(ся); вно- а^^^^'^' ^Р^^^ сить изменения j . appeal [e'pi:l] п апелляция; апел­ ляционная жалоба; обращение; barrister ['baenste] п адвокат; бар- V обжаловать, апеллировать, по- ристер давать апелляционную жалобу; behaviour [bi'heivja] п поведение - court (Appellate court) апелля- bind [baind] v обязывать, связы- ционный суд вать обязательствами; ограничи- apportion [a'po.Jan] v распреде- вать лять; разделять, делить (сораз- blame [bleim] п порицание; ответ- жерло, пропорционально) ственность, breach [bri:^] n нарушение (зако­ despite [dis'pait] prep несмотря на на, обязательства) diminish [di'minij] v уменьшать burglar [Ъэ:д1э] n вор-взломщик, громила E burglary [Ъэ:д1эг1] п кража со взломом enforce [in'fois] vпринуждать; на­вязывать; заставлять equity ['ekwiti] n право справед­ case [keis] п судебное дело, пре­ ливости (система права, дейст­ цедент, факт вующая наряду с общим правом и cell [sel] п тюремная камера писаным, статутным правом; до­ civil ['sivl] а гражданский; - law полняет обычное право) гражданское право; - code граж­ erase [I'reiz] v стирать; вычерки­ данский кодекс; ~ wrong [ror\] на­ вать (из памяти) рушение гражданских прав erasing п стирание записи charge [̂ a:cl5] v обвинять; to be evidence ['evidens] п улика; сви­ charged with обвинять в чем-то детельские показания claim [kleim] n претензия; заявле­ executive [ig'zekjutiv] п (the -) ис­ ние; иск; рекламация полнительная власть; исполни­ commit [ko'mit] v совершать (пре­ тельный орган ступление); - a crime совершать преступление Commonwealth Countries Британ­ fair [feo] а честный; справедли­ ское Содружество (наций) вый; беспристрастный content ['kontent] n содержание; fine [fain] п штраф суть; сущность convict ['konvikt] v выносить при­ говор; признавать виновным gain [gein] п прибыль, выгода; v conduct ['kondAkt] п поведение, извлекать пользу, выгоду образ действий guilty ['gilti] а виновный court [ko:t] п суд custom I'kAStom] п обычайНDhear [hio] v слушать, заслуши­ damages ['daemicfeiz] п убытки, вать; разбирать компенсация за убытки; искоIвозмещении убытков defend [di'fend] v защищать в суде impartial [im'poijol] а беспристра­ defence [di'fens] п защита на суде; стный, справедливый self - самооборона; самозащита injunction [in'cfeATikJen] п предпи­ defendant [di'fendent] п обвиняе­ сание, приказ; судебный запрет мый innocent ['inosont] а невиновный deserve [di'ze:v] v заслуживать, intent [in'tent] п намерение, цель быть достойным; иметь право на investigate [inVestigeit] v рассле­ защиту довать,

N

judge ['cfeAcfe] n судья negligent ['neglic^ent] а небреж­ judgment/judgement ['dsAcbment] n ный, халатный, невнимательный приговор, решение суда negligence ['negiic^ens] п небреж­ judiciary [cfeui'dijieri] n суд, судеб­ ность, халатность; преступная ная система; - law судебное право небрежность jury ['cfeueri] n присяжные (выно­ сящие приговор по гражданскимиОуголовным делам) offence [e'fens] п проступок, на­ justice ['djAStis] п справедливость; рушение; преступление; criminal правосудие; юстиция ~ уголовное преступление; minor - мелкое нарушение, проступок law [1о:] п право; case - преце­ дентное право; common ~ общее paramount rpaeromaunt] а верхов­ (обычное) право; constitutional ~ ный, высший, первостепенный конституционное право; civil '- participate [pa:'tisipeit] v участ­ гражданское право; criminal - уго­ вовать ловное право; procedural - проце­ дурное право; statute ~ статутное party ['pa:ti] v сторона право, «письменный закон»; sub­ petty ['peti] a мелкий, незначи­ stantive and procedural ~ матери­ тельный альное и процессуальное право; ~ plead [pli:d] V to - guilty призна­ of contract договорное (обяза­ вать себя виновным в предъяв­ тельное) право; ~ of employment ленном обвинении; to ~ not guilty трудовое право; право занятости заявить о своей невиновности; не (работы, службы); - and order по­признавать себя виновным рядок, правопорядок; break the - police [poMiis] п полиция; the - нарушить закон; to lay down the - station полицейский участок устанавливать правовые нормы lawmaking body п законодатель­ pose [pouz] V предлагать, ставить ный орган (задачу, вопрос) prescribe [pris'kraib] v предписы­ lawyer Hojo] п адвокат, юрист вать legal rii:gel] а юридический, пра­ вовой; - action судебный иск prison ['prizn] n тюрьма liability prisoner n заключенный [Jaio'biliti] п ответствен­ ность privileged ['privilicfed] a сообщен­ные клиентом и не подлежащие loss [los] п потеря; урон оглашению (сведения) М probation [pre'beijen] п испыта­тельный срок; вид условного на­ manslaughter ['maen^sloito] п не­ казания; условное освобождение предумышленное убийство на поруки murder ['тэ:с1э] п убийство (пре­ procedure [pre'siicfee] п процедура думышленное) prohibit [pre'hibit] v запрещать, property ['propeti] n имущество, subject [seb'cfeekt] v подвергать собственность, хозяйство {воздействию, влиянию, экзаме­ prosecute ['prosikju:t] v преследо­ ну); to be - to подлежащий чему- вать судебным порядком; высту­ либо пать в качестве обвинителя subject-matter п предмет догово­ punish ['pAniJ] V наказывать ра-спора punishment п наказание; capital - substance ['SAbstens] п сущность, смертная казнь, высшая мера на­ суть, содержание казания; corporal ~ телесное на­ sue [sju:] v преследовать судеб­ казание ным порадком, возбуждать дело pupil Tpjuipl] п ученик, учащийся supervise ['sju.pevaiz] v наблю­ дать {за нем-то); надзирать suspect ['sAspekt] v подозревать rape [reip] п изнасилование suspend [ses'pend] v временно от­ recover [п'клуэ] v обретать снова, странять; исключать возвращать себе; получить об­ ратно relevant ['relivent] а уместный; temporary ['tempereri] a времен­ относящийся к делу ный revision [riVi3en] п пересмотр, ре­ thief [ei:f] n вор визия theft [0eft] n воровство, кража robber ['robe] п грабитель tort [to:t] n деликт; гражданское robbery ['гоban] п грабеж правонарушение treat [tri:t] vобращаться; считать; рассматривать sense ['sens] п common - здравый tribunal [trai'bjuinl] n суд, орган смысл правосудия, судебное учреждение sentence ['sentens] п приговор; v осуждать, приговаривать и settle ['setl] v урегулировать {спор, unauthorized ['An'o:99raizd] а не­ дело) разрешенный; неправомерный; shoplifter ['Jopjifte] п магазинный несанкционированный вор shoplifting п кража в магазине shoulder ['Jeuldo] v брать на себя victim [Viktim] п жертва; постра­ {ответственность, вину) давший solicitor [se'lisita] п солиситор, адвокат {дающий советы клиенту; W подготавливающий дела для бар­ ристера и выступающий только wв ill [wil] п завещание судах низшей инстанции) witness ['witnis] п свидетель striking ['straikiT]] а поразитель­ wholly ['heuli] adv полностью, це­ ный ликом, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 3 ОСНОВНЫЕ ЗНАЧЕНИЯ И ПРИМЕРЫ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ НЕКОТОРЫХ ПРЕДЛОГОВ Prepositions English Russian about This article is about new engines. Эта статья о новых двигателях. 0, около. I shall come at about 5 o'clock. Я приду около 5 часов. по He was walking about the Он ходил по комнате. room. Вал вращается вокруг (отно­ The shaft turns about its axis. сительно) своей оси. after He finishes his work after 5. Он заканчивает работу после после, за, о пяти. I came here after him. Я пришел сюда после него. I was going after him. Я шел за ним. He asked after you. Он спрашивал о вас. at We are sitting at a table. Мы сидим за столом. за, в, на, у We are sitting at a lesson. Мы на уроке. We are at the concert. Мы на (в) концерте. We are sitting at the window. Мы сидим у окна. He works at a plant. Он работает на заводе. He studies at the institute. Он учится в институте. I get up at 8 o'clock. Я встаюв8часов. before He was here before you. Он был здесь до вас. до, перед The car stopped before the Машина остановилась перед house. домом. beyond The sun disappeared beyond the Солнце скрылось за лесом. за, вне forest. It is beyond any doubt. Это вне всяких сомнений. |ЬУ He is standing by the window. Он стоит у окна. Lv, к Г11 come by six. Я приду к шести. He went by train. Он поехал поездом. [for I have brought this book for Я принес эту книгу для вас. для, в тече­ you. ние I shall be working here for two Я буду работать здесь в hours. течение двух часов. from He arrived from Kiev. Он приехал из Киева. из, у, с, в He arrived from the Far East. Он приехал с Дальнего Востока. I have taken this book from the Я взял эту книгу в библиотеке. library. Take this book from him. Возьмите у него эту книгу. He works here from two till five Он работает здесь с двух до o'clock. пяти часов., Окончание приложения 3 Prepositions English Russian in I shall be in Moscow soon. Я скоро буду в Москве. в, через We shall finish our work in half Мы окончим нашу работу че­ an hour. рез полчаса. In winter we often skate. Зимой мы часто катаемся на коньках. of He spoke of his work. Он говорил 0 своей работе. 0, об, из Tables are made of wood. Столы делают нз дерева. on The book is on the table. Книга на столе. на, в, по Come on Monday. Приходите в понедельник. This book is on chemistry. Эта книга по химии. Studies begin on the 1st of Sep­ Занятия начинаются первого tember. сентября. over The boy jumped over the Мальчик перескочил через через, по, bench. скамейку. \над The lamp is over the table. Лампа над столом. He travelled all over the coun­ Он путешествовал по всей try. стране. to Let's go to the library. Давайте пойдем в библиотеку. \к, в, с Г11 speak to him. Я с ним поговорю. Come to the blackboard. Подойдите к доске. with He works with me. Он работает со мной. с within I hope to finish my article Я надеюсь окончить статью через, в within two days. через два дня. The pressure in the boiler Давление в котле изменяется changes within defijiite limits. в определенных пределах. It is within my power. Это в моих возможностях., ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 4 НАИБОЛЕЕ УПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СОЮЗЫ Conjunction English Russian and There are many English and В нашей библиотеке много ан­ и, а German books in our library. глийских и немецких книг. One of his brothers is a mathe­ Один из его братьев матема­ matician and the other is a тик, а другой — филолог. philologist. as well as The internal combustion en­ Двигатели внутреннего сгора­ так же, как gines can operate on oil and ния могут работать на нефти и и, а также kerosine as well as benzine. керосине, а также на бензине. both ... and This engine radically differs Этот двигатель коренным об­ как... так «, both in construction and ope­ разом отличается от двигателя, и... и ration from that designed 5 разработанного 5 лет назад, years ago. как по конструкции, так и по работе. but He is very busy, but he pro­ Он очень занят, но обещал но, а mised to take part in the dis­ принять участие в обсужде­ cussion. нии. either ... or He will deliver his report Он сделает доклад или на этом или ... или either at this meeting or at the собрании, или на следующем. next. neither ... nor He was neither in the Crimea, Он не был ни в Крыму, ни на ни ... ни nor in the Caucasus. Кавказе. or Hurry up, or you will be late. Поторопитесь, или вы опозда­ или, иначе ете. yet My experiment seems to have Мой опыт, кажется, прошел однако, все been successful; yet I am not успешно, и все же я не удов­ же satisfied. летворен., ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 5 ПРЕЦЩОГИ, НАРЕЧИЯ И СОЮЗЫ, СОВПЛДАЮПЩБ ПО ФОРМЕ В английском языке есть союзы, предлоги и наречия, совпада­ ющие по форме. Их значение определяется функцией и местом в предложении. Если слово стоит перед существительным или другой частью ре­ чи, имеющей именные свойства, то это — предлог. Если слово относится к глаголу (или словам, имеющим глаголь­ ную основу) и имеет самостоятельное значение, выполняя функцию обстоятельства, то это — наречие. Если слово вводит придаточное предложение или связывает од­ нородные члены предложения, то это — союз. Слово Предлог Наречие Союз about He spoke about his We were about to go. method. Мы собирались уйти. OH говорил о своем Не was walking somewhere методе. about. It is about 5 o'clock. Он ходил где-то около (не­ Сейчас около пяти далеко). часов. above Не fixed а lamp Repeat the above men­ above the table. tioned rule. Он укрепил лампу Повторите вышеупомянут над столом. тое правило. across There was no bridge We took а boat to get across the river. across. Через реку не было Мы взяли лодку, чтобы пе­ моста. ребраться на ту сторону. after I shall go home after We shall decide this after. Не rang up after the lecture. Мы решим это потом. you had left. Я пойду домой после OH позвонил, после лекции. того как вы ушли. \ along Не went along the Не brought his book along street. with the books from the Он пошел по улице. library. OH принес свою книгу на­ ряду с книгами из библио­ теки. around There is а high fence There was snow all around. around our garden. Кругом был снег. Вокруг нашего сада высокий забор., Окончание приложения 5 Слово Предлог Наречие Союз before He stood before his I heard this before. Не went away be­ chief. Я слышал это раньше. fore you came. OH стоял перед ceo- Он ушел, прежде им начальником. чем вы пришли. 1 behind There is a sports The camp was left far be­ ground behind our hind. house. Лагерь остался далеко по­ 3a нашим домом зади. есть спортплощадка. below The temperature was This word is given below. kept below 70 X . Это слово дается ниже. Температура под­ держивалась ниже 70 "С. but I have but two English Не gave me а pen, books. but I want a pencil. У меня есть только две OH дал мне ручку, английские книги. a мне нужен ка­ рандаш. I by Г11 be back by Mon­ She passed him by. day. Она прошла мимо него. Я вернусь к поне­ дельнику. for This text is not diffi­ I can translate this cult for me. text, for it is not Этот текст не тру­ difficult. ден для меня. Я могу перевести I waited for an hour. этот текст, так\ Я ждал в течение как он не труден. часа. on This book is on the Read on. table. Читайте дальше. Книга на столе. since I have not seen him Не left in 1990 and I have I have not seen him since the beginning not seen him since. since the school of the school year. OH уехал в 1990 году, и я year began. Я не видел его с на­ его с тех пор не видел. Я не видел его с чала учебного года. тех пор, как на- \ чался учебный год. tiU I shall not rest till 11 shall not rest till Sunday. I have finished my Я не буду отдыхать work. до воскресенья. Я не буду отды- \хать, пока не за­ кончу работу., ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 6 НАИБОЛЕЕ УПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СУФФИКСЫ Суффиксы Примеры -ег, to read — reader to elect — elector -ог читать — читатель избирать — избиратель -ant, to assist — assistant to study ~ student -ent помогать — помощник изучать — студент -ist to type — typist печатать - машинистка -ian, Russia — Russian China — Chinese -ese Россия — русский Китай — китаец electricity — electrician электричество — электрик -ion, to assert — assertion to connect — connection -tion, утверждать — утверждение соединять — соединение -ation, to organize — organization to admit — admission -sion, организовывать — организация допускать — допущение -SSiOD to collide — collision сталкиваться — столкновение -age to clear — clearage очищать — очистка -meot to fulfiU — fulfillment выполнять — выполнение -ure to press — pressure давить — давление -ance, to appear — appearance to depend — dependence -ence появляться — появление зависеть — зависимость -ing to begin — beginning начинать — начало -ness dark — darkness темный — темнотг, active — activity wide — width |-th активный — активность широкий — ширина -dom, free — freedom real — realism -ism, свободный — свобода действительный — реализм -hood, child — childhood friend •— friendsliip -ship {ребенок — детство друг — дружба, Окончание приложения 6 Суффиксы Примеры -able, to move — movable to sense — sensible -ible двигать — подвижный ощущать — ощутимый -ant, to differ — different to act — active -ent, различаться — различимый действовать — деятельный -ive -fill, use — useful gold — golden -en, польза — полезный золото — золотой -al center — central центр — центральный -ic, history — historic advantage — advantageous -ous история — исторический преимущество — выгодный dirt — dirty day - daily -ly грязь — грязный день — ежедневный -less, use — useless old — oldish -ish польза — бесполезный старый — староватый -en, fast — to fasten simple — to simplify -fy крепкий — укреплять простой — упрощать -ze, real — to realize on — onward -ward настоящий — осуществлять на — вперед -ly bad — badly плохой — плохо, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 7 НАИБОЛЕЕ УПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ПРЕФИКСЫ Префиксы Примеры ип-, common — uncommon ability — disability dis- обыкновенный — необыкновенный способность — неспособ­ ность over-, to heat ~ to overheat estimate - underestimate ander- нагревать — перегревать оценивать — недооцени­ вать post-, war — post-war war — pre-war рге- война — послевоенный война — довоенный ге-, write — to rewrite way — subway sub- написать — переписать дорога — подземная дорога il-, logical — illogical polite — impolite im- логичный — нелогичный вежливый —• невежливый anti-, frictional — antifrictional change — interchange inter- фрикционный — антифрикционныйо бмен — взаимообмен СО- existence ~ coexistence существование — сосуществование, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 8 СПИСОК СОКРАЩЕНИЙ, ВСТРЕЧАЮЩИХСЯ В ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЕ А.С. Ante Christum — лат. до h (hr) hour — час нашей эры hp horsepower — лошадиная сила ас alternating current — перемен­ i.e. id est - лат. то есть ный ток kv kilovolt — киловольт a.m. ante meridiem — лат. до kva kilovolt-ampere — кило­ полудня вольт-ампер B.C. before Christ — до нашей kw kilowatt — киловатт эры lb libra pound — лат. фунт ВТи British Thermal Unit - Бри­ танская тепловая единица m metre — метр; mile — миля; minute — минута С Centigrade — стоградусный (шкала Цельсия) mm millimetre — миллиметр ее cubic centimetre — кубиче­ m.p.h. miles per hour — миль в ский сантиметр час cckw counter clockwise — против p. page — страница движения часовой стрелки p.c. pro centum — лат. per cent — cwt hundredweight — центнер; процент (50,8 кг в Англии и 45,3 кг в p.m. post meridiem — лат. после США) полудня do direct current — постоянный psi pounds per square inch — фун­ ток тов на квадратный дюйм deg. degree — градус R Reaumur — шкала Реомюра e.g. exsempli gratia — лат. на­ r.p.m. revolutions per minute — пример оборотов в минуту e.m.f. electromotive force — элек­ r.p.s. revolutions per second — тродвижущая сила оборотов в секунду etc. et cetera — лат. и т.д. sq. square — квадратный Fahr. (F) Fahrenheit — шкала t. temperature — температура; Фаренгейта ton — тонна f.p.s feet per second — футов в се­ viz videlicet — лат. a именно кунду vs versus — лат. против ft. foot; feet — фут(ы) v.v. vice versa — лат. наоборот gal. gallon — галлон w watt — ватт gr gram(me) — грамм, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 9 СПИСОК НАИБОЛЕЕ УПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬНЫХ МАТЕМАТИЧЕСКИХ ЗНАКОВ + plus fl"[ei] second, double prime, - minus double dashed ± plus or minus Gn [ei] sub n, subscribed n = is equal to, equals \ integral sign ^ does not equal Я double integral = identical, identically equal to ( ) parentheses ^ equivalent, similar (is similar [ ] brackets to) { } braces > is greater than LCM (1cm) least common multi­ < is less than ple -> approaches GCD (gcd) greatest common di­ oo varies as, is propotional to visor oo infinity Z angle ab a times b; a multiplied bybLright angle a/b the ratio of a to b; a divided J. perpendicular (is perpendicular by b to) proportion: л is to ^ as с is todIIparallel (is parallel to) a^ the n-th power of a; aaa... to л triangle n factors / " radical sign о parallelogram П square yfa square root of a a~^ the reciprocal of a"; 1/д" О circle log a common logarithm ofaПarc; АПВ (arc AB) \ogio a logarithm of a to the base " degrees (of arc or angle) 10 ' minutes of arc or angle; foot, In a natural logarithm of a feet F(x), f(x) function of X " seconds (of arc or angle); У - fM у is a function of x inches —, '' ' the derivative of у sin A — sine of A dx d̂ : cos A — cosine of A with respect to x tan A — tangent of A —J the second derivative of у cot A (or ctn A) - cotangent of A djT sec A — secant of A with respect to x cosec A (or esc A) — cosecant of a' lei] prime, dash A, А few examples of reading mathematical expressions Arithmetic Addition Multiplication 12 + 13 = 25 Twelve plus thirteen8X6= 48 Six times eight is is (masks equals) twenty-five forty-eight (eight multiplied by six addend — слагаемое is forty-eight) sum — сумма multiplicant — множимое multiplier (factor) — множитель Subtraction product — произведение 71 -— 24 = 47 Seventy one minus Division twenty four is (equals ) forty- 90 : 9 = 10 Ninety divided by nine seven is ten minuend — уменьшаемое divident — делимое subtrahend — вычитаемое divisor — делитель remainder, difference — разность quotient — частное Fractions Common fractions Decimal fractions — a half (one second); j a quarter 0.4 nought point four (0 [eu] point four) (one forth) — three seventh 0.06 nought point nought six (0 7 [eu] point 0 [eu] six) Proper fractions — (2 — numerator, 3 — denomi- .2 point two (period two, two 3 tenth) nator) .37 point thirty seven (period - (5 —I mnupmroepreart ofrra, c3ti o—ns denomi­ thirty-seven) nator) 652.47 six hundred fifty-two point Mixed number forty seven (six five two point12forty-seven) 5 - ; 7 — (9 - common denomina­ tor) 1.007 one point 0 [eu] 0 [eu] seven Power raise to a power - возводить в in the n-th power — в л-ной сте­ степень пени in the second power — во второй 3^ 3 cubed (three to the third power) степени, в квадрате 3a^ three a to the second power (3 — in the third power — в третьей coefficient; a ~ base; 2 - expo­ степени, в кубе nent), Evolution У1~ square root (radical sign) ^ cubic root л/4 = 2 the square root of four is two Ratio —H ratio H per L\ HioL1one; a unit single; once JL 2 two; a pair; a couple; double; У "^fM З' is a function of x twice; twice the number; twice as much -f-, the derivative of у with Qx 6x 3 three; triple; three times respect to x 12 a dozen d^v 20 a score —ir the second derivative of djc^ у with respect to x, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 10 ТАБЛИЦА НЕСТАНДАРТНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ (LIST OF NON-STANDARD VERBS) Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Значения be [bi:] was, were [woz, been [bi:n] быть we:] j bear [Ьеэ] bore [bo:] bom [bo:n] родить; производить bear [bee] bore [bo:] home [bo:n] носить, перевозить beat[bl:t] beat [bi:t] beaten [bi:tn] бить, разбивать become became become [bi'kAm] делаться, [Ьх'клт] [bi'keim] становиться begin [bi'gin] began [bi'gaen] begun [bi'gAn] начинать blow [bleu] blew [blu:] blown [bleun] дуть, раздувать break [breik] broke [breuk] broken [Ъгеикеп] ломать, нарушать; прекращать bring [briTj] brought [bro:t] brought [bro:t] приносить, приво­ дить, привозить build [bild] bunt [bilt] built [bilt] строить bum [be:n] burnt [be:nt] bumt [be:nt] жечь, гореть burned [be:nd] burst [be:St] burst [be:St] burst [be:st] взрываться, разра­ зиться buy [bai] bought [bo:t] bought [bo:t] покупать catch [kaef] caught [ko:t] 1 caught [ko:t] ловить; схватить choose [^u:z] chose [feuz] chosen ['feuzn] выбирать come [клт] came [keim] come [кАГп] приходить, приез­ жать cost [kost] cost [kost] cost [kost] стоить cut [kAt] cut [kAt] cut [kAt] резать, разрубать; стричь deal[di:l] dealt [delt] dealt [delt] иметь дело; торго­ вать |do [du:] did [did] 1 done [dAn] делать, исполнять, Продолжение пр