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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «ГРОДНЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ ЯНКИ КУПАЛЫ» Учебное издание Калита Елена Владимировна Черниговская Анжелика Игоревна ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE Саввова Раиса Николаевна Карпюк Инна Владимировна ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE Пособие ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА для студентов специальностей Г02.05.00 – Современные иностранные языки, Пособие П 02.07.00 – Английский язык Редактор Н.Н.Красницкая Компьютерная верстка: Н.Л.Шкулепа Сдано в набор 25.03.2002. Подписан...
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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «ГРОДНЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ ЯНКИ КУПАЛЫ» Учебное издание Калита Елена Владимировна Черниговская Анжелика Игоревна ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE Саввова Раиса Николаевна Карпюк Инна Владимировна ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE Пособие ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА для студентов специальностей

Г02.05.00 – Современные иностранные языки,

Пособие П 02.07.00 – Английский язык Редактор Н.Н.Красницкая Компьютерная верстка: Н.Л.Шкулепа Сдано в набор 25.03.2002. Подписано в печать . .2002. Формат 60х84/16. Бумага офсетная №1. Печать офсетная. Гарнитура Таймс. Усл.печ.л.Уч.-изд.л. , . Тираж экз. Заказ . Учреждение образования «Гродненский государственный университет имени Янки Купалы». ЛВ №96 от 02.12.97. Ул.Ожешко, 22, 230023, Гродно.

Гродно 2002

Отпечатано на технике издательского отдела Учреждения образования «Гродненский государственный университет имени Янки Купалы». ЛП №111 от 29.12.97. Ул. Ожешко, 22, 230023, Гродно. 92 1, УДК 801(075.8) CONTENTS ББК 81.432.1 К17 ВВЕДЕНИЕ...3 I. Infinitive...4 Рецензенты: зав. кафедрой иностранных языков №2, ГрГУ им. Я.Купалы, II. Gerund...42 кандидат филологических наук, доцент И.А.Болдак; III. Infinitive or Gerund...54 зав. кафедрой иностранных языков ГрГАУ, кандидат филологических наук, доцент Н.И.Веренич. IV. Mixed Bag...67 LITERATURE...90 Рекомендован советом филологического факультета ГрГУ им. Я.Купалы. Калита Е.В. English Grammar in Practice. – Практическая грамматика английского К17 языка: Пособие / Е.В.Калита, А.И.Черниговская, Р.Н.Саввова, И.В.Карпюк. – Гродно: ГрГУ, 2002. – 92 с. ISBN 985-417- - Настоящее учебное пособие содержит раздел грамматики, представляю- щий определенные трудности в усвоении: неличные формы глагола – инфинитив и герундий. Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов II – III курсов фа- культетов иностранных языков, а также для лиц, углубленно занимающих анг- лийским языком. УДК 801(075.8) ББК 81.432.1 © Калита Е.В., Черниговская А.И., ISBN 985-417- - Саввова Р.Н., Карпюк И.В., 2002, LIST OF LITERATURE USED ВВЕДЕНИЕ 1. Богуславская Г. П. и др. Практическая грамматика английского языка. II Настоящее учебное пособие содержит раздел грамматики, курс. Мн.: Высш. шк., 1992. представляющий определенную трудность в усвоении: неличные 2. Каушанская В. Л. и др. Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского формы глагола – инфинитив и ирундий. языка. Л.: Просвящение, 1968. Свою основную задачу авторы видят в том, чтобы предста- 3. Collins Cobuild. English Grammar Exercises. – Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 1991. вить всем, изучающим английский язык, материал для развития 4. Collins Cobuild. Student’s Grammar.- Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 1991. умений владения речью на базе тщательно отобранных и система- 5. Firman S., Bosewitz ‘Penguin Students’ Grammar of English Exercises» Penguin тизированных сведений по грамматике английского языка. English, 1988. Тема «Неличные формы глагола» рассматривается в двух ас- 6. Hewings M. ‘Advanced grammar in Use’. – Cambridge University Press, 1999. пектах: теоретическом и практическом. Изложение грамматиче- 7. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. A self-study reference and practice book ского материала даётся в рамках существующих традиционных for intermediate students. – Cambridge University Press, 1988. грамматик. Практический аспект – упражения. После каждого раз- 8. Schrampfer Azar B. ‘Understanding and Using English Grammar’. – Prentice Hall regents, 1990. дела грамматики даются тренировочные упраженения, направлен- 9. Simkhovich V. A. English Grammar in Communication. – Мн.: НКФ «Экаперс- ные на выработку навыков, а также задания, направленные на раз- пектива», 1995. витие коммуникативных умений и умений спонтанного оформления 10. Swan M., Walter C. How English Works. A grammar Practice Book. – Oxford высказываний. University Press, 1997. Все упражнения подобраны из новейших учебников и учебных 11. Thomson A. S., Martinet A. V. A Practical English Grammar. – Oxford пособий. Основным критерием отбора упражнений является ком- University Press, 1986. муникативный принцип обучения грамматики. 12. Thomson A. S., Martinet A. V. A Practical English Grammar. Exercises 1, 2. – Oxford University Press, 1986. Учебное пособие предназначенно для студентов ІІ – ІІІ кур-сов факультетов иностранных языков, а также для лиц, углубленно занимающихся английским языком, поскольку содержит грамма- тический материал, представляющий определенные трудности в ус- воении. 90 3, THE INFINITIVE In the launderette a girl I knew stopped for a moment ... (to chat) She said something about the washing at home ... her so tired, The forms of the Infinitive: Indefinite Active and two and ninepence... an awful lot of money, (to make, to be) I To swim in the sea is pleasant. listened and agreed but I also realized that she was apologizing to me Indefinite Passive for ... there at all, as the launderette was not to her a place of duty, She hated to be laughed at. but a place of lazy, extravagant luxury which she could not afford ... Continuous (to be, to visit) She was embarrassed as though I had caught her ... He is glad to be training young sportsmen. her hair done at an expensive hairdresser’s, or … cream cakes in a Perfect Active tea shop. (to have, to eat) I’m happy to have learnt the truth. Perfect passive Exercise 30. Compose stories to which the given proverbs and sayings He’s happy to have been promoted. will make a heading: Perfect Continuous They are said to have been working at the project for 1. To be born under a silver star. three months. 2. Be slow in choosing a friend, but slower in changing him. 3. The best calt needs breeding. ( И лучшего жеребенка нужно воспи- 2. We use Indefinite Infinitive Active and Passive and Continuous Infinitive тывать/ Каков в воспитании, таковивсостоянии). to express an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the 4. An early riser is sure to be in luck. predicate. 5. Foods grow without watering. (Дураков не сеют и не жнут, они сами The article was to be translated yesterday. родятся). We use Perfect Infinitive Active and Passive and Perfect Continuous Infinitive to express an action prior to the action expressed by the predicate: He claimed to have been badly treated. It seems to have been snowing ever since we came here. 3. We use Infinitive without the particle to in the following cases: a) after auxiliary verbs: It didn’t snow at all last winter It will be frosty tomorrow. b) after modal verbs except the modal verbs ought; to have to; be to He can do this job well. May I carry the bag for you? c) after verbs denoting perception such as feel, hear, notice, observe, see, watch etc. (in the active voice): Did you notice the boys go out? I saw him get on a bus tonight. d) after the verb let: Let me know what’s happening. e) after the verb make in the active voice and have What makes you think so? I won’t have you do this. 4 89, and I decided … in the park. (to look, to search) Some boys there told f) after the verb help (the omission of the particle to after the verb me that they had seen a small girl in a blue dress ... a cricket match, help is more usual in American than in British usage): and someone else said that she had been seen ... off with a man who I helped Nick find his things. was pushing a bicycle. (to watch, to walk) The chances were against g) in infinitive sentences beginning with why: this child ... my sister, but I walked off in the direction in which they Why not go with us? had been seen...(to be, to walk) This brought me to a back alley. I h) after the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot called Anne’s name, and was surprised ... her voice ... back. (to hear, but, nothing but, cannot choose but: to call) I found a hole in the hedge, and as I scrambled through she You would better try not to think about it. came ... towards me. (to run) I was in time ... a youth … over the i) after than in comparisons fence. (to see, to climb) He grinned and waved at me and said, ‘Can’t stop’ and dropped on the other side. 4. The Infinitive with to is used: Anne and I walked home; she was not in the least excited about her a) after ought to, have to, be to exploit. She had walked into the park with two girl friends, ... for but- b) after the verb to feel, the verb to be is used with to terflies, had watched a cricket match, and had then got into conversation c) after the verbs to hear, to see, to make, to know in the Passive Voice. with «a nice man», who told her he knew where she could catch butter- flies. (to look) He took her into the alley,... her stories as they walked along, (to tell) I warned her about ... to strange men but she insisted on this man ... «quite nice», (to talk, to be) I agreed that this was probably so, but made her ... that, in future, she would never again accept an invitation ... for butterflies, (to promise, to look) 3. When the maid had gone, and I was almost alone, I sat down on the kitchen chair and started ... (to cry) I sat there ... and ... and ... how ... myself. (to shake, to gasp, to wonder, to stop) My little daughter Flora came ... what I was doing. (to see) I attempted ... myself together. (to pull) I got up and thought of ... myself a cup of coffee, (to make) I put the milk in the pan. Then I went to the fridge ... the milk-bottle back, and I did not look where I was going, for I fell over one of Flora’s bricks, (to put) I dropped the bottle and it broke and splintered all over the floor. At the sight of it I started ... again. (to cry) Flora came ... towards me and threw her arms about my knees. (to stumble) ‘It’s all right, Flora’, I kept ... as I unclasped her hands, and started ... up the lumps of glass, (to repeat, to pick) I persuaded her ... down while I tried . .. the milk with the floor cloth, (to sit, to wipe) I was damp with milk and tears. Flora clung to me, ...(to sob) When I cleaned the floor, I picked her up and went to the bathroom ... myself. (to wash) I tried... of some way of... the afternoon and decided ... to the launderette with all the things that I never bother... in the machine at home, like bedspreads and dressing-gowns, (to think, to spend, to go, to wash) Flora insisted on my ... her along with me. (to take) 88 5, 6. What had driven him from the house was the sound... (his child – to cry) 7. He thought it was wrong ... away, and … his mother to look after his children. (he – to go, to leave) 8. I don’t know the man. I’ve heard ... about him from time to time, but that’s all. (you – to talk) 9. You know one can’t expect ... easy in war time (things – to be) 10. I continued to work there on the subjects which were necessary ... into Cambridge. (I – to get) 11. The Cabinet decided to advise ... an independent commission. (the Governor-to appoint) 12. I made ... up and ... and ... (he – to get, to wash, to dress) 13. She lay listening to the sound . .. down the stairs. (Mary’s steps-to retreat) 14. He stood there letting ... by. (the seconds – to tick) 15. I thought it would be useful ... what I could about my father’s intentions. (I – to find out)

Exercise 29. Revision: supply infinitives and ing-forms for the follo-

wing text: 1. Saturday. It was the day on which he had promised ... his landlady. (to pay) He had expected something ... up all through the week (to turn). Yet had found no work. All he could do now was ... her that he could not pay the bill. (to tell) But he hadn’t the courage ... the woman. (to face) It was the middle of June. The night was warm. He made up his mind ... out (to stay) :… down the Embankment, he kept ... to himself that he had always tried ... what he thought best, but everything had gone wrong. (to walk, to say, to do) He was ashamed of ... so many lies to his friends. (to tell) It had been absurd ... his pride ... him from... for assistance. (to let, to prevent, to ask) Now his lies made it impossible for him ... to anyone for help. (to turn) But it was no good ... about it. (to think) 2. When my sister Anne was six years old, I saved her from ...(to kidnap) At the end of the war there were rumours about strange men who lured little children into quiet places with promises of toys and sweets and persuaded them into ... about their parents turned and if the parents out... of no further interest to them, they usually left the children …their way home in tears. (to talk, to be, to find) So my parents spent a great deal of time ... Anne about ... to strange men. (to warn, to talk). One day, Anne went out ... in the street after tea and could not be found an hour later. (to play) We looked through ... the streets, but no one had seen her. (to surround) My father went off in the car … for her, 6 87 THE FUNCTIONS OF THE INFINITIVE Functions Indicators Patterns Subject The introductory particle it represents It is never late to study. To err is human. the Infinitive in the function of a subject. Part of a compound The compound nominal predicate His desire was to have a dog. nominal predicate consists of the link verb to be and the Infinitive, so the Infinitive is the part of a compound nominal predicate. After modal verbs, I can speak English well. modal expressions had better, would When I was a boy I was not able to speak Modal rather. English well. Part of a Compound After verbs expressing the beginning, Bob began to work. verbal predicate Aspect duration or end of an action: begin, She continued to talk about the problem. cease, continue, go on, finish, start, etc. Object a) After such verbs as: to want, to He claims to be an expert on the subject. wish, to care, to like, to prefer, to She claims to be an expert on the subject. agree, to decide, to learn, to hope, to try, etc. b) After such expressions as: to be able (unable), to be certain, to be anxious, to be delighted, etc., 28. The young Russian was supposed ... a life of Peter the Great, and ... over to England for the purpose of ... the documents ... to the Tsar’s residence in this country as a ship carpenter. (to write, to come, to study, to relate) 29. Con’s family were, in fact, in the process of... tea when we arrived, but were obviously too accustomed to Con’s eccentricities ... disturbed by his ... in a stranger. (to have, to be, to bring) 30. It’s simply no good ... Dick ... reasonable. (to expect, to be) 31. He accepted with his usual indifference my refusal ... to Cambridge. (to go) 32. He was too selfish ... anyone a good turn. (to do) 33. If I went ... for a house myself, my enthusiasm would die before I found the right spot. (to search) 34. I found myself ... very worried by ... what ... cigarettes might do to me. So I gave up ..., not ... (to become, to read, to smoke, to read, to smoke) 35. In the harbour there was a barge ... gracefully not far away and smaller boats ... around it. (to move, to fuss) 36. A car was glimpsed ... slowly up the drive. ‘That’s our little friend Tom ...’, said Chris. (to come, to arrive) 37. I sat down in the sun on the steps of the old church, ... until it was four o’clock before ... back to the office. (to wait, to go) 38. What about ... to the pictures with me one evening? (to come) 39. He laughed so uproariously that the people ... near us looked round, and some of them began . .. too. (to sit, to laugh) 40. But it is enough ... us ... not ... any personal dealings with you. (to make, to prefer, to have) 41. He kept ... me ... an interest in his work. (to try, to induce, to take) 42. That’s preposterous! A man not ... what he had on! (to know)

Exercise 28. Revision: supply infinitive or ing-form complexes for the

following sentences: 1. There was obviously no hope ... quiet until he knew how they had him. (the man – to be) 2. There was nothing more annoying to Freddy than the sight ... mistakes. (his students – to make) 3. He didn’t like the idea ... him like that. (people – to see) 4. He had the impression on his face... (a man – to wait, a bomb – to go off) 5. There is no chance … away with it. (he – to get) 86 7 Object verbs of: Part of a complex a) sense perception: see, hear, feel, notice, watch, I heard him lock the door. object etc. b) Wish and intention: desire, intend, mean, want, I want you to come along with us. wish, etc. He believes it to have been a mistake. c) Mental activity: believe, consider, know, think, She hates him to be bothered. etc. d) Feeling and emotion: dislike, hate, like, love, etc. They reported the enemy to be seven miles e) Declaring: announce, declare, pronounce, report, away. etc. Let her do what she wants to do. f) Order, compulsion and permission: allow, get, What made you believe it? have, let, make, order, permit, etc. Attribute After: a) abstract and class nouns There’s no matter to discuss. b) indefinite pronouns: There’s somebody to look after. somebody, something He was the first to come. c) ordinal numerals She was the last to do it. d) the adjective last There was much to be done. e) expressions of quantity: a lot, little, much Adverbial 1) Purpose Sometimes introduced by the He said it (in order) to save your life. modifier of conjunctions in order to, so as 2) Result After adjectives modified by Bill is wise enough to confess his fault. enough and too 3) Attendant Sometimes introduced by the He returned from the office to be struck by circumstances adverb: never, the particle only that terrible news. 4) Manner Introduced by the conjunctions as She opened her mouth as if to say something (comparison) if, as though, 7. ... on the deck Father surveyed the passengers ... up the gang-way (to stand, to come) 8. He insisted upon her ... a maid ... in three afternoons a week ... with the cleaning and ironing, (to have, to come, to help) 9. He thought of ... out and ... a note to his wife ... that he had been extravacalled away. (to go, to leave, to say) 10. ... frank, it is a great shock to me.(to be) 11. Smith got into the car and slammed the door. Barber watched him... sharply away from the kerb, ... a taxi-driver behind him ... on his brakes ... him. (to pull, to make, to jam, to avoid, to butt) 12. Barbara sat beside him ...She heard him ... and put out a sisterly hand... his hair. ‘It’s terribly cold’, she said. ‘I wonder if it would be any good ... on the gas boiler’. (to read, to sigh, to touch, to try, to turn) 13. In the darkness I heard footsteps ... toward me. Quickly I began ... a cigarette, for the thought of someone ... into me filled me with alarm.(to come, to light, to hang) 14. He talked about the difficulty of ... history readable without ... it into fiction. (to make, to turn) 15. Michael drove very slowly towards the ... troops. (to approach) 16. He had trouble , ... his way and several times came close to ... (to find, to lose) 17. He wanted Francis ... about it, yet he also wanted ... him (to know, to avoid, to tell) 18. ‘Write her a letter then’. ‘Why ... that, when she’s upstairs?’ (to do) 19. I was worried, but found it difficult ... what ... for him. (to know, to do) 20. When I refused ... she sulked, but then she began ... that she would enjoy ... alone for a change. (to stay, to think, to be) 21. ‘Why not ... a gentleman and ... thank you for the offer?’ she said. (to be, to say) 22. ‘It’s no good ... a fool of myself’, she said, ... her eyes. ‘The only thing is ... what is the best thing ... ’. (to make, to dry, to decide, to do) 23. Casie spent most of her life ... her ailing mother. (to tend) 24. She turned to the window and threw it open. ‘Why ... that?’ he said sharply. ‘You’ll catch cold in that dress.’ (to do) 25. His impulse was ... from the room, but he restrained himself. (to rush) 26. She had trouble ... her suitcase, (to find) 27. I tried ... and in order not ... the bitterness in my heart I did my best ... the conversation ... on one topic and another. (to eat, to show, to keep, to go) 8 85 Parenthesis 1.To cut a long short To begin with, there was not much to listen to. 2. to say the least 3. to tell the truth 4. to put it mildly 5. to say nothing of 6. to be quite frank Part of a Complex After the verbs in the passive voice: subject a) speech (to say, to inform…) He is said to be a famous actor. b) physical perception (to see, to hear, He was seen to cross the street. to observe) c) mental perception (to know, to He is known to be a famous singer. consider…) He was made to repeat the rule. d) order, request, permission. The child seems to be asleep. e) Some other verbs: to appear, to seem, to happen, to prove, to turn out and to be + adjective. The For-Complexes 1. the subject It’s natural for him to help his friends. with the Infinitive 2. the predicative The question is for you to decide. 3. an object I waited for him to speak. 4. an attribute This is the book for you to read. 5. an adverbial He made a remark in a voice too low for me to modifier catch., 2. I made it my business ... him everything, (to teach) Exercise 1. Insert the appropriate form of the infinitive. 3. Oh, what’s the use ... over what he said? (to go) 4. I told Ann that it was a mistake ... the invitation. (to decline) 1. But there was nothing now_ for. (to wait) (Wilson). 5. It’s no use ... around moaning loaning. (to sit) 2. She put on the cape and turned round_ (to admire) (Cain). 6. She found it a relief... it up with me. (to make) 3. He appeared _. (to listen) (Lessing). 7. He said he knew it had been no good ... her about it. (to ask) 4. He appeared _ plenty of money, which was said _ in the Californian 8. I feel it’s my duty ... at his side. (to be) goldfields. (to have, to gain) (Conan Doyle) 9. It’s no use ... and ... to things she is ill. (she, to get up, to see) 5. When I seemed_along while, the Master of Salem House unscrewed 10.You’ll find it a great change … in New York. (to live) his flute into the three pieces, put them up as before and took me 11. He was strong and healthy and it was a pleasure... from street to street away. (to doze) (Dickens) delivering letters. (he, to walk) 6. Every feature seemed _ since he saw her last. (to sharpen) (Galsworthy) 12. I have a principle ... with people like you. (to work) 7. This fellow seemed_afamous explorer or something of that sort. (to 13. I made it a rule … both routes, coming down and going up. (to use) be) (Priestly) 14. I’ll be going abroad soon. So it’s no use ... or ... (you, to write, to telephone) 8. The house appeared _ recently … (to repair) (Hardy) 15. It was our custom ... for some few minutes after the lights were out. 9. Nobody seemed _ his entry, but there he certainly was. (to perceive) (to talk) 10. Paula would be the first concentration camp _ by American troops. 16. It’s the dream of my life ... for a film star. (to take) (to liberate) 17. I don’t think it’s a very good idea ... him of it. (to remind) 11. Willoughby was not the man _ the lessons of his predecessor. (to overlook) 18. But it was no use … as if I didn’t care. (to sound) (Heym). 19. I felt it my duty ... the argument.( to end) 12. A twelve year old girl, Patience Barlow, was the first _ his attention 20. It was a very unfortunate remark ...(he, to make) or _ by him. (to attract, to attract) (Dreiser). 21. But when we do understand each other it’s no use ... we don’t. (to pretend) 13. One might guess Mr. George_atrooper once upon a time. (to be)(Dickens). Exercise 27. Revision: supply infinitives or ing-forms for the following 14. I suppose Mr. Jelleby had been more talkative and lively once; but he sentences: seemed _ long before I knew him. (to exhaust). (Dickens).15. Dave seemed _ Stephanie, waiting for her to make the first move. 1. It was quite late when they saw Trasker ... up the other side of the street. (to watch) (Saxton). They saw him ... in front of his house, ... up at it and ... his cigarette- 16. For the last few days she seemed _ to nobody but strange men. (to way. (to come, to pause, to look, to throw) talk) (Priestly). 2. ... the truth, he felt disgusted with himself. (to tell) 17. I lack the will-power _ anything with my life, - my position by hard 3. Even when my mother was alive it was considered … a great extrava- work. (to do, do better) (Durrell) gance... to a hotel for dinner. (to be, to go) 18. There’s no time _. (to lose) (Clark) 4. Meg was not much surprised in the morning ... that her uncle was too 19. And, in a very little while, the Murdstone and Grinby life became so unwell ..., though he hoped ... his work in the afternoon. (to learn, to strange to me that I hardly believe in it, while my present life grew so appear, to resume) familiar, that I seemed _ it a long time. (to lead) (Dickens). 5. He knew that he ought to feel ashamed ... on ... his father’s money 20. Roger Quaile was a youngish Conservative member who was when he made no effort... himself, but it did not seem and he just went beginning _ about. (to talk) (Show). on ...(to keep, to take, to support, to matter, to sketch) 21. He is said_asmall fortune. (to put away) (Durrell). 6. I love you so much that I still can’t stop my heart ... fast I see you ... 22. That Jolyon seems _ in 1710, son of Jolyon and Mary. (to be born) something as ordinary as ... the table. (to beat, to do, to lay) (Galsworthy). 84 9, Exercise 2. Use either of the infinitives in brackets, give two variants 44. He felt a holiday desire ... the occasion. (to mark) where possible and explain the difference. 45. The cat will be all right, I’m sure. There is no need ... about the cat. (to worry) 1. We intended (to return, to have returned) by the end of the month. 46. In fact, I had little hope . .. her. (to trace) 2. They intend (to revise, to have revised) the draft. 47. When I asked him what first gave him the idea ... a painter, he was 3. a) The sportsmen are expected (to arrive, to have arrived) some days before the competition. unable or unwilling to tell me. (to be) b) The sportsmen were expected (to arrive, to have arrived) some 48. He was frightened at the thought ... home. (to leave) days before the competition. 49. I did not make an attempt..., but suddenly the music took me in charge. 4. a) They were (to come, to have come) by the time.. b) Did we not (to listen) agree that they were (to come, to have come) by the time? 5. I mean (to help, to have helped) him, no offence was meant. Exercise 25. Supply prepositions other than ‘of’ for the ing-forms used 6. I meant (to remind, to have reminded) you of it earlier. as attributes in the following sentences: 7. You ought (to remember, to have remembered) the date. 8. He should (spare, have spared) her feelings. 1. She had great difficulty ... not showing her feelings. 9. According to the schedule the plane was (to land, to have landed) long ago. 2. She looked upon life as an opportunity ... writing novels. 10. It was (to be, to have been) a non-stop flight, but the plane had to 3. ‘There doesn’t seem to be much point . .. my coming down if he’s not make a forced landing. well’, said Lou.4. There isn’t much sense . .. my going through all the reasons why a Exercise 3. a) Use the infinitive in the non-perfect form of the active or young man of twenty two, without any money, should not marry. passive voice. 5. Blair raised no objection ... going back to London. 6. She has a wonderful talent ... getting the best out of people. 1. Hate (to bother) you, but the man is still waiting (to give) a definite 7. The girl took a biscuit in her tiny hand and made a feeble attempt ... answer. gnawing it. 2. He hated (to bother) with trifling matters when he had many more 8. Mel saw their social life as a means ... fulfilling his professional important questions (to decide). 3. She would never miss a chance (to show) her efficiency, she was so ambitions. anxious (to like) and (to praise). 9. There could be no doubt ... there being something on between her and 4. The idea was too complicated (to express) in just one paragraph. It Hugh. seemed it would take not less than a page (to put) it into words. 10. For one reason or another there was difficulty ... finding an evening 5. Is there anything else (to tell) him? I believe he deserves (to know) when we where both free. how the matter stands and (to tell) all about it. 11. She had a pleasant gift ... keeping the conversation general. 6. The book is likely (to publish) and (to appear) on sale pretty soon. It is 12. I’m a great believer ... being prepared. sure (to sell) well and (to sell) out in no time. 13. She cherished her delight ... calling a woman of title by her Christian name. 7. What he took writing for was not (to earn) a living but a name. All he 14. I repeat, that was as one of my reasons ... giving you this news today. wanted was (to read) and not (to forget). Exercise 26. Choose between the infinitive and the ing-form to use it as b) Use the infinitive in the required form of the active voice. an attribute to a noun in sentences with a formal «it» 1. How fortunate he is (to travel) all over the world and (to see) so functioning as subject or object. much of it. 1. ‘We make it a rule’, he explained, ‘... no information concerning our 2. The man appears (to know) practically all European languages; he is said (to learn) them while travelling. clients’. (to give) 10 83, 13. He had the great misfortune ... by his father. (to see) 3. The river was reported (to overflow) the banks and (to advance) 14. He established us in groups of three with no chance ... (to transfer) towards the suburbs of the city. 15. He would sit up straight in his bed with it tucked under him so that 4. The girl pretended (to read) a book and not (to notice) me. you had the impression ... by a rajah. (to receive) 5. You seem (to look) for trouble. 16. His stamps mean a lot to him. He won’t miss this chance…them 6. It seems (to rain) ever since we came here. cheaply. (to add) 7. It is so thoughtful of you (to book) the tickets well in advance. 17. He had taken the precaution ... that he was landlady’s cousin. (to mention) 8. The committee is said (to revise) the programme and (to work out) a 18. Sheila was gay, and had herself the task ... me to take an interest in plan of its realization. painting. (to teach) c) Use the appropriate form of the infinitive. 19. The pebbles gave a general impression ... either white or mauve. (to be) 20. Can you see any way ... the risk? (to avoid) 1. The man seemed (to study) me and I felt uneasy in his presence. 21. But after a while they asked permission ... him out and lay him in the sun. 2. Perhaps it would bother him (to speak) about the quarrel. (to carry) 3. He is supposed (to work) at the translation of the book for two years. 22. You are getting into a bad habit... to yourself. (to talk) 4. The only sound (to hear) was the ticking of the grandfather’s clock 23. Tom and Dave were both in the highest spirits, and had clearly no downstairs. intention ... from me. (to part) 5. The book was believed (to lose) until the librarian happened (to find) it 24. He was aware that his refusal ... now made the thing look graver than during the inventory. It turned out (to misplace). it was. (to explain) 6. The strength of the mental proved (to overstimate) by the designer.The engineer claimed (to warn) against its use for the purpose all 25. John spoke well and enjoyed the chance ... (to show off) along as he had always sure it was likely (to deform) under great load. 26. He showed a disinclination ... my friend. (to meet) 7. We seem (to fly) over the sea for quite a time and there is yet no land 27. It would give me the opportunity ... the full facts before you. (to put) (to see). 28. He sat by Roger’s side, like one who is above the necessity ... (to talk) 8. Not (to answer) would have been a wrong step. 29. If he drove to town, he knew he would have a chance ... out what was 9. We don’t seem (to acquaint), at least I can’t remember ever (to meet) him. going on. (to find) 10. The third key remained (to test). 30. The joy ... home counteracted all the disadvantages. (to be) 31. After this, he often took the opportunity . .. sneering things to me. (to say) Exercise 4. Open the brackets by using the infinitive with or without 32. He had the satisfaction ... that he had done a good job.(to know) the particle to. 33. I was torn between the fear ... a nice woman’s feelings and the fear ... in the way. (to hurt, to be) 1. You may (join) us, if you wish. 34. Also there was always the possibility ... into Ann herself. (I, to run) 2. The granny didn’t actually (see) the child (take). 35. I didn’t have the opportunity .. .him my brother’s message. (to give) 3. Let her (do) what she wants (do).4. Why not (allow) her (do) as she likes? 36. «You’ve no right ... her that,» I said. (to ask) 5. When I was a child I was made (practice) the piano every day. 37. We wished to express our desire ... with our families at the earliest 6. They are seen (come) to the corner and (turn) to the right. possible moment. (to re-unite) 7. I won’t (make) David (come) to the club tonight if he doesn’t (want) to. 38. He was oblivious of everything in his effort ... what he wanted. (to get) 8. The seaman’s hands helped Bentley (sit) up. 39. He gulped a cup of coffee in the hope ... his stomach. (to pacify) 9. You’d rather (meet) with the bank manager. 40. The thought even ... to him makes me feel giddy. (to write) 10. Jane felt herself (grow) red to the tips of her toes. 41. I felt in myself, too, the desire... the whole thing out of my mind. (to get) 11. Eduardo was prepared (return) to Brazil immediately if Rodriges 42. I didn’t want to run the risk ... Tom coming back from work. (to meet) turned out (be involved) in any way with the new capital project. 43. The idea . .. out made her shudder. (to go) 12. The company can (supply) cement in July. 82 11, 13. You’d better (try) (not think) about the idea (get) in touch with the 18. Mr.Brady, there is someone ... to look after you. (to come) firm- it won’t (help). 19. He gave her an ... look. (to admire) 14. I will (have) him (do) the work again! 20. I just want somebody ... something ... myself busy. (to do, to keep) Exercise 5. Insert the particle to where necessary. 21. On the other hand, it would be a quite interesting game ...(to try)22. The lights in the house were out, but a ... moon gleamed against one 1. The brave boy helped the partisans … find the way to the railway line window. (to rise) in the dead of night. 23. They reached a hotel ... Central Park. (to overlook) 2. He would sooner … die than … betray his friends. 24. The proper place ... at the house from the lawn. (to look) 3. Suvorov was never known … retreat. 25. I particularly wanted to see John for a minute but there were patients ... 4. Why not … start out now? We cannot wait for the weather … change. to see him. (to wait) 5. Have you ever heard him … complain of difficulties? 26. She was much given to ... fits. (to cry) 6. He was never heard … complain of difficulties. 27. Jack hurried past the customs, and out on the wet tormac toward the 7. You’ll be lonely tomorrow. You’d better … come and … dine with us. 8. Don’t let us … waste time. There are hundred of things … be done. ... plane. (to wait) 9. I have never known him … do such things. 28. There was nothing ...(to do) 10. I know him … have been an actor once. 29. Freddy rose and raised an arm in a ... way. (to welcome) 11. We had better … make haste. 30. Alayne was the first to hear the ... car. (to approach) 12. You ought not … sit up so late. 31. He raised himself to a ... position, supporting himself with one hand. (to sit) 13. What made you … think so? 32. She was a startling woman ... at. (to look) 14. ‘Thanks’ Andrew answered, ‘I’d rather … see the cases for myself’. 15. He was made …do his work independently. Exercise 24. Choose between the infinitive and the ing-form to use it as 16. She seems … know a great deal about music. an attribute of appositive meaning in the following 17. I thought I would rather … get to the gallery alone, but I was obliged sentences: … accept his company. 18. … have gone through what you have gone through is the lot of very few. 1. He had to make an effort ... his voice. (to control) 19. I’ll have him … tell the truth. 2. Mel resisted the temptation ... and ... the search himself. (to take over, 20. Get them … come as early as possible. to direct) 21. All I have now time … do is … send them a telegram. 3. He liked to practise his English but he did not have much opportunity 22. There is hardly anything … do but … work out an alternative plan. … during the voyage. (to do)4. I had no chance ... on his opinion. (to check) Exercise 6. Put to before the infinitive wherever necessary: 5. I don’t recognize their claim ... (to interfere) 1. If anyone asks for me let him – wait a moment, I shall – be back in no time. 6. Bill set the problem ... a home for the Connolleys with zeal and method. 2. There is a man downstairs who wants – see you. (to find) 3. You ought – know how – spell this word. 7. He seemed in the best of tempers at the prospect ... the evening 4. She helped me – carry the heavy box. away from his family. (to spend) 5. I invited her – sit down with us. 8. Talking to them I enjoyed the ..., ... part of a community. (to belong, to be) 6. Did you not hear me – speak? 9. Ordinarily, ... clothes irked me. (to buy) 7. I felt my burden – fall off. 10. He had a gift now and then ... lings. (to say) 8. I told him that he might – join our party. 11. I dreaded the task ... him away. (to take) 9. He was heard – repeat it several times. 12. I was spared the trouble ... because Bessie seemed in too great a 10. Perhaps I had better – explain the rule once more. hurry to listen to explanations. (to answer) 12 81, 6. It took the article... by my brother. (to write) 11. Had he not best – go and – ask? 7. I suspected him ... his mind (to change) 12. I have never known him – pass our garden gate again. 8. He wished his position on the Board ... from the beginning (to establish) 13. He was made – rewrite his exercise. 9. «Where were you?» «Did you expect me ... for you all this time?» (to wait) 14. Have you ever known her – leave the child alone? 10. When he arrived he found me ... Tom Jones (to read) 15. What made you – volunteer? 11. He felt the money ... from his grasp. (to take) 16. Why not – take care of her children? 12. I heard more than once ... by her mother that she might play with me 17. A people with such women, such mothers can never – be conquered if she wished. (to tell) for they possess the power, the vitality which vanquishes death. 13. I left him ... that he had talked them into it. (to think) 18. He could often – be seen working in his little garden. 14. I don’t want that man to see me ... up the stairs. (to help) 19. Soviet paintings will help our descendants – learn the heroic deeds of 15. In London she bought a lipstick. I remember her ... the various shades our men and women during the Great Patriotic War. on the back of her hand. (to try) Exercise 7. Insert to before the infinitive where required. Translate. 16. He was surprised to hear such words … by an officer.(to utter) 17. Standing on the porch, she watched the luggage ... into the house.(to 1. Do you think I plan – spend the rest of my life in the same situation? I carry) would rather – die! 2. She could not help but – feel a little choked for breath. Exercise 23. Choose between the infinitive and the ing-form to use it as 3. Why not _ come down to my place? an attribute in the following sentences: 4. He gave a quick grin that made his lean twisted face _ look more twisted than ever. 1. He had errands ... first. (to do) 5. Ever since I came into this silly house I have been made _ look like a fool. 2. There was a shrivelled potato ... on the ground. I picked it up. (to lie) 6. He did nothing from morning till night but _ wander at random. 3. Alec was not at all an easy man ... presents to. (to give) 7. I’m the cook and I won’t have anyone _ come interfering in my kitchen. 4. You remember I told you I’d something ... you? (to tell) 8. Abe let the hammer _ drop out of his hands and _ fall on the step. 5. I wondered if he was trying to break some news ... me. (to affect) 9. You’d better _ take me back to Oxford. 6. I expect there’ll be a lot ... up with. (to put) 10. They ought _ have asked my advice. They ought _ have. 7. They were used to having a ... man to spend a night or two at their inn. 11. The poor boy was absolutely broken up. It made my heart _ bleed. I (to travel) couldn’t _ let him _ go without a word of comfort. 8. He took a last look at his calmly ... friend. (to sleep) 12. I’ve got nothing _ do but _ talk, talk. 9. I guessed that I had disadvantages ...(to overcome) 13. I would die sooner than _ ask him for another penny. 10. John had nothing more ... him. (to show) 14. Your mother’s gone to some friends. They do nothing but _ play 11. It’s very good for them to have an older man with plenty of experience ... bridge. for advice. (to come) 15. I know there’s nobody in the world I would rather _ work with or _ 12. When I reached the bridge there was a swan ... downstream on the have respect for. wide river. (to drift) 16. Conrad had never known her _ talk so much. 13. He’s been used to comfort and to having someone ... after him. (to look) 17. But Elfried knew Mrs. Jethway _ be her enemy and _ hate her. 14. The slowly ... circle of light from the torch revealed a short flight of 18. Then why not _ try _ save yourself? steps. (to move) 19. She opened the iron gateway and bade me _ enter. 15. I met your friend Ann Simon ... by Lewis. (to escort) 20. You’d better _ get some sleep. 16. George was a tempting person ... about, (to gossip) 21. English women in our station have duties but we, strangers in a 17. There was little in the forest ... to the romantic. (to appeal) strange land have nothing _ do but _ enjoy ourselves. 80 13, 22. I want _ look at him and hear him _ talk. 37. Through the car window I saw Rose and Dick ... together. (to walk) 23. The key of the door below was now heard in the lock and the door 38. I stood there watching him ... down the street and ... round the corner. was heard _ open and close. (to walk, to turn) 24. She felt herself _ be tall and slim and fresh. 39. I didn’t expect her ... specially concerned. (to be) 25. I felt my blood _ freeze. 26. And if you say you gave me no encouragement I cannot but _ contradict 40. Everyone thought you ... away. (to be) you. 41. They did not want there ... any occasion when their presence might 27. When she reached the front step, she heard the taxi _ drive away. embarrass anyone. (to be) She turned around and watched the red tail-light _ disappear in the darkness. Exercise 21. Choose of the four possible ways the best suited one to 28. Tommy really does nothing but _ propose to me. denote the doer of the action expressed by the ing-form 29. I thought that I had better _ try _ speak openly myself. in its function of objective predicative in the following 30. Arthur could not but _ glance at Daniel Doyce in the ensuing silence. sentences: 31. Why not _ write to her? 32. At first I tried _ excuse myself, for the present, on the general 1. I remember ... coming about Mary’s arrival. (the telegram) ground of having occupation _ attend to, which I must not _ neglect. 2. I thought that he was going to suggest ... assisting at another sitting. (I) I then said that I had much _ learn myself before I could _ teach 3. They noticed ... dancing with Ann. (their cousin) others. For these reasons, I thought it best _ be as useful as I could 4. He could imagine … waiting for him. (she) and _ render what kind of service I could to those about me: and _ 5. I found ... enjoying the talk. (I) try _ let that circle of duty gradually _ expand itself. 6. I hope you don’t mind ... coming. (I) Exercise 8. Complete the following using the infinitive as subject with 7. We never had ... staying in this hotel.(a writer ) the anticipatory it. 8. Do you think he wants to stop ... marrying? (I) 9. Just as love is I should have thought habit would prevent . .. arising. (it) 1. It gives me pleasure _. 10. I can’t see ... making much of a soldier. (my nephew) 2. It will take you ten minutes _. 11. The circumstances were grave enough to require ... remaining here. (he) 3. It is wise of him _. 4. It does people a lot of good _. 12. I remember... going over to the US to marry there. (your daughter) 5. It won’t do you any harm _. 13. He hoped to delay ... going until he had come to some decision. (I) 6. It was natural _. 14. As the carton down on the table he remembered ... saying: ‘You got 7. It has become his habit _. here very fast. Thanks a lot’. (Mr. Fox) 8. It surprised me _. 15. I could not prevent … deviating towards him. (my glance) 9. It would never do _. 16. Mary thought, ‘You’re jealous. You resent … coming’. (I) 10. It must be very nice _. 11. It made me feel awkward _. Exercise 22. Use the required form of the infinitive or the ing-form in. Exercise 9. Complete the following: their function of objective predicative in the following a) Use the infinitive as subject without the anticipatory it sentences: (take the infinitive phrases from the following list): 1. He had persuaded me ... with him to Vienna for a few days. (to go) 2. If he finds it necessary, the district attorney may require an inquest … To forget the past, to be humming a tune, to say such a thing to a child, to (to hold) have gone out on that rainy day, to know the map well. 3. We did not suspect him ... to the place before. (to be) 1. _ means to be able to show any country or town on it. 4. Do you expect me ... it? (to explain) 2. _ would have been the death of me. 5. I took this ... true. (to be) 14 79, 5. He ordered a bottle of beer and some cheese ... up to his room. (to send) 3. _ is a usual thing for her. 6. There was a lot of noise all around now, and among it you could hear 4. _ would be ridiculous. a plane… unusually low.(to fly) 5. _ was impossible. 7. I heard Arthur.. .a slight noise which may have been a sigh or a chuckle. (to make) b) Use the infinitive as predicative: 8. ‘Why do you always have him ... around?’ ‘He likes it’. (to hang) 1. Our plan was _. 9. I don’t like girls ... It takes away the fragrance of youth. (to smoke) 2. To act like this meant _. 10. After supper Willy switched on the wireless and John left him ... 3. The first thing he did was _. round the drawing-room to the sound of Mozart’s piano concerto in 4. The main problem is _. С minor. (to dance) 5. Our next step is _. 11. We left him ... the afternoon with his family. (to spend) 6. What I want is _. 12. I can’t imagine you ... anything but what you are. (to be) 7. Our only chance to see him is _. 13. I saw Mother ... at me. (to look) 8. To ask him a straight question means _. 14. I saw Mother ... at me and ... away. (to look, to turn) c) Use the infinitive as object: 15. Adeline found her husband ... in the middle of the room waiting for her. (to stand) 1. The children were anxious _. 16. He found you ... pretty liberal about your children. (to be) 2. We were not afraid _.3. I pretended not _. 17. Now I was over-confident. I expected things ... my way. (to go) 4. They have not decided whether _ or not. 18. He guessed her age ... about eighteen. (to be) 5. The boys agreed never _. 19. I caught her ... at me. (to look) 6. Do you care _ ? 20. James proved himself ... a man of his word. (to be) 7. I was very careful not _. 21. We left the others ... outside the house. (to chat) 8. I wish we had not forgotten _. 22. I left him ... with the issue by himself. (to deal) 9. They thought _. 23. He explained his behaviour as ... to make up their quarrel. (to try) 10. He proposed _. 24. If you go on talking like this you’ll have me ...(to cry) 11. When did you learn _? 25. I found myself ... almost entirely on the grapes which the cook found it 12. I’ll try to remember _. hard to spoil. (to live) 13. The tourists were lucky _. 26. They always treated her as ... superior in every way. (to be) 14. The father promised _. 27. ‘I’ve got a pupil ... at ten o’clock’. ‘Can’t you put him off?’ (to come) 15. They offer _.16. He attempted _. 28. They watched me ... away, wiping my nose on my arm. (to walk) 17. We are sorry _. 29. He was content just to watch her ...(to think) 18. The boy asked _. 30. I watched him ... down the path toward the other men. (to hurry) 31. I watched him ... the hall. (to leave) c) Use the infinitive as attribute (take the infinitives from 32. It was the only word I heard him ... that day. (to say) the following list): to remember, not to be 33. He knew that for the moment they must not hear him ... in the night, contradicted, to desire, to speak (to, about), to do, (to sob) to be done, to follow, to worry about, to be erected, 34. Who was the man I saw you ... with yesterday? (to chat) to read, to laugh at, to be answered, to answer. 35. The whole village turned out to see them ...(to leave) 36. I saw him ... up, ... to another man and ... out. (to get, to whisper, to 1. This is just the man _. stroll) 2. Packing was the first thing _. 78 15, 3. Here are some instructions _. 3. ‘Do you know who made up the story?’ ‘No, but it’s said ... someone in 4. The monument _ on this square will add beauty to the place. the office.’ (to be) 5. The book leaves much _. 4. We were alleged ... our official knowledge to make some money. (to use) 6. There was nothing _. 5. They went off, and I was left... the situation, (to face) 7. These are the letters _. 6. They were understood ... (to quarrel) 8. His was the tone _. 9. Have you got anything _ ? 7. ‘Have you seen anything of Roberta lately?’ ‘She is supposed ... a 10. She will always find something _. book’. (to write)8. His death was supposed ... by the fire. (to cause) d) Use the infinitive as adverbial modifier. 9. No one seemed to know her whereabouts. She was thought... with 1) of purpose: friends in the country. (to stay) 1. I read the story the second time (so as) _. 10. She was not expected ... , but she did. (to reply) 2. He had to work hard (in order) _. 3. We must hurry (so as not) _. Exercise 19. Supply where necessary the particle «to» before the 4. After classes we stayed _. infinitive used as objective predicative in the following 5. Has he come _? sentences: 6. You should read more out loud _. 7. I called on him yesterday _. 1. He was making every effort to induce his father ... change his mind. 8. We stopped _. 2. I got him ... talk. Nevertheless, on those mornings he could not bring 9. _ we must begin preparing for the exams immediately. himself ... read the political correspondents’ gossip-columns. 2) of result: 3. I knew that he would never encourage his daughter... marry a fortune. 1. I was too astonished _. 4. As he answered her question, I noticed her ... look surprised. 2. The boy is strong enough _. 5. I could feel the blood ... leave my face in a rush. 3. The storm was such as _. 6. Understand once and for all, I won’t have you .. .say this sort of thing. 4. He was gentleman enough _. 7. The doctor had expressly forbidden him ... talk. 5. The wind was so strong as _. 8. He did not hear the car ... arrive. 6. The ship was too far _. 9. He had never known his uncle ... express any sort of feeling. 7. I don’t know him well enough _. 10. I wasn’t prepared to let him ... go out alone. 8. The slopes of the hill were too steep _. 11. He was not only giving them the chance, he was pressing them ... do so. 9. You have only to see it once _. 12. I shall try to make the thing... work. 10. The problem was too complicated _. 13. They watched Esther ... return after a time. 11. His illness was not such as _. 12. She was a woman enough _. 14. He drew out a stiff, plain pocket-book as I had often seen him ...use 13. The impression was such as never _. it in meetings, and began to write down numbers. 14. You have only to reach out your hand _. 15. He was so fortunate as _. Exercise 20. Choose between the infinitive and the ing-form to useit as objective predicative in the following sentences: Exercise 10. Ask your partner for precise information. Example: It takes me long to How much time exactly 1. My will was weakened. I wanted someone ... on. (to lean) get to the office by does it take you to get 2. We stood for a while watching a man ... an Alsatian puppy. (to train)3. I can imagine people not ... him. (to like) bus. there? 4. Although he was very tired he made himself ... up and ... into the 1. It takes time to look through all these price lists. bedroom.(to stand, to move) 16 77, 3. He was understood ... the new teacher. (to be) 2. It takes some years to modernize the plant to bring up its capacity. 4. Her brother was reported ... alive in. Europ (to be) 3. It doesn’t take long to increase the enterprise’s output. 5. I don’t see how anyone can be expected … а case like this. (to tackle) 4. It takes months to satisfy the market with basic things. 6. His book was found … a fine piece of writing. (to be) 5. I don’t think it takes much time to discuss the delivery dates. 7. In your story he is shown ... a lot for other people. (to do) 6. It takes several days or a week to make the necessary arrangements. 8. I was made ... at the gate. (to stand) 7. It takes time to learn the subject-matter thoroughly. 9. She may have found the note because she was seen ... through the 8. In this area it really takes time to set up a joint venture. book. (to look) 10. He has never been known .. .his temper at rehearsals. (to lose) 9. It takes long to explore the possibility for using alternative sources of 11. I think you’d like to know, sir, that the train has been heard ...(to energy. whistle) 10. I think it won’t take us long to prepare a draft agreement. 12. People can feel satisfaction if they are made ... they are doing a useful service. (to feel) Exercise 11. Change the structure of the following sentences so as to 13. When they were getting into the car he was heard ... good luck to use the infinitive as subject or without the anticipatory it. the girl. (to wish) 1. The question is not so easy to answer. 14. From the hill a man could be seen ... half a mile away. (to run) 2. There was no necessity to re-do it. 15. He was instructed ... for a special grant. (to apply) 3. The thought of it cheered him up. 16. It was a two-storey grey building with a porch that no one was meant... on. (to sit) 4. I was amazed to see it. 17. The strong currents were thought ... bathing dangerous, (to make) 5. He felt ashamed when he read the letter. 18. She was found ... herself by the fire. (to warm) 6. Worrying and fussing was useless. 19. He was forced ... out of his present job. (to get) 7. All they wanted was to make themselves understood. 20. She was understood as ... any interviews. (to refuse) 8. He wanted to see the play staged as soon as possible. 21. Renny was heard ... gaily in his room. (to whistle) 9. My companion was discreet enough not to mention it. 22. The game was intended ... time until about nine o’clock.(to kill) 10. I must ask you a few questions on the matter. It is my duty. 23. She was heard ... the light on. (to turn) 11. You say he kept his opinion to himself. Is it usual of him? 24. He has been known ... his temper occasionally. (to show) 12. How greatly disappointed we were when we found that it was only a joke. 25. Meg was called upon ... her opinion. (to express) 13. The sight of them made us laugh. 26. Two constables were left ... his arrival. (to await) 14. The sculpture was completely ruined. The restoration was impossible. 27. He was found ... a well-read man. (to be) 15. The car’s engine is out of order. The repair will take not less than 28. His clothes were left ... wherever they happened to fall. (to lie) two days. 29. ‘You were seen ... the ring.’ ‘I took it but I didn’t steal it.’ (to take) 30. The car belonged to the firm, and I wasn’t supposed ... it for my own Exercise 12. Tell your groupmates about your plans, problem, etc. pleasure. (to use). Example: What is your plan for My plan for today is to 31. The invitation was treated as ... a good sign. (to be) today? (translate an translate an article. 32. He is in hospital. And his condition is reported as ... serious. (to be) article) Exercise 18. Use the required form of the infinitive in its function of 1. What is the aim of your life? (become a CPA). subjective predicative in the following sentences: 2. What was your brother’s life ambition? (work for the Ford Motor Company). 1. Monty was rumoured ... his wife. (to divorce) 3. What is the best thing to do in a road accident? (communicate the 2. People were asked ... which of the four courses they preferred. (to police). indicate) 4. What is your advice? (not discuss intimate family matters in public). 76 17, 5. What is the object of their research work? (find the necessary data to 46. She couldn’t go on ... alone in that house. (to live) proceed with their experiment). 47. I’ve got a fifty per cent chance of doing what I set out... (to do) 6. What was the Chairman’s suggestion? (set up an MBA programme in Belarus). Exercise 16. Choose between the infinitive and the ing-form to use it 7. What is the next point of our meeting? (discuss the assortment of as direct verbs that admit, for various reasons, of both supplied goods). 8. What is your great desire by now? (look through the price list kept in forms: your attache-case). 1. She tried ... an interest in my work. (to take) 9. What was his wish? (meet with the President to explain what hap- 2. To learn to write I tried ... words or the order in which they were set. pened). (to alter) 10. What is your advice? (study the subject thoroughly before making a 3. Why didn’t you try ... yourself a job? (to find) decision). 11. What were the expectations of the government for the previous years? 4. She tried ... , but her fingers were numb. (to knit) (get financial help from the World Bank). 5. Margaret and I were upset and the others went on ... us up. (to try, to cheer) 12. What are the plans of the government for the coming year? (apply to 6. The article went on ... that Miss MacLean was born in Dublin and still the IMF for financial support). had relations living there. (to say)7. He proposed ...to the theater that night, but Elisa said she was tired, (to go) Exercise 13. Make up sentences so as to use the infinitive in bold type 8. I propose … a boat with the money. (to buy) as predicative. 9. In the following pages I propose … the story of Goethe’s life. (to tell) 10. One of them proposed ... out later on to watch the children dancing. (to go) 1. Your next task, the results, to check up, of the observations, is. 11. I must remember ... the others not to mention it to Willy. (to tell) 2. I meant, was, the last thing, to offend you. 3. Every success, and, I have come for, is, to wish you, what, to congra- 12. Yes, I remember ... the letter on the mantelpiece. (to see) tulate you. 13. I remember ... for a drive by a kind lady who wanted to show me 4. On the subject of research, to write, his job, abstracts of articles was, round. (to take) in the laboratory. 14. I must remember … through my pockets. (to look) 5. Could do you good, is, the only thing, to take a long rest, that. 15. I remember ... to hear endless incidents from my mother’s childhood. 6. To see himself, the most exciting experience, for the first time, was, he (to have) had ever had, in a film. 16. I must remember not …, he thought, and must lose some weight. 7. An experienced lawyer, was, the next move, to consult, he had made. I look like a fat grocer.(to slouch) 8. What turn, is, the best thing, things will take, to do, to see, now. 17. The general never forgot ... his boys out for a drive one Sunday dayin June. (to take) Exercise 14. Paraphrase the following using a noun instead of the verb 18. Don’t forget ... the door when you decide to go to bed. (to lock) in bold type with the infinitive as attribute; make all other 19. I now regretted not... with her, but it was toо late to run after her. (to go) necessary changes. 20. I regret ... you but you ought to know the facts. (to disappoint) Model 1: He offered to help us but we refused. – We refused his Exercise 17. Choose between the infinitive and the ing-form to offer to help us. use it as subjective predicative in the following I don’t want to change my mind. – I have no desire to change sentences: my mind. 1. I was surprised that he refused to go there. 1. He was left ... a couple of hours. (to sleep) 2. They demand to be regularly informed, and you will have to comply with it. 2. When the car was heard ... the people fled anywhere to avoid the police. (to approach) 18 75, 12. He proceeded ... this by his own story. (to illustrate) 3. I remember you promised not to talk of it. 13. Her eyes were full and bright. She did not pretend... her nervousness 4. I told him that I firmly determined to find out the truth. (to hide) 5. It was quite obvious that he longed to confide his secret to somebody. 14. Jack asked the stewardess for some stationary and, when it came, 6. He was permitted to leave. set about ... a letter to his son. (to compose) 7. I don’t intend to do anything about it. 15. Renny was often dead right, more often than I cared ...(to 8. They repeatedly attempted to stage the experiment. remember) 9. He did not wish to let you down.10. The trainer instructed the cyclists to examine their bicycles before 16. He sat there sullenly and refused ... (to answer) the competition. 17. I didn’t mind ... about them a bit. (to think) 11. He consented to fill up the vacancy. 18. He had just finished ... up a suitcase. (to strap) 19. He did not hesitate ... such methods, (to employ) Exercise 15. Paraphrase the following so as to use the infinitive as attribute. 20. We arranged ...(to meet) 23. As I grew I began ... him. (to know, to like) a) 1. There was nothing that might keep him at home that night and he 24. We can’t afford ... you. (to waste). gladly accepted the invitation.2. He is not the man who would shirk his duty. 25. I can’t help ...Sophy. (to like) 3. This is a mineral that can be found only in this part of the country. 26. Arthur had managed ... it his way (to do) 4. There are so many letters that must be answered! 27. I couldn’t resist ... such a lovely hat. (to buy) 5. I have so many letters that must be answered! 28. She says she can’t imagine not ... his key in the lock. (to hear) 6. She had no one in whom she could confine. 29. I hadn’t understood why, the previous summer, he had given up ... 7. Can you entrust the work to anyone? ...Roger.(to attempt, to see) 8. Here is the list of medicines which are not to be sold without a 30. I notice that you took the trouble ... your picture into all the papers. prescription. (to get) 9. We could not spare a moment. 31. I have been meaning ... you about it. (to ask) 10. Can anything be done to prevent such accidents? 32. Then he condescended ... himself. (to explain) b) 1. The parcels are all sorted out. Here are the ones that are to go (to 33. He denied … anything about the missing document. (to know) be sent) by air. 34. Last week you mentioned ...us a different reading book. We’re nearly 2. The questions that are going to be submitted for discussion must be finished … this one. (to get, to read) circulated two days before the opening session. 35. You certainly mustn’t miss … this wonderful film. (to see) 3. The ship has arrived with the picture which will be displayed at the 36. Mary tended ... upset by her failures. (to be) international exhibition. 37. Tears filled her eyes and ran down her cheeks. She did not trouble 4. The delegates to the scientific conference which will be held on theth ...them away (to wipe). 19 of July have to register with the organizing committee.6. The library has received a prospectus of the books which will be 38. He is considering ... a book about his war experience. (to write) published this year. 39. She put off ... the news to her father (to break) 7. We must have five more reports printed. 40. Looking back on it, I think it would have been better, for all concerned, if we had never attempted... (to interfere) Exercise 16. Characterize a person or object you are asked about using 41. He got out of bed and prepared ...(to shave) the infinitive attributively. 42. I wondered if you felt like ... out for a dance? (come) Example: What kind of man is Bob is a difficult man to get on with. 43. He had made up his mind ... in Dick. (to confide) 44. I considered ... the ceiling blue. (to paint) Bob? (difficult/ get 45. He asked ... the cheque and I it was produced. (to see) on with) 74 19, 1. What power have mass media? (influence minds). 3. I don’t mind ……… (stay) at home to look after the children. 2. What kind of village is it? (nice/spend the rest of one’s days). 4. Has she decided ……… (take) that job? 3. What choice had William? (either leave the flat immediately or be shot 5. He’s always complaining about ……… (work) too hard. there). 6. He claims ………… (be) her brother but I think he’s lying. 4. What are you going to tell me? (something/ save one’s life). 7. Why are you blaming me for ………. (get) lost? You’ve got the map. 5. What ambition had Jerry at the age of 19 (run a company producing 8. We don’t believe in ………… (buy) each other big presents. footwear). 9. I know you don’t approve of ………… (smoke) so I won’t smoke in here. 6. What problem arose after signing the agreement? (ratify it by both sides). 10. The doctor told me ………… (stay) in bed but it’s so boring. 7. What steps did the firm take a year ago? (expand economic contacts 11. Don’t keep on ……… (talk) about it. It’s upsetting me. with its Belorussian partners). 12. It’s raining outside. Would you prefer …………(stay) in? 8. What idea did our boss suggest? (merge with British Aerospace). 13. My boss told me …………( not leave) the office before five. 9. At the level of planning which managerial duty comes first? (determine overall company objectives). Exercise 14. Put the verbs into the correct form: the –ing form or the 10. Which duty does the personnel manager consider the most important? to infinitive. (staff). Example: She doesn’t allow anyone to drive (drive) her car. 11. What plan did Dow Scandia accept? (buy a 29.9% stake in Savor Milln). 1. They don’t allow _ (talk) in the examination. 12. What decision was made by Reckitt and Colman? (increase their bid 2. He’s always encouraged me _ (have) confidence in for Australian chemists). myself.3. I’d recommend you _ (see) the film. It’s very good. Exercise 17. Complete each sentence using the most suitable verb in 4. I wouldn’t recommend _ (drive) through the city center now. Example: the box. Use each verb only once. The traffic is terrible at this time of the day.5. What would you advise me_ (do)? ‘Would you like a cup of tea?’ ‘I’d rather have coffee’. 6. I wouldn’t advise _ (tell) anyone what’s happened. Eat hurry tell type wear lend sit promise cry wait use have Exercise 15. Choose between the infinitive and the ing-form to 1. It’s very cold today. You’d better_ a coat when you go out. use it as direct object to the predicate verb in the 2. ‘I haven’t got any money’. ‘Let me _ you some’. following sentences: 3. Chopping onions makes me_. 4. ‘I’m tired of walking’. ‘Let’s _ down for a while, then’. 1. I wished ... quite fair. (to be) 5. I can’t _ what Sally said. She made me _ that I wouldn’t tell anyone. 2. I expected ... him in the drawing- room but he wasn’t there. (to find) 6. ‘Why don’t we_ dinner now?’ ‘I think I’d rather _ until later’. 3. I enjoyed ... to her talk of Viennese society in the days of her youth. 7. It’s getting late. We’d better _. (to listen) 8. I couldn’t _ the letter because my brother wouldn’t let me _ his 4. Reggie promised ... in. (to look) typewriter. 5. I wanted .. .him up. (to cheer) 6. Jerry was enjoying himself and did not want ... away. I suggested ... Exercise 18. Give some advice or recommendation, using the infinitive him and ... him meet us at the station, (to come, to leave, to let) with would better. 7. Everything you’ve planned ... is sensible. (to do) Example: I’ve got a splitting You’d better take a pill. 8. Riley offered ... into town and ... some coffee. (to drive, to get) headache (take a pill) 9. He longs ... down and ... a quiet country life. (to settle, to live) 10. Kate avoided ... John alone. (to see) 1. Barbara is terrible overweight. (go on a diet). 11. You keep ... things in Latin and you know I can’t understand. (to say) 20 73, e. I tried ……… (reach) the shelf but I wasn’t tall enough. 2. At dinner Jack pushed the jug with sauce and spoilt Mary’s new dress. f. Please leave me alone. I’m trying……..(concentrate). (apologize for that). 3. Helen doesn’t like the idea of staying alone. (accompany her to Exercise 11. Write the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. the park). Einstein an ordinary child. 4. Though of high quality these VCRs are very seldom purchased. (dec-rease the price). Einstein was not a remarkable child. He began (1 take)………. Piano lessons at the age of six. He didn’t seem (2 be)……… particularly 5. Bill is afraid the fire might destroy his new cottage. (insure it). talented. He liked (3 day-dream)……….. and (4 play)………… He 6. I think the meeting has already begun. (hurry up). didn’t enjoy (5 talk)………. very much, in fact, he waited till he was 7. I don’t like the liabilities party in the balance-sheet of this company. three before (6 start)………… to talk. In spite of not (7 have)………. (consult with its chief accountant). A very exciting childhood, Einstein later appeared (8 have)……. A vivid 8. I can’t expect unskilled men of my department to become experienced memory of it. He remembered (9 be)………… impressed by how a engineers overnight. (train them). compass works and by the mysterious force which made the compass 9. He has made a mistake in the account. (make another set of calcula- needle (10 point) ……… in a given direction. tions out). 10. The firm’s statement is worsening with every day. (inform the Execu- Exercise 12. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way tive Manager). that it means the same as the sentence before it. 11. I need more money to expand the business but I don’t know where toget it. (issue more shares). Example: 12. People don’t seem to like the idea of saving money in my bank. How There was considerable public support for clearing the man’s name. to make them interested? (increase the interest rate). The public clamoured for the man’s name to be cleared. a. The President finally gave way to demands that he appear before a Exercise 19. Using the words give a sentence with the infinitive used Grand Jury. as adverbial modifier of purpose. The President finally consented………… Example: go to the hospital/ I went to the hospital to b. Please think again before taking such drastic action. I urge…………… visit a friend visit a friend. c. It appears that the harvest workers think they were underpaid. 1. Call on the Whytes/warn them about the danger. The harvest workers claim to……. 2. Need money/give the son his weekly allowance. d. The prosecuting counsel asked him for proof of his alibi. 3. Visit a police inspector/tell him the truth. The prosecuting counsel challenged…………… 4. Write a letter to one’s uncle/ask him for some money. e. I would not eat shellfish under any circumstances. 5. Spend so much money in a restaurant/ impress the girl. Nothing would………. 6. Telephone the estate agent/get more information about new house f. I’m never going to go near that place again as long as I live. on sale. I am determined………. g. I suppose you think that’s funny. 7. Work hard/achieve first class degrees in the final honors school. I dare…………. 8. Invent a device/increase the productivity of the assembly line.9. Apply to this firm/be employed as a typist. Exercise 13. Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or the gerund. 10. Want to see the financial director/analyze the company’s state-ment. 1. He has promised to deliver (deliver) it to me this afternoon. 11. Ask the managing director lots of questions/get the data on the 2. I’ve invited Mark and Anna ……… (stay) for the weekend. company’s profits and losses. 72 21, Exercise 20. Explain why somebody does (did) it. Use the infinitive I used to like going to our local cinema. It was old and rather phrase in brackets as adverbial modifier of purpose. uncomfortable but it had character. Now they’ve stopped () showing Example: Why does your My friend takes long walks to relax. (show) films there. The owner would like to go on (1) ……. (run) the friend take long cinema but he would need (2)……………… (make) a lot ofimprovements, which would mean (3)………….(spend) tens of thousands walks? (relax) of pounds. I remember (4)………….(watch) the last film at the cinema. 1. Why did a policeman criticize a lady driver? (offend her). It was a murder mystery. It was five minutes from the end and we were 2. Why are you calling on Betsy? (invite her to eat out tonight). trying (5)……………(work) out who the murderer was when suddenly 3. Why was the boy dispatched at the age of eight from his native Cairo all the lights went out and the film stopped. We sat in the dark for a few to Britain? (embark upon a formal education). minutes and then the owner appeared with a torch. I regret (6)………(tell) 4. Why did General Mohammed invite de Silveira to visit his country you, ‘he said, ‘that our electricity get failed. I don’t mean when he had studied the proposal? (discuss the next stage of the (7)………(disappoint) you, but I’m afraid we can’t show you the end of project). the film. We’ve tried (8)………(phone) the electricity company, but they 5. Why is your boss leaving for Nigeria? (tender for the contract to can’t help.’ He went on (9)……… (explain) to the audience how the construct a new port in Lagos). film ended. I didn’t understand the story. But I don’t regret (10)……… 6. Why does Bill need money badly? (repay a long term debt maturing in (go) to the cinema on that last evening. a week). 7. Why do all central bankers meet every month? (discuss economic Exercise 9. Remember, regret, try, etc. problems). Write each pair of sentences as one. Use a to-infinitive 8. Why should you consider additional advertising in four months leading or a ing-form. up to Christmas? (promote sales). 9. Why does the IMF lend money for three to five years? (help countries • Trevor didn’t ring Laura. He forgot. with balance-of-payments difficulties). Trevor forgot to ring Laura. 10. Why was Duplon putting more assets for sale? (get its debt down). •Tom and Nick had been playing cards for hours. But they went on the 11. Why did the post office introduce automatic sorting (speed up the game. delivery of letters). Tom and Nick went on playing cards. 12. Do you know why this company is having to work so hard? (please 1. Harriet didn’t think she could move the piano. She didn’t even try. its bankers and shareholders). 2. Mike once saw a spaceship. He’ll never forget it. 3. What about painting the walls? They need it. Exercise 21. Explain why somebody can (could) do it, using the 4. Natasha was unkind to Jessica. But she didn’t mean it. infinitive as adverbial modifier of result. 5. Andrew was studying. He went on through the night. Example: I think John could Oh yes, he is thin enough 6. When Tim was driving, he needed to make a phone call. So he stopped. get through the window to get through the window. Exercise 10. Put the verb into the correct form, -ing or to : 1. I’m sure Bill drives a car well. (careful). a. I was very tired. I tired…keep….. (keep) my eyes open but I couldn’t. 2. He walked alone in this district at night. (brave and strong). 3. I always believe her. (foolish). b. I rang the doorbell but there was no answer. Then I tried……(knock)on the door but there was still no answer. 4. Bill lent Sam his car that was new last week. You know Sam is a bad c. We tried……. (put) the fire out but we were unsuccessful. We had to driver. (rash). call the fire brigade. 5. Everybody knows James’s father sympathizes with younger generation. d. Sue needed to borrow some money. She tried ….(ask) Gerry but he (broad-minded). was short of money too. 22 71, Exercise 7. Complete the sentences using the –ing form or the to 6. Mrs. Blake’s luggage can sink a battleship. (heavy). But John is able to infinitive of the verbs in the box. Use each verb only carry the luggage for Mrs. Blake. (strong). once. 7. Middle-aged people have experience to work. (old). 8. Roger was awarded an honourary doctorate at Princeton. (brilliant). Stop go on regret 9. Have you heard Sharon apply to the same firm again? (optimistic). 10. I’m sure that it’s Patrick who has solved the problem (gifted and Example: experienced). Could you stop working for a moment? I’d like to speak to you. 11. Edward understood the benefits of the programme quickly. (clever). Ask not learn tell make 12. The Travel group has four companies: an airline, a retail travel agency, a hotel company and a direct company. (large and rich). 1. He went on_ a noise even though I’d asked him to stop. 2. She started by talking about her job. Then she went on _ Exercise 22. Give the reason why somebody failed to do it. me about her family. Example: Why didn’t he read He was too sleepy to read the 3. He stopped reading_ me a question. the article to the article to the end 4. I regret_ to play a musical instrument when I was younger. end? (sleepy) Exercise 8. Remember, regret, try, etc. 1. Why can’t your brother go any further? (tired). Supply the correct forms (to-infinitive or -ing) of the verbs 2. Why don’t you wear the suit I bought you ten years ago? (shabby). in brackets. 3. Why couldn’t Kitty tell the policeman about the road casualty? (upset).4. Why isn’t Alex playing football with us? (weak after the operation). 1a. I remember ………. Visiting Paris when I was very young (visit). 5. Why didn’t Ann invite her boy-friend to her birthday party? (angry 1b. Please remember ………. The door on your way out (lock). with him). 1c. Did you remember ……… Jim last night? (phone). 6. Why doesn’t he walk to work? He lives a five minutes’ walk far from 2a. I shall never forget………. Taken to see the Moscow State Circus (be). his office. (lazy). 2b. Don’t forget………. How many are coming on Saturday (find out). 7. Why doesn’t Pamela understand what’s happening all round? (stupid). 2c. I forgot……….. to the chemist’s on my way home (go). 8. Why didn’t you lend Dick some money? (cautious). 3a. We all tried ……… him, but he just wouldn’t listen to any of us (stop). 9. I don’t understand why they haven’t got any experience to work. 3b. If you want to stop coughing, why don’t you try………… some (young). water? (drink) 10. Why didn’t Charles apply for a job again? (pessimistic). 4a. She got annoyed because her husband stopped ………. In every shop window (look). 11. Why can’t the boss see me right now? (busy). 4b. Just stop………….. and listen for a moment (talk). 12. Why isn’t your assistant speaking calmly? (irritated). 5a. If we hadn’t turned music off they’d have gone on………… till Exercise 23. Point out the Objective-with- the- Infinitive and the morning (dance). Subjective with the Infinitive Constructions. Translate into 5b. She got a degree in Physics and then went on……… a course in Applied Maths (take). Russian. 6a. I regret…………. You that there’s been an accident (tell). 1. Never once had she been seen to cry. 6b. He regretted………….in the same job for so long (stay). 2. It was the first time he had ever seen her weep. 3. He didn’t mean this to be a long meeting. Exercise 8a. Remember, regret, try, etc. 4. There was a rumour that at least they were likely to be married. Put in the to-infinitive or the ing-form of the verb. 5. …. Without remonstrance she suffered me to have my own way. 70 23, 6. Irving proved to be a long, sallow-faced butler chap, solemn as an Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or to the to undertaker. infinitive. 7. Mr. Worthing is sure to be back soon. Example: 8. I came to get someone to tell me the truth. 9. I’ll have Bertha bring you breakfast. ‘I introduced you to Sue last month.» «Really? I don’t remember meeting/ 10. Unfortunately, at this moment he chances to catch sight of Judith’s face. meet her’. 11. I have never known Hector Rose behave like this. 1. You said Ken was stupid». «I don’t remember_ (say) that. 12. His ‘office’ turned out to be in one of the back streets close by Olympia. 2. I’ll never forget _(visit) Istanbul in 1983. 13. Conrad pulled out a chair and made her sit down. 3. When I go shopping I must remember_ (buy) some bread. 14. He … looked at his watch, rang the bell and ordered the vehicle to be 4. Please remember_(turn off) the radio before you go out. brought round immediately. 15. Paul felt his heart lift as at a great victory. Exercise 5. Put in the to-infinitive or the ing-form of the verb. 16. … people took an oath, a pledge, when they were married and that was supposed to hold them together. Laura: Did you remember to pick (pick) up those photos today? 17. At thirteen he began to read books that were said to be evil. Trevor: What photos? 18. She watched him go up the street and enter a door. Laura: Oh, no. I can remember (1) ……….. (mention) it to you only 19. He appeared to be an ideal home man. this morning 20. Young men of this class never do anything for themselves that they Trevor: I can’t remember (2) ……… (agree) to pick up some photos, can get other people to do for them. Laura: well dor’t forget (3) ... (call) at the shop for them tomorrow. 21. He said he wouldn’t suffer a wood to be uttered to him in his disparagement. You’ve got a terrible memory. Yesterday you forgot (4)…….. 22. She doesn’t seem to want to do anything I suggest. (lock) the door. 23. Cecily and Gwendolen are perfectly certain to be extremely great friends. Trevor: I’m sure I didn’t forget (5)…………(lock) it. I can clearly 24. He heard the town clock strike twelve. remember (6)…………….(look) for my keys they were in my 25. Nearly a year ago, I chanced to tell him our legend of the nun… pocket. 26. Harriet, pale and trembling … suffered her to go on uninterrupted. Laura: You ought to write notes to yourself to remind you. 27. ‘You will not allow this base newspaper slander to shorten your stay Trevor: That wouldn’t be any good. I’d never remember (7)…….. (look here, Mr. Winkle?’ said Mrs. Pott, smiling through the trace of her tears. at them! 28. He turned out to have no feeling whatsoever for his nephew. 29. I don’t like him to be so long alone. Exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the –ing form or to the to 30. From the extreme freshness and purity of her complexion I estimated infinitive. age to be sixteen or less perhaps. 31. This appeared to amuse the policemen. Example: 32. I can’t bear one to be very near me but you. ‘I need to borrow some money’. ‘Why don’t you try asking (ask) your 33. At any moment he was expecting Erik to pull a gun and rob him. parents to lend you some?’ 34. He decided to write her ….and ask for an explanation, as well as 1. I’ll try_ (come) to the meeting, but I’m not sure if I’ll be have her meet him. able to. 35. You can easily get in through a window if the door happens to be 2. If you get hiccups you should try_(drink) a glass of water. If locked. that doesn’t work, try_ (hold) your breath. 36. You are sure to be there tomorrow night, aren’t you, Professor 3. You can borrow my camera but please try _ (be) careful Engelfield?… with it. 37. He was said to be one of the most promising of nuclear physicists. 4. This soup doesn’t taste very good. Try _ (put) in some more salt. 24 69, Exercise 2. Explain the differences in meaning between: 38. Why can’t he get a valet to stay with him longer than a few months. 39. The peasants did not seem to see her. 1. a. He usually begins doing his homework after dinner. 40. He then ordered her horse to be put into the gig. b. He began to do his homework after lunch yesterday. 41. Mrs.Merridew instantly permitted herself to be taken by the arm 2. a. Go on speaking about this matter. and led into the garden. b. Go on to say how you managed to escape from prison. 3. a. I dread thinking about Tom. Exercise 24. Use The ‘Nominative with the Infinitive’ instead of the b. I dread to think about Tom. subordinate clause and complex objects: 4. a. Professor Ross permitted smoking during his lecture. b. Professor Ross permitted her to smoke cigarettes. 1. It is reported that the football match will take place on May 15th. 5. a. Mr.Smith proposed waiting till his wife comes back. 2. It was believed that the expedition had returned to its winter camp. b. Mr.Smith proposed to wait for his wife. 3. It is understood that the commission will soon come to a decision. 6. a. Miss Sams acknowledged receiving the parcel. 4. It was expected that the conference would take place in May. b. Miss Sams acknowledged her boy friend to be very handsome. 5. It was known that he was in the habit of sleeping the whole winter 7. a. I am learning signing. with the window open. b. I am learning to sing Verdi. 6. People saw him enter the house early in the morning. 8. a. I noticed her cross the road safely and meet her parents. 7. They often heard the girl sing that tune. b. I noticed her crossing the road. 8. The doctor ordered him to give up smoking. 9. a. I heard him speak English. 9. We expected the children to return by seven o’clock. b. I heard him speaking English. 10. a. I asked to stay with my friend. Exercise 25. Complete the following sentences using infinitival comple- b. I asked my mother to stay with my friends. xes as adverbial modifiers of purpose or result. For example: It was too late for us to continue our work (result). Exercise 3. Put the verb into the correct form. I shall leave the book for you to read (purpose). Sometimes two answers are possible. 1. It was too early …. 2. I shall put the book here …. begin can’t bear like prefer 3. The little boy pulled at his mother’s sleeve …. continue hate love start 4. She spoke loud enough …. Examples: I quite enjoy driving (drive) at night. 5. The story was too fantastic …. Do you like getting up/ to get up (get up) early? 6. The slope of the hill was too steep ….7. I shall wake you up …. 1. Would you like_ (listen) to some music? 8. The railway station was too far …. 2. Simon and Sally have started _ (cook) the dinner. 9. They sent a wire … . 3. I prefer _ (windsurf) to _ (sail). 10. The question was too unexpected …. 4. I’d prefer_ (walk) home rather than _ (go) by taxi. 5. My sister loves_ (go) shopping. Exercise 26. Complete the following sentences using infinitival 6. I’d love _ (visit) Australia one day. complexes as subject. 7. My brother hates _(have to) work at weekends . For example: It is quite unbelievable for him to have said such a thing. 8. Do you like_ (play) chess? 9. I try to look after my car. I like_ (take) it to the garage to be There was no need for me to go there. serviced regularly. 1. It was hardly necessary …. 10. Shh! The orchestra is starting _(play). 2. It is of no use …. 68 25, 3. It is only natural …. 14. Children, I forbid you (play) _ in the street. There’s 4. It was very kind … too much traffic. 5. It is quite possible …. 15. My little cousin is a blabbermouth! He can’t resist (tell) _ 6. It is high time …. everyone my secrets! 7. Is it possible …? 16. I appreciate your (take) _ the time to help me. 8. It is desirable …. 17. I can’t afford (buy) _ a new car. 9. It is quite unusual …. 18. Ted managed (change) _ my mind. 10. It is much better …. 19. I think Sam deserves (have) _ another change. 20. Julie finally admitted (be) _ responsible for the Exercise 27. A sports reporter interviewed several people about an problem. incident involving two players, Foreman and Sheriff, in a 21. I don’t recall ever (hear) _ you mention his football match. He wrote down statements made by each name before. 22. She keeps (promise) _ (visit) _ of them. Join each of the following pairs of sentences to us, but she never does. make one sentence and then complete the newspaper report that follows. The first one is done for you. Turner: 1 Foreman deliberately knocked Sheriff down. I saw him. MIXED BAG Foreman: 2 Sheriff fell down. I noticed him. Exercises. 3 The referee blew his whistle. I didn’t hear him. Verb+ing form or to infinitive Carston: 4 Sheriff tripped over. I saw him. 5 But did Foreman touch him? I didn’t notice. Exercise 1. Explain the differences in meaning between: Sheriff: 6 Someone shouted. I heard him. 1. a. I like studying English grammar. 7 Someone pushed me from behind. I felt it. b. I would like to study English grammar today. Football 8 Foreman’s played lots of matches. I’ve watched him. 2. a. I remembered shutting the window. Supporter: 9 He’s never fouled before. At least, I’ve never seen him. b. I remembered to shut the window. Football Star Sent Off. 3. a. The Browns stopped buying cigarettes last week. There was a storm of protest yesterday after referee Sam Turner b. The Browns stopped to buy cigarettes. sent off top player Tim Foreman for fouling against Bob Sheriff. After 4. a. Mrs. Smith prefers going to the cinema to watching TV.b. Mrs. Smith prefers to watch TV tonight. the match Turner said, (1) ‘I saw Fireman deliberately knock Sheriff 5. a. Mary has forgotten visiting me last month. down. I blew my whistle, but Foreman ignored it, so I showed him the b. Mary has forgotten to visit me. red card.’ Foreman angrily denied this, saying, (2) ‘I_ 6. a. Dr. Clark encourages drinking milk. but I never touched him. I carried on playing because (3) b. Dr. Clark encourages his sons to drink milk. _.’ Team-mate Willie Carston agreed with Foreman 7. a. He tried skating for a change. when he said, ‘I shouted at Foreman to pass me the ball. Then b. He tried to skate. (4)_, but (5) _’. Sheriff refused 8. a. Don’t forget doing your grammar exercises. to speak to reporters, but his manager said, (6) ‘Sheriff b. Don’t forget to do the grammar exercises. _ and then (7) he _. There 9. a. It means more studying. was definitely a foul.’ Foreman supporters found it hard to believe. As b. She means to study English harder. one supporter put it, (8) ‘_, but (9) _’. 10. a. I regret telling him the news.b. I regret to tell you that you have failed your entrance examination. 26 67, 49. force They forced him to tell the truth. Exercise 28. Ron Blakelock has been dismissed from his job for hitting 50. hire She hired a boy to mow the lawn. one of the managers, Mr. Cowley. The other workers are 51. instruct He instructed them to be careful. on strike because they believe Mr. Cowley started the 52. invite Harry invited the Johnsons to come to his party. 53. need We needed Chris to help us figure out the solution. trouble. Complete the following discussion by using the 54. order The judge ordered me to pay a fine. verb in brackets as an infinitive with or without to. The 55. permit He permitted the children to stay up late. first one has been done for you. 56. persuade I persuaded him to come for a visit. Tom: Now, I’ve spoken to the Managing Director and he seems (1) to 57. remind She reminded me to lock the door. (be) ready (2) _ (listen) to our side of the story. 58. require Our teacher requires us to be on time. In fact, he’s offered (3) _(talk) to us, but only if we 59. teach My brother taught me to swim. agree (4) _ (go) back to work immediately. I said I’d 60. tell The doctor told me to take these pills. let him (5) _ (know) put decision after this meeting. 61. urge I urged her to apply for the job. Well, have you got anything (6) _ (say)? 62. want I want you to be happy. Bert: Yes, I have. I’m not returning to work until he promises (7) 63. warn I warned you not to drive too fast. _ (give) Ron his job back. And no one can (8) _ (make) me! After all, that’s why we’re on strike, Exercise 11. Complete the sentences with the correct form, gerund or isn’t? infinitive, of the words in parentheses. Tom: No one’s going to make you (9) _ (do)anything, Bert. But you must (10) _(remember) 1. Margaret challenged me (race) _ her across the pool. that it’s a difficult situation. Everyone saw Ron (11) 2. David volunteered (bring) _ some food to the _(hit) Mr. Cowley. There’s no doubt about reception. that. The question is why he hit him. We hope (12) 3. The students practiced (pronounce) _ the ‘th’ _ (show) that it was Mr. Cowley’s own fault. sound in the phrase ‘these thirty-three dirty trees.’ But we can’t (13) _ (do) that if the management 4. In the fairy tale, the wolf threatened (eat) _ a girl refuses (14) _(discuss) it with us, can we? named Little Red Riding Hood. Dave: Tom’s right, Bert. Frankly, I think we should (15) _(do) 5. Susie! How many times do I have to remind you (hang up) _ what managing Director says. It’s not very sensible (16) _ _ your coat when you get home from school? (stay) on strike under the circumstances. It won’t help Ron (17) 6. The horses struggled (pull) _ the wagon out of the mud. _ (get) his job back, will it? 7. Janice demanded (know) _ why she had been fired. Bert: I still don’t like it. We all know what Mr. Cowely said to Ron. 8. My skin can’t tolerate (be) _ in the sun all day long. I Tom: Yes, but no one heard him (18) _ (say), it did they? It’s Ron’s get sunburned easily. word against Mr Cowley’s. Look, let’s (19) _ (have) a vote. 9. I avoided (tell) _ Mary the truth because I knew she Anyone who wishes (20) _ (continue) the strike, put up your would be angry. hand. Well, it looks as if the majority wants (21) _ (return) to 10. Fred Washington claims (be) _ a descendant of George Washington. work. What about you, Bert? What have you decided (22) _ 11. Alex broke the antique vase. I’m sure he didn’t mean (do) _ (do)? _ it. Bert: You needn’t (23) _ (worry). I intend (24) _ (accept) the 12. I urged Al (return) _ to school and (finish) _ majority decision. _ his education. Tom: Good. Now, I’ve got a lot of things (25) _ (do) first, but I’ll 13. Mrs. Freeman can’t help (worry) _ about her arrange for us (26) _ (meet) the Managing Director as soon children. as possible. In the mean time , I’ll tell him he can (27) _(expect) (28) _(see) us back at work tomorrow. 66 27, Exercise 29. Read a situation and then write a sentence with complex 11. demand I demand to know who is responsible. object using the words given. 12. deserve She deserves to win the prize. Example: Ann didn’t have any Ann wanted James to lend 13. expect I expect to enter graduate school in the fall. money her some. 14. fail She failed to return the book to the library on time. (want/James/lend) 15. forget I forgot to mail the letter.16. hesitate Don’t hesitate to ask for my help. 1. Unfortunately someone had told Sue that I was going to visit her (want/ 17. hope Jack hopes to arrive next week. it/be a surprise). 18. learn He learned to play the piano. 2. My parents were disappointed when I decided to leave home. (want)/ 19. manage She managed to finish her work early. me/stay with them . 3. At first Tom didn’t want to play tennis but John persuaded him. (persuade/ 20. mean I didn’t mean to hurt your feelings. Tom/play tennis). 21. need I need to have your opinion. 4. There’s a football match next Saturday between England and Scotland. 22. offer They offered to help us. (want/Scotland/ win?). 23. plan I am planning to have a party. 5. In your place I would tell the police about the accident. (advise/me/ 24. prepare We prepared to welcome them. inform?). 25. pretend He pretends not to understand. 6. She received a letter from Tony, but nobody knew what it was about. 26. promise I promise not to be late. (not let/anybody/read). 27. refuse I refuse to believe his story. 7. Please don’t tell anyone that I’m leaving my job. (not want/ anyone/know). 28. regret I regret to tell you that you failed. 8. Tom was sure that Mary would be late. And she was. (expect/her/be late). 29. remember I remembered to lock the door. 9. ‘Don’t forget to post my letter’, Jack said to me. (remind/me/post). 30. seem That cat seems to be friendly. 10. If you’ve got a car, you can travel around more easily. (Having a car/ enable/you/travel). 31. struggle 1 struggled to stay awake. 11. The sudden noise caused the boy to jump. (make/him/jump). 32. swear She swore to tell the truth. 12. Nobody is allowed to smoke in the office as Mr. Thomas doesn’t like 33. threaten She threatened to tell my parents. smoking. (allow/nobody/smoke). 34. volunteer He volunteered to help us. 35. wait I will wait to hear from you. Exercise 30. Change these sentences so as to use complex object 36. want I want to tell you something. as shown in the example. 37. wish She wishes to come with us. Example: I believe that Van I believe Van Clibern to B. VERBS FOLLOWED BY A (PRO)NOUN + AN INFINITIVE Clibern is a great be a great pianist. pianist. 38. advise She advised me to wait until tomorrow.39. allow She allowed me to use her car. 1. Everyone wanted that Oxford captain would succeed, for he was one 40. ask I asked John to help us. of those gifted men whose charm creates no enemies. 41. beg They begged us to come. 2. I consider that this business is very profitable. 42. cause Her laziness caused her to fail. 3. The firm can’t expect that unskilled men will become experienced 43. challenge engineers overnight. She challenged me to race her to the corner.44. convince 4. They concluded that the port was totally congested and that there I couldn’t convince him to accept our help. were 170 ships desperate to unload their cargo with a waiting time of 45. dare He dared me to do better than he done. anything up to six months. 46. encourage He encouraged me to try again. 5. I admit that my accusation was right. I admit that the harbor master 47. expect I expect you to be on time. has been bribed to unload the ship. 48. forbid I forbid you to tell him. 28 65, 9. deny She denied committing the crime. 6. He thought that the coup would give the Prentino empire more 10. discuss They discussed opening a new business. headaches than even they cope with. 11. dislike I dislike driving long distances. 7. I believe that we could make a bigger profit building a salt mine in 12. enjoy We enjoyed visiting them. Siberia than making a road project in Africa’s heart. 13. finish She finished studying about ten. 8. We didn’t expect that the government was running late clearing the 14. forget I will never forget visiting Napoleons tomb. cheques. 15. can’t help I can’t help worrying about it. 9. I can’t believe that your personnel manager pulls the workers off thejob every two weeks because they are unskilled. And I don’t expect 16. keep I keep hoping he will come. that he will give the reason. 17. mention She mentioned going to a movie. 10. As a banker, I discovered that our customers were always trying to 18. mind Would you mind helping me with this? tell us a good tale. 19. miss I miss being with my family. 11. He found that the assignment of his client was difficult to fulfil. 20. postpone Let’s postpone leaving until tomorrow. 12. We expect that at the talks they will clear up several points of the 21. practice The athlete practiced throwing the ball. contrast. 22. quit He quit trying to solve the problem. 23. recall I don’t recall meeting him before. Exercise 31. State the function of the Infinitive. Translate into Russian. 24. recollect I don’t recollect meeting him before. 1. A man must have something bigger than himself to believe in. 25. recommend She recommended seeing the show. 2. It was impossible not to invite the Butlers for both afternoon and evening. 26. regret I regret telling him my secret. 3. The heat and dust were enough to strangle you. 27. remember I can remember meeting him when I was a child. 4. To cut a long story short, the infant that’s just gone out of the room is 28. resent I resent her interfering in my business. not your son. 29. resist I couldn’t resist eating the dessert. 5. … the next thing to be done is to move away from this house. 30. risk She risks losing all of her money. 6. All the deep maternity in her awoke, never to sleep again. 31. stop She stopped going to classes when she got sick. 7. He paused as if to find a way to phrase his next thoughts. 32. suggest She suggested going to a movie. 8. Nobody asked you to come out there. I didn’t ask you to stay. I told 33. tolerate won’t tolerate cheating you to go while it was daylight.She during an examination. 34. understand 9. It was too hot to go out into the town.I don’t understand his leaving school. 10. The prospective buyer is someone who is not, to put it mildly, a supporter REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY of female emancipation. To consent to this sale would be to consentto change the character of the newspaper altogether. INFINITIVES 11. He had been one of the first to become interested in the development A. VERBS FOLLOWED IMMEDIATELY BY AN INFINITIVE of the street-car system. 1. afford I can’t afford to buy it. 12. The floor of the forest was soft to walk on … 2. agree They agreed to help us. 13. He was a man to attract immediate sympathy. 3. appear She appears to be tired. 14. He knew he must say anything in order to establish communication 4. arrange I’ll arrange to meet you at the airport. with her. 5. ask He asked to come with us. 15. After all, you’re young enough to be my son. 6. beg He begged to come with us. 16. To begin with, he did not like the way his editor … had spoken to him 7. care I don’t care to see that show. that morning.17. To make the real decision, one’s got to have the real power. 8. claim She claims to know a famous movie star. 18. To know all is to forgive all. 9. consent She finally consented to marry him. 19. Other people, men particularly, found it difficult to face Cowperwood’s 10. decide I have decided to leave on Monday. glazed stare. 64 29, 20. It must be awful to have a brilliant future behind you. 12. The teacher always says to the studentse, ‘You are supposed to come to 21. She makes a gesture as if to touch him. class on time.’ 22. Indeed, she had nowhere to go. (expect) _ _ Exercise 32. Underline all the infinitives and constructions with the infinitive, stating their functions. Exercise 10. In each of the following, report what someone said by using For example: He went to buy some bread-adverbial modifier of purpose one of the verbs in the given list to introduce an infinitive phrase. to the verb went. It is difficult for me to do it-complex subject expressed by an infinitival construction introduced advise expect remindallow force require by for. ask order tell 1. I intend to start immediately. encourage permit warn 2. To descend was extremely difficult. 1. The professor said to Alan, ‘You may leave early.’ 3. You must do this work properly. The professor allowed Alan to leave early. 4. I wanted to call but I had no time to. Alan was allowed to leave early. 5. The sailors felt the waves dash over them. 2. The general said to the soldiers, ‘Surround the enemy!’ 6. She gave him the letters to mail at once at the next box. 3. Nancy said to me, ‘Would you please open the window.’ 7. We sent a boat for them to come to the shore. 4. Bob said to me, ‘Don’t forget to take your book back to the library.’ 8. I hoped to have finished my work in three days. 5. Paul thinks I have a good voice, so he said to me, ‘You should take 9. I wish him to come as soon as possible. 10. The plant continued to work as one of the biggest plants with thousands singing lessons.’ of workers. 6. Mrs. Anderson was very stern and a little angry. She shook her finger 11. They are expected to be back by the end of the week. at the children and said to them, ‘Don’t play with matches!’ 12. It was difficult for me to come to a decision. 7. I am very relieved because the Dean of Admissions said to me, ‘You 13. It is a rule to be remembered. may register for school late.’ 14. He is said to be a good physician. 8. The law says, ‘Every driver must have a valid driver’s license.’ 15. 1 left the watch for him to repair. 9. My friend said to me, ‘You should get some automobile insurance.’ 16. Ten days later he was well enough to leave the hospital. 10. The robber had a gun. He said to me, ‘Give me all of your money.’ 17. Let us settle what things to take on our journey. 11. Before the examination began, the teacher said to the students, ‘Work 18. I am glad to have been able to assist her. quickly.’ 19.She knew French well enough to talk it. 12. My boss said to me, ‘Come to the meeting ten minutes early.’ 20.I am sorry to have bothered you. 21. I am quite ashamed to have given you so much trouble. REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS 22. The girls made way for her to pass at the head of the winding stairs 1. admit He admitted stealing the money. which led down to the parlour. 2. advise She advised waiting until tomorrow. 23. Come and help me spread the rugs in the hall. 3. anticipate I anticipate having a good time on vacation. 24. The evening was so lovely, they sat there long, watching the summer 4. appreciate I appreciated hearing from them. night come very slowly on. 5. avoid He avoided answering my question. 25. She seemed to think this was a suitable moment to discuss the 6. complete I finally completed writing my term paper. question. 7. consider I will consider going with you. 26. There was nobody to talk to at the inn, for the landlady evidently had 8. delay He delayed leaving for school. other work to do. 30 63, 27. He was at the receiver waiting for some number to be given him. 28. Ann advised her sister _ the plane instead to 28. He was not the man to leave his work half finished. Oregon. 29. I hope this letter will come in time for us to wish you both a good voyage. Exercise 9. Using the given ideas and the verb in parenthses, make 30. It’s very hot, still weather; the country and the sea seem to sleep in sentences, both active and passive, by using an infinitive the sun. phrase. (Omit the «by phrase» in the passive sentences). 31. I did not know where to find her. 1. The teacher said to me, ‘You may leave early’. 32.The car was in good order, but he was too exciting to be a good (permit) (active) driver. (passive) 33. They argued what to do next. 2. The secretary said to me, ‘Please give this note to Sue’. 34. I did not know which way to go. (ask) (active) 35. I take it that we may be quite frank (passive) 36. Shall we tram it or bus it home? 3.My advisor said to me, ‘You should take Biology 109’. 37. I decided to cut out practically the whole paragraph. (advise) 38. I thought you had kindly left the book here on purpose for me to read it. 39. I’ve simply got to rush away! 4. When I went to traffic court, the judge said to me, ‘You must pay a thirty-dollar fine’. Exercise 33. State the function of the infinitive and Infinitive Constructions. (order) _ Translate into Russian. _ 5. During the test, the teacher said to Greg, ‘Keep your eyes on your 1. It was then an easy matter for me to go to Paul’s room and make an own paper.’ appropriate signal to Kitty, and she turned back, up the street to (warn) disappear round the corner into Church Square.2. She made a curious, fumbling gesture towards me as if to convey a 6. During the test, the teacher said to Greg, ‘Don’t look at your neighbor’s sort of affection. paper.’ 3. It was charming to see him play with the two children. (warn) 4. To tell you the truth, Mr. Butler, I did not want Ailen to leave yourhome at all. 7. At the meeting, the head of the departiment said to the faculty, ‘Don’t 5. I happen to know that he was supposed to come to the wedding. forget to turn in your grade reports by the 15 th.’ 6. Gertrude gave a long soft exhalation. It made the young man smile at (remind) her again and this smile made her blush a little. To take refuge fromblushing she asked him if, after his long walk, he was not hungry and 8. Mr. Lee said to the children, ‘Be quiet’ thirsty. (tell) 7. Charles Lomax’s exertions are much more likely to decrease his incomethan to increase it. 9. The hijacker said to the pilot, ‘You must land the plane.’ 8. Your shortest way will be to follow the boulevard, and cross the park... (force) but it is too late and too dark for a woman to go through the parkalone. 10. When I was growing up, my parents said to me, ‘You may stay up late 9. In spite of herself the colour fled from her cheeks instantly, only to on Saturday night.’ come back in a hot, defiant wave. (allow) 10. They hardly expect him to recover consciousness; it was a terrible knock.But if he does, he’s sure to want to see you, even if he can’t speak. 62 31, 11. Some of the rumours we knew to be nonsense, but not all. Exercise 8. Supply any appropriate completion for each sentence. 12. Addy and Ellie look beautiful enough to please the most fastidious man. Use either a gerund or an infinitive. 13. It was something to be sitting like this in the front of a box in one of the biggest theatres in London. 1. We’re going out for dinner. Would you like _ us? 14. Anyway, just to begin with, don’t you think you might treat me as a 2. Jack avoided _ me. moral equal? 3. Fred didn’t have money, so he decided_ a job. 15. He was said to be bearing Roger no malice, to be speaking of him 4. The teacher reminded the students _ their with dispassion. assignments. 16. Paul waited for Harriet to say something about the bar, but she didn’t 5. Do you enjoy_ soccer? even seem to notice it. 6. I was broke, so Jenny offered_ me a little money. 17. Idleness is a great sin, and I certainly don’t like any of my friends to 7. Mrs. Allen promised_ tomorrow. be idle or sluggish. 8. My boss expects me _this work ASAP. 18.The only way to guard his future and retain his financial friends was 9. Jane had to go out again because she had forgotten _some bread at the market. to stand trial as quickly as possible and trust them to assist him to his 10. Even though I asked the people in front of me at the movie_ feet in the future. _ quiet, they kept_. 19. To keep his attention engaged, she talked with him about his wardrobe... 11. Joan and David were considering _ married in June, 20. To accept too many favors from Ramona was dangerous. He might but they finally decided _ until August. have to pay with his freedom. 12. Our teacher encourages us_adictionary whenever 21. To be frank with you, he didn’t pay. That’s the truth. we are uncertain of the spelling of a word. 22. There was a sandy little garden and a stone wall high enough to keep 13. Before I left home to go away to college, my mother reminded me the children safe but not too high for her to lean upon and pierce the _ her a letter at least once a week. distance with her gaze. 14. Mrs. Jackson warned her young son _ the hot 23. Her heart sank; she felt a sudden a cold chill pass through her limbs stove. and she shivered. 15. I don’t mind _ alone. 24. He appeared to be a man of considerable wealth, and was reputed to 16. The teacher seems _ in a good mood be a bachelor. today, don’t you think? 25. The thing to do is to gain time. 17. Lucy pretended _ the answer to my question. 26. Now I don’t choose her to be grateful to him, or to be grateful to 18. Dick intends _ his friend a letter. anybody but me. 19. Residents are not allowed _ pets in my 27. Mr. Weller left the room, and immediately afterwards was heard to apartment buiding. shut the street door. 20. All applicants are required _ an entranceexamination. 28. He felt lonesome the minute he left Bert and heard the screen door 21. Someone asked me _ this package. slam behind him. 22. I was asked _ this package. 29. It was not customary for her father to want to see her in his office. 23. Jack advised me_anew apartiment. 30. The appearance of Frank Cowperwood at this time was, to say the 24. I was advised_anew apartiment. least, prepossessing and satisfactory. 25. Jack advised_anew apartiment. 31. I happen to be pretty comfortably placed. 26. Jack suggested_anew apartiment. 32. Was Aileen in any way to blame? 27. Ann advised her sister _ the plane instead of 33. Go and get Bessie to give you some tea, Tony. driving to Oregon. 34. There’s only one thing for her to do, and that’s to divorce him. 35. I have devised my own system and have never known it fail. * ASAP = as soon as possible 32 61, 4. go + bowl 36. His salary was fifty dollars a week, and he was certain soon to get more. 5. think about + wear 37. It was often mail to be too suspicious, much more mail than to believe 6. enjoy + play too easily. 7. go + fish 38. Like all women, she was there to object and be convinced. It was for 8. talk about + go + swim him to brush the doubts away and clear the path if he could. 9. stop + fight 39. He’s thought to be lucky to have gone as far as this... 10. postpone + go + camp 40. Our final decision is to have a conference tomorrow afternoon, before 11. quit + rain which each one is to think the matter over. 12. avoid + go + shop 41. She longed so much for people to be happy.42. He turned out to be the most efficient clerk that the house of Waterman 13. give up + ask and Co. had ever known. 14. discuss + go + birdwatch 43. The delay didn’t seem to affect him. 15. appreciate + hear 44. A sudden rattle on his right hand caused him to start from his reverie 16. mind + wait and turn in that direction. 17. think about + not go COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES Exercise 34. Underline the construction the ‘Objective with theInfinitive’ in the following sentences with a straight line and VERB + INFINITIVE Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive, (a) I hope to see you again soon. as in (a) and (b). See Group A below. verbs after which this construction is used with a wavy line: (b) He promised to be here by ten. (c) He promised not to be late. Negative form: not precedes the infinitive. 1. We saw them jump from parachutes. VERB + (PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVE Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and then an (d) Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o’clock. infinitive, as in (d) and (e). See Group B below. 2. I expect you to join our excursion. (e) The police ordered the driver to stop. 3. 1 heard the door of the entrance hall open and close softly. (f) I was to be here at ten o’clock. These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive 4. They all gathered on the hill to watch the sun rise. (g) The driver was ordered to stop. when they are used in the passive, as in (f) and (g). (h) I expect pass the test. Ask, expect, would like, want, and need may or may 5. The people in the North do not see the sun come out for months. (i) I expect Mary to pass the test. not be followed immediately by a (pro)noun object. 6. He made the tractor work at full speed. COMPARE: 7. She felt her hands tremble. In (h): I think I will pass the test. In (i): I think Mary will pass the test. 8. We wished him to succeed. GROUP A: VERB + INFINITIVE 9. We had not expected her to reply, but she did. hope to promise to seem to ask to 10. We knew him to be a clever man. plan to agree to appear to expect to intend to* offer to pretend to would like to 11. The traveller entered the inn and ordered supper to be prepared. decide to refuse to want to 12. He felt his heart beat with joy. need to 13. I am waiting for them to go before I speak of the matter. GROUP B: VERB + (PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVE 14. We saw him cross the street looking to the left and to the right. tell someone to invite someone to require someone to ask someone to 15. I felt the wind blow through a chink in the wall. advise someone to** permit someone to order someone to expect someone to encourage someone to allow someone to force someone to would someone to 16. We stood on deck and watched the sun go down. remind someone to warn someone to want someone to 17. Passing the house I heard him play the piano. need someone to 18. 1 don’t like you to repeat that nonsense. * Intend is usually collowed by an infinitive (I intend to go to the meeting) but sometimes 19. I hate people to speak so cynically. may by a gerund (I intend soing to the meeting with no change in meaning. 20. Leave me to manage the matter for you. ** A gerund is used after advise (active) if there is no (pro)noun object. COMPARE: 21. We expect everybody to be ready by seven. 1) He advised buying a Fiat. 22. Don t think him to be a coward. 2) He advised me to buy a Fiat: I was advised to buy a Fiat. 23. They showed themselves even more narrow-minded than we had expected them to be. 60 33, 24. I don’t trust myself to skate on this uneven ice. Exercise 6. By using a gerund, supply any appropriate completion 25. ‘We want our children to grow up into active, energetic and enterprising for each of the following. men and women, not afraid to face difficulties,’ said the director of the children’s home. 1. When Beth got tired, she stopped working/studying 2. Would you mind _ the door? Thanks. Exercise 35. Underline all the complexes with the infinitives and state 3. The weather will get better soon. We can leave as soon as it quits _. their functions. 4. The police officer told him to stop, but the thief kept _. 1. He was anxious for everyone to be merry and bright. 5. I enjoy_along walk every morning. 2. Drawing the curtains aside, the saw the first grey streaks of morning. 6. I have a lot of homework tonight, but I’d still like to go with you later The flowers were just appearing in the young green, short and blue; on. I’ll call you when I get through _. next week or the week after there would be a carpet for the children 7. I would like to have some friends over. I’m thinking about _ to lie upon. a dinner party. 3. He was undisturbed by Shelton’s scrutiny, watching the rind coil down 8. He told a really funny joke. We couldn’t stop _! below the apple, until in a springing spiral it fell on the path and collapsed 9. Where are you considering _ for vacation? like a toy snake. 10. Sometimes I put off_ my homework. 4. The door creaked. He saw Irene come in, pick up the telegram and 11. You have to decide where you want to go to school next year. You read it. can’t postpone _ that decision much longer. 5. He is known to take very sudden decisions. 12. I wanted to go to Mexico. Sally suggested _ to the Hawaii. 6. I expected her to behave very differently. 13. Tony mentioned _ the bus to school instead of walking. 7. He is supposed to be at work. 14. I appreciate _ able to study in peace and quiet. 8. I haven’t got her permission for you to go. 9. He was understood to be hard at work. GO + GERUND 10. She made Shelton pull into the reeds, and plucked two rounded lilies Go is followed by a gerund in certain indiomatic expressions to sailing like ships, against slowly-moving water. express recreational activities. 11. The boom of an aeroplane passing under the gold-tinted clouds caused go birdwatching go hiking go boating go hunting go bowling him to lift his eyes. 12. Perhaps we had better go in, I don’t want you to catch a cold. go jogging go camping go mountain climbing go canoeing 13. At once they found something for her to do. go running go dancing go sailing go fishing go shopping 14. At the stop she found another girl waiting for the bus to stop. go sightseeing go skating go skiing go sledging go swimming 15. I understood him to say that his friend was up the river somewhere. 16. They lowered the rope ladder from the deck for him to climb. Exercise 7. Make up sentences using the given words. 17. This translation is too difficult for a beginner to do it without errors. Use any subject. Use any tense. Example: enjoy + go Exercise 36. State the function of the for-to-Infinitive Construction. Translate into Russian. Possible responses: I enjoy going to the zoo./My friend and I enjoyedgoing to a rock concert last weekend./Where do 1. There was no home for him to go to. you enjoy going in (this city) when you have some 2. He waited for me to sit down. free time? 3. It seemed almost a shame for anyone to be as pretty as she was tonight. 1. finish + study 4. And it is not for you to make terms. It is for you to accept them. 2. go + dance 5. There’s nothing for us to do but amuse ourselves. 3. keep + work 34 59, COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS 6. But the pain in James’ head asserted itself too cruelly for him to think VERB + GERUND of anything else for the moment. a) I enjoy playing tennis. 7. He cordially extended one forefinger for Erik to shake. b) Joe quit smoking. 8. Some trouble with the authorities had made it necessary for him to be c) Joe gave up smoking. much abroad. Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. In (a), enjoy is 9. There were plenty of papers for him to read, but he left them alone. followed by a gerund (playing). Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive. 10. Since you are so anxious for me to distinguish myself I have concluded INCORRECT: I enjoy to play tennis. Common verbs that are followed to do so. by gerunds are given in the list below. (b) and (c) have the same meaning. 11. It is impossible for me to write about that time in detail – I can’t bear to. Some two-word verbs, e.g., give up, are followed by gerunds. These 12. He opened the door of his room for her to go out. two-word verbs are given in parentheses in the list below. 13. Buttonwood street, where he spent the first ten years of his life, was VERB + GERUND a lovely place for a boy to live.14. She longed for night to come to bring sleep to her. enjoy, quit (give up), appreciate, finish (get through), mind, stop, avoid, postpone (put off), delay, keep (keep on), consider (think about), discuss (talk about), 15. It was really warm for May, and still light enough for him to see his mention, suggest. cows in the meadow beyond the river.16. ... the idea is for us to give a special concert at the Festival Hall. * Stop can also be followed immediately by an infinitive of purpose (in 17. My house is always ready for anyone to come into. order to). 18. My dear, this isn’t the time for us to quarrel. COMPARE the following: 19. Erik saw that she was impatient for him to be gone. (1) stop + gerund: When the professor entered the room, the students 20. He waited for Bert to say something. stopped talking. The room became quiet. Exercise 37. State the function of the for - to - Infinitive Construction (2) stop + infinitive of purpose: While I was walking down the Street, I ran into an old friend. I stopped to talk to him. (I stopped walking in these sentences. Then translate them into your native in order to talk him.) language. Exercise 5. Make sentences from the given words. 1. He waited for Holly to say something.2. Their house is always ready for anyone to come into. Use any tense. Use any subject. 3. It was really warm for May, and still light enough for him to see his Example: enjoy + read the newspaper sheep in the meadow. Possible response: I enjoy reading the newspaper every morning while 4. And it is not for you to make terms. It is for you to accept them. I’m having my first cup of coffee. 5. There was no home for him to go to. 6. Greasbourough street, where Johnny spent the first eight years of his 1. enjoy + watch TV 11. delay + leave on vacation life, was a nice place for a boy to live. 2. mind + open the window 12. keep + work 7. Mr. Downing waited for Helen to sit down. 3. quit + eat desserts 13. keep on + work 8. There’s nothing for us to do but amuse ourselves. 4. give up + eat desserts 14. consider + get a job 9. He cordially extended one forefinger for Brian to shake. 5. finish + eat dinner 15. think about + get a job 10. My dear, this isn’t the time for us to quarrel. 6. get through + eat dinner 16. discuss + go to a movie 11. Ken opened the door of his room for Veronica to go out. 7. stop + rain 17. talk about + go to a movie 12. But the pain in James’s head asserted itself too cruelly for him to 8. avoid + answer 18. mention + go to a concert think of anything else for the moment. 9. postpone + do my work 19. suggest + go on a picnic 13. It’s impossible for me to write about that time in detail – I can’t bear to. 10. put off + do my work 20. enjoy + listen to music 14. There were plenty of papers for him to read, but he left them alone. 58 35, Exercise 38. Translate into English. 3. start + laugh 8. remember + go 4. remind + take 9. prefer + live а) Use the infinitive as subject with or without the introductory it. 5. postpone + go 10. finish + do 1. Меня очень удивило, когда я увидел его на Черном море: врачи не разрешают ему жить на юге. Exercise 4. Supply an appropriate form, gerund or infinitive, of the verbs 2. Ей доставляло огромное удовольствие наблюдать, как играют in parentheses. дети. 3. Должно быть, очень приятно пить из этого источника в жаркий 1. Keep (talk) _. I’m listening to you. день. 2. The children promised (play) _ more quietly. Theypromised (make, not) _ so much noise. 4. Сказать ему правду в эту тяжелую минуту означало лишить 3. Linda offered (look after) _ my cat while I was out его последней надежды. of town. 5. Вам вовсе не помешает, если вы займетесь спортом. 4. You shouldn’t put off (pay) _ your bills. 6. Как предусмотрительно с вашей стороны было предупредить 5. Alex’s dog loves (chase) _ sticks. его обо всем заранее. 6. Mark mentioned (go) _ to the market later 7. Не предупредить его об этом было бы нечестно. today. I wonder if he’s still planning (go)_. 8. Нам понадобилось немало времени на то, чтобы убедить 7. Fred suggested (go) _(ski)_ in the его, что он неправ. mountains this weekend. How does that sound to you? 9. Работа на заводе принесла ему огромную пользу: он начал на 8. The doctor ordered Mr. Gray (smoke, not) _. все смотреть иначе. 9. Don’t tell me his secret. I prefer (know, not) _. 10. Разве не естественно отвечать добром на добро? 10. Could you please stop (whistle)_? I’m trying 11. Побывать в Крыму и не видеть моря было очень обидно. (concentrate) _ on my work. 12. Вздремнуть в своем кресле после обеда было его давниш- 11. She finally decided (quit) _ her present job ней привычкой. and (look for) _ another one. 13. Они знали, что выполнение этого задания потребует боль- 12. Did you remember (turn off) _ the stove? шого мужества. 13. Jack was allowed (renew) _ his student visa. 14. Неплохо бы поехать за город завтра. Было бы очень весело 14. Pat told us (wait, not) _ for her. покататься на лыжах с гор и поиграть в снежки. 15. Mr. Buck warned his daughter (play, not) _ with matches. b) Use the infinitive as predicative. 16. Would you please remind me (call) _ Alice tomorrow? 1. Первое, что необходимо было сделать, – это посоветоваться 17. Liz encouraged me (throw away) _ my old с врачом, а потом уже решать, поместить больного в больни- running shoes and (buy) _ a new pair without цу или нет. holes in the toes. 2. Наш план заключался в том, чтобы закончить полевые рабо- 18. I’m considering (drop out of) _ ты до наступления дождливой погоды. school, (hitchhike) _ to New 3. Все, что ей удалось сделать, – это узнать номер их телефона. York, and (try) _ (find) _ 4. Теперь остается только поместить объявление в газету. a job. 5. Пользоваться телефоном для справок значит экономить время. 19. Don’t forget (tell) _ Jane (call) _ 6. Единственное, что ему хотелось, – это найти место, где можно me about (go) _ (swim) _ было бы остановиться на ночь. tomorrow. 20. Sally reminded me (ask) _ you (tell) _ с) Use the infinitive as object. Bob (remember) _ (bring) _ 1. Мы не боялись попасть под дождь: у нас были плащи. his soccer ball to the picnic. 36 57, Exercise 2. Supply an appropriate form, gerund or infinitive, of the 2. Я притворился, будто не заметил его смущения, и продолжал verbs in parentheses. говорить. 1. Mary reminded me (be, not) _ late for the meeting. 3. Они решили больше никогда об этом не упоминать. 2. We went for a walk after we finished (clean) _ up the kitchen. 4. Мне было досадно, что я забыл поблагодарить его. 3. I forgot (take) _ a book back to the library, so I 5. Он предложил устроить гостей в своем доме.6. Где вы научились так хорошо говорить по-английски? had to pay a fine. 7. Я постараюсь не забыть послать им телеграмму. 4. When do you expect (leave) _ on your trip? 8. Клайд вспомнил, что он слышал от родителей о богатом дяде, 5. The baby started (talk) _ when she was about который жил в Ликурге. eighteen months old. 9. Клайд был рад познакомиться с друзьями Сондры. 6. I don’t mind (wait) _ for you. Go ahead and finish 10. Клайд был счастлив, что ему дали новую работу. (do) _ your work. 11. Миссис Гриффитс пожалела, что не пригласила Клайда в свой 7. I’ve decided (stay) _ here over vacation and дом раньше. (paint) _ my room. 12. Клайд очень не любил, когда ему напоминали о бедности его 8. We discussed (quit) _ our jobs and (open) _ родителей. _ our own business. 9. I’m getting tired. I need (take) _ a break. d) Use the infinitive as attribute. 10. Sometimes students avoid (look) _ at the teacher 1. На этот факт нужно обратить особое внимание. if they don’t want (answer) _ a question. 2. Есть ли в доме кто-нибудь, кто мог бы присмотреть за больным, 11. The club members discussed (postpone) _ the пока придет сестра? next meeting until March. 3. Вот человек, с которым можно поговорить на эту тему. 12. Most children prefer (watch) _ television to (listen) 4. Она всегда найдет, над чем посмеяться. _ to the radio. 5. Не о чем было беспокоиться. Больной чувствовал себя лучше. 13. My grandfather prefers (read) _. 6. Пьеса оставляет желать лучшего: я большего ожидал от нее. 14. Did Carol agree (go) _ (camp) _ 7. Вот статья, которую надо прочитать. with you? 8. Пятиэтажный дом, который должен быть построен на углу улицы, 15. As the storm approached, the birds quit (sing) _. предназначен для рабочих и служащих нашего завода. 16. The taxi driver refused (take) _ a chek. He wanted 9. План нашей работы будет обсуждаться на заседании, которое the passeenger (pay) _ in cash. состоится завтра. 17. The soldiers were ordered (stand) _ at attention. 10. Ему нечего было сказать в свое оправдание. 18. The travel agent advised us (wait, not) _ until August. 11. Он тяжелый человек; с ним трудно иметь дело. 12. Вы как раз тот человек, который может помочь нам в этом Exercise 3. Make sentences from the following verb combinations. трудном вопросе. Use «I» or the name of another person in the room. Use 13. Кто вторым пришел к финишу? any appropriate or modal. 14. Главный архитектор показал нам проект памятника, которыйбудет воздвигнут на центральной площади города. Example: Like + go 15. Я на этой неделе очень занят: у меня много дел. Possible response: I like to go (OR: going) to the park. 16. Он первый пожал мне руку и поздравил меня. Example: ask + open 17. Он был не из тех, кого можно было легко запугать. Possible response: (...) asked me to open the window. 18. Она знала, что ни в чем не виновата; ей нечего было бояться. 1. enjoy + listen 6. look forward to + see 19. Я позже всех разгадал ее намерение. 2. offer + lend 7. forget + bring 19. Я вижу, вы ищете предлог отказаться от своего обещания. 56 37, е) Use the infinitive as adverbial modifier Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the correct form(s) of the 1) оf purpose: verbs in parentheses. 1. Все было сделано для того, чтобы спасти его. 1. I like (go) _ to the zoo. 2. Он вызвал машину, чтобы отвезти нас на станцию. 2. The play wasn’t very good. The audience started (leave)_ 3. Я всталв6часов, чтобы не опоздать на утренний поезд. _ before it was over. 4. Я написал ему письмо, чтобы напомнить ему о его обещании. 3. After a brief interruption, the professor continued (lecture) _ 5. Ребенок выбежал навстречу матери. _. 6. Вы приехали для участия в конференции? 4. The children love (swim) _ in the ocean. 7. Он отдал свою рукопись на редакцию 5. I’m afraid of flying. When a plane begins (move)_ 8. Давайте дадим ему денег, чтобы он купил словари для всей down the runway, my heart starts (race) _. Oh-oh! группы. The plane is beginning (move) _ and my heart 2) of result is starting (race) _. 1. Ребенок слишком мал, чтобы понять вашу шутку. 7. When I travel, I prefer (drive) _ to (take) _ a plane. 2. Эта книга слишком большая, чтобы прочитать ее в один день. 8. I prefer (drive) _ rather than (take)_ a plane. 3. Он был так поражен, что не мог вымолвить ни слова. 9. I always remember (turn) _ off all the lights before 4. Было уже слишком поздно, чтобы менять что-нибудь. I leave my house. 5. Он был достаточно художником, чтобы оценить картину. 10. I can remember (be) _ very proud and happy when 6. Они не знают его достаточно хорошо, чтобы доверить ему I graduated. это ответственное дело. 11. Did you remember (give) _ Jake my message? 7. Вопрос был слишком сложным, чтобы решать его так пос- 12. I remember (play) _ with dolls when I was a child. пешно. 13. What do you remember (do) _ when you were a child? 8. Он был достаточно мужчиной, чтобы не растеряться в эту 14. What do you remember (do) _ before you leave трудную минуту. for class every day? 9. Это был такой спектакль, что его нелегко забыть. 15. What did you forget (do) _ before you left for 10. Ураган был такой сильный, что сорвало крыши с многих class this morning? домов. 16. I’ll never forget (carry) _ my wife over thethreshold when we moved into our first home. Exercise 39. Translate into English. 17. I can’t ever forget (watch) _ our team score thewinning goal in the last seconds of the game to capture the national 1. Я рад, что дал вам эту книгу. championship. 2. Я рад, что мне дали эту книгу. 18. Don’t forget (do) _ your homework tonight! 3. Мы хотим проинформировать вас об этом. 19. I regret (inform) _ you that your loan application 4. Мы хотим, чтобы нас проинформировали об этом. has not been approved. 5. Мы рады, что вcтретили его на станции. 20. I regret (listen, not) _ to my father’s 6. Мы рады, что нас встретили на станции. advice. He was right. 7. Они очень довольны, что их пригласили на конференцию. 21. When a student asks a question, the teacher always tries (explain) 8. Они очень довольны, что пригласили вас на конференцию. _ the problem as clearly as possible. 9. Я не думал прерывать ее. 22. I tried everything, but the baby still wouldn’t stop crying. I tried (burp) 10. Я не предполагал, что меня прервут. _ him. I tried (change) _ 11. Мне неловко, что я причинил вам столько беспокойства. _ his diapers. Nothing worked. 38 55, 42. Being alone in your own country is worse than being alone anywhere 12. Он будет счастлив повидаться с вами. else. (Heym) 13. Он был счастлив, что повидался с вами. 43. Mr.Bumble’s conduct on being left to himself was rather inexplicable. 14. Он, казалось, подыскивал слова, чтобы точнее выразить все, (Dickens) что он хотел сказать. 44. He could stand behind the door and take a chance at surprising 15. Как ему повезло, что он побывал в такой интересной поездке.

Joseph. (Priestley) 16. Он терпеть не может, когда над ним шутят. Впечатление такое,

45. She seemed a little self-conscious now and she avoided meeting что он не понимает шуток. his eyes. (Wilson) 17. Мне пришлось принять его приглашение, так как я знал, что отказаться было бы равносильно обиде или даже оскорблению.

THE INFINITIVE OR THE GERUND 18. Дети любят, когда им рассказываю сказки.

19.Мы притворились, что не заметили его ошибки, чтобы не сму-

COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVES щать его. OR GERUNDS 20. Я вспомнил, что встречал уже этого человека. Мы как-то были

Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, sometimes with a difference in вместе в туристском лагере. meaning, as in Group A below, and sometimes with no difference in meaning, as in Group B below. 21. Вы, кажется, уже давно здесь сидите. Вы ждете кого-нибудь? GROUP А: VERB + INFINITIVE OR GERUND (WITH A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING) remember regret The verbs in Group А may be followed by either Exercise 40. Translate into English, using the infinitive or Infinitive forget try an infinitive or a gerund, but the meaning is different Constructions where possible. (Based on Uncle Tom’s (d) Judy always remembers to lock the door. Remember + infinitive = remember to perform responsibility, duty, or task, as in (d). Cabin by H. E. Beecher – Stowe). (e) Sam often forgets to lock the door. Forget + infinitive = forget to perform a responsibility, duty, or task, as in (e). 1. Когда Джордж бежал от своего хозяина и пробирался в Канаду, (f) I remember seeing the Alps for the first time. Remember + gerund = remember (recall) он случайно встретил мистера Вильсона, владельца фабрики, где The sight was impressive. something that happened in the past, as in (f). он раньше работал, и рассказал ему всю историю своей жизни. (g) I'll never forget seeing the Alps for the first Forget + gerund = forget something that time. happened in the past, as in (g).** 2. Говорили, что покойный отец Джорджа был богатый знатный (h) I regret to tell you that you failed the test. Regret + infinitive = regret to say, to tell джентльмен. someone, to inform someone of some bad news, 3. Казалось, он любил своих детей, но он был слишком легкомыс- as in (h). (i) I regret lending him some money. He never Regret + gerund = regret something that that ленным человеком, чтобы подумать об их будущем, и после его paid me back. happened in the past, as in (i) смерти все его дети были проданы, чтобы уплатить его долги. 4. Джордж слышал, как кричала и плакала его мать, когда его бра- (j) I'm trying to learn English Try + infinitive = make an effort, as in (j). ли от нее. (k) The room was hot. I tried opening the Try + gerund = experiment with a new or 5. Джордж и его старшая сестра были случайно куплены одним и window, but that didn't help. So I tried turning on different approach to see if it works, as in (k). the fan, but I was still hot. Finally, I turned on the тем же рабовладельцем, и первое время ребенок не чувствовал air conditioner. себя одиноким. GROUP В: VERB + INFINITIVE OR GERUND (WITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING) 6. Но он часто видел, как хозяин бьет его сестру, и от этого маль- like hate The verbs in Group B may be followed by either чик жестоко страдал (и это заставляло мальчика жестоко стра- begin start an infinitive or a gerund with little or no love can't stand difference in meaning. дать). continue prefer 7. Он не мог не плакать, когда слышал стоны и рыдания несчастной can't bear девушки. (a) It began to rain. / It began raining. In (a): There is no difference between «began to 8. Вскоре хозяин приказал отвезти сестру Джорджа в Новый Орлеан (b) I started to work. / I started working. rain» and «began raining». и продать ее там па рынке. (c) It was beginning to rain. If the main verb is progressive, an infinitive (not a 9. Мальчик остался один; не было никого, кто мог бы позаботиться gerund) is usually used. о нем, кто мог бы сказать ему ласковое слово. 54 39, 10. Когда Джордж вырос, его послали работать на фабрику мистера 18. Petra sat through her first lesson without saying a word and without Вильсона, который оказался очень добрым человеком и хорошо paying much attention to the lecture and the examples | on the обращался со своими рабочими. blackboard. (Heyrn) 11. Джордж изобрел очень ценную машину, которая, как было известно, 19. But now a difficulty arose–hostile Indians could not break the приносила его хозяину большую прибыль. bread of hospitality together without first making peace, and this was 12. Вскоре Джордж встретил Элизу и женился на ней. Она была a simple impossibility without smoking a pipe of peace; (Twain) очень красивая и добрая, и Джордж считал себя самым счаст- 20. Only the other day they had been talking about something happening, ливым человеком на земле. and now it had happened to him. (Snow) 13. Но счастье его было не долговечно (to be of short duration): его 21. I was torn between the fear of hurting a nice woman’s feelings and хозяин был не такой человек, который мог бы допустить, чтобы the fear of being in the way. (Maugham) . его негр был счастлив. 22. She cursed herself for not having thought to bring a visiting card. 14. Джорджа заставили уйти с фабрики, бросить работу, которую (Murdoch) он так полюбил, и вернуться к хозяину. 24. It is awfully hard work doing nothing. (Wilde) 15. Чтобы унизить Джорджа еще больше, хозяин приказал ему бросить 25. He was angry with me for bringing the news, (Snow) Элизу и жениться на другой женщине. Этого Джордж уже вы- 26. He went on talking to my wife. (Hemingway) нести не мог, и он решил бежать в Канаду. 27. She was listening hard all the time for- any sound of Jan Lusiewicz descending the stairs. (Murdoch) Exercise 41. Translate into English, using the infinitive where possible. 28. After washing his heavy stone cup and tin plate... , he stretched (А) 1. Я рад, что послушался вашего совета. himself wearily on the bed. (Dreiser) 2. Я рад, что вы послушались моего совета. 29. She enjoyed giving parties. (Stone) 3. Мне жаль, что я не видела эту пьесу. 30. He knew that I or any competent man would not have denied a 4. Мне жаль, что вы не видели эту пьесу. point so specific without being dead sure. (Snow) 5. Я доволен, что поступил в университет. 31. I wish I’d never told you the truth, but it’s no use denying it. (Braine) 6. Я доволен, что моя сестра поступила в университет. 32. He meant to begin his investigation by seeing the church. (Galsworthy) 7. Мне жаль, что я не застала ее дома. 33. But outside it. kept on raining. (Hemingway) 8. Мне жалъ, что вы не застали ее дома. 34. They could not understand how he had so nearly succeeded in deceiving 9. Он был счастлив, что получил путевку в санаторий. them. (Priestley) 10. Он был огорчен, что не достал билет на концерт. 35. ...in passing under a lamp, Graham encountered my eye. (Ch. Bronte) (В) 1. «Здравствуйте, здравствуйте, мои милый cousine! – воскликнула 36. Stephen was absorbed the greater part of the time in wishing he она... – как я рада вас видеть!» were not forced to stay in town yet another day. (Hardy) 2. «Как я рада, что вы приехали», – сказала Бетси. 37. Why was going with Joseph any different from going with Elinor? 3. Она [Долли] так рада будет тебя видеть. Она совсем одна, (Heym) бедная. 37. She tried, by staring into the glass, to see what the expression was 4. Герасим... казалось, был доволен, что ему было кому услу- on the man’s face. (Murdoch) живать (to wait upon). 38. ...little Hans nodded and smiled, and felt very proud of having a 5. Поздравляю тебя, мой ангел, с новым образом жизни. Раду- friend with such noble ideas. (Wilde) юсь, что он тебе понравился. 39. ‘You can’t ‘have a war’, said Douglas, ‘without someone getting 6. ...он стал расспрашивать брата о делах его; и Левин был рад hurt’. (Snow) говорить о себе, потому что он мог говорить не притворяясь. 40. She was not conscious of having shown any special interest in Mr. 7. «А я доволен тем, что показал вам этот журнал»,– говорил Lincoln. (Stone) Лаврецкий... 41. I began... by explaining the situation in the North. (Greene) 40 53, 9. Jack laughed. Their being bothered amused him. (Lawrence) 8. «Я очень рада, что он меня терпеть не может», – говорила 10. He was wakened by someone knocking at the door. (Faulkner). она о нем [Левине]. 11. There is something so inexpressibly absurd to me in the idea of Cad- 9. Но узнав, что Нарумов не инженер, а конногвардеец (horse- dy being married (Dickens) guardsman), она сожалела, что... высказала свою тайну вет- 12. I was not surprised by Caddy’s being in low spirits.(Dickens) реному Томскому. 13. You knew young Pyle well didn’t you? I can’t get over a thing like 10. Во все время дороги и Лемм и Лаврецкий мало говорили that happening to him. (Greene) друг с другом: каждого из них занимали собственные мыс- 14. She, laughed at the thought of her husband and Johnny looking ли и каждый был рад, что другой его не беспокоит. after the house. (Priestley) 15. He felt almost a gloomy satisfaction at the thought of all these Exercise 42. Translate into English, using the infinitive or Infinitive disasters happening at once. (Murdoch) Construction where possible (А) Based on an episode from The Old Curiosity Shop by Ch. Dickens. Exercise 16. State the junction of the gerund and Gerundial 1. Маленькая Нелл и ее дедушка были очень одиноки (to lead Constructions. Translate into English. a solitary life); у них не было никого, кто мог бы о них позабо- 1. Nobody can go on living without some belief. (Greene) титься. 2. ...she did not like being plunged back into a slave state. (Stone) 2. Говорили, что старик был когда-то богат. 3. He greeted me noisely, but I cut him short by giving him the telegram. 3. Предполагали, что он проиграл все свое состояние в карты (Snow). (to lose one’s fortune). 4. ‘She cannot sleep without seeing and speaking to you once more’, 4. Когда дед Нелл разорился, он решил уйти с девочкой из I said. ‘She does not like the thought of leaving you’. (Ch. Bronte) дома. Они уехали из Лондона с тем, чтобы никогда туда боль- 5. Without putting anything into words, they bade each other farewell. ше не возвращаться. (Wilson) 5. Они долго ходили из деревни в деревню и наконец случайно 6. I remember laughing aloud, and the laugh being carried by the wind пришли в большой промышленный город. away from me. 6. Наступил вечер, а они все еще бродили по городу (all about 7. There came the sound of the door closing then being locked. (Priestley) the town). Казалось, они бродили уже целую вечность. 8. Upon awakening she dressed quickly and left the house. (Stone) 7. Огни в домах и магазинах, казалось, насмехались (to mock) 9. He felt better for having written the letter. (Cronin) над ними, и от этого они чувствовали (это заставило их чув- 10. ‘It’s no good you hating ‘’ said Mr. Bunting, becoming didactic. ствовать) себя еще более одинокими. (Greenwood) 8. Они жалели, что пришли в этот город, где они никого не знали 11. Do you mind giving me your name and telephone number, please? и где не было никого, кто мог бы им помочь. (Priestley) 9. Увидев темный подъезд (doorway), они решили провести там 12. Peter Saward only replied by staring at the paper knife and shaking ночь; они знали, что едва ли найдут лучшее убежище. his head slowly to and from, and twisting his long legs into knots 10. В этот момент они увидели, что какой-то человек вышел under . the desk. (Murdoch) из дома. 13. Mr. Dorrit positively trembled in addressing the great man. (Dickens) 11. Он был первым, кто обратил на них внимание в этом боль- 14. Unfortunately this fruitful silence was ruined by the sound of a шом промышленном городе. door being banged. (Priestley) 12. Он сам был очень беден, но у Нелл и ее деда был такой 15. He never ceased talking. (Coppard) несчастливый и усталый вид (они выглядели такими несча- 16. Well, it’s no use my telling you a lie. (Shaw) стными и усталыми), что он не мог допустить, чтобы они 17. Life seemed worth fighting for. (Dreiser) провели ночь на улице. 52 41,

THE GERUND 7. You didn’t mind my asking, did you?

8. There was no question of anybody not having enough work to do. Form Active Passive 9. Your reading so carelessly prevents your enjoying this poetry. 10. The man approaching me said, ‘Please pardon my disturbing you.’ Indefinite I like reading Nobody likes being thought a fool 11. We postponed our visit because of John’s being ill. Perfect He admitted having He denied having been 12. Who would have thought of its being he? made the same mistake. criticized by his colleagues. 13. I don’t like the idea of us starting so early. 1. After the verbs want, need, deserve, requite and the adjective 14. Hurried reading results in the learner forgetting half of what he reads. worth the Gerund used in its active form though it is passive in the 15. You are responsible for the work being done in time. meaning. 16. I can’t bear the thought of your leaving us so soon.

The equipment needs repairing. 17. I knew nothing about his sending that letter. The film is worth seeing. 18. There is still much to be done before our going home.

2. After the verbs excuse, forgive, remember, thank and after the 19. To ensure their being here on time, we shall ring them up. prepositions on (upon), after, without the Gerund Indefinite may be 20. I have an impression ... of the touch of Peggotty’s finger as she used to denote a prior action. used to hold it out to me, and of its being roughened by needle-work,

Excuse my interrupting. like a pocket nutmeg-grater (терка для мускатного opexa). On seeing us he stopped and took off his hat. 21. There cannot be any objection to your seeing her personally.

22. There was an interval of silence, only broken by Miss Betsey’s

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE GERUND occasional ejaculating «Ha,» as she sat with her feet upon the fender. PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE GERUND 23. ‘... Mr. Copperfield objected to my threes and fives being too

Functions Indicators Patterns much alike each other, or to my putting curly tails to my sevens and Subject Riding a bicycle is my favorite pastime. It’s no use crying over split milk. nines’, resumed my mother. Part of a compound All he wanted was getting out of here. nominal predicate Part of a com- modal After the verbs and verbal I can’t help smiling. Exercise 15. Point out the Gerundial Constructions and comment on pound verbal phrases denoting modality: I like reading at meal times. predicate can’t stand, cant help. the way the nominal element is expressed. Translate into Functions Indicators Patterns Part of a aspect After the verbs denoting the The baby started crying. Russian. compound beginning, duration or end He kept on asking till she agree. verbal predicate of an action: begin, cease, 1. You must excuse my being so breathless, I’m not really breathless, commence, go on, continue, finish, give up, keep on, it’s just the excitement. (Leacock) stop,proceed, etc. 2. These happy events ! Occurred without any recommendation having Object (Direct and Prepositional) Would you mind my opening the window? She didn’t apologize for being late. been made by Rain-borough, and indeed without his having, been Attribute Always preceded by He had no desire of seeing her again a preposition officially informed. (Murdoch) Adverbial manner With the preposition by, in David interrupted the boy by talking him 3. The maid said something about the. American lady’s having come modifier of by the elbow time With the preposition after, On hearing the bell, she went to open back to Rodnik. (Heym) before, on (upon), in, at the door. 4. It was easy to imagine Cave sitting silent...(Snow). attendant With the preposition She could talk about impersonal things circumstances without without turning the conversation 5. ‘She was interrupted by her father’s voice and by her father’s hat into a lecture. purpose With the preposition for This room is used for studying being heavily flung from his hand and striking her face. (Dickens) condition With the preposition He couldn’t enter without being invited 6. He brought in a portmanteau with. him. which he doubted its being without, in case of cause (reason) For, for fear of, Through being careless, he met with worth while to unpack. (Dickens) owning through, because an accident. 7. Besides, there’s no danger of it, happening again. (Hansjord Johnson) of concession In spite of In spite of being tired, he continued working. 8. ‘It’s no good you staying,’ Jack Burton said. (Aldridge) 42 51, 3. Have you any objections to my coming? PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE GERUND 4. Everything has been organized for our starting immediately. Function Sentence Patterns Voice, Tense The Nominal Element 5. He was angry at our having disturbed him. Distinctions A living A lifeless 6. Don’t let anyone prevent you from coming. being thing 7. I don’t like the idea of going out in this rain. 1. A complex 1. It’s no use your Indefinite may be expressed Subject telling me not to Gerund 8. He wasted a lot of time in trying to find another way home. 1. By a noun in the 1. By a possessive pronoun.worry. Active Possessive Case. He insisted on its (the 9. What do you mean by taking my book?– I’m sorry, 1 took it by mistake. It’s bad enough Richard’s telegram) 10. We reached the river by crossing the meadow (луг). failing at the examination. being delivered withoutdelay 11. She had her own way of doing things. 2. A complex 3. What annoyed me 2. by a possessive 2. by a noun in the common 12. His manner of writing is very peculiar. Predicative most was his being pronoun. case.invited there The morning passed The carrying out of these 13. There’s no good in denying this fact. regularly. without my making any plans depends on the 14. The conference closed after hearing and discussing about 80 reports. decision. documents being signed intime. 15. You will oblige me by shutting the door. 3. A complex 4. I was irritated Perfect 3. by a noun in the 3. by pronouns 16. I learned of your having been awarded a premium. object with him having Gerund common case: all, this, that, both, each,been put in an Passive a) when the doer or something 17. Crossing the river at that time of the year was out of the question. awkward position. the action is emphasized. I couldn’t deny both of 18. I am very fond of being read to. He denied Mary having them having made adone this on purpose. reasonable excuse. 19. I asked her if there was the slightest possibility of getting those b) when the nominal books at our library. element consists of twoor more nouns. I insist 20. I wonder if you would mind my glancing at your sketch. On Mary and Kate passing 21. It is no use trying to get him on the telephone. their vacation at a resthome.4. A complex 5. I don’t like the 4. by a pronoun in the 22. Bad weather prevented our ascending the mountain. attribute idea of Mary’s objective case. 23. Before writing you should clean your fountain-pen. going home alone. Do you mind themcoming too? 24. We arrived in time by taking a taxi. 5. A complex 5. I stayed at the party Perfect 25. We hurried to the stop on seeing the bus come near. adverbial a bit longer in spite Gerund modifier of her having told Active 26. Ben stopped nibbling his apple. me the sad news. 27. The night was pitch-dark, and with the thunderstorm approaching we did not feel at all like laughing. Exercise 1. Open the brackets using gerund of the given verb 28. Bringing water from the town pump had always been hateful work a) in the active or passive voice (non-perfect form): in Tom’s eyes, but now it did not strike him so. 1. Why do you avoid (to see) me? 29. Upon entering the room she had crossed to the fireplace and bending 2. He tried to avoid (to see). down, spread her hands before the softly glowing logs. 3. We insist on (to send) him there at once. 4. He insists on (to send) there instead of me.

Exercise 14. Underline all the complexes with the gerund (or half- 5. Do you mind (to examine) the first?

gerund) and state their functions: 6. He showed no sign of (to know) them. 7. She showed no sign of (to impress). 1. I entered the room without his seeing it. 8. He had the most irritating habit of (to joke) at the wrong moment. 2. Your going there won’t help much. 9. I was annoyed at (to interrupt) every other moment. 3. Excuse my interrupting you. 10. He hated (to remind) people of their duties or (to remind) of his. 4. His sleeping badly was the result of overwork.11. On (to introduce) they easily fell to (to talk). 5.We insisted on Peter’s joining us. 12. In (to discuss) the problem they touched upon some very interesting 6.Do you mind Henry helping us? items. 50 43, 13. The equipment must go through a number of tests before (to install). 5. She made a terrible noise! 14. The operator can set the machine in motion by (to push) the button 6. You woke up the people in the next flat! or (to press) the pedal. 7. Milly mixed up appointments! 15. The water requires (to filter). 8. You put off an urgent work! 16. The matter is not worth (to speak of). 9. Your secretary interrupted me! b) in any appropriate form: 10. You broke the contract!11. Your assistant lost important documents! 1. Excuse me for (to give) you so much trouble. 12. The firm suffered a million’s loss! 2. You never mentioned (to speak) to them on the subject. 3. He was proud of (to award) the prize. Exercise 12. Insert the correct preposition before the gerund where 4. I don’t remember ever (to see) you. required. 5. I don’t remember (to ask) this question. 1. ‘I hated the idea _ your going’, he said simply. (Greene) 6. The boys were punished for (to break) the window. 2. She said: ‘Excuse me _ coming in _ knocking’. (Lessing) 7. The boy was afraid of (to punish) and hid himself. 3. The others insisted _ accompanying them. (Lessing) 8. He was quite serious in (to say) that he was leaving the place for good. 4. I am tired _ being old and wise. (Greene) 9. She seemed sorry for (to be) rude to me. 5. We’ll look forward _ seeing you. (Hansford Johnson) 10. He confessed to (to forget) that he was to come on Friday. 6. Why were you so anxious to prevent anybody _ leaving the house? 11. The old man could not stand (to make) fun of. (Maugham) 12. Letters were no use: he had no talent for (to express) himself on paper. 7. I’m afraid I shan’t succeed _ being as sympathetic as you have the 13. After thoroughly (to examine) by the doctor, the young man was right to expect. (Maugham) admitted to the sports club. 8. I was afraid _ saying the wrong thing. (Maugham) 14. Soon she could not help (to attract) by the fact that she was being 9. Look here, it may sound funny, but I’m terrifically grateful to you _ looked at. saying it. (Hans-ford Johnson)10. Both windows needed _ cleaning. (Hansford Johnson) 15. The camera wanted (to adjust). 11. I’ve paid very heavily _ , being a romantic girl. (Maugham) 16. They accused me of (to mislead) them. 12. She could not bear _ lying. (Priestley) 17. She was so eagerly looking forward to (to give) the leading part to 13. I suppose nothing is gained _ delaying. (Maugham) play that she was greatly disappointed at not even (to offer) it. 14. They were in the habit _ coming up to London for the season. 18. She reproached me for not (to keep) my promise. (Maugham) 19. After (to look) through and (to sort) out, the letters were registered 15. We wouldn’t mind – being poor again. (Hansford Johnson) and filed. 16. I didn’t at all like the idea _ going to the station in the luggage cart. 20. He liked to do things without (to disturb) anyone or (to disturb). (Maugham) 17.He looked at me for a long time _ answering, (Cdark) Exercise 2. Change the structure of the sentences so as to use the 18. He felt he was going to be denounced _ daring to suggest such a thing. construction there is no + gerund. (Priestley) 19. I thought you had just been blaming me _ being neutral. (Snow) 1. Once he started talking on his favourite subject, nothing would stop him. 2. No one would have denied the strength of the argument. Exercise 13. Underline all the gerunds in the following sentences, stating 3. You can never tell what he may do next. their form and function: 4. When they are together they must quarrel, and it is impossible to avoid it. 1. I can’t understand you doing such a thing without consulting anybody.2. ‘What do you say to turning back?’ said I. 44 49, 4. I am dreaming to have a comfortable cruise round the Caribbean, (sail). 5. She is so unbalanced. It is hardly possible to account for her moods. 5. In May I’m spending a fortnight in Las Vegas. (camp). 6. The old man is very shrewd. You won’t deceive him. 6. In summer I like lying in the sun for hours. (swim). 7. He is too stubborn. Don’t even try to persuade him. 7. In winter I prefer to stay indoors as I don’t want to catch a cold. 8. He was ready to gratify her every wish, but she was not to be easily (skate or ski). satisfied. 8. I like staying in the country watching animals, (ride on a horse) 9. I adore mountains but from the window of a room in a five-star Exercise 3. Complete the following by translating what is given in hotel overlooking them. (mountaineer). brackets using the gerund in the function of an object. 10. Girls refuse to go to discotheque with me; they consider me awkward, Insert prepositions where necessary. (dance). 11. I like watching the sea with large waves, (wind-surf). 1. They prided themselves ... (что первые выдвинули эту теорию).2. We counted ... (что застанем его на месте). Exercise 9. Answer these questions about likes and dislikes. 3. I can’t recall ... (чтобы меня с ним когда – нибудь знакомили). Example: Why do you always wear a hat? (love). I even don’t remember ... (что видел ero). I simply love wearing a hat. 4. He couldn’t get used ... (чтобы его называли дедушкой).5. She wаs quite unconscious ... (что пришла в неудачный момент). 1. Why do you play tennis every day? (enjoy). 6. Excuse me ... (что я вошел не постучав). 2. Why does your brother never go to the theatre? (not like). 7. I’m really ashamed ... (что так давно вам не писал). 3. Why does Walter take so many photographs? (like). 8. He is upset ... (что ему приходилось начинать все снова). 4. Why do you always wear jeans? (love). 9. She denied ... (что обещала что-либо подобное). 5. Why does Ann watch television so often? (enjoy). 10. We hope he will succeed ... (найти свое место в жизни). 6. Why do you never fly? (hate). 11. Why do you avoid ... (называть вещи своими именами)? 7. Why do you always stay alone in your cottage over the weekend? (enjoy). 8. Why do you never drive a car? (dislike). Exercise 4. Answer these questions explaining why it’s no use (good)/ 9. Why don’t you work in the evenings? (hate). it’s a waste of time doing it. 10. Why don’t you live in this place? (not like). Example: Shall I ring him up It’s no use (good) ringing 11. Why does Ann always cook for the whole family but never wash up? now? him up now. He’s not at work yet. (love, hate). 1. Will you persuade Ruth to join us? 12. Why does Ann’s husband never shop? (can’t stand). 2. I’ve heard he’s not a coward. But is there anybody or anything that Exercise 10. Write down about your likes and dislikes using the gerund can threaten him?3. Do you agree that a child shouldn’t jest with edged tools? as the subject and predicate. 4. Being a body-guard is hard work. Have you warned your brother of the danger he can face with? Exercise 11. Explain why somebody couldn’t help doing it. 5. Why did you go to the country to spend a day off? It was drizzling Example: You fell asleep! I was too tired that I couldn’t help all day long. falling asleep. 6. Did you ask the boss to take the Friday off before your holiday begins?7. I see no reason to argue with the partner. Do you? 1. She heard our conversation! 8. You can’t say that you’re dissatisfied with the service here, can you? 2. You came in late! 9. Are you going to complain to the manager of his employee’s rudeness? 3. Your son answered back! 10. Are you going to lose your temper any time you serve a fastidious 4. Tom smiled! and particular customer? 48 45, 11. Harry’s been unemployed for 3 years. Is he still hoping for help Exercise 7. Read through the news items and fill in the spaces with a from the local government? suitable word or phrase. The first one has been done for you. 12. Why did you give Celina a promise to promote her? And here is a round-up of the news in brief. Exercise 5. Using the gerund as the subject speak about the ways of Two men escaped from Durham jail early this morning by (1) saving money. climbing a wall. Both men were serving five years for (2) Example: Invite people to tea or coffee instead of dinner. _ an elderly man. Inviting people to tea or coffee instead of dinner is a way Police are looking for a hit-and-run driver who drove off without of saving money. (3) –––––––––––––– after (4) _ a young woman.Police are interested in (5) _ _ anyone who saw the accident. 1. Exchange homes with a foreign family on holidays. Boxing champion Steve Goddard appeared in court today, accused 2. Learn to do your own simple plumbing and electrical repairs. of (6) _. He was found not guilty. Goddard spoke 3. Drive smoothly, without sudden stops and starts – it uses less petrol. to reporters before (7) ––––––––––––––– and said that he was now 4. Put your telephone in an uncomfortable noisy place. looking forward to (8) _. 5. Borrow books from the public library instead of buying them. Pop star Scott Turner plans to retire after his next European tour. 6. Knit your own sweaters. 7. Don’t drive when you can walk. He said today he was tired of (9) _and wanted to 8. Buy fewer newspapers and magazines – you probably don’t read spend more time with his family instead of (10) _. them all anyway. British racing driver Bob Nicolas flew home last night after 9. Don’t use a dishwasher or a washing machine without a full load. (11)_the Brazilian Grand Prix. His car developed 10. Take showers instead of baths. engine trouble during the race, and he had difficulty in (12)–––––– 11. Drink water instead of expensive soft drinks. –––––––––. 12. Be very carefull about turning lights off when they are not needed. An Essex grandmother, Mrs Maude Williams, celebrated her 100th birthday today by (13) _ Concorde. She was nervous Exercise 6. Read the politician’s speech and write down his solutions of (14) _before the flight, but, on (15) to the problems. The first one has been done for you. _ Heathrow Airport, she said she’d had a wonderful time and thanked everyone for (16)_. Today we are faced with many problems, both social and economic. And, finally, a young man who took his pet snake to a party ended What are we, the Government, going to do about them? (1) First of all, up (17)_ the night at the local police station. we are going to create new jobs. This will reduce unemployment. (2) Paul Rimmer, twenty-six, said, «I was worried about (18) Then we must export more goods, which will help the economy. Of _ the snake at home because of the cold. So I course, the future of the country is in the hands of the young, (3) so we put it into a box and left it in a bedroom. It was all right until someone intend to train more teachers, and this will raise the level of education. insisted on (19) _ the box and the snake escaped. (4) We must also provide more entertainment for young people. This will That’s when the police were called.’ Mr Rimmer apologized for (20) keep them out of trouble. (5) In addition, we plan to cut taxation, and this _ and was later allowed to go home. will help the lower-paid workers. (6) And, finally, we are going to employ more policemen, which will make our streets safer.’ Exercise 8. Give advice to your friend who is getting fat. 1. Creating more jobs will reduce unemployment. Example: I’m getting fat as I usually go to work by bus (walk). 2. 3. You should take up walking. 4. 1. I don’t like walking but I want to lose weight.(cycle). 5. 2. I like having an extra hour of sleep in the morning, (jog). 6. 3. On days off I like sitting in the armchair doing nothing, (garden). 46 47]
15

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