Download: DF-X Chang F-XChe D anP P ge

DF-X Chang F-XChe D anP P ge W! ! NO NOWyybu buktoktolic " . " icC Cl w.d .c wo ck .do ck. c cu-tra cu-tra : , , , .( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) om om ww ww DF-X Chang DF-X ChanPePge W! W!O y Nu ( ) O uyNobt( ) to b lickC( ) lickCw.do . c ( ) w. .c cu-track d ( ) ocu-track ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) om om ww ww Ch DF-X ang F-X Ch e anP PD ge W!...
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DF-X Chang F-XChe D anP P ge W! ! NO NO

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y y bu buktoktolic " . " icC Cl w.d .c wo ck .do ck. c cu-tra cu-tra : , , , .( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) om om ww ww, DF-X Chang DF-X ChanPePge W! W!O y Nu ( )

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w.do . c ( ) w. .c cu-track d ( ) ocu-track ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) om om ww ww, Ch DF-X ang F-X Ch e anP PD ge W! W! yNOOuy

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o b ( ) buktktolic licC C w.d wocu-track .c .do . c cu-track ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . , - , - , - , , - , . 83859 2. : 900 , , ; . - (3797 ), : . ( 1998 ) 8133600 , 97 2. 98% - . , , , , , . , , , . - ( ), 2% , , , , . : - 84%, - 6%, - 2%, - 8%. - . : (1539848 ), (237810 ), (203044 ), (143978 ), (118112 ). - . - ( 8 1992 ). - . ( 1997 , . , 10 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 79 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,9. ( 1000 ) - 10,1. 15 . 788 . , , XTV , 1438 1806 . , , , . 1947 1955 . om om ww ww, DF-X Chang Che DF- X anPPge ! !

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yyNobuut. to b ick ick Cl . 3 . Cl w.d .c +8° . , , ,wo . .ccu-track d, , . : , , . , ocu-track , . , : , ; , . , , , ; ; ; ; ; XX .: (1872-1883); (1874-1888); (1883); (1861-1869); ; . (XIII-XIV ). : ; , ; , XVIII ( 1752 ). , . , . : XI , XVII . , " ", , , , , , , , , , . : XI ; (XIII ); XV ; XVI , . : (1723); XVII "Alter Dom"; XV , . ( , ): XV ; XVI ; XVII . , - , - . , - . - . - 28748 2. 3330750 ( 1998 ). : ( ) - 95%, - 3%, , , - 2%. : , . : - 70%, ( ) - 20%, 10%. - 244200 . : (85400 ), (83300 ) (81900 ). - , - ( 9 1992 ), - ( 13 1992 , 24 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): - 69 , - 75 . ( 1000 ) - 21,4. ( 1000 ) - 7,5. , , . ( 1991 ), ( 1992 ), ( 1995 ), , , , ( ), , , . , . - , , , , , - ( XIX ). - . - XV , . - XV . , . , - . 468 2. ( 1998 ) - 64716 . - 138 2. - ( 22000 ). : - 61%, - 30%, - 6%, - 3%. : ( ), , . - (99,1% ). - . - . ( 1995 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 10,5, ( 1000 ) - 5,3. IX , 1278 -1993 . 1993 .1994- , . , 1996 . 1996 . - , . 10 .; - ; - ; - . - ( ), . 207600 2. , 300 345 ). : , , , , , . , ( 80 2, 25 ). ( 1998 ) 10409050 , 50 2. : - 77,9%, - 13,2%, - 4,1%, -2,9%, - 1,9%. : , ( ), , , ( ). : - 80%, - 15%, , , ( ). - . : (1766000 ), (506000 ), (363000 ), (356000 ), (277000 ), (269000 ), (223000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 75 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,7. ( 1000 ) - 13,5. , . " ", . XIII ( ) ( , ), , . 1569 . 1772, 1793 1795 . 1812 , .XX 1917 . 25 1918 , , 1 1919 . 1945 . 1922 1991 . 25 1991 " ". , , , , , , , . , , . -8° , +17° . , , , . " " , , . , . - .om om ww ww, Ch Ch

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y Nu - , , y N tobu, .: - ; . bk k to lic (XX ); ; licC C w.d k.c XVIII-XX , ; ; wo c .d .ccu-tra . - . ocu-track . , - , - .- 30519 2. : , . ( , ). 16 48 , 10 . - , . - , 460 , . - (694 ) - . , .( 1998 ) 10174900 , : 333 2. : - 55%, - 33%, , . : - ( ) ; ; 56% , - 32%, - 1 %; 11%. : - 75%, , , - 25%. - . : (1122000 ), (470000 ), (231000 ), (207000 ), (195000 ). - . - II ( 1 1993 ). - ( 7 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 80 - . ( 1000 ) - 10,2. ( 1000 ) - 10,4. , .843 ( ), , . 1384 XV .XVI . 1581 , , , . XVII XVIII , 1797 . 1815 , 1830 . : . , , , . , : , . , - . - -1° +4° , - 12° 23° . : , , , , ., : ); , ; . , 6 . , ; ; .- XIII 108 ; . (XIII-XIV ), (XII ), (XIII ), XIV , . - ; ; XVI ; 1211 , " ". - . " " (1432 ), . - (XIV-XV ), 121,9 ; . (XVI ); XVI . : . (X ); (XVI ). : (XV ); ; (XIX ); . ( ), . , ( 1946 1990 ). , - , - .110912 2. : . , . , - (2925 ). , . - , . - , , . ( 1998 ) 8240426 . 1985 , 8948649 . 1980- . : - 85,3%, - 8,5%, , - 2,6, - 2,5, - 0,2. : ( ), . : - 85%, - 13%, , , . - . : (1384000 ), (379000 ), (315000 ). - . - . ( 1996 ). ( ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 75 - . ( 1000 )- 8,1. ( 1000 )- 13,2. VI , VII , IX . XII , 1396 500 . 1876 . 8 1946 , . ( 1955 ), 300 . - , , 1996 .13° . , 30% - ., , , , , . 200 . : ; ; ; ; ; ; . : . (IV ); . (VI ); (XIX ), 200 , ; (XV ).( ) . : XI ; . , . , . , - ( ). , , 51129 2. ( 1998 ) 3365700 . : ( ) - 44%, - 31%, - 17%. : - ( , - ). : ( ) - 40%, - 31%, - 15%, - 4%. - om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge ! !

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W OW uy , . - . Nuy to b - . - (415631 ). : (145577 ), to b ick Cl (142644 ). - ( ), ( )C,icklw.d k.c , ( ). - . 15 wo . .ccu-trac d 1991 , 29 1992 ocu-track , . , , , , , , .( ), .0,44 2. ( 1995 ) 1000 . : , . : , .- ( , 450 , ) ( 16 1978 ). - ( ). 1871 , XIX 1600023. 13 1871 . 11 1929 . , , ., XV-XVII . , , . - . 1000 , , . - ( 1980-1990 ). ( ) ., , , , . - 244111 2. ( ) - (978 )., . ( 610 ). - , , , . , , : , ., . - (1343 )., . - , , . - , , , , . , . , - , . - , ( 1085 ) . , , . - . , ( 390 2) - . ( ), ( ) , (852 ). - , . ( 1998 ) 58970100 , 241 2. : - 81,5%, - 9,6%, - 2,4%, - 1,9%, - 1,8%, " , , , . : ( ). : - 47%, - 16%, - 2%, , , , , . - . : (7335000 ), (2277000 ), (935000 ), (654500 ), (500500 ), (450000 ), (421000 ), (280000 ). (272000 ). - . - II ( 6 1952 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 74 - , 79 - . ( 1000 ) - 12,0. ( 1000 ) - 10,7. 43 . 410 , , . 1066 . 1215 , " " ( ). 1338 , ( 1453 ). ( ), 1485 . I " 1603 , VI I, . 1707 , . 1642-1649 , . , . XVIII 13 , . 1801 . 1815 , . , , (1837-1901). , , 1921 ., 1969 . 1994 ( ) , , 90- , . 1996 ., , , , .11° 9° . - 18° , - 4,5° . ( ) 760 . , . 3° , . - 15° . ( 3810 ), - ( 635 ). , , . 5,5° . - 15,5° . 762 2540 .10° ( 14,5° 4,5° ). 1016 , 760 . , 4% , , , . om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge W! W!

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b bukto, .to ic Cl , . ic k Cl w.d c ( , ). , w co ..cu-track d, , , , , , ocu-track . , , . ; , ., , , ." " , 6 . , . ; ; . ; . ( ): XII ; IV ; , . : . (1136- XV ); ; ; ; ; . : ; . (XI ); , ; . (XV ); (1639); XVI ; ; ; ; ; .: (XI ); ; . (XV ); . ( ): ; . ) XII . : , , , , , ; , , , , , ; , , , ; ; XIX-XX ; XIII XX ; - ; - ; . (XVII- XVIII ); - , , , ; (XI ) - ; ( ), " "; - ; , ; , " ", , , " ", ., - , - , - ( ), , - . - 93030 2., , , . , , - . - (1015 ). , - . ( 1998 ) 10208100 , 108 2. : ( )- 89,9%, - 4%, - 2,6%, - 2%, - 0,8%, - 0,7%. : ), - , , . : - 67,5%, ( ) - 25%, . - . : (2017000 ), (215032 ), (193194 ), (187800 ), (170000 ). - . - ( 1990 ). - . ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 74 - . ( 1000 )- 10,7. ( 1000 )- 13,5. II . , . IX . I ( ) 1000 , II. 300 , 1241 XIV . 1521 , . XVIII , 150 1867 . 11 1918 , . 20- , 1945 . , 1956 , . 1989 , , 1990 45 . , , , , , . 1991 . , . pa -1° , - 21° . 18% . , , , . , , . , , . , IX ; - .- ; ; . ; (1896 ) . : XI , . : ; XVIII . : XVIII XI . : , . ; , I ( ) II . : XIII ; . : , 1849 ., - , - , - , , .356733 2. : - , - - . : . , . : - ; - ., . , - , - . ( ). , - (2962 ).- , , , , , . - .- , . ( 1998 ) 82079500 , 230 2. om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge W! !O OWyN( ) , . : - 95,1%, - 2,3%, y N to bu u - 0,7%, - 0,4%, - 0,4%. : ( ), bk to licC . : ( ) - 45%, - 37%, - 2%, . - ic k Cl w.d k.c ), ( ). : (3317000 ), (1675000 ), (1241000w co c .d .cu-tra ), (959000 ), (661000 ), (628000 ), (597000 ), ocu-track (577500 ), (576000 ), (549000 ), (521000 ), (297500 ). - . - . ( 1994 ). - ( 1998 ), , 16 . - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 79 - . ( 1000 ) - 8,8. ( 1000 ) - 10,8. V . , , , . , , , . , . I XII . XVI .(1618-1648) , .

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). 1914 . 1919 . 1919 , , . 1933 , . , , . 1 1939 , , , . 1945 . : , , - . 1949 , - . 3 1990 , . 20 1991 2000 . 1994 . 1994 . , , , , . 9o . , . : , . - , - , . -3° 2° , - 14° 24° ; - 1980 , - : 710 . 30% , . - , - , , , .: , , , , , , ., , , ; - , , .: , , - XIX - XX ; ; ; , , ; ; , XIII - XVI , , , ; . : ( ) ); , , ; ; . : ; ; . , , ; . : . : (1788-1791); (1695-1706); . (1747-1773), . (XIV ); (1884-1894); ; 365 ; ; , , . : XIII ; (XIX ), , 1813 ; , (XIX ); . : , (1739-1751), (XV ). : (XI - XIII ); 1782 ; , 1770 ; (1950); ( ); ( ). : 157 ( 1248 , - 1880 ), , , , ; (1049); (XII ); (XIII ); ; ; . , ., - , , - . 6,5 2. ( 1998 ) 29045 , 4500 2. : , , , , . : ( ), , , , . : - 75%, - 9%, - 8%, - 2%. - . - II, .- . ( 1996 ). - , . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 80 - . ( 1000 ) - 13,0. ( 1000 ) - 8,8. ( ) , 711 , 1502 , 1704 1830 . 10 1967 , , : 16 .16° , - 21° . ( ): , , . , , ( , ). : . , , ., , . , - , . , - , - . 131957 2, . : , , , , , , , , , , , , . , . : "... ". om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge

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yNbto , , , . tobukkCl ic , , - . (2917 ) icCl w.d .c . - . , . wo . .ccu-track d. - . , ocu-track . ( 1998 ) 10662100 , 81 2. : - 98%, - 1%, , , . : ( ), ( ) ( ), 1976 ; , . : - 98%, , , , . - . : (3693000 ), (378000 ), (170000 ), (155000 ), (117000 ), (113000 ). - . - ( 1995 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 78 - , 80 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,7. ( 1000 ) - 9,4.III . , : , , . , 1500 ., , , . ( , ). 146 .VI XIII . 1204 , , . 1460 , 200 . 1669 XIX . 1821 , . 1829 . XIX , . XX , 1924 , 1935 . 1967 " ". 1973 , 1974 . , . 1975 . , , , , , , , , , ., - . , . 17° . - (-0,6° ), - (37° ).460 , , , , , , . 12Q 460 - , , , , . , . - , , , , , , , , , - , , , , , , , . - 3,3 . , , , .- , .; . , . - . - .- , 408 . ( ). - . - , , , . 1700 . - ; .( ) . - , ., . - ( ). , - , - , - . , , , , , , . , . ( ) 43069 2. : - 173 .( 1998 ) 5333600 , 124 2. : - ( ). - ( ). : - 90%. - . : (1340000 ), (274500 ), (182000 ), (158000 ). - . - II ( 14 1972 ). - . ( 25 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 78 - . ( 1000 ) - 12,2. ( 1000 )-11,1. VIII , 780 . XI . XII - XIII , . XVII ., , , .: 16° , 0° . 10% , - . : , , , . (1600-1620); XVII - , ; ), XIX ; ; ; ; - , . : XII ; (1672); ; ; . - XIII , XII ; , . - . ; , 1248 1808 . - . XIII ; Vor Frue XI ; , . - . , . , , . , . 70283 2. om om ww ww, F-XChan F-XChan PD ge PD ge W! W! yNO( 1998 ) 3619500 , - 51 2. NOy4bubukt0o - 6,5 , to licC . : , . : ( - lic k

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w.d k.c, ), ( ). : - 93% , w. .cocu-trac d - 4%. - . : - (911000 ), (127000 ), (75436 ), ocu-track (50853 ), (41853 ). - . - ( 3 1990 ). - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 78 - . ( 1000 ) - 13,5. ( 1000 ) - 8,5. , , , , , . : , - , (VIII ) ; ; XVI ; , 1038 XIX ; . , 1190 ; , , , . - XIX - .- ( , , , ). 300 1000 . 103000 2. ( 1998 ) 271000 . 2,6 2. : - . - . : 96%, - 3%. - . : (99623 ), (16677 ), (15623 ), (14436 ), (7566 ) (4933 ). - . - . ( 1996 ). - ( 30 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 76 - , 81 - . ( 1000 ) - 15,1. ( 1000 ) - 7,0. 930 1262 . 1262 , 1380 1918 . 1941 . - - . 120 , . , . 100 25 1000 . - (1491 ) , 100 . , , . , . 5° . , ( 100 ), . " , , . - . , , - 1000- . , . , - . , - , - , - . , . 504750 2. , 435 , . , , 610 . : , . , 30 , . 3300 . : (3404 ) (3478 ) . (3718 ) ., , , , - .( 1998 ) 39134000 , 78 2. : ( , , , ) - 72,8%, - 16,4%, - 8,2%, - 2,3%. : ( ), , , . : - 99%, , , . - . : (4072000 ), (2819000 ), (837327 ), (753000 ), (683000 ), (370000 ). - . - I ( 22 1975 ). - ( 5 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 75 - , 81 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,7. ( 1000 ) - 9,6. XI ., . , III ., . 228 .209 .V .V . 711 ., 756 , .1212 , 1492 . XV : . 1469IV, . XVI . XIX ., . XX , 1931 , 1 1939 , . 35 . 20 1975 . , , , . , , . , , 600 .49° . - , 14° .- . , , , , . , , , . - , , , , , , ., . , . , , , , , , , . , ( ) om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge ! !

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yNbbuo 1800 . o ickttl( ) , lickC C w.d .c ; .w: . .cocu-track d; . , ocu-track , , .- . : - (1737-1764) ; (XVIII ); , ; ( ); ; " " - 1936-1939 . - " " - , ; (XII ); ( ). - XIV . ( ) - ; (914); . - (XII - XVI ); (XVII ), ; - ; , XVI . - (1140); (1513-1733); . , 1693-1700 ; XVI . - ; (1227-1493) 40 ; ; - , 1366 , 1492 ; , XIV ; , , ; , , . - ; , 1523-1703 ; , V I. ) - , 1230 ; ; (XIII ); . - , ( VIII - ) , ; ; ; , 1236 . - 1181 ; (1402-1519) XII ; 91 ( ); , . - ; XIII ; , " . " - , ., - , - . , - , - , . , . - - . 301302 2.- ( ) (4807 ). (4634 ) (4478 ). ( ) , .- (2914 )., , : , . , , (3323 ). , , ., , , - , - . ( 1998 ) 56782750 , 188 2. : - 98%, , , , , . : ( ), ( ), ( ), , , . : - 84%, , , . - . , : (2775000 ), (1369000 ), (1067000 ), (963000 ), (699000 ), (679000 ), (404000 ), (403000 ), (342000 ), (333000 ), (309000 ). - . - ( 28 1992 ). - ( 16 1996 ). - . 1998 ): 74 - , 81 - . ( 1000 )- 9,1. ( 1000 ) - 10,2. 500 ., , V . , . V , , . , XV , . 1861 II , , , . 1870 , 1871 . 1922 , 1943 , , . 1946 .1944 , ( ) . , , , , . : . - 13° , - 18° , - 15° . , , -15° ., , , , , , , . : , - - . : , , . , . - , , , , , , . , .: - , 27 .; , 80 .; ; ; (217 ); , ; , ; . (IV , XVII-XVIII ); . (IV ); . (V ), ; : , ; (XV ); - , ( ), ( ), ( ), , . - , 1386, 1965 ; , " "; ; ; " ". ( 122 , 170 ) - 400 , , , " ", ; . (828); ; , 1180 , . ( ), - . ; . - (1296-1461) , , ; XIV ; (XI-XV ), , , , " "; , ; (1576); (1299-1314); - ; , , , ; om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChanPD e PD ge W! W!O y Nu ; (XV ), ; N

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yob, , ; obuttlickC, - ; ; k Cl ic w.d k.c (XIII-XIV ), , , w ,o c .do ck.ccu-tra , . cu-tra ., - , - .64500 2. ( 1998 ) 2385400 . : ( ) - 51,8%, - 33,8%, - 4,5%, - 3,4%, - 2,3%. : ( ), . : , . - . : (924000 ), (127279 ), (113815 ). - . - ( 1993 ). - . ( 1995 ). - . 1998 ): 63 - , 75 - . ( 1000 ) - 8,1. ( 1000 ) - 15,8. XIII , . 1795 . 1917 19 1918 . 5 1940 15- . 21 1991 .: , ; XIII , , XIV ., - , - .65200 2. ( 1998 ) 3600100 , 55 2. : - 80%, - 8,6%, - 7,7%, - 1,5%, - 1,2%. : , , . : - . - . : (597000 ), (434000 ), (208000 ). - . - ( 25 1992 ). - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): - 65 , - 76 . ( 1000 ) - 10,6, ( 1000 ) - 12,9. , . 1990 , 1991 .- , . - , . , - , . - . - XIV ; (XV ); XVII ; , " "; . - , ., , - . - . - 160 2. ( 1998 ) 31717 , 198 2. : - 95%, - 5%. : ( ), . : - 88%, - 8%. - . : ( 6000 ), ( 5000 ). - . - II ( 13 1989 ). - .- . ( 1000 ) - 12,6. ( 1000 ) - 7,3. 1719 , . 1866 . , ( ; ). -1° 21° . , , , . , , . - , XVI ; ; , ., - , - .2586 2. ( . 1998 ) 425000 , 164 2. : . : , ( ), ( ). - . : (76000 ), (24000 ), (15700 ), (14700 ), (11534 ). - . - ( 12 1964 ). - ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 72 - , 79 - . ( 1000 )- 11,1. ( 1000 ) - 9,3. 963 , , . 1060 , , . , , . - , XVII ; , 1572 , XIX . - XIX , XIII .( : ( )), - , - , - . - 25713 2. ( 1998 ) 2009400 . : - 65%, - 22% ( 1994 , , 33% ), - 4%, - 2%, - 2%. : ( , "), , , . : - 67%, - 30%. - . : (563102 ); (180605 ), (137636 ), (135482 ). - . - ( 16 1994 ). - . - . 1991 . 1993 " " . - . om om ww ww, DF-X Chang XChe DF- anP P ge ! ! NOWOWyyNbu u tobkktoCl ic . , , , , Clic w.d k.c . - 246 2, - 67 2, - 3 2, wo c .do ck.ccu-tra - 0,3 2. : 316,3 2. cu-tra ( 1998 ) 379500 , 1199 2. : , , . : ( , , - ), ( ). - . - . : (21000 ), ( 19000 ), (19000 ). - . - . ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 74 - , 78 - . ( 1000 ) - 11,7. ( 1000 ) - 7,3. , , , . , . 21 1964 , . 1 1979 , 179- . , , , , . ( 19° ) . - - . ) , ., , - . 33700 2. ( 1998 ) 4457700 , 132 2. : - 65%, - 14%, - 13%, - 3%, - 2%. : , , . : - 98,5%, - 1,5%. - . : (753500 ), (186000 ), (162000 ). - . - . ( 1996 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 64 - , 72 - . ( 1000 ) - 14,3. ( 1000 ) - 12,4. ( ) 27 1991 .: - 4° , - 20° . : , , , . - , , - ., , . 1,95 2. ( 1998 ) 32035 , - 16428 2. : - 47%, - 16%, - 16%. : ( ), ( ), , . - - 95%. - . - . - III ( 9 1949 ). - .- . ( 1000 ) - 10,7. ( 1000 ) - 11,9.- .: , , . - ; , ; . " -1". , - , . , . , . , - .41526 2. - , . , , ; , 50 ., . , , , . , .1932 , . - . - 321 . : , .( 1998 ) 15731100 , 379 2. : - 96%, , , , . : ( ), , . : - 34%, - 25%, - 3%, - 36%. - ; . : (1109000 ), (596000 ), (445000 ), (234000 ). - . - ( 30 1980 ). - . ( 1994 ). - . 1998 ): 74 - , 80 - . ( 1000 ) - 11,6. ( 1000 ) - 8,7. I .300 . , . , . 800 I . 843 , 925- , , .XVI . , 1568 , 80 . 1579 - ( ). 1581 , 1648 . 1795 , , 1806 , . 1815 , . 1830 . , , , . , . 0° 5° , - " 13° 22° . , . , , , .( ); ; (800 ); - . - . - ( XV-XVII ). : . - , XIII ; , XVIII . - ( XV-XIX ); ( , , ); . om om ww ww, DF-X Chang F-XChe D anP P ge W! W! uyNO: - (1300), (XV ), XV NObuIyI to , XVI-XVII . - . ( XIII XVI ), (XIII ), (XVIIobt), ick Cl ; , , ic k Cl w.d k.c . - XV , XIV . - . - w.d . cocu-trac ., VI ( ). - . , ocu-track 5000 . - ; - XIII , ; (XV ); , 1913 ; - . , . , - . , , . 323877 2. , . ( 1998 ) 4420000 , 13,6 2. : - 99%, , , , , , . : - - " ", - 80% " ", - 20% ), . : - 87,8% ( ), , . - . : (467000 ), (218000 ), (141000 ), (101500 ). - . - V ( 17 1991 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 74 - , 80 - . ( 1000 ) - 12,9. ( 1000 ) - 10,2. , IX - XI . 1381 1814 , 1814 1905 - . 1905 . , , ., - ., , , , . - , , , , , . , , , ; - , , . - . , , . ; ; , 150 ; ( ); ; (1300) (1848). - (XI ), . - . (XII ), (1261 ). - XII ; .( ), - , , - , - .312677 2. ( 175 ), 2499 . , .- : , . , , . 40 100 . : : , . , 1602 .: ( ). 9300 1 .( 1998 ) 38606900 , 123 2. , - . : - 97,6%, - 1,3%, - 0,6%, - 0,5%, , , , , . : ( ), . : - 95% ( ), ( 570000 ), ( 100000 ), ( 100000 ); 3,5 , 1000 . - . : (2316000 ), (842300 ), (751500 ), (644000 ), (589000 ), (466700 ), (414900 ), (366200 ), (354000 ), (352100 ). - . - ( 1995 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 76 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,8. ( 1000 ) - 9,8. 840 , . , . 1025 . XIII , . ( ) . 1386 II . 1410 ( ).XVIII , . XIX 1830-1831 , 1917 . 1918 . 20 , 1 1939 , 1945 . 35 " " . , . 5 1989 , 4 . , " " . 1995 , , , . , , , , . , . , - . -1° -5° . 20° 17° . 28% , 80% - . : ., , , , , .- . , - , , ; ; ; ; ; .( ), . - ; - , ; - II (XVIII ), ; . (XIV ); (XVI ); om om ww ww, DF-X Chang DF-X ChPean P ge W! W! y N

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b uo . - ; XIII-XIV ; (1231); o b ickttCl . - . (1343-1505), k Cl ic w.d k.c " "; ; , 1379 ; . - w co . .cu-trac d; XVI ; . - , . ocu-track (1124). - . (1158), . (XIII ); (XIII-XIV ); (XIV ); XIII ; . - XIII ; . - , , ". ( ) - XIII ; . (1359), III , , , ; . , 1223 , ; " ", . - ; , , . , , - , ., (2335 2) (794 2) 92082 2. - , . - , . 2000 . , : ( ), ; ( ) , . ( 1998 ), , 9927550 , 108 2. : ( , , ) - 99%, . - ( ). : - 97%, - 1%. - . : (1863000 ). (1500000 ), (57000 ), (21000 ). - . - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 71 - , 78 - . ( 1000 ) - 10,6. ( 1000 ) - 10,3.II .V . , VIII - . 997 ( ) . 1064 I .1093 I .1143 I. 1179 . , . XV . 1418 1427 . XVII IV . XIX , , 1807 1820 . XX 1910 . - , 1932 ( ). 1974 , ., , , , , , .- 10° . - 16° , - 18° . : , , . , . , , , , , , .XVI ; XVI . XII XIX ; ; ; ; 2800 . XX . : , ., , : , XII ; , XVI , . , - , ; XII , , , I; , . - XII-XVIII ; XVIII 75 . - ; XII XVI . - XVI , . - ; 1186 , XV . , . 21 , 1 , 10 2 ., 17075200 2. 4000 , 10000 . ( ), - , , , , - , - , , , , . : , , , , - , . , - , - . : - ( 100 ), , , , , , ; - , , . : , ; , , ., 180 .- 1191 . - . , ., , 600 , - (1894 ).500 700 ., 2300 3200 . , . om om ww ww, F-XChD ang F-X CheDanP P ge

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uy 120 , 23 . - (4750 ). y Nb bukto, 100 , 30 . to ic Cl . , ic k Cl w.d k.c .w cocu-trac .d . - (5642 ) . ( ocu-track ) , , .- - 5410 . - (4416 ) - , . - 4269 , , - 3690 ( ) - . - - . , , ; , ; , , ; , ; , . , . : , 371020 2, (30510 2), (1637 ) (23000 3) .- . ( 1998 ) 146861000 , 9 2, . , 25 2, -w 1 2. : 100 , - 81,5%, - 3,8%, - 3%, - 1,2 %, - 0,9%, , , , , - 9,6%. : ( ), , , , , , , 100 . : , , ( , , , , , ), ( , ), , 60% - . - . : (8800000 ), (4436700 ), (1469000 ), (1454000 ), (1413000 ), (1260000 ); 1 - , , , , , , . - . - ( 10 1991 ). - ( 1998 ). - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 74 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,6. ( 1000 ) - 14,9. , V . IX . , IX-XI . XII - . XIII ( 1240 1242 ). 250 . XIV , 1547 , IV . XVI-XVII , , . : , , . XVII , , 1917 . XVII I, .1721 . 1917 II ); 1812 , ; 1861 , ; 1905 , - , 1918 . 22000000 2 : , , ; ; ; . 1917 , , 1930- , . 1991 . 1993 , , " " , . 1994 , . , , , , , , . , ., ., . 800 , 400 . 500 800 , 1000 . , , " " - -51° , -68° . , -50° . , , , : 13° , 37° . , - . -16° -9° , - 13° 23° . , , , . , . , - . - , , ., , . , . , , - : , , . - , . - . ( 150 ) , ; , ., , , , , . , , . , , ., , , , , , , . , , , , . , , . , , . , . , , , , , , , , . : , , .; ; ; ; , .XIV . , XIV-XVI . , , , . - XIV-XV . XIII- XIX . , ; I; , , , ; om om ww ww, DF-X Chang XChe DF- anP P ge W! W! NO ; . NOy y to bu u , , . : bk k to ic Cl ; , XVI ; licC w.d c , , ; wocu-track. .d ; c - ; ; o . cu-track XI ; - XI XX ; ; ., - , - , - , - .237500 2. , : - ; - , - (2544 ), - .- ; - ; - - . - , . , , . , - , - . ( 1998 ) 22395800 , 94 2. : - 89,1%, - 8,9%, - 0,4%, , , , , , , , , , . : ( ), , , , , . : - 70%, - 6%, - 6%, , . - . : (2090000 ), (350500 ), (343000 ), (334000 ), (328000 ), (326000 ), (324000 ), (303500 ), (252000 ). - . - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 73 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,3. ( 1000 ) - 11,6.III , . IX . XIII , . 1526 . XVI , , .XVIII , . 1859 , 1861 . 1878 , 1881 . 30- XX , " ", - . 1947 , 13 1948 , . 1989 . 22 1989 " ", 25 1989 . 1993 , 2000 . , , , . , . 38° , -32° . , , . , . , , . , . - , , , , , , - . , , . , , , . : , , , , . , : , ; - . , , XV . ( 1794 ) . XV . - (1864), (1835), (1885), XVII ; (1900), (1935). (1920 ), (1715 ); (1665 ). - XV . - , I . - . (1396-1432), 1486 , - . - XV , . - , VI 1716-1735 ; II , XV . - XVIII ; ; , 1851 I , 107 1849 . - 1553 , XIV ; . (XIII ), 1420 . , .61 2. (739 ). , . ( 1998 ) 24900 , 408 2. : - 80%, - 18%. - ( ). : . - . : (4185 ), , . - . - , 6 . - . ( 1998 ): 77 - , 85 - . ( 1000 ) - 10,5. ( 1000 ) - 8,1. , 301 , . , . 1291 IV . 1862 , .( 2 ) ., - , - , - . 49035 2., - ( 2655 )., , , , , . , . ( 1998 ) 5393000 , 110 2. : - 85,7%, - 10,7%, - 1,5%, - 1%, , , , . - ). : . - . : (442197 ), (235180 ), (90000 ), (87765 ), (85000 ). - . - ( 15 1993 ). - ( 1 1993 ). - . om om ww ww, F-XChan F-XChan PD ge PD ge W! W! y Nu O 1918 . ONbbu y to . to lic k . , 28 1918 lickC C w.d .c .1938 wo . .ccu-track d, , ocu-track . 1945 . 1 1993 . , , , . : .( ), - ( , , ). , , , , , , . , , , , ., . XI ( XIX ); ; . - . ( XIV-XV )., - , - , - .20254 2. ( 1998 ) 1971750 , 97 2. : - 91%, - 3%, - 2%. : ( ), . : - 96%, - 1%. - . : (323000 ), (151000 ), (72000 ). - . - ( 22 1992 ). - ( 14 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 78 - . ( 1000 ) - 8,6. ( 1000 ) - 9,6. 27 . 476 .VI , . 623 . VIII , . I . 1335 1918 . , , 1929 .25 1991 ., - . - , - ( ). ; XII XII ; ; ., - , - , - , .1991 - . 603700 2. , . - , 300 . , - . - . , - (2061 ). , 1545 .- . - . - , - ., , , ( ). ( 1998 ) 50125100 , 83 2. : - 73%, - 22%, - 5%, , , , , . : ), , , . : - 76%, - 13,5%, - 8,2%, , , . - . : (2809000 ), (1680000 ), (1230000 ), (1149000 ), (1122000 ), (852000 ), (520000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - . - ( ). ( 1998 ): 64 - , 74 . ( 1000 ) - 9,5. ( 1000 )- 16,3.XI XII " ". IX . (1019-1054). XIII , , . ( ) XIV . , 1667 . 1793 . 1919 . 1917 , , . 1922 1939 , : 1932-1933 , , ". 1939 ( ). 1941 . 1944 , 1945 , . 1954 , , , XX - ( 26 1986 ), , . 1991 . , , , , , . , . -8° 2° , - 17° 25° . : 1500 , - 300 . , , - . , " " , 1898 11 . , , : , , , , , , , ; 150 . , , , , ., . XI ( XVII XVIII ), ; - , , , ; . (1744-1753); . (XIX ); (XI ); ; . - ; ; . - (XVII ); ( XVIII ); (XIX ); , . - (XIX ); ; ; . - , - ; . om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChDeDanP P ge

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b buyktoto lic . 18 lickC C w.d c . - 1398,8 2. w cocu- trac. .d . k ( 1998 ) 41834 , 30 2. : ocu-track ( ). : . - (15600 ). - 8 . - . - . ( 1000 ) - 13,1. ( 1000 ) - 8,8. 1380 , 1948 . - ( ) .1984 , . , , ., - , - . , - .338145 2. - ( 60 , , . , , , . , , - (1324 ). ( ) - 6,5 . ( 1998 ) 5149200 , 15 2.: - 90%, - 9%, 2500 , 1%. : , ( ), . : - 89%, - 1%. - . : (500000 ), (174000 ). (160000 ), (102000 ), (81500 ). (76500 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 72 - , 80 - . ( 1000 ) - 11,2. ( 1000 ) - 9,7. VIII . , - ( 1050 1300 ). XII 1172 . 1216 . XVI . 1807 I 1809 , 1917 . 15 1917 , " ", 6 . , , , , . , , . 16° . - -9° . 4 7 - ., . 1200 1000 . - , , . - , , , , . , , , . - , , . 300 , : , . , - ; ; ; ; . : , ; 1907 . : ; (1748)., , - , , - , - . , , - , - . : ; - ; - , . , , 543965 2. , .4000 . (4807 ) . , 1700 , ., 1424 . , , 3298 ( ). , , . , , . 200 . , , . 200 . - ( ) . ( 1998 ) 58805000 , 108 2. : - 94%, , , , , . : ( ), ( ), , ( ), ( ), ( ), ). : -90%, - 2%, - 1%, - 1%. - . : (2200000 ). (807700 ), (416500 ), (366000 ), (345600 ), (256000 ), (252000 ), (213000 ), (211000 ). - . - ( 1995 ). - ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 81 - . ( 1000 ) - 11,7. ( 1000 ) - 9,1. , , . 58-51 . ( ) 500 . V , . , . , . , . 1337 , 1453 . , . XVI , ( ). 1789 , . 1792 . , , . (1815 ), 1848 , . 1852 , III . 1871 . 1958 ( , ) , . 1995 . , , , , . , , - . 1° 6° , - 15° 25° . om om ww ww, Ch Ch

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W OW uy - 2° 10° 17° 29° . , uy N to b , , , , , . - , . to b lickC. , . k Cl ic w.d k.c , . , - . wo . .ccu-trac d: , , , , , , . ocu-track , ( ). , , , . - , . , , , : ( , 225 400 ); ; ; ; ; ; ( ). , , , (1163), XIII , , , ( ), ). , , , . - ., - , - , - ( ).56538 2. 1000 , , , , , . ( 1998 ) 4671600 . : - 78%, - 12%, - 0,9%, - 0,5%, - 0,5%. : ( ; , : , - ; , ; 1954 , ). : - 76,5%, - 11,1%, - 1,2%, - 0,4%. - . : (706700 ), (189400 ), (168000 ), (105000 ). - . - ( 1990 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 76 - . ( 1000 ) - 10,4. ( 1000 ) - 11,1.925 , XI . 1848 . 1939 1945 . 1946 . 1991 . ( ) . , , , . - ; - XI , XVIII ; - , XIV ; - ; - , , ( 1317 ). , , . , - , - , - . 78864 2. , . , , , . - (1602 ) , - ( ), 117 . : , , ( ), . ( 1998 ) 10286500 , 130 2. : ( ) - 81%, - 13%, - 3%, - 0,7%, - 0,6%, - 0,5%, - 0,2%. : ( ), . : - 39%, - 4,6%, - 3%, - 40%. - . : (1212000 ), (388000 ), (327500 ), (173000 ), (106000 ). - . - ( 15 1993 ). - ( 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 75 - . ( 1000 ) - 9,0. ( 1000 ) - 10,9. IX 900 . XIV I ( IV). XV ", , . , 1620 . , , 18 1918 . 1938 , , . 1945 ( , ). 1990 , 1 1993 . , , , .-5° 0° , - 13° 23° . , , . , , , , , , .- ( ). - . (XIII ), (XVI ). - XIII . - . , . - XVI XVII . - , XIV . - XIII ; XVI ; , . - . (XV ), XVI . - . (XII ), XIII , , (XVII ). , " " " - XIII ; XIV ; (XIV ); ; . ( ); ; XIV ., - , - , - . - 41290 2. 70% . , - , - . - (4634 ). - . ( 1998 ) 7260300 , 1300000 , 176 2. : - 65%, - 18%, - 10%. - ( ", 65% ), (18%) (10%); ( 1%) . : - 47,6%, - 44,3%. - . : (840000 ), (400000 ), (310000 ), (270000 ). - . 23 . , . - , - . - . ( 1998 ): - 75 , - 81 . ( 1000 ) - 10,8. ( 1000 ) - 9,0. , , , om om ww ww, DF-X ChanPgCh e PD F-X ange

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to b , - , tobuklic . 1992 lickC C w.d .c , w.co .cu- tradck1291 , , " oc"u-track , - ., , , . 1848 , , 1874 ., . , - . , - .449964 2., . - (2111 )., ., , , , . : .( 1998 ) 8886700 , 20 2.: - 91%, - 3%, , , , , , .- ). : ( ) - 94%, - 1,5%, , . - . : (692954 ), (437313 ), (237438 ). - . - XVI ( 19 1973 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 75 - , 81 - . ( 1000 ) - 11,7. ( 1000 ) - 10,8. : IX , 800 . IX (1150- 1160), . XII, I. 1914 . , , , .- -5° . - 21° . : , , . , , - ( , ). : , , , , , , . , . , , , . , , . , , , .- . , .- (1754), . (XIII ), ( I ), . - , 1289 1435 . - (1271), XII , . - (1675). - XII , XIII . XIV-XVII . - XII . - XV ., - . , - . 1500 , . 45100 2. ( 1998 ) 1421300 . : - 61,5%, - 30,3%, - 3,2%, - 1,8%, - 1,1%, , . : ( ), . : , . - . : (502000 ), (114239 ), (87000 ), . - . - ( 20 1996 ). - . ( 17 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 64 - , 75 - . 20 1991 .: - , - . - , . XIII-XIV . - XIV-XVI . ( ) , - ( ). , - , - , - , . 102173 2. 86% . , , , ., , - , . , , . - ( ) - . ( 1998 ) 11206000 , ! 10 2. 94% . : - 62%, - 17%, - 5%, - 3%. : ), , . : - 80%, - 16%, - 4%. - . ( 1991 ): (1136786 ), (178896 ), (175555 ), (146607 ), , (118059 ), (108083 ), (100219 ). - . - . - . ( 1998 ): 71 - , 77 - . 1389 1878 , , . 1389 , 1878 . 1913 .1945 1992 - . 27 1992 . , , .- ., , , , . : , , , , , . - ; - , , , , XIX ; - . om om ww ww, F-XChan F-XChan PD ge PD ge ! OW OW ! uyNyNobobuickttCl . , - , - k Cl ic, w.d .c - ., w. .cocu-track d. 86600 2. : - ocu-track , - . ( 4466 ). , - . ( 1998 ) 7855600 . - , . ( , ) , . : - 90%, - 3,2%, - 2,5%, - 2,3%, , , , , . : ( ), , . : - 93,4%, , . - . : (1853000 ), ( ) (278000 ), (235000 ). - . - ( 3 1993 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 75 - . ( 1000 ) - 22,2. ( 1000 ) - 9,4. VIII . , . VII . , . XI , . 1813 1828 , . 1918 . 1920 1922 ( ). 1936 , . 30 1991 .: . , , , , . , . : , , , , ; , . , , IX , , 1078 ; XVII , ., - , - . 29800 2. ( 1998 ) 3421800 ; 93% - . , , , , . : ( ), . : ) , . - . : (1305000 ), (123000 ). - . - ( 16 1991 , 1996 ). - . ( 1996 ). - . : 70 - , 76 - . - , , 301 . 23 1991 . , . - , , 1800 ( : - 4090 ).- , 86 1200 2, , , , . , , , . , . , ; ; XVI XVIII , (XIII ) (XVII - XVIII ). 15 ., ; - , ) ; - ; - . 647600 2. - : . , - . - , 965 . 4270 , 7620 . , . - - 2987 . , . : ; , ; . ( 1998 ) 24792400 ( 4500000 - ). 38 2. : - 38%, - 25%, - 19%, - 6%. : , ), , . : - 84%, - 15%, , . - . : (700000 ), (225500 ), (177300 ). - : 1996 " ", . - . ( 1998 ): 43 - , 44 - . ( 1000 ) - 42,4. ( 1000 ) - 17,4. VI ., . 330 ., . VII . , 1220 , . XIV . XVII , " ".XIX , 1835 . XIX , 1907 . 1973 . 1973 . 1978 , . 1979 , 15 1989 . , 15000 . 16 1992 . , . " " . , , ., 1830 , . (550 ) , (1070 ) - . , 3% , 1830 3660 , - , , . , , , . om om ww ww, Ch Ch

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F-X ange F- X an PD ge ! ! OW OW y Nu , - . : y Nu to b , , , , , , , o b ick ., . ick t Cl Cl w.d .c - ; w co . .cu-tr,ack d ( ); - XV , , ocu-track ; - . ; - , 2 43 ; - , , . , . , , - ( ).143998 2. - , . , , . - - . , , (1003 ) - . , 30 ., , , . , . ( 1998 ) 127567000 , 886 2. : - 98%, , , , . : ( ), , , . : - 83%, - 16%, , . - . : (3600000 ), (1364000 ), (877000 ), (300000 ), (269000 ). - . - ( 1996 ). - ( 20 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 56 - , 56 - . ( 1000 ) - 28,9. ( 1000 )- 10,6. XII . XVIII . 1947 , 1955 - . 26 1971 , 16 1971 . , . 15 1975 , .1986 . 1988 . , , , .80% . 1400 - 5080 - . 19° , - 29° .- , , , , . : 250 , 750 , 150 200 . , - . , , ; , , , , , . , ., . , 700 , , XVII , , , 1982 , . - XVI , (1660). , " ", , . , . 622 2. , , , , . ( 1995 ): 616300 . : - 63%, - 13%, - 10%, - 6%. - (151000 ), - (75906 ). : ( ), , . : - 60%, - 25%, - 9%. - . - , ( 2 1961 ). ( ) ( 19 1970 ). - . ( 1998 ) 70 - , 74 - . 1000 ) - 22,4. ( 1000 ) - 3,2. , , . 15 1971 .( - , ).- , . 5765 2. ( 1998 ) 315300 , 50 2. : - 64%, - 20%, , , . : , ( ), . : - 63% ( - ), - 14%, - 8%, . - (64000 ). - . - ( 1 1984 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 76 - . 1 1984 . 1990- 15400 ( ).- . : , . - ., , - . 47000 2. ( 1998 ): 1908300 . : ( ) -• 50%, - 35%. : ), . : ( )-75%, - 25%. - . - . : (27000 ). - . - ( 21 1972 , 1975 ). - ( ). ( 1998 ): 49 - , 52 - . ( 1000 ) - 37,3. ( 1000 ) - 14,6. 1910 . 1949 . , . , 1974 . - . - .om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge W! W! NOONbuyyo. , - . obuickttl. 329707 2.lickC C w.d k.c . , wo . .ccu-trac d - (3143 ). ( ). ocu-track , .) .( 1998 ) 76236200 , 231 2. : - 88%, - 2%, , , , , , . : ( ), , , , , . : - 55%, - 12%, - 10%, , , - 23%. - . : ( ) (3555000 ), (1247000 ), (449747 ), (369743 ), (260500 ). - . - ( 23 1992 ). - ( 8 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 63 - , 67 - . ( 1000 )- 21,6. ( 1000 ) - 6,7. 0- , I . 221 . , , , 939 . XI - , 200 . , , , . " " . XIX , , 1858 , 1884 . , 1954 , . , ( 17- ). , 31 1959 . 26 1955 . , 1965 ( 1969 543400 ). 27 1973 , , 1975 . 1976 . 90- . 1995 . , , . - ., ., , , . - . , , , , . , , ., . , , " 60 , . , ; ; ; ; ; . - . - . - VII-XII . - , , . ( ) - (1883); (XIX ); (1744); (1909 ); (XIX ); ; ; - , , , 1965-1975 1979 ., - , . : ; - . 69700 2. , . , , - (5068 ). , 3000 . ( 1998 ) 5108500 . - 100 . - 70,1%, - 8,1%, - 6,3%, - 5,7%, - 3,0%, - 1,8%, , , . : ( ), . : - 65%, - 10%, - 11%, - 8%. - . : (1353000 ), (236000 ), (137000 ), (120000 ). - . - ( 6 1992 , 5 1995). - ( 1993 ). - . : 69 - , 77 - , ( 1000 )- 11,7. ( 1000 ) - 14,1. VI . : , - . IV . , IV .VII , XI - . II XII . XIII , . XVIII , 1801 . 1918 , 1922 , 1936 . 1991 .: . 15 , : - , ; - , , , , , ; - ; - , , , , ; - . : , , , , . , , V , . VI . , . , - , - , - . 21596 2, , " ". , . : , , , . - (1208 ), ( ). - ; , . ( 1998 ) 5643400 , 261 2. : - 82% ( , 100 ), - 16%. : , ( ), , , . : - 82%, - 14%, - 2%. - . : (567000 ), (357500 ), (246500 ), (153000 ), (123000 ), (70000 ). - . - . ( 1993 ). - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 75 - , 78 - . ( 1000 ) - 20,0. ( 1000 ) - 6,2. II .14 1948 , ( ), om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChPD e PD ange

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! W! uy N . 1993 NO b bu y to , tok k Cl ic . 1996 . licC w.d c , w co ck. .do ck.cu-tra .cu-tra , . 5' 13° , - 9° 18° . - 17° 31° 24° 31° . 100 400 . , , , , , , . , ., , , . ; - , . , . , ., ; - ; , . - , ; - , ; ; - ; - XIV , . : , ; . - : - ; ; - , , 330 ; - VI , VIII , . , , , , , , 1947 ; - . , , , , ., , , - ), - . , - , , , - . , . 3165596 2. : , , , . - 160 320 , 2400 . - . , , - (8598 ), 2 ( ); (8126 ); (7817 ); (7788 ); (7756 ). - 280 400 . , , . , . , .- . , . 300 900 , 1200 .: . 900 .460 .( 1998 ) 984003700 , 311 2. : 300 - 72%, - 25%, - 3%. : , ( ), , , , , 10 , ; 1600 . : - 80%, - 14%, - 2,4%, - 2,0%, - 0,7%, - 0,5%. - . : (9900000 ), (7200000 ), (4400000 ), (4200000 ), (4100000 ), (3795000 ), 12 . - . - ( 13 1992 ). - ( 16 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 60 - , 60 - . ( 1000 ) - 25,9. ( 1000 ) - 8,7., . 2500 1500 . , . VIII . , . VIII , , . 1398 , . , XVI . 1526 , 1857 . 1498-1503 , . 1603 .1828-1835 , 1857 . 15 1947 , - ( ) - . 26 1950 . 1947 ( , ) , ( , - ). , , , , ., - , . ( 10800 ). , , 49° . 13° 27° , - 26° 32° . - 19° 28° , 25° 29° . - 19° 29° 26° 36° . , , ., , , , ., . : , , . , , ., , , , , . - , , , , , , , , . ( , ). , , . , . , , , . 460 , - . - . - . - ( ); . - . , . - , . - ; ( ); . ; . - ; , XVII ; . - , ; - IX ; VII . ( ) - 1500 , ( ). ( , ) - ; om om ww ww, F-XChD anPgDF-XChe anP ge W! W! 1uy4 N O99 . - (1648); ; , Ouy N to b ; ; ; XII ; . ( bkktolicC ) - , ( , ). licC w.d .c w. .cocu- tradckocu-track , . 13700 , . , - . , 5100 , . , - , ; , , - . 1919443 2. : , , - , ( ), , - . , 3600 . - (3800 ) ; (3676 ). , . - (5030 ) ( ). , , . , . 1994 , 180 . ( 1998 ) 212941800 , 111 2. , . : , , , , , , . : ( , , ) - , , 300 . : - 87% ( ), - 6%, - 3%, - 1%, - 1%. - . : - (8300000 ), (2500000 ), (2057000 ), (1250000 ); - (1730000 ), (1141000 ); - (944000 ); - (481000 ). - . - ( 6 1967 , 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 61 - , 65 - . ( 1000 ) - 23,1. ( 1000 ) - 8,2. 2 . VII , , , . XIII , , XV . XVI , XVII . 1750 , , , XX , . 1942- 1945 , 5 , 27 1949 . 1967 , . : - - . : 80% . 23° 30° ., '. , . ; - ; - ; - ; , - . , , , . , . - ; ; (1835); ; . - ; ., - , - ( , 1967 ), - .86556 2. ( 1998 ): 4435000 , 51 2. : - 98%. : ( ). : - 92%, - 3%, - 5% ( ). - . : (1187000 ), (421000 ), (281000 ), (41900 ). - . - ( 11 1952 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 70 - . ( 1000 ) - 35,2. ( 1000 ) - 3,9. , , , .49° . , , : , , , , , , . - , ., - , - , - .434924 2. - - , 2135 . , (3600 )., . - , : , . ( 1998 ) 21722300 , 50 2. : - 75%, - 15%, , . : ( ), . : - 95% - 60%, - 35%), - 3%, . - . : (4478000 ), (748000 ). - . - ( 16 1979 , 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 68 - . ( 1000 ) - 38,6. ( 1000 ) - 6,6.: , IV .; III I .539 331 . , 200 . , VII .750 1258 . 1258 , . XVII . XIX - XX . , , . 1921 , I. 1932 . 1958 , 14 1958 , , . 15 ., , : 28 1990 19- . , 1991 . , , , , . om om ww ww, DF-X Chan F-XChan P ge PD ge

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obut, . 9,5° , tobuick Cl - 33° . 50° . ic k Cl w.d k.c , 152 w. .d .cocu-trac : , ocu-track . : , , , , , , , , , . , , , , ., , - .- ; (1179), (1232), (1358) - .- , , . , , - , . - ; - ., , - , - . , - , . 1648000 2. , 1200 . , , , - (5604 ).- . : ., ., , , .- . , . , , ( ) . ( 1998 ) 68960000 , 49 2. : - 51%, - 24%, - 8%, - 7%, - 3%, - 2%, - 2%, - 2%. : ( ) ( ), , . : - 95% ( ), - 4%, , , , . - . : (6830000 ), (2011000 ), (1915000 ), (994000 ), (848000 ). - . - ( 4 1989 ). - ( 3 1989 , 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 68 - . ( 1000 )- 31,4. ( 1000 ) - 6,2. I . , 333 ., . VII . , . , . XI , , , , - 1502 . 1502 , 1722 . I, XVII , . , 1722 . , . 1906 , 1979 , ., 1979 , " " - - , " ", . 1993 . , , , . : ; , ; . ( ) -3° 7° , - 22° 37° . ( ) - 7° 17° 28 44° . 250 , - 200 . , , , , . : , , , , , .: , , , , , , , , ( ), , , . , - . , , . : , , . , - ; - . : ; ; - ; 45 , 1971 , . ( ) - , . - (XIII ); (XIV ). - . ( ) - , . - XVII ; ; 40 ; , 1710 . - (IX ); . - . ( ) - . , . , . , - . , - ( ).: , . 527970 2., .( 1998 ) 16388000 , 31 2. : , , . : ( ). : , (46%) (53%), , , , . - ( ), ( ). : (500000 ), (294430 ), (292392 ), (193934 ). - . - ( 17 1978 ; 21 1990 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 50 - , 50 - . ( 1000 ) - 43,4. ( 1000 ) - 10,3.- - 1200 650 ., . - I . 500 . IV VI . ( ), . VII om om ww ww, F-XChD anP g XCh e PD F- ange

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! W! y Nu : XVI . XVI

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b to . , . 1517 to b ick Cl , 1538 - , . ic k Cl w.d k.c 1839 w cocu-trac .d . 1849 . XIX XX , ocu-track . 1918 1962 . 1962 . 1967 1970 . 21 1990 . , , , . : , , - , . 27 , - 14° ., .- ( ) , , , , , .40, - ., - , - , , . 1991 . 2717300 2. , .5000 , ( ) 132 . : , ; , ; , ; , . ( 1998 ) 16846800 , 6 2. : - 41,9%, - 37%, - 5,2%, - 4,7%, - 2,1%, - 2% ( ). : ( ), . : - 47%, - 44%, - 2%. - . : (1262000 ), (613000 ), (401000 ). ( ) (339000 ), (337000 ), ( ) (330000 ). - . - ( 1 1991 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 74 - . ( 1000 ) - 17,2. ( 1000 ) - 10,2. VIII . XVIII . XVI , 30- XIX . 30- 1866 . 1918 , , 1920 . 1986 , 1936 . 16 1991 . 0 , , , .- -19° -4° , - 19° 26' . 45 -45° . , . - , ; - : ; XIX ., - , - . ( ) . 181035 2.1813 . - , . , - . ( ), 2600 2, - 10400 2. ( 1998 ) 11339500 , 63 2. : ( ) - 90%, - 5%, - 1%, , . : ( ), . : ( ) - 95%, , , . - . : (900000 ), (94500 ), (33000 ), (13000 ). - . - ( 24 1993 ). - ( ) ( 24 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 50 - , 53 - . ( 1000 ) - 24,9. ( 1000 ) - 5,7. , , I . VII , XI , , , , . 1620 , , . 1863 . 1953 . 17 1975 " " . , , , . " " . 1991 " , , , ., . 28° ., - , , . , , , , , . , . , , . - ; , VI . : , ; , ; - . , . , . 11437 2. ( 1998 ) 697100 , . : - 40%, - 18%, - 18%, - 10%. : ( ), . : - 95%. - . : (293000 ). - . : ( 1995 om om ww ww, DF-X Chang F-XChPeDan P ge W! W!

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u to b ( 1000 ) - 17,0. ( 1000 ) - 3,5.o b ick t Cl , I . - . VII . , , ic k C,l w.d k,. c 1872 .1916 . 1 1971 wo c . .ccu-tra d. , , , , , , . ocu-track - . , .- , . , . , , . 9251 2. ( 1998 ) 749000 . : 78%, 18%, , . : ( ), ( ), . : - 78%, - 18%. - . : (166500 39496 ), (129700 ), (59600 ), (20516 ). - . - ( 14 1993 ). - ( ). ( 1998 ): 75 - , 79 - . ( 1000 ) - 13,9. ( 1000 ) - 7,5. 1960 . 1974 , 1975 , 1983 - , . ( ) , , , , : , , , , .- (1209-1325), . ; ; . - , , , 1191 ; ; ; , , , . - , 647 . , - , - , ( ), , , , - , , . , - . 3400 , . 9571300 2.- , . ( ). 100 . ( )., , .- . , . , , .- ., .( ). , - 4510 . , - , . : , , , , ( ). 1951 , 1953 . - - . 43% , - 26%, - 19%, 12% . , , . , . - . : - , . , . : , , , . ( 1998 ) 1236914600 , 129 2. 19 . : - 92%, , , , , , 50 . : ( ), , , , , , , , , , . : , , , . - . : (7500000 ), (5800000 ), (4600000 ), (4540000 ), (3750000 ), ( ) (3580000 ); 40 1 . - . - ( 27 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 70 - . ( 1000 ) - 15,7. ( 1000 ) - 7,0. , ( ). 5500 ., , , 460 . IV . , , 1500 1000 . , 3 ., 1271-1368) ( , 1644-1911) . ( ). XIX . , . 1 1912 . 1894-1945 . , , . 21 1949 . 8 1949 . " ", " " . 80- . , , . , 1989 . 1997 . , , , ., - . 26° , - 18° ." , - 4° -10 . 26° . , : 22° , - -18° .15° .om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge W! !O OWNNbu y , uy o .bktktolicC , , , , . licC w.d . .c : , , , , . wo . .ccu-track d, , . ocu-track . : , , ( ) ( ). , . , . , - . , , , . , , , . , , , , .- - , ; ; ; ; - (XV ) ; , , , , , ; . ; ; , XVI ; , ; . : ; ; ; , ; ; , 627 . ; - , - XVII . , , , 210 . 6 , . , - . ( , ) 17818 . ( 1998 ) 1913300 , 107 2. : - 45%, - 5%, , , . : ( ), . : ( ) - 85%. - (1090000 ). : , . - . - ( 1 1978 ). - ( 8 1978 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 77 - . ( 1000 ) - 21,0. ( 1000 ) - 2,3. 19 1961 . , 1759 . , , . , , , , , . 90% .25° , 46° . 127 ., - , - , - . 198500 2. ( 1998 ) 4522300. : - 52, 4%, - 21,5%, - 12,9%, - 2,5%, - 2,4%, , . : ( ), . : , . - . : (629000 ), (218000 ). - . - . - . - . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 73 - . ( 1000 ) - 22,0. ( 1000 ) - 8,7.1864 . 1917 , 1926 . 31 1991 , 26 1991 . , . - . - (7439 ). 25° 27° . -4° . : , . - XIX , ., - , - , - , - ( ). - , . 236800 2. ( 1998 ) 5260800 , 22 2. : - 50%, - 25%, - 14%, - 10%, , . : ( ), , , . : - 60%, - 40%. - (415000 ). : , , . - . - ( 25 1992 ). - ( 15 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 50 - , 53 - . ( 1000 ) - 40,6. ( 1000 ) - 13,0. 3 1975 . 1991 . , , , .- ( 29° ), - ( 22° ). : , , , . - , " ". : ., - .10400 2. ( 1998 ) 3505800 , 337 2. : - 95%, - 4%. : ( ), , . : ( ) - 70%, ( , , , ) - 30%. - . : , ( ). - . - 24 1989 ). - ( 31 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 71 - . ( 1000 ) - 22,7. ( 1000 ) - 6,5. 1 1920 , 1941 . 1946 . , , , .27° , - 10° . : , . - . , . - . ( ) - , - . - : , 58 ; ; ; , .om om ww ww, DF-X Chang XChe DF- anP P ge

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! W! N N

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bu y uy to . : , to bk lic , , ( ). lickC C w.d k.c , - , , - . w.d .cocu-trac , - . , - ocu-track , - . 329 758 2. , 2100 , ., - , - . - (4101 ). : ; - . ( 1998 ) 20932900 , 63 2. , . : - 59%, - 32%, - 8%, , , , . : ( ), , , , . : - 53%, , , , . - . : (1238000 ), (382000 ), (328000 ), (219000 ). - . - ( 26 1994 ). - ( 16 1981 ). - . ( 1998 ): 69 - , 73 - . ( 1000 ) - 26,5. ( 1000 ) - 5,4.1400 ( ). , 1511 . , . 1641 , . : , , . XVIII 1786 . 1819 , 1824 . XIX . 1957 ( ) . 1961 , , , . 1963 , , . 1965 . , , , . , , . 21° 32° . 2540 , - . : ; . - , ( ) . - - ; ; . - 10 . - . : ; ; ; . , . , , . 2 , . 298 2. ( 1998 ) 290200 , 974 2. - , . : , , . : ( ). : ( ). - . : (56000 1990 ). - . - ( 11 1978 , 1993 ). - ( ). ( 1998 ): 61 - , 63 - . ( 1000 ) - 40,1. ( 1000 ) - 6,0. 1887 . 26 1965 , 1968 .- . 27° . , . - ., , - . 1565000 2. ( 1998 ) 2578530 , 1,6 2. : _ 90% . : ( ). : , - . - . : (600900 ), (90000 ), (58200 ). _ . - ( 21 1990 , 1993 ). - ( 21 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 65 - . ( 1000 ) - 23,6. ( 1000 ) - 8,2. - , XIII , .1924 , 1991 . , , . : -15° - 30° , - 10° 27° . : ; ; , - 1924 . - . ( ) . , - , , - . , - . 676552 2. , - ., (5881 ). , 2740 , ., 910 . - - - 46620 2. ( 1998 ) 47305300 . 70 2- . : ( ) - 68%, - 7%, - 9%, ) - 2%, - 2%, - 2%; : , , , , . : ( ), , , , , . : ( ) - 89%, - 4%, -4%, , . - . : (3851000 ), (533000 ), (220000 ), (108000 ). - . - ( 24 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 56 - , 59 - ). ( 1000 ) - 29,0. ( 1000 ) - 12,5. , 3000 . , 628 ., . IX om om ww ww, DF-X Chang F-XChe anP PD ge W!O OW ! y Nu , , . uy N to b XI . 1287obkktCl ic ).XVI icCl w.d wocu-track .c . XIX .d .c . 1937 , 4 1948 . 19oc6u2-track . , , . 1989 . 27 1990 30 , , . ( ) , , , ., - . 16° , 88° . , , . 890 , 5080 ., , , , , , , , " " , , . - , . , , , , .( ), , , . : , , , , . 1200 , , , , . , , , , . , " ". 100 , . , . : - , , . - , , ; (994); . , , 700 . - . - , 1952 2500 ., , - . 140797 2. , ( ) (8848 ), . , . , 4570 . , 2500 . , - - , .: , - . ( 1998 ) 23698400 , 168 2. : - .- - . : ( ), 30 . : - 90% ( ), - 5%, - 3%. - . : (442000 ), (93500 ), (80000 ), (49000 ). - . - ( 31 1972 ). - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 53 - , 54 - . ( 1000 ) - 35,7. ( 1000 ) - 10,4. , . 1324 , 1768 . XIX . 1846 , . 1956 , 1960 . 1990 , . , , , , ., . 2° 18° , - 20° 29° . , . , . 3660 . , , . - , , . , (" "). , . - XV-XVI , - - (1549). : . - , , , 2600 . 7 , . ), , , , , , . " ". , - . , - . 77700 2. ( 1998 ) 2303000 , 30 2. : - 42%, , , . : ( ), . : ( - 16%, ) - 80%, , . - . : (605000 1990 ), (266000 1990 ). - . - ( 2 1971 , 1991 ). - ( 20 1990 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 75 - . ( 1000 ) - 18,6. ( 1000 ) - 3,1. 1883 , , " " , . 2 1971 . 2 1971 . 1994 : , , , . , , , , , . - ., - , - . , - . 212457 2. ( 1998 ) 2363600 , 11 2. : - 75%, - 21%, . : ( ). : - 75%, . - . : (622500 ), . - . , - ( 23 1970 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 72 - . om om ww ww, DF-X Chang DF-X ChanPePge ! ! OWWyNu ( 1000 ) - 37,8. ( 1000 ) - 4,4. y N

O

b u to ( ) , b t.o lic k III , . , lickC C w.d -c . , 1507 . w co ..cu-track d, . 1650 , 1741 . ocu-track 1861 . , . 28° . , 70- XX ., , - , - ., . 796095 2., - . , , . 80 320 : . , , . : , , , . - (7690 ). - 2 ( ) (8611 ).( 1998 ) 135135200 , 170 2. : - 66%, - 13%, - 8,5%, - 7,6%, - 2,5%, . : ), , , , , , ( , , ). : - 97% ( - , - ), , , , , . - . : (9863000 ), (5085000 ), (1875000 ), (1676000 ), (1290000 ), (1257000 ), (1107000 ), (559000 ). - . - ( 1993 ). - . ( 1997 ). - . ( 1998 ): 61 - , 63 - . ( 1000 ) - 34,4. ( 1000 ) - 10,7.- . 1500 . , , 2000 . VI ., . ) 715 .(1526-1857) . 1906 , . 1940 . 14 1947 . 1971 : . 25 1971 . 1947 , 70- . , - . 1977 1988 . 1994-1995 . , , , , .13 , - 32 49 . ( ). - 500 , - 125 . , , . , , , .: , ; , - ; . - ; , 1985 , 4 90 . - , . - ; XII . - , (XVII ), , . - - . , - ( )., - - , - . 98480 2. , , ., , . - (1950 ).( 1998 ) 46416800 , -471 2. : - 99,9%, . : ( ), ( ). : - 47,4%, - 48,6%, - 3%, . - . : (10612000 ), (4082000 ), (2432000 ), ( ) (2340000 ), (1424000 ). - . - ( 25 1993 ). - . - ( ). ( 1998 ): 67 - , 75 - . ( 1000 ) - 16,1. ( 1000 ) - 5,7. I : , .XIII-XIV .XIX , , . 1910 , . 1945 , , 38- , . 1948 . 15 1948 . 1950-1953 .16 1961 , . , 1979 1987 , , . 1992 ., , , , , . , , . -9° 0° . - 21° 29° . ( ).: , , , , , . , . , , , . , : ; . - , , , ; ; ; , XV . - - . - . om om ww ww, F-XChang ChPD e PD F-X ange ! !

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W OW uy N , . , Nuy to b , - , - , - . to b ick k Cl , - . 2240000 2. Clic w.d k.c . , , 65w0.d000o .ccu-2tr,a c . , , ocu-track 57000 2, . , . (3133 ).( 1998 ) 20786000 , 9 2. : - , , (82%); , 1950- (13%); ( ). : - , , . - ). - . : (2576000 ), (1500000 ), (1468000 ), (500000 ), (200000 ). - . : ( 13 1982 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 71 - . ( 1000 )- 37,6. ( 1000 ) - 5,0. I . ( ). , . 1500 . 570 ., ( ), , . , , , . 1269 . 1517 . , . 1824 . 1865 . 1902 1906 . 1926 . 1932 ., , , , , . 8° 21° , - 19° 29° . - 26° 42° , - 26° 37° .70 ., , , , , , , , . , , ., ; . - , . , , , , ( ). , , - , , , . , . ( ). , , , 2 1990 1426 , 1994 - 270 . , ( ). , - , - ( ). , - . 120538 2. - .) 2744 . , . , . , ( ), . : ( ). ( 1998 ) , 21234400 , 176 2. : - 99%, . : ( ); , . : , , 2/3 - , " " (" "), , . - . : (2470000 ), (754000 ), (691000 ), (500000 ), (350000 ), (345000 ). - . - ( 1995 ). - ( 11 1992 ). - ( ). ( 1998 ): 68 - , 74 - . ( 1000 ) - 15,3. ( 1000 )-15,6. I : , .XIII-XIV .XIX , , . 1910 , . 1945 , , 38- , . 1948 . 10 1948 . , . 1950 , , , . 1995 , . , , , , .24° . - -4° , .: , , , ., , , , . - , , . - . - ; I .; ; ; . - ( XIV ). , 50 , ., . 640 2. ( 1998 ) 3490350 , 5400 2.: - 76,4%, - 14,9%, - 6,4%, , . : , ( ), , ( ). : - 29%, - 19%, - 16%, - 13%. - . - . - ( 2 1993 ). - ( 28 1990 ). - . ( 1998 ): 72 - , 77 - . ( 1000 ) - 13,8. om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge W! W! y N

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u ( 1000 ) - 4,7.

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to b XIV . , XV o bkktCl ic . 1819 . 1824 icCl w.do ck. c . , 6w.do ck.ccu-tra 1945 . 3 1959 cu-tra . 16 1963 , 9 1965 . , , , . , , 27° .(1860), , ., - , - , - .185050 2. 32 . , , (2814 ). ( 1967 ). , )., - . ( 1998 ) 16673300 , 90 2. : - 90%, , . : ( ), , . : - 73%, ( , , ) - 16%, ( ) - 10%. - . : (2052000 ), (1445000 ), (518000 ), (284000 ). (254000 ). - ( ). - 22 1971 , 1991 ). - ( 1 1987 , 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 69 - . ( 1000 ) - 37,8. ( 1000 ) - 5,5.1800 . I .VI . , 333 .III . , . 64 .240 . 636 , 661 . 1099 , . , . 1516 400 . , . 16 1941 , 17 1946 . 1958 , 30 1961 . 1963 , . , , , , ., - 4,5° . , . , - , . , , , , . - , , , , .- , , , ., 200 , 70 . , , IV . , . ; , , , 1516 . ( ) - , ; , . ; ., - , - , - . 143100 2. - : 93% , 3000 .- (7498 ).- , , ; , , - , . ( 1998 ) 602000 . : - 64,9%,, - 25%, - 3,5%, , , , , . : , . : . - . : (607000 1990 ), ( ) (L63000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 67 - ., 73 - . 1000 ) - 27,7. ( 1000 ) - 7,8. , 20- XX . , , . XIII , XVI - . 1868 , , . 1917 1921 . 1924 . 1929 , . 9 1991 .: 48° , -63° .: ( ), , ( ). - " " . 22 , , , ; 12 , , , . 20 16 . , , , , ).( ), - , - , - , - . , - . 513115 2., . (2595 ) . , (1786 ) (1270 ).om om ww ww, Ch DF-X ange DF- XChanPPge

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obt( 1998 ) 60037300 , 117 to b2. lickC: - 75%, - 14%, - 3%, , . : ( ), , , ic k Cl w.d k.c , , . : - 95%, - 3,8%, , . - . w cocu-trac .d .: (6566000 ), .(170000 ), (81000 ), (79500 oc)u.-track - . ( IX) ( 9 1946 , 5 1950 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 72 - . ( 1000 )- 20. ( 1000 ) - 7,1. XI . XIII . 1350 , . 1767 , . 1782 , , I. 1826 XIX . : ( IV) V) .1932 . 1976 , , , . 1995 , . , , . , - 26° 37° . 13° 33° . , 1520 , - 2540 , - 1270 ., , , , " " , . , , , , , . : , , , , , , . 50 , . , , , ; , , 400 , - , 1782 ; - 104 ; ; ; ; " " . - XIII XIV ; , . - XIII ; XV . - ; XVI . 18 . , . ( ) , . ( ) . , - , - .36000 2. , 3997 ( ). , - . , , . : , . ( 1998 ) 21908000 , 609 2. : ( , XVIII XIX ) - 84%, ( ) - 14%. : ( ), , . : , - 93%, ( ) - 4,5%, - 1%. - . : (2658685 ), (1397000 ), (774000 ), (690000 ). - . - ( 13 1988 , 1996 ). - ( 10 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 72 - , 78 - . ( 1000 ) - 14,8. ( 1000 ) - 5,4. 603 . XII , XV . 1590 , - " ". , 37 . XVII , . XIX , . XIX , . 1945 . 1949 . , . , .( 28° ) , 18° ) - . - 2540 . 3800 . 1980 , - 1980 3050 , 3050 . 60 , , , . , . , , . , . : ; , , II . ; . : ; , , . - . - , - ., - , - .448100 2. ( 1998 ) 4297600 , 9,5 2. : - 72%, - 12%, - 9%, , , , , . : , . : - 87%, - 11%. - ( ). : (517200 ), (164000 ), (114000 ). - . - ( 27 1992 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 69 - . ( 1000 ) - 26,2. ( 1000 ) - 8,7. , XIV . : 1881 . 1917 , 1918 , 1924 . 27 1991 . , , , .-6° 5° , 27° 32° . : , , ( ), ( ). om om ww ww, DF-X Chang XChe DF- anP P ge

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bu to to bu k lic lickC C w.d c wo . .cu-track d .c . , -o cu-track , - , - . , - , - , - . 779452 2. , 3% . : ; ; ; ; ; ; - , ( ) (2543 )., - , . - (3916 ).(5137 ), , , . ( ) ( ). - , , . , . (1150 ). - - ; , . ( 1998 ) 64566500 , 83 2. - . : - 80%, - 17%, , , , . : ( ), , . : - 99,8% ( - , - ), - 0,2%, . - . : (7300000 ), (2826000 ), (1757000 ), (931000 ). (835000 ). - . - ( 16 1993 ). - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 69 - . ( 1000 ) - 21,4. ( 1000 ) - 5,3. , 1900 1200 . " " XII . ( ) , .VII . , - . VI . 333 .333 , II .V . ( ) 1000 , . XIV , 1453 . , 400 . , , , , , , , . , , . 1918 . 23 1923 . , . 70- . 1978 , 1984 . , , . 1995 . , , , , , , . , . 3° 8° , - 18° 28° . 820 , . , , , .- -4° 4° , - 15° 30° . 350 .( 30° ). , . , , , , , , , . , . , .- , " ". , , , 3000 . , , , , I . 500 . ; , . - . , ; . (XIII ), ; XIV . - , . VI ( XV , ); II, I; , , , ; (XIX ); ; . - ; , . ( ) - , , ; II-III ; . , , XII XIII . - , VI ; 782 . - (III .). - ; " " ( ); . - , ; ; ., - , - , - .447400 2. ( )., (4643 )., ., . ( 1998 ) 23784300 , 53 2. : - 71,4%, - 8,3%, - 4,7%, - 4,1%, - 2,4%, - 2,1%, , , , , . : ( ), , . : - 88%, - 9%. - . : (2120000 ), (371000 ), (312000 ), (297000 ), (228000 ). ' - . - ( 1992 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 72 - . ( 1000 ) - 34. ( 1000 ) - 7,7. VIII . : , , , . IV .VIII .XIII , XIV - . XVI . XVIII - . 60- -70- XIX , . 1917 , . 1924 , . 1936 . 29 1991 , 26 1991 ' . , om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge W! W! yNO, , . y N

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obuut.to bk k lic -6° , 32° . , licC C w.d k.c . : w co . .cu-trac d, 1,5 .ocu-track . ( ) XVI ; ; . )- XIV-XV ; (XV ); . - ; , IX ; , ; (IX- ). , , . , , - ), - . 7100 , 460 2,5 2. 11 - , , , , , , , , , - 2590 2. 300000 2. 1850 ., 20 , ., , . 80 , , , .: ( 1993 ) ( 600 1991 1992 ). , , . - (2954 ). : , , , . - ( ) . ( 1998 ) 67114000 , 259 2. : - 95,5%, , , , , , , . : ( ) ( ), , , , , , , 80 . : - 83%, - 9%, - 5%, - 3% . - . : (9280000 ), (1670000 ), (844000 ), (610500 ), (442000 ). - . - ( 30 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 68 - . ( 1000 ) - 28,4. ( 1000 ) - 6,5. 7000 2000 . , .V . , . XII , . XIII . XV ., . II. XVI .1898 20 . 19 1898 .1934 12 . 4 1946 . 1966 , 70- . 1986 , 1992 . , , , . 27" . " . 2030 . , . , . 37% . , , , - , , , . , , . , ., , , . 760 ., . - , ; , , , ; . , , ; ; ; . ( ) - ; . - . , . 65610 2.- (2524 ).- , , . ( 1998 ) 18933500 , 289 2. : ( ) - 74%, ( ) - 18%, ( ) - 7%, ( ), , . : , ( ), , . : ( III .) - 69%, - 15%, - 8%, - 8%. - ( ), ( ). : (616000 ), (196000 ), (129000 ), (109000 ), (104000 ), (84000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - . ( ). -• . ( 1998 ): 70 - , 74 - . ( 1000 ) - 18,4. ( 1000 ) - 6,0. , , . " ". VI 1815 . , 504 . , , , . III . XII . XV . 1517 , , . , XVI . 1638-1639 1796 , . 1798 , , . 1803 , 1815 . 4 1948 .22 1972 . 1983 , om om ww ww, DF-X ChanPgCh e PD F-X ange

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uy N . 1995 , y Nu to b ., , , obtlic k . lickC C w.d o .c , . w. .ccu-track d 32° , - 21° . , ocu-track . - . , ., , , , . , , , ., , , , , . , , , . , . , . " ", , , . , , , , , . , , . , : , , , . , - , - , - . , . 377688 2. , , , . : : , ; ; - ., ., , . (3776 ), , ., (3192 ) - . , 1982 ( ). 188 , 40 ., . - (367 ), - , , ; - , , ; - . - . - (672 2) - . ( 1998 ) 125931500 , 333 2. : - 99,4%, 0,5%, , . : ( ), . : ( , 200 ), , , , ); , . - . : (11600000 ), (3274000 ), (2479000 ), (2095000 ), (1600000 ), (1468000 ), (1395000 ), (1200000 ), (1100000 ), (1000000 ), 80 , 250000 . - . - ( 7 1989 ).- . ( 1998 ): 76 - , 83 - . ( 1000 ) - 10,3. ( 1000 ) - 7,9.660 ., . , . VII , . XII ( ), 1867 , ( ). XVI-XVII , , XIX , . XIX - XX , 1910 , . , , , 30- . , , 7 1941 .1945 , , , 2 . , 3 1947 , , . , - , . , . , , , , . 15°, . 5° , - 16° . , , . , ( ). , , , . , . 1020 3810 . , . 17 . , . , - , - , - ., , , . - , 40 , , . , : , , . : , , , . , , , , . : , , , , . ( " "), , 30 . , , 140 , 450 , , ., ., , , , , , ( ), .: , , , , , , , , , , , , ., , ., : - ; ; ; ; ; . - ; , ; 333 ; . - ; . ( 794 1868 ) - 2 ; 24 ; ; ; ; ; . - (1612); - . om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChDeDanP P ge W! W! y Nu O Oy N tobuobick ick t Cl Cl w.d .c ., - wo . .ccu-track d, , - . 2381741 2. .o cu-track , 80 190 , , , . , .- , . , . - . , 90% , - : . (3003 ). ( 1998 ) 30480800 , 13 2. 90% . : - 83%, - 16%, - 1%. : ), , . : ( ). - ). : (3702000 ). (590000 ), (438000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - ( 1996 ). - . 1998 ): 66 - , 68 - . ( 1000 ) - 27,5. ( 1000 ) - 5,6. 1100 ., . (III-II .) : . 106 .V .VII .XIII , . XVI , , , - . , . , . XVIII , 1830 . 1834 , . 5 1962 . 1992 , , , . , , , , . , .25° , - 11° .- , ., , , , . , . - ; . : - , (XVII ). - , ( ). - ( . 430 . ). - - , ; ; (XVIII ); XIX . - ( ). - XVI , , ., - , - ., , 30 . 1246700 2.: , . 50 150 . , 150 30 . , ; 1000 1520 , - - 2620 ., ; , ; , .( 1998 ) 10864500 , 9 2. 90 , : - 37%, - 25%, ( ) - 13%, - 8%, - 6%. : ( ), , , . : - 65%, - 20%, - 10%. - . : (1200000 ), (203000 ), (155000 ), (152000 ), (150000 ), (105000 ). - . - ( 20 1979 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 45 - , 48 - . ( 1000 ) - 43,6. ( 1000 ) - 16,8. 1483 , . , . XX , 1951 . 11 1975 . , , , . , . , 750 1500 . - 130 . , .: . , , , , , , , .: XVII ; XVI . , . , . , - , - . ( 1998 ) 6100800 , 54 2; , , . - , . : (350000 ), (163260 ). (65945 ), (54418 ), (50800 ). : 42 , - , , - 59%; , - 15%, - 9%. : ( ), , , . : - 70%, - 15%, - 15%. - . - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 46 - , 49 - . ( 1000 ) - 45,8. ( 1000 ) - 12,8. 1 1960 . , 1975 . 112622 . , , , , . ; , , , , . , , , , , . om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge W! W! y Nu O - XVIII , . - Oy Nu to b . o b ick ick t Cl Cl w.dcwco ..cu- tracdkocu-track , . , - , - . 600372 2. ( 1998 ) 1448450 , 2 2.- - . , ( ), . : ), . : - 50%, - 50%. - . : (133791 ), (31065 ), (29469 ), (20215 ) (19034 ). - . - ( 13 1980 ). - . ( 1998 ): 63 - , 67 - . ( 1000 ) - 32,0. ( 1000 ) - 20,9. 1966 , 30 1966 , . , , , , .- , . : , , , , , . - ., - , - , , . 274200 2. , 200 700 . - ( ), ( ) ( ). ( 1998 ) 11266400 , 41 2. ( ) . : ), , - . : - 50%, - 40%, ( , ) - 10%. - . : (681000 ), (250000 ), (70000 ). - . - ( 15 1987 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 46 - , 49 - . ( 1000 ) - 46,2. ( 1000 ) - 17,6.XIV . , . XIX . 1896 , 1904 . 1919 , 1932 . 1947 . 1958 , 6 1960- . 3 1984 .; - ; - . 24° , - 28° . - , , , , ., - , - . , . 27834 2. 1400 1800 .- , .( 1998 ) 5537400 , - 199 2 ( ). : - 85%, - 14%, ( )- 1%. : ( ), ( ), . : -62%, - 32%, - 5%, - 1%. - . : (240000 ), ( ) (27000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 48 - , 52 - . ( 1000 ) - 41,6. ( 1000 ) - 17,4.XIV , . XV , . : , . 80- XIX ( ) .1 1962 . 1966 . 90- . , , , , . , . 20° , - 23° ., . : , , , , , . , , , , ., - , - , . 267667 2. ( 1998 ) 1207800 , - 4,5 2. , . : - 25%, -• 10%, , , ( ). : ( ), . : ( ) - 60%, - 39%, - 1%. - . : (365650 ), (125000 ), (22700 ). - . - ( 2 1967 , 1993 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 52 - , 55 - . ( 1000 ) - 28,0. ( 1000 ) - 13,2. XIX . 17 1960 . - , . , .27° , : . om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChanPD e PD ge ! OW OW ! yNyNuobobuktktCl ic licC w.d .c , ., w. .cocu-track d. 11295 2. ocu-track ( 1998 ) 1291850 , , - 114 2. : ( ) - 42%, ) - 18%, - 16%, - 10%, - 9%. : ( ), , . : - 90%, - 9%, - 1%. - (44200 ). - . 1994 . - . ( 1995 ): 43 - , 47 - . ( 1000 ) - 43,3. ( 1000 ) - 12,9. , . 1588 . 18 1965 . 1981 , 1989 . , , , , .- . 16° , 43° . : , , , , ., - , - .238537 2. - , . , , , .: , , .- 900 . ( 1998 ) 18497200 , 77,5 2. 70% . - 50, : - 44%, - 16%, - 13%, - 8%. : ( ), , , , , , , , , , . : - 38%, - 30%, - 24%. - . : (1687000 ). (400000 ). (181000 ), (151000 ), (116500 ), (57000 ). - . - ( 1993 ). - . ( 1995 ): 54 - , 58 - . ( 1000 ) - 32,8. ( 1000 ) - 10,6. , XII-XIII . , 1482 .XVI 1642 . , XVIII ., XVIII . 1850 1871 1874 . 6 1957 , , . 1 1960 . 1966 , 1979 1981 , . 1992 ., . ( ) : .26° . , - . , , , , . , . , , , , , , , , . : , , , . - . - ; : XVII ., , - , - ., , 245857 2. : - , 275 50 ; ( ) - 910 ; - 300 ; - , ( 1752 ). - , . ( 1998 ) 7477100 , 30 2. : - 35%, - 30%, - 20%, - 15%. : ( ), , , , , , , , . : - 85%, - 8%, - 7%. - . : (1508000 ). (278000 ), (273000 ), (250000 ). - . - ( 5 1984 ). - . Type. - . ( 1998 ): 44 - , 45 - . ( 1000 ) - 41,3. ( 1000 ) - 17,8.XVIII . 1891 , 1906 - . 2 1958 . 1984 .27° , - 20° , - 21° .- , - . : . , , , , . , ( )., - , . 60 . 36125 2. ( 1998 ) 1206300 . : - 27%, ( )- 23%, - 11%, - 12%. : ( ), ( ). : - 65%, - 30%, - 5%. - (138000 ). - . - ( 14 1980 , 1994). - . - . ( 1998 ): 42 - , 45 - . ( 1000 )- 38,7. ( 1000 ) - 15,5. XV . 10 1974 . 1980 .om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge W!O W ! y Nu : 25° .

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yNbbuktoto lic lickCCw.d k .c . , - w.d ,o .ccu-trac , - , - , - ( ) . ocu-track , . 2344885 2. ( ). , . - - .( ). , . , - ., , , , 65000 2. (5109 ). ( 1998 ) 49000500 , 21 2. : 200 , 80%; , , . : ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ). : - 50%, - 20, - 20% , - 10%. - . : (4214000 ), (739082 ), (374000 ). - . - ( 29 1997 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 50 - , 54 - . ( 1000 ) - 46,8. ( 1000 )- 15,2., , 1482 . 1489 , 1490 .XIX , , , . 1885 . 1908 , . 30 I960 I .1971 , 1965 , . , . 1996 30- . 1997 - . , . 27° . ( ) . 1500 - 19° . , - ., , , , , , . : , , , , , , , , , , . ( ), , . : , , , , , . , , . , . 1995 .; ; ., , - , - . 23200 2. ( 1998 ) 440700 , 19 2.: - 60%, - 35%, , - 5%. : , ( ), , . : - 94%, - 6%. - (417000 ). - . - ( 24 1977 , 1993). - ( 30 1978 ). - . ( 1998 ): 47 - , 50 - . ( 1000 )- 41,8. ( 1000 ) - 14,7. XIX - , 1946 - . 1967 . 27 1977 . , . : 26° , 36° ., - , - . , - . 1001450 2., . 90% , , ) . p , . , 18000 2, 113 - . 600 , , 2100 . , . 2100 . (2637 ) . , s , . ( 1545 ) , . , . , , 250 . - , - (23 ) . ( 1998 ) 66050000 . 99 % , 4 % . 60 2 - ( 1663 2). : ( ) - 90%, , . : ( ), , , . : - 90%, , ,1 . - . : (6900000 ), (3577000 ), (2144000 ), (460000 ), (388000 ). - . - ( 14 1981 , 1993). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 65 - . ( 1000 ) - 27,3. ( 1000 ) - 8,4. , 4000 . 3200 . , . 341 ., , : , . , .1882 , 1914 . 1914 1922 . 1936 , . 1951 . 23 1952 . 18 1953 om om ww ww, F-XChD anP g F-XChe PD ange W! W! yNO. 1954 Oy N bu u to . 1979 , to b lickC. 80- - 90- , ic k Cl . w.d k.c , , , , , . wo c .do ck.ccu- tra: . cu-tra - 46° , 0° . - , 200 . - 29 ., . - . : , , , , , . , , ., , , , , , , . , . , . , , 300 , , , , , , , , , . , - . 100 .- , II .; , , ; ; ( , , ), , ; . ( ): . : . : III .; , ( , , ). - , ., - , - , - , , - . 752614 2. - 1100 1400 . , 2164 . : , . , .( 1998 ) 9460700 , 12,5 2. : ( 70 , - , ) - 98,7%, - 1,1%. : ( ), 70 ( , , , , ). : - 50-75%, , ; - 24-49%; - 1%. - . : (1327000 ), (376311 ), (338207 ), (153000 ), (142000 ). - . - ( 2 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 48 - , 50 - . ( 1000 ) - 44,6. ( 1000 ) - 22,6. XII , . XIX , , . , XIX . 1889 . 1953 , ( ), ( ) ( ). 1963 24 1964 . , , , , , . , . ( ) 16° , ( ) 21° .- , . - , , , . , , - " ", ., - , - , - . 390759 2., . 1200 1500 . 1070 . , (2592 ). , , , .( 1998 ) 11044100 , 28 2. : - 71%, ( ) - 16%, , . : ( ), , . : - 74%, ( ) - 25%, - 1%. - . : (1044000 ), (621000 ), (274000 ), (132000 ), (125000 ), (95000 ). - . , - ( 1 1988 ). - . ( 1998 ): 52 - , 55 - . ( 1000 ) - 31,3. ( 1000 ) - 20,1. , , . 800 , . 1100 . XIV , XV . , XVIII . XVIII , 1888 , ( ). 1923 . 11 1965 , , , . 17 1980 . , , ., , , . ( ) 16° , ( ) 21° . - 750 , . , .- , , , , , , , , ). , . ( ) - . - . ( ) - . ; - ; - , (XVII-XVIII ). , , - . 10 5 , . , , , ; , , . 4033 2. om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChDeDanP P ge W! W! yNO( 1998 ) 399850 , 99 2. NOyobuut: ( ) - 71%, - 28%, - 1%. : ( ), ( obtlickC). : - 80%,lic k

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w.d k.c . - . - (62000 ), (47000 ). - wo ..ccu-trac d - ( 1996 ). - ocu-track ( 4 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 64 - , 66 - . ( 1000 ) - 34,5. ( 1000 ) - 7,0. 1456 1460 . 1462 .- . 5 1975 . - , , , . 24° , - . , , , , ., - , , - . , - . 475442 2.- , . - - 1370 .- . (4095 ), . : , . ( 1998 ) 15029400 , 32 2. 200 , 24 . : - 30%, - 7%. : , ( ), ( ). : - 25%, - 53%, - 22%. - . : (1322000 ), (1121000 ), (130000 ), (123000 ), (113000 ), (50000 ). - . - ( 6 1982 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 55 - , 58 - . ( 1000 ) - 42,1. ( 1000 ) - 14,0, XV . XVII , , . 1845 .1916 , 1919 , - . 1958 , 1 1960 . 1961 , . 1972 . , . 4060 , - 380 , 10160 . 25° , - 21° , - 32° . , , , , . : , , , , , , . : , (XVIII ); ., - , - , - . , - . 582646 2., . , (5199 ). , . - ( ), . ( ) . ( 1998 ) 28337100 , 49 2. : - 21%, - 15%, - 14%, - 11%, - 11%, 25 , , , . : ( ), , , , , . : - 40%, - 30%, - 6%, - 10%. - . : (2079000 ), (442000 ), (167000 ), (150000 ), (51000 ). - . - ( 22 1978 ). - . ( 1998 ): 54 - , 57 - . ( 1000 )- 31,7. ( 1000 ) - 14,2. VIII , , , .1498 , . XVII . XIX . XIX , 1902 . 12 1963 ., . : - , 25° ; - ; - . : ., , , . 915 , , . 915 2745 ., : , , , , - .( 600 ) . , , , , . : - , , , , ; - ( XVI ); - . , , , . : , , , . , , .- (2361 ) - . ) 2236 2. ( 1998 ) - 545500 , 244 2. : , . : , ( ), ( ) - . : - 86%, - 14%. - . : (30000 ), (14000 ), (7000 ). - . - ( 1996 ). - - ( 1997 ). - . ( 1998 ): 56 - , 57 - . ( 1000 om om ww ww, DF-X ChanPgCh e PD F-X ange W! W! y N

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uy to b 1975 . , , . bkktolic icC . Cl w.dko.c : . w. .ccu- dtrac, ocu-track ., - , - ( ) , - . 342002 2. ( 1998 ) 2658100 , 8 2. : - 45%, - 20%, , , ; 12000 . : ( ), , . : - 50% ( ), - 48%, - 2%. - . : (1009000 ), (576000 ), (83000 ). - . - ( 20 1992 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 49 - , 54 - . ( 1000 ) - 38,5. ( 1000 ) - 16,4. 1960 . , 1991 , , , . , , , . , 25° . : , , , , . - , , . '% . , - , - .322462 2. , . , 100 265 .1500 . - , , . ( 1998 ) 15446200 , 48 2. 60. : - 23%, - 18%, - 15%, - 11%. : ( ), , , , . : - 65%, - 23%, ( )- 12%. - ( ), ( ). : (2797000 ), (330000 ), (122000 ), (107000 ), (60000 ), (59000 ). - . - ( 1995 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 50 - , 52 - . ( 1000 )- 42,1. ( 1000 ) - 16,1. , , XVIII - XIX . , XV . , , , . 30- XIX , . 1893 . 1904 . 4 1958 . 7 1960 . 1985 .22° 32° , , . , , 12° , 40° . , 225 . - , , , , , , . : - , ; - , .30335 2. ( 1998 ) 2089800 , 69 2. : ( ) - 79%, - 20%, ( , ) - 1%. : , ( ). : - 38%, ( ) - 42%, - 20%. - (170000 ). - . - III ( 7 1996 ). - ( 1 1993 , III 1994 , 1994 ). - ( ). ( .998 ): 58 - , 63 - . ( 1000 ) - 31,8. ( 1000 ) - 12,8. 1868 ( ), . 4 1966 . 1970 1993 . , ., , , . 32° -7° ., - .99067 2. ( 1998 ) 2771900 , 28 2. : ( ) - 5%, ( , , , ) - 95%. : ), , . : - 20%, - 10%, - 70%. - (670000 ). : , , . - . - - .- , 1943 . ( 1998 ): 54 - , 57 - . ( 1000 ) - 41,9. ( 1000 ) - 11,3. 1822 . 26 1847 , .26° ; 24° . : , , , .

C

om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChanPD e PD ge W!O OW ! uyN., - yNobut, - , - , - . 1759540 2. 90% bk k to licC - , ( 900 ) ; icCl , w.d .c , . w.d .cocu- track( 1998 ) 5690700 , 3 2.ocu-track . : - 97%, , , , , , . : ( ), , . : - 97%, . - . : ' (2595000 ), (1059000 ). - . - . - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 65 - . ( 1000 ) - 44,0. ( 1000 ) - 7,2. , VI ., 455 .643 , , , XVI , . XX . 1943 , , . 24 1951 I . 1 1969 , . , . , 400 , 28° . : , ., ; - , . , . : ; ; ; , , ; . : , II .; ; XVI . " ", . 1865 2, 104 2, 71 2. , , 2040 2. ( 1998 )- 1168300 , 573 2. : - 68%, - 27%, , . : ( ), ( ), , , . : - 52%, ( )- 28%, - 17%. - (158000 ). - . - ( 30 1992 ). - .- . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 74 - . ( 1000 )- 18,6. , ( 1000 ) - 6,7. 1638 . 1721 , . 1810 . 12 1968 . 12 1992 . , , .23° . ( ). : - , 1838 ., - , . - 1030700 2. ( 1998 ) 2511500 , - 2 2. : ( ) - 80%, - 20%. : , ( ), , , , . - 100% ( ). - . : (560000 ), (74000 ), (70000 ), (50000 ). - . - ( 18 1992 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 50 - , 53 - . ( 1000 ) - 44,5. ( 1000 ) - 14,6. 1903 . 28 1958 . 28 1960 . , , , , ., , . 38° . - .587041 2. , 2876 . : 2643 ., , .- . ( 1998 ) 14462500 , 25 2. : ( )- 26%, - 12%, - 7%, - 6%, - 5%, , . : ), ( ). : - 52%, - 41%, - 7%. - . : (802000 ), (189000 ), (111000 ), (111000 ), (59000 ), (53000 ). - . - ( 1996 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 55 - , 58 - . ( 1000 ) - 41,9. ( 1000 ) - 13,8. I ., 1500 - . ( ) XVII , . 1642 , 1674 . XVIII XIX . , XIX , . 1896 . 1958 . 26 1960 . 1975 , , . , 1993 . , , , , . om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge ! OW OW ! y Nu , - . y Nu to b 20° . , , , , o b ick . , ick t Cl Cl w.d .c . w co . .cu- trdack. ocu-track ., - , - . ( ). 118484 2., - . - - . 900 1200 . , - (3002 ). ( 1998 ) 9840500 , - : 83 2. : - 90%, , , , . : , ( ), , . : - 55%, - 20%, - 20%, . - . : (402000 ), (310000 ). - . : ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 45 - , 46 - . ( 1000 ) - 40,2. ( 1000 ) - 23,7. XVI . XVII , 1859 , . 20 , 1891 , 1907 . 1953 1963 . 1963 . 6 1964 , 6 1966 . , , , ., 21° , - 29° ., , , , , , , . , ., - , - , , - . 1240192 2. , . 1155 .; - . ( 1998 ) 10108600, 8 2. : ( , , ) - 50%, - 17%, - 12%, - 10%, - 6%. : ), , , . : - 90%, - 9%, - 1%. - . : (880000 ), (85000 ), (75000 ), (73000 ), (50000 ), (40000 ), (20500 ). - . - 8 1992 ). - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 44 - , 48 - . ( 1000 ) - 49,9. ( 1000 ) - 19,0. : , , , . 950-1050 . XI , XIV . XV , 1591 . XVII XVIII , . 1904 , 1920 . 24 1958 , 17 1959 , 20 1960 .32° . , : , , . : , , , , , , , .- . - ., - . , - . : . 446550 2, 1979 .: , , ; , , ; ; , , . - (4165 ) - . 2440 . : , , . ( 1998 ) 29114500 , 65 2, . : - 99,1%, - 0,7%, - 0,2%. : ( ), , , . : - 98,7% ), - 1,1%, - 0,2%. - . : (3289000 ), (1578000 ), (1517000 ). (1012000 ), (554000 ). - . - II ( 3 1961 ). - ( 1995 ). - . 1998 ): 62 - , 65 - . ( 1000 ) - 26,4. ( 1000 ) - 6,2. , , . , XII ., II . ., , . 429 ( ) , - . 682 . XI-XIII . , , , .XVI-XVII , , " " . XV , XVII . XVIII-XIX , . 1859-1860 , , 1904 , 1912 . 1956 om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge ! OW OW ! y N , , . y Nu u to b , , , , , . b to lic k , 20° . lickC C w.d .c . 10° , w. .cocu-track d - 27° . : -18° .ocu-track , , , , , . , , , , . : , , , , : , , , , . , . : ; . : 55- XII , ; (XII ). , : ; ; . : . : (IX ) - , . : XVI . : ; ; ; (XII )., - , - , .799380 2., 2436 ( ) . 2419 ., - , . ( ). ( 1998 ) 18641500 , 23 2.: - 47%, - 23%, , , . : ( ), , , , , . : - 60%, - 30%, - 10%. - . : (1098000 ), (300000 ), (203000 ). - . , - ( 19 1986 , 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 45 - , 48 - . ( 1000 ) - 43,5. ( 1000 ) - 17,8. 1498 , . XVI . XVII - .XX . 25 1975 . 15 , . , , , .27° , - 20° .20% ., , , , , .: 1563 ., - , - .: . 824268 2. ( 1998 ) 1622300 , - 2 2. : - 50%, - 10%, - 7%, - 7%, - 6,6%. : , , ( ), . : - 80% ( ), . - (149000 ). - . - ( 16 1990 , 1998 ). - ( 1990 ). - . ( 1998 ): 58 - , 60 - . ( 1000 ) - 35,8. ( 1000 ) - 19,8. 1890 . 1915 , 1920 . 1968 . 21 1990 .( ). 17° 21° . : , , , , , . - , ., - , - , - . 1267000 2. : , . , , . , , . - (1900 ). , - . , - . - . ( 1998 ) 9671800 , 8 2, 90% . : - 56%, - 22%, - 8,5%, - 8%. : ( ), , , , . : - 80%, - 14%, - 1%. - . : (400000 ), (121000 ). (113000 ), (52000 ), (50000 ). - . - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 45 - , 48 - . 1000 ) - 53,0. ( 1000 ) - 23,4.XIX . , - . , , 1795 1805 1850 . 1890 . 1922 , 1946 - . 3 1960 . , , , , , .820 - . 29,5° . , . - , , , , . - ., - , - .923768 2. , om om ww ww, DF-X Chang DF-X Ch e anP P ge W!O OW ! y Nu , . uy N to b , 16 , 100 . bkktolicC , , . , Clic w.d .c . , , w cocu-track .d . - , (2042 ). , - , ocu-track .( 1998 ) 110532200 , 120 2. : - 21%, - 20%, - 17%, - 9%, , , , , , , 250 . : ( ), , , , , , . ; - 50%, - 40% ( , , ), - 10%. - ( , 1991 ). : (1500000 ), (1484000 ), 20 250000 , 57 - 100000 . - . - . ( 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 49 - , 52 - . ( 1000 ) - 42,2. ( 1000 ) - 12,9. VIII . XI XIII . ( ) , XVI XIX . , , , - . XVII XVIII . - 1795 1796 . 60- XIX . 1900 , 1906 . 1947 , 1954 . 1 1960 . 1967 , , 1970 . 1967 , 13 . 1979 , 31 1983 . 1995 , . , , , , ., ., . : . , , ., - , - , - .26338 2. - 1700 . , , . - (4505 ). 1460 . ( 1998 ) 7956200 , 302 2. : - 90%, - 9%, ( ) - 1%. : , ( ). : - 65%, - 9%, - 1%, - 25%. - . : (232000 ), (22000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - .- .1994 . - . ( 1998 ): 46 - , 49 - . ( 1000 ) - 39,0. ( 1000 ) - 19,0.XV . , , . , . ( ) . 1858 . 80- XIX . , .1961 , 1 1962 . 1994 , , . , , , , . : , . 23° , .- , , . , , , , , . - ., 650 300 . , . , . 1001 2.- (2024 ) - . ( 1998 ) 150100 , 150 2. : , ( ), ( ), ( ), ( , ), ( ). : ), . : - 80%, , . - (50000 ). - . - ( 3 1991 , 1996 ). - ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 66 - . ( 1000 ) - 43,5. ( 1000 ) - 8,3. 1471 .1822 1900 . 1951 . 12 1975 . , , , , , .25° , - 19° . - 5100 , - 1020 ., , , - . 17363 2. , 1220 , - , 610 , . - , . ( 1998 ) 966500 , 56 2. : - 90%, - 2,3%, - 2,1%. : , ( ). - ), ( ). : (53000 ), (47000 ). om om ww ww, DF-X Chang DF-X ChPean P ge W! W! y N

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buyto . ( 1996 ). - , to b ick Cl . ( 1998 ): 55 - , 60 - . ( ic k Cl w.d 1000 k.c ) - 41,0. ( 1000 ) - 21,4. wo c .d .ccu- tra400 . XIX ocu-track . 1907 . 1967 , 6 1968 - . 1973 . - , 67 . 1986 . , , , , .; - , , . , 115 , . 455 2. : . 32 - , 900 ., , , . 83 . ( 1998 ) 78650 , 173 2. 90% . : - 95%, , . : ( ), , ( ). : -• 90%, - 8%. - (35000 ). - . - 5 1977 , 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 74 - . ( 1000 )- 19,7. ( 1000 ) - 6,6. 1502 .1756 , , 1768 - . 1794 - . 1903 . 29 1976 . 1978 , , 1979 . 1991 . , , . , 1742 . - 30 , 30 , - 3-5 , 2-2,5 . 20 40 8-10 ., , ., . 196722 2. - . 500 . - , ; , .( 1998 ) 9723100 , 49 2. : - 36%, - 17%, - 17 %, - 9%, - 9%, - 9%. : ( ), , , . : - 92%, - 6%, - 2%. - . : (1986000 ), (201350 ), (180000 ), (125700 ). - . - ( 1 1981 ). - ( 8 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 48 - , 50 - . ( 1000 ) - 44,4. ( 1000 ) - 11,1. 500 . IX XI XIV - . XV . 1444 , , XIX . 1895 . 1958 , 1960 . 20 1960 . 1982 . 1989 . , . : . ( 350 ), , ( 1525 ). 25° . , : . - , , , , . : , , , , , .- . , . - . , ., - , - . , - . 637657 2. 915 2135 . 180 500 . ,; . , , - . ( 1998 ) 6841700 , 11 2. - ( ), , , . : , ( ), , . : - 99% ( ). - . : (682000 ), (70000 ), (70000 ). (60000 ). - , 1992 , . - . ( 1998 ): 45 - , 49 - . ( 1000 ) - 46,8. ( 1000 ) - 18,5. , . II VII . VII , XVI . , . 1887 . , . 1936 , .1 I960 . 1990 , . , , .28° , 0° , 47° . , - . : , , ; , . , . : , , , , , , . : , XIX ; XIII . ' om om ww ww, DF-X ChanPgCh e PD F-X ange W! W! y N

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b toobick , . , - ick t Cl Cl w.do . c , - , , - w. , .c cu-track d.2505813 2. ocu-track : , 30% ; ; . : . , , .- (3187 ). ( 1998 ) 33550500 , 13 2.: ( , , , ) - 49%, - 39%, - 8%, - 3%, . : ( ), , , , , . : - 70%, - 25%, - 5%. - (2492000 ). - . - ( 30 1989 ). - . ( 1998 ): 52 - , 54 - . 1000 ) - 39,9. ( 1000 )- 10,9. , XIX . (2755-2255 .), , VIII . , - - VI . XIV . ( ) 1500 , , . XVI , XVIII . 1820 - . 60 . XIX . 1898 1899 , 1936 . , , 1951 . " . 12 1955 , 1 1956 . 1969 , ) , 1986 , 18 . 1989 . , . , , , , .: 4,5° 43° . 27° , - 29,5° . (1015 , 254 ). , , , . : , , , , . : , , . , , , . , . : ; ; . (XIX )., - .71740 2. ( 1998 ) 5080000 , 71 2. : - 30%, - 29%, , 20 . : ( ), , , , ( ). : - 52%, - 40%, - 8%. - . : (649000 ), (337000 ), (269000 ). - . - ( 7 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 38 - ]; ,41 - . ( 1000 ) - 46,2. ( 1000 ) - 17,2. 1460 , , " ". 1787 . 1808 , 1896 - . 1924 . 27 1961 . 29 1992 . , , , , .: , , .26° , . : , , . (1828 )., - , , - , .945087 2. , , 1290 .- (5895 ) - ., - , ( ) - . , . ( ) . ( 1998 ) 30608700 , 32 2. : 120 , ( 20% ), , , , , , , , , ; , , . : , ( ), 100 . : , ( ), ( ). - . : (1734000 ), (375539 ), (223000 ), ( ) (204000 ), (188000 ). - . - ( 1995 ). - . ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 51 - , 54 - . ( 1000 ) - 40,8. ( 1000 )- 16,7. | 1964 : .VIII , . " ". | . XVI XVII , XVIII . 1832 . , . XIX (1890 ). , 1963 . , . , , 1886 , , , . , 1918 . 1961 . 1964 . , , om om ww ww, F-XChD ange DF- XChanPPge W! W!O

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bbkto.to lic . lickC C w.d c, 27° .w cocu-track. .d ., . ocu-track 27° , .: , , , , , , , , , . , , . , ; . , XVI ., - , - .56785 2. ( 1998 ) 4905900 , 86 2. : - 35%, - 22%, - 6%, 34 . : ( ), , . : - 50%, - 35%, - 15%. - . : (600000 ), (55000 ), (31000 ). - . - ( 14 1967 ). - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 53 - , 57 . 1000 ) - 45,2. ( 1000 ) - 10. XVIII XIX . - . 1884 . 1914 , . , - . 27 1960 ., , , . - 27° 30° . - ' ., - ., , - , ., - .163610 2.610 1520 .610 . , ., 40% . ( 1998 ) 9380400 , 57 2. : - 98%. : ( ), , . : - 98% ( ), - 1%, - 1%. - . : (880000 ), (500000 ), (83500 ), (94500 ). - . - . ( 7 1987 , 20 1994 ). - ( 27 1989 ). - . ( 1998 ): 67 - , 69 - . ( 1000 ) - 20,1. ( 1000 ) - 5,1." , 814 .264 . ( ), . V , VII XVI . , , . XIX , . 20 1956 , . 25 1957 . , , . , . ) 9° , - 26° ., , , . , ., . , , , , , , (732 ). : , IX ., - , - , - . 241139 2. , , . - - . : , . , (5109 ). , . | ( 1998 ) 22167200 , 92 2. : , , , , ( ) - 70%, , , ( ) - 30%. : ( ), , , . : - 33%, - 33%, - 18%, - 16%. - . : (773500 ), (61000 ), (54000 ). (43000 ), (42000 ), (41000 ), (40500 ). - . - ( 29 1986 ). - ( 22 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 44 - , 46 - . ( 1000 ) - 49,2. ( 1000 ) - 18,9.XV , . XVIII - , - , , , . , 1862 . I .XIX , . 1962 , . 1967 , . 1971 , . 8 300 , . 11 1979 . 1985 . , , , , , . om om ww ww, F-XChan F-XChan PD ge PD ge

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obbukttolic lickCCw.d .c w co . .cu- trackd, , o.cu-track 16° 29° . - 1520 ., ( ), , , , .- , - , ; . : , " " - . : ; , , 1976 100 , . - ., - , - , - .- 622436 2. ( 1998 ) 3375800 .: - 34%, - 27%, - 21%, - 10%, - 4%, - 4%. : ( ), . : - 25%, - 25%, - 24%, - 15%. - (596000 ). - ( ). - ( 1993 ). - . - . ( 1998 ): 47 - , 52 - . ( 1000 ) - 38,7. ( 1000 ) - 16,8. XIX . 13 1960 . 1981 1993 . 1992 , 1995- . , , . , - , - , - , . 1284000 2. - , , . , (3415 ). - 1 . - ( ) - , . ( 1998 ) 7359500 , 6 2.: 200 , : , , ( ), . : , ( ), 100 ( ). : - 50%, - 25%, - 25%. - . : (687000 ), (129600 ), (117500 ), (95800 ). - . - ( 1996 ). - _ ( 20 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 46 - , 49 - . ( 1000 ) - 43,5. ( 1000 ) - 16,9. , . IX , XI . XVI , : . XIX , 1900 . 1910 . 11 1960 . 40 . , , , , , .: - ; - ; - . , . : ., ( ) , , ( , ) ( ) . 28051 2. ( 1998 ) 454000 ( , ), 16 2. : - 80%, - 15%. : ( ), ( ), . : - 90% . - ( ) . : (38000 ), (24100 ) - . - . - , ( 1U 1 ( , 1996 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 46 - , 50 - . ( 1000 ) - 38,9. ( 1000 ) - 13,3. 12 1968 . , , .25° , 2000 ., , - , - . 121144 2. ( 1998 ) - 3842400 , 32 2. : , , , , , . : , , , . : ( ) - 50%, - 50%. - . : (359000 ), (19400 ), , , , , . - . - ( 24 1993 ). , 1890 1941 - . 1941 1952 . 1952 , 1962 . , 31 . 24 1993 .25° . , ( ) ., - , . ( ). om om ww ww, DF-X Chang XChP e F- an PD ge ! !

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yob. , - , obuttlickC- , - . 1130000 2. k Cl ic w.d c , . w cocu-track. .d .. 1675 , , , 610 oc. u-track , (4620 ). , .( ). : , , , ( ). , , . ( 1998 ) 58390350 , 52 . : - 40%, - 25%, - 12%, - 6%, , , , , , . : ( ), , , , , 70 . : - 45-50%, - 35-40%, - 12%. - . : (2209000 ), (127400 ). (95000 ), (91000 ). - . - ( 1995 ). - ( 6 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 46 - , 49 - . ( 1000 ) - 44,7. ( 1000 ) - 21,2. I . , . II . , , . VII . XIII ( ) . XVI-XVII . 1869 . , 1872 , 1885 - . 1889 , . 1895 , . 40 , , . 1941 . 70- ; , 12 1974 . 1975 . 1977 , . 1984 , 1987 - . 1990- , , . 1991 , . 1993 , 30 . , , , ., 1830 , 27° , - 510 . (1830-2440 ) 22° , 510 1530 . 2440 16° 1270 1780 . , . , , : " - 13 " ( 13 ). , . : , , , , , , , , , , . : , , , , , ., . XIII-XV , , , . : , . : . : II; . (1896); ; " "; ; ., , , , . , - . 1223201 2. , , , . - (3375 ). : , . , , 1200 1800 , , . - 1200 , ., : , .: , . , , .( 1998 ) 42834500 , 35 2. : ( , , , , , , , , )- 75,2%, ( , , )- 13,6%, - 8,6%, - 2,6%. : , , , , , , , , , , ( ); ( ) , , , . : , ( , , ) - 90%, , , . - ( ), ( ), ( ). : (2671000 ), (1849000 ), (1149000 ), (1073000 ), (300000 ), (134000 ), (127000 ). - . , - ( 9 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 60 - , 66 - . ( 1000 ) - 26,4. ( 1000 ) - 12,3. ( ) . 1652 . XVIII , , . XVIII , 1814 . 1822 , , 1833 . , , : . 1850- , , , , . 1881 . 1899 , 1902 . , - . 1910 . 1948 , , , .1959 ( ): , , , . 1990 , , , . , . , om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge W! W! y N

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u to b ), , . tobukCl ic ( 1848 ) 28 . 1917 ( kClic w.d c ), 25 . w co . .cu-track d, 1954 , ,ocu-track . , ( )., - , - , . 27750 2. , . : . - (2674 ). : , . - , . : . ( 1998 ) 6780500 , 244 2. : - 95%, - 5%. : , ( ). : ( ) - 80%, -10%, - 4%, - 1%. - . : (743000 ), (68000 ), (36000 ), (34000 ). - . - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 55 - , 58 - . ( 1000 ) - 32,8. ( 1000 ) - 14,2. 1492 ( ). 1697 . 1804 . 1844 ( ). 1915 , 1934 , , ( ), 1958 1986 . , , . 1994 , 1991 , .- . 27° , - 16° . : , , . , , , . , , . : , . , , , , 1780 ., - , - . , - . 108889 2. , - .; - (4220 ). - , . ( 1998 ) 12007500 , 110 2. : - 55%, - 44%. : ( ), . : - 70%, ( ) - 30%. - . : (1115000 ), (98500 ), (66500 | ), (41000 ), - (39000 ), (26000 ). - . - ( 14 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 67 - . ( 1000 - ) - 36,0. ( 1000 ) - 7,0. (III- ). 1523 . 300 , 15 1821 ( ) . 1823 , , , , . 1839 , , . , , ., : 915 2440 ( ) 20° ; 28° . : , , , , , , ; - . : . , . , 1815 .- , - 15,5 2. : , . , , - . , - , - . 111888 2. ( 1998 ) 5862000 , 52 2. : - 90%, - 7%. : ( ), . : - 97%, . - . : (738000 ), (353800 ), (82900 ) (33200 ). - . - .( 27 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 65 - , 70 - . ( 1000 ) - 31,8. ( 1000 ) - 7,0. 1821 . , , , , . - . , 21° .: , , , , , , .- - . : , XVIII , . , . 344 2, 311 2 . ( 1998 ) 96200 . : - 84%. : ), , ( ). : - 60%, - 22%. - (36000 ). - . - II - ( 1992 ). - . ( 20 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 73 - . ( 1000 ) - 28,1. ( 1000 ) - 5,3.J 1498 . 1650 . 1762 . 7 1974 . , , , , . , , , . , 28° .om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChPDeDan P ge W!O OW ! yNyNobuutto b ickl lickCCw.d .c , .w. .cocu-track d, - . - ocu-track : 2655 , - 1290 . 2175600 2, 1834000 2- . ( 1998 ) 59300 , 1 2. : ( ) - 86%, - 14%. : ( ), . : - . - ( ). : (12600 ), ( ) (4839 ). 1979 , .- II. ( ). - . - . ( 1995 ): 61 . ( 1000 ) - 15,8. ( 1000 ) - 6,9. , . 3000 . , 9° . , : , , . , , .751 2. ( 1998 ) 65800 . : - 90%, . : ( ), . : - 77%, - 15%. - (16500 ). - . - ( 1993 ). - ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 74 - , 80 - . ( 1000 ) - 17,4. ( 1000 ) - 6,3. 2 1978 . , ., 27° . : , XVIII ; ; . - . , ( ).: - , - , - , . - 48734 2. - 3175 . ( 1998 ) 7998800 , 164 2. : - 16%, - 73%, - 11%. - . : - 95%. - . : (2580000 ), (1007000 ). - . - ( 16 1986 , 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): - 68 , - 72 . ( 1000 ) - 26,4. ( 1000 ) - 5,7. , , , , . ( , ), . - ( 1514-1520 ), ; , ; XVI , ; , 1538 ., , . - 259 2. ( . ), .- .( 1998 ) 37716 , 146 2. : - 80%. - . : ( , ). - . : ( 13000 ), (3900 ), (1600 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 13,9. 1000 ) - 5,0. 1503 . 1670 . , 1833 . 1863 1962 . 1972 ., - , - , - . : , , , , , . 9970610 2, 755180 2 . , . , , 31 . - , , , , , , . - , ; . - ; . , ; , , , ; , ; ; , - . , , : (5951 ), (5489 ), (5226 ), (5173 ). ( 1998 ) 30675400 , 3 2. : - 40%, - 27% ( , ), - 5% ( ), , , , , , , ( 16% ), - 4% ( 600 ), - 2%. : , ( ). : - 46%, - 41% ( , , , , ), - 2%, - 1%, - 1%, , , . - . : (4483000 ), (3320000 ), (1603000 ), (1057000 ), (840000 ), (754000 ), (652500 ), (646000 ), (600000 ), (382000 ), (365000 ), (356500 ), (320500 ). - . - II, ( 1995 ). - ( 1993 ). - . om om ww ww, DF-X ChanPgDF-XChe anP ge

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yNob: . - . : . obukttlic - (5700 ).lickC C w.d .c - , ; - .wo . .ccu- tdrack- . ( 1000 ) - 12,4. ( 1000 ) - 5,5. ocu-track , 1520 , . 1604 . 1816 . 1946 , 1976 - , 1985 - . , .388 2, 344 2 . ( 1998 ) 119800 . : - 90%. - ( ). : , , . - (15670 ). - . - - II, ( 20 1989 ). - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 71 - , 74 - . ( 1000 )- 18,7. ( 1000 ) - 5,3. 22 1498 ( ). , 1762 . 1795 . 1958 1962 . 1969 , 27 1979 - . , ., . 24° . 1524 , 3810 . - (1765); (XVIII ) . , : ) . , - (1315 ). 267 2. ( 1998 ) 42300 . : - 90%, . : ), ( ). : , . - . : (18500 ), (1250 ). - . - II, ( 19 1983 ). - . ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 64 - , 70 - . ( 1000 )-22,9. ( 1000 ) - 8,5. 1493 - . 1623 1628 . XVII XVIII 1783 , , . 1967 . 19 1983 . , , , , , , .616 2. , - (959 ).( 1998 ) 152300 . : - 90%, - 6%, - 3%, - 1%. : ( ), ( ). - (61000 ). - II, ( 1988 ). - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 74 - . ( 1000 ) - 22,5. ( 1000 ) - 5,6. 1500 , 1635 , . 1660 , 1663 , . 1814 . 1958 , 1967 . 22 1979 . , , , , , .26° .( " "), - . : . , 50 , , . , - . , - , - . 9666861 2, 1693438 2 16729 2 . ( ) - (6194 ), - (86 ) - . 760 . , ; 4000 . (2037 ). - , - . , . - , , , - 200000 2. , , , - . , . , , , , . , , , , . , , , , , , .( 1998 ) 270312000 , 28 2. : , ; , 83,4% , , , , , ), ( , XVIII ) - 12,4%, - 3,3%, )- 1%. : ( ), 32 , - , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , , . : om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChPD e PD ange W! !O W uy N , - 26%, - 19,4%, - 8%, - OyN2but,o8 %, - 1,8%, - 1,7%, ; o b ick t Cl - 2%, , , . - . : ic k Cl w.d k.c (7333000 ), (3448000 ), (2731000 ), (1702000 ), (15w 24000 co . .cu-trac d), (1151000 ). (1048000 ), (1022000 ), (988000 ), (99o2c0u0-t0rack ), (734000 ), (702000 ), (567000 ), (547000 ), (520000 ). - . - ( 20 1993 ). - . : 73 - , 79 - . ( 1000 ) - 14,4. ( 1000 ) - 8,8. XVIII , . XV , , . 1497 , . 10 . , , . , , , 150 95% . 1666 . , XVII . XVIII , 1774-1776 . 2 1776 , . 1776 1866 13 36, . , . , , , . , . XX , 1914 , (6 1917 ). : 1920-1932 , 30- , 10 . 7 1941 , , all . 1944 - . 1946 , , , . 40- - 50- " " , " ". 1964 , , , 60- 500 . 70- 350 . 1975 . , , 1993 , 1994 , , 1995 . , , , , , , , ., ) . ( , ).-25° 20° . 14° 22° , - 16° 25° . 2000 , - 1000 , - 100 . 30% , , . " " : , , , , , . , , ., , - " "., ( ).: , , , . : , , , , . , , , , , , . , , , ., , , . , , , , , , , . ( ) , , . ; , ; ; ; . , ( ), - " ".: - , ; - ; - 152 ; - 36 , ; - , , ; , , , ; ; . : , 500- , 82 ( 102) ; ; , , , ; - " ", , , , ; , , , , ; - XIV-XIX ; , , ; - , , ; , , , , , , , . , , .32 . 5130 2, 4828 2 . , ( 1998 ) 1116600 , 218 2. : - 43%, - 40%, - 14%, - 1%, - 1%. : , . 10991 2. ( 1998 ) 2634700 , 239 2. : - 76,3%, - 15,1%, - 3,2%, - 1,2%, . : ( ), om om ww ww, F-XCh

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b u to , . - . : (587798 ), (92383 ), bktoCl ic(83446 ). - II, ( ickCl w.d k.c 1991 ). - ( 30 1992 ). w co .cu-trac d . - . ( 1998 ): 71 - , 76 - . o(cu-track 1000 ) - 20,9. ( 1000 ) - 5,5. 6 1962 . , , , .27° , - 22° . , . : , , .- ; . : ; ( ); . (XVII )., - , - . , . , , ( ) ( ).( ) 2766889 2. : ., , 3600 .(6960 ). - (6893 ), (6800 ) (6770 )., ., , . : , ( ), , , , .( 1998 ) 36265500 , 13 2. : ( , , , , , ) - 85%, , , . : ( ), . : - 90% ( ), - 2%, - 2%. - . : (12961000 ), (1148000 ), (895000 ), (521000 ), (520000 ), (367000 ), (67000 ). - . - ( 14 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 69 - , 76 - . ( 1000 ) - 20. ( 1000 ) - 7,7. , - . 1516 . 1535 , 1620 .1776 , , , , . 9 1816 ( ) . XX 1930 1983 . 1983 . , , , , . , . 17° 29° , - 6° 14° ., , , . - . - , . - , , , . : , , , , , , . , . , , , , , , , , , , . : . , ; ; . : , XVI , . : ; , . , , . : , ., - , - , - . 1098581 2, ( , , ).: (6550 ), (6485 ) (6462 ). ; . - , ; . ( 1998 ) 7826300 , : 7 2. : - 30%, - 25%, - 25-30%, ( ) - 14%. : , , ( , ). : - 95%. - ( ), ( ). : (1246000 ), (695000 ), (404000 ), (183000 ), (131000 ), (112000 ). - . - ( 6 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 58 - , 61 - . 1000 ) - 31,4. ( 1000 ) - 9,9. XIII . 1538 , 200 . XVIII . 6 1825 ., - . , , , , 1 ., . 8° , - 26° .: , 2 , , ., , , , . , . : , 12 ( 1933 ) . XVI ; , 1572 . , . , , , , - , - , , , - .- , , . 8511965 2. , .300 900 , . - om om ww ww, F-XChD anP g XCh e DF- anP ge ! !

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to b 2200 ( - 2890 - 2232 ). bkktolic icC . , 150 . Cl w.d .c , , - - wo . .ccu-track d ( 850 ), ( 600 ) ( 1500 ). ocu-track - (3014 ). , . 3700 . , , , , . ( 1998 ) 169806500 , 20 2. 80% 320 . : ( , , ) - 55%, - 32%, - 11%, ( , , )- 1%, - 0,2%. : ( ), , , -. : - 73% ( " "), ( , ), . - . (9400000 ), (5500000 ), (2056000 ), (2049000 ), (1600000 ), (1300000 ), (1300000 ). (1263000 ), (1250000 ), (1000000 ). - . - ( 1 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 64 - , 69 - . ( 1000 ) - 20,9. ( 1000 ) - 8,5. , - , - , - . 1500 . XVI . 1808 , , .II (7 1822 ). 1889 . 1930 , 1945 . 1945 1964 , . 1964 , . 1974 . 1967 .( ) 22° 31° . - 23° 29° , - 17° 24° . -6° . , . ( ), , , , , . : , , , , , , .- . : , , , " . , , , , , . I , ( ), , .: ( ). ( 4 , ), , . - ; . , , . : , ; " "; ; , ., - , - .72 , . 912050 2.(5007 ).2700 ., - , . ( 1998 ) 22803400 , 25 2. : - 67%, ( , , )- 21%, - 10%, - 2%. - ). : - 96%. - . : (2959000 ), (1208000 ), (1034000 ), (693000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 69 - , 75 - . ( 1000 ) - 23,0. ( 1000 ) - 5,0. 1498 . 1499 - " ". 1520 . XVIII . 1783 . 1821 , 1829 . XX , . 11 1953 , , 1864 , . 90- , . , , , , , . , . 13° 24° , - 23° 32° . 16° 26° , - 24° 1 34° . -! . 40 % : , 900 I - , . , , , , , , , . : , , , . , . : . , , ; ; . : 1636 ; , ; ; . : ; ., , - , - . 214969 2. ( 1998 ) 708000 , 3,5 2. : - 51%, - 30%, - 10%, - 5%, , . : ), , , . : ( ) - 57%, - 33%, - 9%. - . : (236000 ), (35000 ), (25000 ). - . - ( 9 1992 ). - ( 9 1992 ). - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 68 - . ( 1000 ) - 18,5. ( 1000 ) - 8,7. 26 1966 . , , , , . om om ww ww, DF-X Chang XChe DF- anP P ge

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bu u to , . bk k to licC . Clic w.d .c - . wo . ccu-track docu-track. , . , - , - . , - . 1141748 2. - , . , (5775 ). : (5750 ) (5215 )." ". : , , , , , . ( 1998 ) 35101000 , 31 2. : - 58%, - 20%, - 14%, , . : ( ); . : - 95%, , . - . : (4921000 ). (1625000 ), (1581000 ), (1019000 ), (688000 ). - . - ( 7 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 72 - . ( 1000 ) - 24,9. ( 1000 ) - 5,7. 1502 , . , 1510 . 1549 , 1717 1739 - . XIX , 7 1819 , 17 1819 , , . 1829 . 1903 . 80- 90- XX ( ). 1991 , 1995 . , , , .24° 27° ; 500 2300 , 2300 3000 - . 3000 , -13° . - 14° . 27° 28° ., , , , , , . , , . : , , , , , , , .; : , , , , , ., , , . ; ; , .- . : , ; ; . : (1567); , ; . : - . , , - , - . 406752 2. ( 1998 ) 5291000 , 13 2. : ( ) - 95%, , , , , . : ( ), . : - 90% ( ), ( ). - . : (945000 ), (134000 ), (58000 ), (38000 ), (38000 ) (35000 ). - . - ( 15 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 72 - . ( 1000 ) - 32,2. ( 1000 ) - 5,3. 1527 . 1535 . 1811 . 1865-1870 , , . 1954 , 1989 . - . , , , , .17° , - 27° . , , , , , , , ( ). : , , , , , . : ., - , - ., , 1280000 2. : , . - , 65 160 .- , , . - , , . 30% 240 400 . 3660 . (6768 ).- . 60% , . : , , . ( 1998 ) 26111100 , 20 2. 50% , 40% - . : - 45%, - 37%, - 15%, , , . : , ( ), , . : - 90% ( - ), , , . - . : (5760000 ), (638000 ), (620000 ), (509000 ), (410000 ), (258000 ). - . - ( 28 1990 ). - ( 3 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 64 - , 68 - . ( 1000 ) - 26,7. : ( 1000 ) - 5,8. , 1100 . 1500 , om om ww ww, F-XChan F-XChan PD ge PD ge ! !

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yyobuu, . 1532obick t . 1535 , 1542 , ick t Cl Cl w.d .c . 300 . w. .cocu-track d 28 1821 . 1962 , ocu-tr.ack 80- , .: . , 20° , : 51 . -7° 21° .3810 ., . , , , . : - ., , , - , , , , . , , , ; , , , , , . : , , , , , , , , .: . , , . - ; ; , , . - : XVIII , ; ; XVI XVII . : . : XVI ; - , , ; . ; (5822 ) ., - , - .163265 2. 80 . , . - , . ( 1998 ) 428000 , 2,6 2. : - 37%, - 31%, ( ) - 15%, ( ) - 10%, - 3%, - 2%, - 1%. : ( ), ( ), . : - 47%, - 27%, - 20%. : (180000 ). - . - ( 16 1991 ). - ( 16 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 73 - . ( 1000 ) - 22,5. ( 1000 ) - 5,8. , . 1581 . 1922 ( ) , 1954 . 25 1975 , 40 . , , , , , ., . 27° . , . - , ., - .176215 2. ( 1998 ) 3284800 , 19 2. : ( , , ) - 88%, - 8% , , . - ). : - 66%, - 2%, - 2%. - . : (1400000 ). (81000 ), (76000 ). - . - ( 1 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 69 - , 76 - . ( 1000 ) - 16,9. ( 1000 ) - 8,9. 1624 . XVIII . 25 1825 . 1973 1985 ., , , , .22° , - 10° . , : , , , . , pea ), , , , , , , . : , , , , , , . , , , .: , , - ; , - . : - , ( ); ; (1790-1804)., - .: , , , . 756945 2. - , . : ; ; - , . 6100 . (6893 ) .1000 . 40 80 - .1800 . : . : , , , , . " " . ( 1998 ) 14787800 , 19 2. 90 % . : - 95%, ( ) - 3%, ( , , , , ) - 2%. : ( ), . : - 89%, ( ) - 11%. - . : (5065000 ), (326800 ), (303600 ), (274000 ). - . - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 70 - , 77 - . ( 1000 ) - 18,3. ( 1000 ) - 5,5. , , ( 1520 ). , . 1535 , , . , om om ww ww, F-XChD ang X ChPeDF- an P ge W!O W ! uy N 1540 . , NO b bu y to 1541 , 1550 1552 . XVI to lickC, . ic k Cl w.d k.c , .18 1810 wo c .do ck.ccu-tra , 15 cu-tra . 1973 , 15 . , , . , ., . 20° , - 13° . 12° 29° , - 3° 15° . , . 7° . , . - ., , , . - . , , , , . , , , , , , , . , , , . : , . , . , , XVI XIX . - . , - ., 965 . 272045 2. : - - ; - - , ; , , ; - 6 9 . : , (5897 ). ( 1998 ) 12336600 , 45 2. 47% , 49% - . : - 55%, - 25%, - 10%, - 10%. : ( ), ( ). : - 95%, - 1%, , , . - . : (1508444 ), (1244000 ), (195000 ), (144000 ), (125000 ). - . - ( 1997 ). - . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 71 - . ( 1000 ) - 23,2. ( 1000 ) - 5,2. , . 1526 . 1532 . 24 1822 , 13 1830 . , , , .- 26° . 7° 21° . , 38° .- , ; - , . , . , , . , (13 ). , , . , , . , XVII , , , . , . : , , . , . , ; - ; - ; - . 7682292 2 ( - 7614500 2). , , , , . , 300 . , 1200 .: , .- (2228 ) - .- 300 450 . : , ., , ., , - , • . - ( ), , , 5300 .: , , , - , . - . ( 1998 ) 18613000 , 2,4 2. : - 95% ( ), ( ) - 4%, - 1,5%. : ( ), . : - 26%, - 26%, - 20% ( , , ), - 4%, , , . - . : (3590000 ), (3094000 ), (1450000 ), (1220000 ), (1039000 ), (303000 ). - . - II - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 75 - , 81 - . ( 1000 ) - 13,5. ( 1000 ) - 6,9. , 40000 . , , , , 1000 .. XVII . Terra Australia, . XVII , XIX . , , . 1830 , om om ww ww, DF-X Change DF- XChanPPge W! W! y N

O

u . 1 1901 ,

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y Nu to b . 1967 . obtlickC. , lic k

C

w.d .c . wo . .ccu- tracdk. , - . ocu-tr,ack 40% , : ( ) . 27° 29° .- 18° 21° . - . 10° , - 2° . , - . ( , 1994 ) . , : 22 90% . 840 , 83 . 2 ., . , , ., . , 500 , 90 . , .500 : .70% , 88% 94% . 7 700 19 ; 36 49 . , . - , , , ; , . - , , 50 : , 9 ; - . : . , , . - .: , - - 6 ; 500 1 , , , . 100 , , , . : , - , - , . - 4 : 70 , ; - - ; , 3 ; . , ( 0,9 3,7 ). 700 : , , , , , , , . , - - 348 9 ; - - 2010 ; ; ; , .( 1827 ) ; . , ., , . ; . - ; . - . : , , ; - ; - . , . , - XIX ; - . , , . " -1" ; - , " ". - , , , . , ; . : , : - , , , . , 70 . : , , , . 14763 2.(5942 ) . ( 1998 ) 185200 , 12,5 2. : - 95%, , , . : , , ( ), . : - 40%, - 14%, - 16%, - 15%. - ( ). : (20000 ). - . - .- . ( 1994 ). - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 64 - , 67 - . ( 1000 ) - 29,2. ( 1000 ) - 8,4. 1606 . 1774 , . 1887 . 30 1980 . , , , .25° ., 7 - , , , , , , . - 195 2. ( 1998 ) 62093 , 318 2. : ( ), ( ). : - 50%, - 20%. - ( 3000 ). - 3 .- . ( 1000 ) - 27,3. ( 1000 ) - 4,0. 1722 , 100 ( 1830 ). 1899 - . 1922 " " . , J , 1948 . 1967 ( ) , 4 ( 1976 ).om om ww ww, F-XChang F-XChD e anP PD ge W! ! O O

W

y N . - 549 2. y N bu u to ( 1998 ) 148060 , 270 2. to b ick Cl : - 50%, . : ( ), . k Cl ic : w.d k.c - 80%. - (2100 ). wo . .ccu-trac d ( . ), 4 ( 1970 ocu-track ). ( ) . - . ( 1000 ) - 25,0. ( 1000 ) - 4,4.6 1521 . 1565 - . 1568 . , , 100000 ( 1521 ) 5000 1741 . 1898 . , 1941 . , 21 - 10 1944 . " " . , 1950 , , . , 2 , ( ). - ., , - - . - 2842 2. ( 1998 ) 224700 , 79 2. 400 100 600 . : )- 92,6%, ( ) - 7%, . : , ( ). : - 70%, - 20%. - (33000 ). - . - ( 1 1962 ). 5 . - ( 11 1988 ). - . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 69 - . ( 1000 ) - 29,6. ( 1000 ) - 5,5. 1900 . 1914 . 1920 . 18 1961 1 1962 . , . , , , . , , (16 ), (8), (8) ( ). - 730 2. ( 1998 ) 83976 , 115 2. : - . - , ) . : - 52%, ( ) - 40%. - (29000 ). - 6 . - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 26,5. ( 1000 ) - 7,6. 1606 .60-80- XVIII . , .( - ). 1892-1915 ( ) , . (1941-1943 ).1972 ( ), . 1 1975 . 1 1977 , 12 1979 . - , . 1979 - , 4- 3 . , .15 , ( ) . - - . - 240 2. ( 1998 ) 19989 , 83 2. : , . - . 11 : - 75%, . - ( 1500 ). , - .- .- . ( 1987 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 22,5. ( 1000 ) - 5,2.1773 . 1888-1901 , 1901 . 1965 ". , . 34 , : - - . 181 2. ( 1998 ) 63000 . : - 97%. : ), , . : - 90%. - . - . - ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 65 - . ( 1000 ) - 45,4. ( 1000 ) - 6,9. 1526 , XIX . 1886 1914 . 1914 , 1920 . 1944 | , ;! . 1946 ^ . 1979 - I , 1990 | - 3 ., . , , ), ( ) , 607 . 702 2. ( 1998 ) 129650 . : - 41%, - 26%. - ). : . - . : , . - . - ( 1995 ). - . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 70 - . ( 1000 ) - 27,6. ( 1000 ) - 6,1. , , . 1947 . 17 1991 .om om ww ww, DF-X Chang XChe DF- anP P ge W! !O OWyNyNobuutobick ick t Cl Cl w.d c . w cocu-track. .d 21 2. o . cu-track ( 1998 ) 10500 . : ( , ) - 58%, - 26% , - 8%, - 8%. : ( ), . : . - . - . - . ( 1996 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 18,0. ( 1000 ) - 5,1. 1888 . 1920 , . 31 1968 . 16 , . - .- - . - : 200 2280 . : , . 270534 2. ( 1998 ) 3625400 , - 13 2. 75% . : ( ) - 88%, , XIV ) - 8,9%, . : , ( ). : - 24%, - 18%, - 15%, . - . : (945000 ), (326900 ), (312600 ), (151800 ), (110800 ). - II, . - ( 1996 ). - . ( 1998 ): 73 - , 79 - . ( 1000 ) - 14,9. ( 1000 ) - 7,6. , , , , , . : 2 , 1,5 .23 , , , ( ), . - , , . : ., . 200 , . 458 2. ( 1998 ) 18100 . 70% , 550 2. 8 . : - 80%, - 19%. : ( ), , , , . : - 40%, - 25%, . - (10500 ). - . - ( 1 1993 ). - . ( 1998 ): 69 - , 73 - . ( 1000 ) - 21,3. ( 1000 ) - 7,9. ( 1710 ). 1783 , , 50000 5000 . 1899 , 1914 , 1944 . 1947 . 1 1994 , ., . 28° ., , , , ( ). , - , - , .462840 2. ( 1998 ) 4599800 , 10 2. : ( ), ( ) - 98%, , , , . : ( ), , . : - 63%, - 31%, . - . : (195000 ), (81000 ), (27000 ). - . - II, ( 4 1991 ). - ( 1994 ). - . ( 1998 ): 55 - , 57 - . ( 1000 ) - 32,4. ( 1000 ) - 9,7. 1883 , 1906 . ; 1 1973 , 6 1975 . , , .28° , 3° ., - . : , ( ), , , , . , ; . ( ) . ( - ), , , , . - 4,2 . 2. ( 1998 ) 237844 . : , , . : ( ), , . : - 55%, - 37%. - ( 23000 ). 5 .( 1995 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 22,7. ( 1000 ) - 5,0. , , ( 1595 . )., . , .40- XIX . 1958 ( ). 1996 . 1977 , ( ). om om ww ww, DF-X Chang DF-X Ch e anP P ge W! W! yNOOy N bu bukto, . - 475 2 ( - , , to). ic Cl ( 1998 ) 66561 , 140 2. ic k Cl w.d k.:c . - . : . w .-o .ccu-trac d. (40000 ). ocu-track - ( 1993 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 22,8. ( 1000 ) - 2,3. 1986 " " , . 1993 . - , ., , , , , , . ( ). , 30 , . , . - , , , , . 27556 2.- (2331 ) . ( 1998 ) 441000 , 16 2. : - 93%, - 4%, - 1,5%, - 0,8%, - 0,3%. : ( ), ( ), 80 . : - 34%, - 24%, - 19%, . - . : (39000 ). - . - II, ( 1994 ). - ( 28 1989 ). - . ( 1998 ): 68 - , 73 - . ( 1000 ) - 36,6. ( 1000 ) - 4,2. , , 1568 . 1768 . 1885 , 1893 , - _ , . 7 1978 . , , , , . , , . , . 150 , : , .748 2. ( 1998 ) 108000 , 144 2. : - 98%, , . : , ( ). : - 47%, -14%, - - 14%, - 9%, - 9%. - (34000 ). - . - IV ( 16 1965 ). - ( 21 1991 ). - . ( 1998 ): 66 - , 71 - . ( 1000 ) - 26,4. ( 1000 ) - 6,1. XVII . , . 1845 , .14 1899 , 18 1900 . 4 1970 . , , , , . 24° 1905 . |! . , , . - . (1865-1867). , . 26 2.( 1998 ) 10400 , 400 2. : . : , ( ). - . - (2800 ). - . - II, . ( 1994 ). - . ( 1993 ). - , . ( 1998 ): 62 - , 64 - . ( 1000 ) - 22,6. ( 1000 ) - 8,6. 1764 . XIX -• . 1877 . 1892 . 1974 ( ), 1 1978 ., 27° , - 3048 ., . - 274 2. ( 1998 ) 14974 , 55 2. : . - . : - . - ( ). - - - . ( 1994 ). - . ( 1000 ) - 23,0. ( 1000 ) - 4,8. 1616 , - 1767 . 1888 - , 1961 - " " . , . , . 300 , 100 . 18274 2. ( 1998 ) 802600 , 44 2. : ( ) - 49%, - 46%, - 2%. : ( ), , . : ( )- 52%, - 38%, - 8%, om om ww ww, DF-X ChanPgDF-XChe anP ge W! W!

NO

uy . - . : (151000 ), (28728 ), (8601 N

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uy to b ). (7679 ). - ( 1994 ). obkt- licC ( 2 1992 ). - . ic k Cl w.d k:. c70 - , 74 - . ( 1000 ) - 22,9. ( 1000 ) - 6,2w. co . .cu- t r ac d 1874 10 1970 . 1987 ocu-track , .- . - 25° . : , . om om ww ww]
15

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