Download: 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note AVR040: EMC Design Considerations Scope
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 1619C–AVR–01/04 AVR040: EMC Design Considerations Scope This application note covers the most common EMC problems designers encounter when using microcontrollers. It will briefly discuss the various phenomena. The refer- ence literature covers EMC design in more detail, and for designers who are going to build products that need to be EMC compliant, further study is highly recommended. A good EMC design requires more knowledge than what can be put into a short applica- tion note. Unlike many other design issues, EMC is not an area where it is possibl...
Author: Tucker Shared: 8/19/19
Downloads: 464 Views: 1049
Microcontroller Application NoteRev. 1619C–AVR–01/04
AVR040: EMC Design Considerations ScopeThis application note covers the most common EMC problems designers encounter when using microcontrollers. It will briefly discuss the various phenomena. The refer- ence literature covers EMC design in more detail, and for designers who are going to build products that need to be EMC compliant, further study is highly recommended. A good EMC design requires more knowledge than what can be put into a short applica- tion note. Unlike many other design issues, EMC is not an area where it is possible to list a set of rules. EMC compliance cannot be guaranteed by design; it has to be tested. It is recommended that readers unfamiliar with EMC design read this document more than once, as some of the subjects described early in this document are more easily understood if the reader has already read the rest of the document.
IntroductionElectromagnetic compatibility is a subject most designers did not have to worry about a few years ago. Today, every designer putting a product on the global market has to consider this. There are two main reasons for this: • The electromagnetic environment is getting tougher. High-frequency radio transmitters, like mobile telephones, are found everywhere. More and more systems are using switching power supplies in the power circuit, and the overall number of electronic appliances is increasing every year. • Electronic circuits are becoming more and more sensitive. Power supply voltages are decreasing, reducing the noise margin of input pins. Circuit geometries get smaller and smaller, reducing the amount of energy required to change a logic level, and at the same time reducing the amount of noise required to alter the logic values of signals. From a designer’s point of view, EMC phenomena have to be considered in two differ- ent ways: • How the environment may affect the design (immunity). • How the design may affect the environment (emission). Traditionally, the only government regulations have been on the emission side: An electronic device is not allowed to emit more than a certain amount of radio frequency energy to avoid disturbing radio communication or operation of other electronic equip- ment. Most countries in the world have regulations on this topic. Additional demands on noise immunity earlier were found only for special applica- tions, like medical equipment, avionics and military applications., From 1995, Europe introduced regulations on immunity for all electronic products, known as the EMC directive. The pur- pose of this directive is: • To ensure that no product emits or radiates any disturbances that may interfere with the function of other equipment. • To ensure that all products withstand the disturbances present in their operating environment. At the same time, enforcement of EMC requirements was strengthened: every product made in or imported to Europe must prove to fulfill both emission and immunity require- ments before it can be put on the market. Countries in other parts of the world are also about to introduce similar legal requirements. The limits for acceptable emission and immunity levels for different product classes and environments are given in various international standards. A more detailed description of these are found in the reference literature. The EMC directive applies to finished products, but not to components. As a component will not work without being put into a system, the demands are put on the finished sys- tem. How the problems are solved internally is left to the designer. As a result of this, the test procedures required for CE-marking are well suited for testing finished products, but they cannot be used directly for testing components like micro- controllers. The same applies for the test procedures required for FCC approval. EMC test data for components will be influenced by the test boards the components are mounted on during test. These results should therefore only be regarded as informative. On the other hand, there are test standards (military, automotive and others) that are made to test components directly. These standards specify standardized test boards to make sure that measurements on different manufacturer’s components can be com- pared. These tests are not a requirement according to the EMC directive.
EMC Phenomena and Unlike many other design issues (for instance, power calculations), there are no exact EMC Testing rules for EMC design saying, “Do it like this and it will work.” Instead, there are a lot ofdesign suggestions saying, “Do it like this and it may work,” or “This is more likely to work, but at a higher cost.” For most applications, it is not possible to prove EMC compliance without actual lab testing. Several new CAD packages include EMC simulations. These may be good design help, saving some extra trips to the test lab, but they cannot replace the final compliance test. This chapter will give a short introduction to the most common EMC phenomena encountered in MCU system designs. To make it easier to understand the different phe- nomena, the phenomena and the tests used to emulate them are described together. ESD (Immunity Test) ESD (electrostatic discharge) is a phenomenon most people have experienced. This is what happens if you feel a small electric shock when you touch your kitchen sink or another grounded object. What happens is that your body has been charged with a small electrostatic charge (easily achieved by walking on synthetic fiber carpets). This charge is released when you touch an object with a different charge or an object con- nected to ground. For a human being to actually feel the discharge, the voltage must be about 4 kV or more, and it is not difficult to achieve tens of kV. 2 AVR040,
AVR040Figure 1. ESD Test Generator Rc S Rd To Discharge Tip Vs Cs To Ground Return A simple way of modeling this phenomena is to use a capacitor that will hold the same charge as the body and a series resistor that will release this charge the same way the body does. Figure 1 shows a principle schematic of this setup. CS is the storage capacitor that equals the capacitance of the human body, RD is the discharge resistance that equals the resistance of the human body. VS is a high-voltage power supply, and RC the series resistance of this power supply. When the switch S is connected to RC, the capacitor is charged. When the switch S is connected to RD, the capacitor is discharged through RD and the device under test, which is connected to or placed near the discharge tip. The value of RC is of no practical value for what amount of energy is stored in the capacitor or for how this is transferred to the device under test. Integrated circuits are usually tested according to MIL-STD-883. Here RC is 1 - 10 MΩ, RD is 1.5 kΩ and CS is 100 pF. This is the so-called Human Body Model, which tries to emulate the ESD an integrated circuit may experience as a result of manual handling during board production. The traditional test voltage VS a CMOS device is expected to handle is ±2 kV. Newer devices like AVR microcontrollers are often rated to ± 4 kV or more. Another model, the Machine Model, tries to emulate the ESD an integrated circuit will experience from automatic handlers. Here CS is twice as big, 200 pF. The current limit- ing resistor RD is zero (!), but an inductor up to 500 nH may be inserted instead. RC is 100 MΩ. In this model, the rise time of the current is much higher, and most devices fail at voltages higher than ±500V. ESD compliance according to the EMC directive is based on IEC 1000-4-2. This stan- dard specifies a Human Body model that tries to emulate the ESD a product will experience as a result of normal use. The component values are therefore slightly tougher here than in MIL-STD-883: RC is 100 MΩ, RD is 330Ω and CS is 150 pF. This means that a product built by circuits rated at 4 kV may not necessarily pass IEC 1000- 4-2 at 4 kV without adding some kind of external protection. Another important difference here: MIL-STD-883 only requires that the device is not damaged by the test. The demand of the EMC directive is stronger: the product shall continue to operate as intended, without being disturbed by the ESD pulse. This require- ment is tough, as a high-voltage ESD transient on an input pin may easily change the logic value of the pin. This means that the designer of a microcontroller-based system must either design hardware to make sure that ESD transient never reaches the I/O pins, or write software that detects and handles such incorrect readings.,
Fast Transient Burst Fast transients or bursts are generally a power line phenomenon, but it can also be a(Immunity Test) problem on signal lines due to inductive or capacitive coupling. It can occur when a power switch or a relay with an inductive load is operated: When the current is discon- nected, a series of small sparks will put high-voltage spikes on the power line. Figure 2. Fast Transient Burst
Vt 15ms Burst Duration 300ms Burst Period Figure 3. Close-up of Burst
VPulse t 200 µs (0.25-2.0 kV) or 400 µs (4.0 kV) Repetition Period Figure 2 shows the fast transient burst pulse train used for EMC testing. Figure 3 shows a close-up of a burst. Note that the pulse is only about 50 ns wide, this is much smaller than the figure indicates. See IEC 1000-4-4 for details of the pulses and the test setup. Test voltages on power supply lines are typically 1 kV for protected environment, 2 kV for industrial environment. Severe industrial environments may require up to 4 kV tran- sient testing. Test voltages on I/O lines are half the values used for power supply lines. On an I/O line, the pulse may seem similar to an ESD pulse, but there are some very important differences: • The energy of a single transient pulse may be higher than an ESD pulse at the same voltage, depending on the coupling path into the system. • ESD testing is performed once or only a few times, with several seconds cool-down time between each pulse. The fast transient pulse is repeated at 5 kHz (2.5 kHz @ 4 kV) for 15 ms: this is one burst. The burst is repeated every 300 ms. 4 AVR040,
AVR040 Surge Immunity Test This is the mother of all transient tests. It tries to emulate what happens when lightninghits (near) the power network, and the energies involved are high. The capacitance of the energy storage capacitor is up to 20 µF, 200,000 times bigger than the 100 pF used in an ESD test. The test setup is not identical to the one shown in Figure 1, a few pulse- shaping components are added, but the basic principle is the same. See IEC 1000-4-5 for details of this test setup. The surge test is performed only on power supply lines, so this is typically a power sup- ply design issue. However, note that if the design is made to operate on DC power, powered from any approved DC power supply, the designer may still have to incorpo- rate surge protectors on the DC input. The protection of a commercial power supply may be limited to only protecting the power supply itself, resulting in heavy surges on its DC output. Don’t get confused by the similarities between 4 kV ESD testing, 4 kV fast transient burst testing and 4 kV surge. The voltages are the same, but the energy behind them is totally different. Dropping a small rock on your foot may hurt, but you will still be able to walk. Dropping a large rock from the same height will most likely cause severe damage to your foot. Doing this 250 times per second will reduce your shoe size permanently. When the surge boulder falls, you'd rather be somewhere else.
RF Emission Tests Radio frequency emissions or noise are among the most difficult problems to handlewhen designing with fast digital circuits. Problems do not occur only as noise radiated to the outside world. Handling noise issues internally in the system is equally important. The tests are split into two different types: radiated emission and conducted emission. This split is mainly done to make the tests practical to implement and because con- ducted emission dominates in the low-frequency range, while radiated emission dominates in the high-frequency range. Radiated emission is radiated directly from the system and its signal/power cables. This is high-frequency radiation, as a normal PCB is too small to be a good antenna for low frequencies. The EMC directive requires measurements in the range 30 MHz to 1 GHz. American FCC rules require measurements at higher frequencies for certain applica- tions. Lower frequencies are measured directly on the cables. The high frequencies will typically be generated by harmonics of digital oscillators and I/O pins. Note that the upper frequency generated by a digital circuit is not limited by the clock frequency of the device, but by the rise time of the signals. Lowering the clock speed of the system will therefore not lower the bandwidth of the noise, but will lower the power radiated at high frequencies. (Reducing the number of noisy transitions will reduce the total power of the noise.) Conducted emission is measured on cables. The EMC directive requires measurements in the range 150 kHz to 30 MHz. Some test standards require measurements down to 9 kHz. Noise in this frequency range is typically from switch mode power supplies and from the base frequencies of digital oscillators and I/O pins. Long cables will, of course, also act as antennas for both low-frequency and high-fre- quency signals. But if the LF signals are damped sufficiently to be below the limits of the conducted emission test, the radiation from the cable will be negligible. It is therefore not necessary to measure radiated emission in the range below 30 MHz. Similarly, conducted HF noise on the cables will show in the radiated emission test. If the noise is sufficiently damped to be below the limit for radiated emission, the con- ducted noise on the cable will be negligible., Test setups and limits for different applications are given in various standards issued by the International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR). Information tech- nology equipment, for instance, is covered by CISPR 22.
RF Immunity Test This test is done to verify that a product can operate as intended even if it is exposed toa strong radio transmitter. The test limit for immunity is much higher than the test limit for emission, so the fields involved are strong. Be aware that the RF fields a system may be exposed to can be higher than the test lim- its required for EMC approval. The test limit for conducted RF fields is 3V/m for household applications. A GSM cell phone transmitting at maximum power will produce this field strength at a distance of 3 meters. If the cell phone is closer, the field strength will be higher. If the intended use of the system may include operation while someone is using a cell phone nearby, it is therefore a good idea to test the system for higher immunity levels than the minimum levels required. Industrial applications usually require 10V/m or higher. Digital systems usually do not experience problems with this test, but analog parts of the system may. As for RF emission, the RF immunity tests are split into two different types: radiated and conducted emission. The test setup for radiated disturbances is given in IEC 1000-4-3; for conducted distur- bances the test setup is given in IEC 1000-4-6.
Dealing with EMC For most engineers, EMC design is a relatively new subject. Before Europe introduced Phenomena the EMC directive, it was possible for a company to build and sell their products withoutpaying too much attention to the problem. As long as the products worked as intended and did not interfere with broadcast stations, everything was basically fine. The three-year transition period from the time the directive was effective in 1992 until it was a requirement in 1995 did not do much to change this. In many companies, the real work did not start until there was no longer a choice. And then, the only option was the hard, expensive way: take an existing product, which perhaps was designed without any thoughts of EMC at all, and try to add the necessary filter, protectors, shielding and whatever to make it EMC compliant. This is the worst possible approach; the cost is high and the results are usually poor. When designing a new product, it is very important to start thinking EMC from the begin- ning. This is when all the low-cost solutions are available. A good PCB layout does not cost more in production than a bad one, but the cost of fixing a bad one can be high. One of the most expensive mistakes a designer can make is to believe that EMC is something that can be dealt with after everything else is finished. What approach to use depends, as always, on estimated system cost and production volume. For a low-volume system, the best way out may be to use expensive compo- nents and system solutions to reduce design time. For a high-volume, low-cost application, it may be better to spend more time and resources on the design to reduce the overall cost of the final product. 6 AVR040,
AVR040 Design Help If you don’t feel that you have the necessary EMC know-how when you start a project, itcan be a good idea to get some help from experts. This will keep you from making mis- takes that may cost you a fortune to correct later on. There are a lot of consultants, agencies and companies specializing in EMC design and EMC training. Adding more people in the design phase will also reduce design time and time to market. Good EMC design requires a lot of knowledge, but you do not have to acquire this knowledge the hard way; by trial and error. Others have done this already.
Design Rules Identify the Noise A very important general rule is that all types of noise should be handled as close to the Sources source as possible, and as far away from the sensitive parts of a circuit as possible.This, of course, means that the task of identifying these sources is very important. Transmitted Noise In many microcontroller systems, the microcontroller is the only fast digital circuit. In such systems, the most important internal noise source is the microcontroller itself, and the resources used for preventing conducted and emitted RF are best used close to the microcontroller. This will reduce the amount of RF energy that reaches I/O cables and other parts of the system that may act as transmitting antennas. Received Noise The sources of received noise are usually outside the system, and therefore out of reach for the system designer. The environment is what it is, and the first possibility for the system designer to do something about the noise is on the system inputs and on the power cables. For a system delivered with dedicated cables, it is even possible to start on the cable itself. A good example here is a computer monitor, where you quite often see a filter put next to the VGA plug you connect to your computer. On other systems, the first chance comes with the I/O connectors. For a hand-held, battery-powered appli- cation without any cables, this is not applicable, but then this problem is similarly smaller. If external noise can be prevented from entering the system at all, there will be no immunity problems.
The Path to Ground The best way to avoid noise problems is to generate no noise in the first place, but thisis usually not applicable. Most kinds of noise are side effects of intended behavior of other parts of the system, and therefore cannot be avoided. All kinds of currents, AC or DC, high-power or low-power, signals or noise, are always trying to find the easiest path to ground. The basic idea behind many EMC design tech- niques is to control the path to ground for all signals, and make sure that this path is away from signals and circuits that may be disturbed. For transmitted noise, this means making sure that the noise will find a path to ground before it leaves the system. For received noise, it means making sure that the noise will find a path to ground before it reaches sensitive parts of the system.
System Zones Handling every EMC problem at once is a very complex task. It is therefore a good ideato split the system into smaller subsystems or zones, and handle these individually. The zones may, in some cases, only be different areas of the same PCB. The important part is to have control of what happens inside one zone, and how the zones interact. For each zone, the designer should have some idea about what kind of noise the zone may emit, and what kind of noise it may have to endure. All lines going in and out of a zone may require some kind of filter. It is also very important to be aware about how noise may be radiated from one zone to another. Local shielding of very noisy and/or very sensitive circuits may be necessary., The split may be done in two ways or a combination of these: • The zones may be put apart from each other to separate noisy circuits from sensitive ones. The typical example here is a line-powered system containing both analog and digital circuits, where the (switch mode) power supply, the digital circuits and the analog circuits are put on different areas of the PCB. • The zones may be put inside each other. The noise going into and out of the innermost zone will then have to pass several layers of filters and/or shielding. The total noise reduction will then be much more efficient than what can be received by one layer. An example here is a particularly sensitive analog circuit, perhaps with its own shield, on the analog part of a PCB inside a shielded enclosure with filtered I/O connectors. Another example is a fast microcontroller with fast communication to a nearby memory, and slower communication to other parts of the system. Then the MCU and the memory can be defined as the inner zone – the noisiest part. All lines leaving this zone should then be filtered, making sure that none of them carry the highest-frequency noise further out. The next level of filters may then be on the edge of the “digital zone”, and perhaps also a third layer of filtering on the system I/O ports is used to reduce emitted noise even further. Three layers of filters may sound expensive, but three simple filters may cost much less than an advanced “one-filter-handles-all” solution.
RF Immunity Long I/O and power cables usually act as good antennas, picking up noise from the out-side world and conducting this into the system. For unshielded systems, long PCB tracks may also act as antennas. Once inside the system, the noise may be coupled into other, more sensitive signal lines. It is therefore vital that the amount of RF energy allowed into the system be kept as low as possible, even if the input lines themselves are not connected to any sensitive circuit. This can be done by adding one or more of the following: • Series inductors or ferrite beads will reduce the amount of HF noise that reaches the microcontroller pin. They will have high impedance for HF, while having low impedance for low-frequency signals. • Decoupling capacitors on the input lines will short the HF noise to ground. The capacitors should have low ESR (equivalent series resistance). This is more important than high capacitance values. In combination with resistors or inductors, the capacitors will form low-pass filters. If the system is shielded, the capacitors should be connected directly to the shield. This will prevent the noise from entering the system at all. Special feed-through capacitors are designed for this purpose, but these may be expensive. • Special EMC filters combining inductors and capacitors in the same package are now delivered from many manufacturers in many different shapes and component values.
ESD and Transients Handling ESD is usually quite simple: make sure that the user cannot touch the sensi-tive parts of the system. This is, in most cases, taken care of by the equipment enclosure and only I/O pins leaving the system need special attention. However, ESD discharges may induce currents in nearby paths, causing incorrect values of the signals on these. Keep in mind that both ESD pulses and other types of transients are very high-fre- quency phenomena, and that stray capacitance and inductance have a very important influence of their behavior. A transient on one line may also affect the behavior of other signals nearby. 8 AVR040,
AVR040The important thing is to make sure that the most efficient path to ground is one that does not affect the system. If, for instance, the most efficient path to ground for an ESD pulse is along the I/O line, to the microcontroller pin, through the ESD protection diode and then to ground, a logic high input may be read as low. If the system software cannot be made to handle this (and that is usually the case), the system requires some kind of hardware that will create a more controlled path to ground. The RF filters listed above will, of course, also work on ESD and transients, and may, in some cases, be sufficient. But reducinga4kV spike to a 4V spike requires a very strong filter. It can by done by large series resistors, but that is not always an option. Large series resistors on input lines will increase the impedance of the ground path described above. This will reduce the amount of noise that reaches the microcontroller pin. The disadvantage of this is that the system also gets high impedance for low-frequency and DC signals, and this is therefore not useful for I/O pins that are also used as outputs. Then overvoltage protectors are a better solution. There are many types of these, most of them acting as very fast zener diodes. They will have very high impedance to ground as long as the I/O line voltage is within the specified limits, but will switch to a very low impedance value when the voltage is too high. A transient is then very effectively shorted to ground.
Power Supply, Power One of the most common reasons for EMC problems with microcontroller products is Routing and Decoupling that the power supply is not good enough. Correct and sufficient decoupling of power Capacitors lines is crucial for stable microcontroller behavior, and for minimizing the emitted noisefrom the device. Looking at the datasheet for an AVR microcontroller, one can be fooled to believe that power supply is not critical. The device has a very wide voltage range, and draws only a few mA supply current. But as with all digital circuits, the supply current is an average value. The current is drawn in very short spikes on the clock edges, and if I/O lines are switching, the spikes will be even higher. The current pulses on the power supply lines can be several hundred mA if all eight I/O lines of an I/O port changes value at the same time. If the I/O lines are not loaded, the pulse will only be a few ns. This kind of current spike cannot be delivered over long power supply lines; the main source is (or should be) the decoupling capacitor. Figure 4. Incorrect Decoupling Vcc Power Plane Microcontroller I= Vcc V=
CHigh Current Out Loop
GNDGround Plane Figure 4 shows an example of insufficient decoupling. The capacitor is placed too far away from the microcontroller, creating a large high current loop. The power and ground planes here are parts of the high current loop. As a result of this, noise is spread more, easily to other devices on the board, and radiated emission from the board is increased even further. The whole ground plane will act as an antenna for the noise, instead of only the high current loop. This will be the case if the power and ground pins are connected directly to the planes (typical for hole-mounted components) and the decoupling capacitor is connected the same way. The same is often seen for boards with surface-mount components if the integrated circuits are placed on one side of the board and the decoupling capacitors are placed on the other. Figure 5. Correct Placement of Decoupling Capacitor Vcc Power Plane Microcontroller I= I= Vcc V=
CHigh Current Loop Out
GNDGround Plane Figure 5 shows a better placement of the capacitor. The lines that are part of the high current loop are not part of the power or ground planes. This is important, as the power and ground planes otherwise will spread a lot of noise. Figure 6 shows another improvement of the decoupling. A series inductor is inserted to reduce the switching noise on the power plane. The series resistance of the inductor must, of course, be low enough to ensure that there will be no significant DC voltage drop. Generally, the AVR devices where power and ground lines are placed close together (like the AT90S8535) will get better decoupling than devices with industry standard pinout (like the AT90S8515), where the power and ground pins are placed in opposite corners of the DIP package. This disadvantage can be overcome by using the TQFP package, which allows decoupling capacitors to be placed very close to the die. For devices with multiple pairs of power and ground pins, it is essential that every pair of pins gets its own decoupling capacitor. Figure 6. Decoupling with Series Inductor Vcc Power Plane Microcontroller I= L I= Vcc V=
CHigh Current Loop Out
GNDGround Plane 10 AVR040,
AVR040 PCB Layout and GroundingCurrent Loops and Signal Current can only flow in loops. This is true for signals as well as for power supply cur- Grounding rent. Unfortunately, a current loop will emit noise, and the larger the loop, the larger the noise. Noise also increases with current and with frequency. A large loop is also more likely to receive noise. Loops should therefore be kept as small as possible. This means that every line that may emit or receive noise should have a return path to ground as close to the line as possible. The best way to make sure that every noisy track has such a return path is to add a complete ground plane to the board. Then the area of the loop will only be the length of the track times the distance between the track and the ground plane. This area is usu- ally much smaller than what can be achieved by routing ground paths, so the noise from a board with a ground plane is therefore much less than the noise from a board without a ground plane. Ground Planes In many designs, it looks like the ground plane is defined to be “all the copper not used for something else, connected to ground somewhere.” This will not be an effective ground plane. Note that for a high frequency signal, the return path in a ground plane will be exactly under the track, even if this path is longer than the direct route. This is because the return path will always be the path of least impedance, and for a high-frequency signal, this is the path with the smallest loop, not the path that has lowest DC resistance. For circuits that include both digital and analog circuits, the ground plane may be divided into an analog ground plane and a digital ground plane. This will reduce the interference between the analog and digital parts of the system. Board Zoning System zoning, as described on page 7, can also be applied to a single PCB. Noisy parts of a system, like a digital circuit or a switch mode power supply, should be made as small as possible, reducing the size of current loops that will act as emitting antennas. Similarly, sensitive parts of a system, like an analog measurement circuit, should be made as small as possible, reducing the size of current loops that will act as receiving antennas. And of course, the noisy part of a system should be kept as far away from the sensitive ones as possible. Remember that in both cases the important part is reducing the size of the current loops, not the physical board area. Routing in ground planes to save space should therefore be avoided, unless thorough analysis shows that the ground return paths of other signals will not be affected. Single-layer Boards Single-layer boards are used in many commercial applications due to their low cost. However, from an EMC point of view they are the most demanding boards to work with, as it is not possible to incorporate a ground layer on the board. This may increase the need for external components or shielding to achieve EMC compatibility, especially at high clock speeds. The layout of a single-layer board will require very good EMC design skills from the designer, as the layout very easily ends up having large loops that will act as antennas. It is always a good idea to use wires and straps to overcome some of the worst routing problems, but the task is still demanding., Two-layer Boards If possible, one of the layers should be used as a dedicated ground plane and only that. If signals are routed in the ground plane, this may interfere with the return paths of the track on the other side. This kind of routing will therefore require detailed analysis of every track on the board, otherwise the whole ground plane may be wasted. Figure 7. Ground Grid Top Layer Bottom Layer Via Track Track One way of designing a ground plane on a two-layer board and still allow routing on both layers, is to design a ground grid as shown in Figure 7. Here every path will have a ground return nearby, creating a relatively small loop. How large the cells and how wide the tracks should be will depend on the application. Higher currents and higher frequen- cies will require wider tracks and smaller cells. It is very important to put the ground grid in place first, as it will be very difficult to make room for it after all other tracks have been placed. If required, a segment of the ground grid can be moved to the opposite side of the board to make routing easier or to make room for components. But it is “illegal” to delete segments. If a via or a track has to be moved, put an extra one in the grid to make sure that no cells are larger than the others. A ground grid is not as good as a complete, unbroken ground plane, but it is better than routing ground just like any other signal. Another way of designing a similar ground plane is to fill all unused space on both sides of the board and connect the ground planes together with vias wherever needed. It is very important to make sure that at least one layer is covered by the ground plane at every part of the board and that enough vias are used, so the total ground area becomes as complete as possible. This way of creating a ground plane can also be combined with the ground grid described above. Start with a ground grid, then route the rest of the board and fill all unused areas with ground planes. Some of the vias in the ground grid may, in this case, be removed afterwards. For a mixed signal board with both analog and digital circuits, it is recommended to use an unbroken ground plane for the analog part of the board, as this will provide better noise immunity for sensitive analog circuits. Multi-layer Boards When three or more layers are used, it is essential that one plane is used as a ground plane. It is also recommended to use one layer as a power plane if four or more layers are used. These two planes should then be placed next to each other in the middle of the board, to reduce power supply impedance and loop area. It is not a good idea to place the power and ground planes as the outer layers to act as shields. It does not work as intended, as high currents are running in the ground plane. A shield layer would have to be a second pair of ground layers. 12 AVR040,
AVR040 Shielding In some cases it is not possible to get the noise levels of a system low enough withoutadding a shield. In other applications a shield may be used because it is easier to use a shield than to achieve low noise levels by other means. Depending on the application, the shield may cover the whole system or only the parts of the system that need it most. If the zone system is used in the design, it is easy to determine which zone(s) that need to be shielded. In either case, the shield must be completely closed. A shield is like a pressurized con- tainer: almost good enough is as bad as nothing at all. As described earlier, all lines entering or leaving a zone need to be filtered. A single line that is not filtered will act like a single hole in a bucket of water. It will cause a leak. A semi-closed shield, connected to ground, may still reduce noise. It will act as a ground plane, reducing the size of the loop antennas. A common rule of thumb says that the maximum dimension of any mechanical slit or hole in the shield should be less than 1/10th of the minimum wavelength of the noise. In a system where the maximum significant noise frequency is 200 MHz, this wavelength is 150 cm, and the slits should be less than 15 cm. But such a hole will still cause some reduction of the effectiveness of the shield. A hole that does not affect the effectiveness of the shield has to be less than 1% of the minimum wavelength, in this case 1.5 cm. It may turn out that a 100%-effective shield is not required, though. The filters on the I/O and power lines are usually more important. In many applications, where high-frequency noise (>30 MHz) is dominant, it may not even be necessary to use a metal shield. A conductive layer on the inside of a plastic housing will, in some cases, be sufficient.
AVR-specific Solutions Most of the items described earlier in this document are general. There are, however, afew important AVR-specific subjects a designer should keep in mind. Note that the measures described in this document are not required in all cases. In most cases, only a minimum of external components (decoupling capacitor, etc) is required. In fact, the embedded low-cost solutions such as the BOD and internal pull-ups will do the trick in many designs. General I/O Pin Protection All I/O pins have two internal ESD protection diodes: one from the pin to VCC and one from GND to the pin. Figure 8. AVR I/O Pin Protection Vcc Microcontroller I/O Module I/O Pin
GND, Reset Pin Protection During parallel programming, a 12V signal is connected to the Reset pin. There is there- fore no internal protection diode from Reset to VCC; there is only one from GND to Reset. See Figure 9. Figure 9. Reset Pin Input Protection Vcc Microcontroller Reset Module Reset
GNDTo achieve the same protection on Reset as on other I/O pins, an external diode should be connected from Reset to VCC. A normal small-signal diode will do. In addition, a pull- up resistor (10K typical) and a small filter capacitor (4.7 nF) should be connected as shown in Figure 10. All this, of course, is not needed if Reset is connected directly to VCC, but then external reset and In-System Programming (ISP) is disabled, too. If high ESD protection of Reset is not required, or is achieved by other components, the diode may be omitted. The resistor and capacitor are still recommended for optimum Reset behavior. The diode must also be omitted if In-System Programming of devices like ATtiny11, which can only be programmed using 12V, is required. Then one of the ESD protection methods described earlier may be used instead. Figure 10. Recommended Reset Pin Connection Vcc R Microcontroller Reset Module External Reset Reset
C GND14 AVR040,
AVR040Oscillators As the AVR microcontroller family is running directly on the clock Oscillator, the Oscilla- tor frequency for a specific throughput is relatively low compared to devices that divide the clock by 4, 8, or 12. This reduces the emitted noise from the Oscillator, but the Oscil- lator still will be among the noisiest parts of the chip. High-frequency Oscillators are quite delicate devices and are, therefore, sensitive to external noise. In addition, the Oscillator pins are generally more sensitive to ESD than other I/O pins. Fortunately, it is easy to avoid these problems. Keep the Oscillator loop as tight as possible. Place the crystal/resonator as close to the pins as possible. Connect the decoupling capacitors (or the ground terminal of the reso- nator) directly to the ground plane. Even boards without ground plane should have a local plane under the oscillator. This plane must be connected directly to the ground pin of the microcontroller. Care should also be taken when using an external clock to drive the AVR. If the clock source is far away from the AVR, the clock line will be a strong noise emitter and may also act as a receiving antenna for transients (and other types of noise) that may cause incorrect clocking of the AVR. A buffer should therefore be placed on the clock line. A filter in front of the buffer will help remove incoming noise.,
References Tim Williams: “EMC for Product Designers,” 2nd editionNewnes, Oxford, 1996 ISBN 0 7506 2466 3 The EMC directive 89/336/EEC and 92/31/EEC IEC Standards: IEC 1000 series and 61000 series CISPR standards: All
Useful Links Vendors MurataHome page: http://www.murata.com Harris Suppression Products Group (now a business unit of Littelfuse, Inc) Home page: http://www.intersil.com/tvs/tvs.asp
TDKHome page: http://www.tdk.com EMC components: http://www.component.tdk.com/components/emc.html
Organizations IECThe International Electrotechnical Commission Home page: http://www.iec.ch
CENELECEuropean Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization Home page: http://www.cenelec.be
JEDECJoint Electron Device Engineering Council Home page: http://www.jedec.org
SAESociety of Automotive Engineers Home page: http://www.sae.org
FCCFederal Communications Commission Home page: http://www.fcc.gov/
EIAElectronic Industries Alliance Home page: http://www.eia.org/ 16 AVR040,
Atmel Corporation Atmel Operations2325 Orchard Parkway Memory RF/Automotive San Jose, CA 95131, USA 2325 Orchard Parkway Theresienstrasse 2 Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 San Jose, CA 95131, USA Postfach 3535 Fax: 1(408) 487-2600 Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 74025 Heilbronn, Germany Fax: 1(408) 436-4314 Tel: (49) 71-31-67-0 Fax: (49) 71-31-67-2340
Regional Headquarters MicrocontrollersEurope 2325 Orchard Parkway 1150 East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Atmel Sarl San Jose, CA 95131, USA Colorado Springs, CO 80906, USA Route des Arsenaux 41 Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 Tel: 1(719) 576-3300 Case Postale 80 Fax: 1(408) 436-4314 Fax: 1(719) 540-1759 CH-1705 Fribourg Switzerland La Chantrerie Biometrics/Imaging/Hi-Rel MPU/ Tel: (41) 26-426-5555 BP 70602 High Speed Converters/RF Datacom Fax: (41) 26-426-5500 44306 Nantes Cedex 3, France Avenue de Rochepleine Tel: (33) 2-40-18-18-18 BP 123 Asia Fax: (33) 2-40-18-19-60 38521 Saint-Egreve Cedex, France Room 1219 Tel: (33) 4-76-58-30-00 Chinachem Golden Plaza ASIC/ASSP/Smart Cards Fax: (33) 4-76-58-34-80 77 Mody Road Tsimshatsui Zone Industrielle East Kowloon 13106 Rousset Cedex, France Hong Kong Tel: (33) 4-42-53-60-00 Tel: (852) 2721-9778 Fax: (33) 4-42-53-60-01 Fax: (852) 2722-1369 1150 East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Japan Colorado Springs, CO 80906, USA 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg. Tel: 1(719) 576-3300 1-24-8 Shinkawa Fax: 1(719) 540-1759 Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0033 Japan Scottish Enterprise Technology Park Tel: (81) 3-3523-3551 Maxwell Building Fax: (81) 3-3523-7581 East Kilbride G75 0QR, Scotland Tel: (44) 1355-803-000 Fax: (44) 1355-242-743 Literature Requests www.atmel.com/literature Disclaimer: Atmel Corporation makes no warranty for the use of its products, other than those expressly contained in the Company’s standard warranty which is detailed in Atmel’s Terms and Conditions located on the Company’s web site. The Company assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in this document, reserves the right to change devices or specifications detailed herein at any time without notice, and does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. No licenses to patents or other intellectual property of Atmel are granted by the Company in connection with the sale of Atmel products, expressly or by implication. Atmel’s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems. © Atmel Corporation 2003. All rights reserved. Atmel® and combinations thereof, AVR®, and AVR Studio® are the registered trademarks of Atmel Corporation or its subsidiaries. Microsoft®, Windows®, Windows NT®, and Windows XP® are the registered trademarks of Microsoft Corpo- ration. Other terms and product names may be the trademarks of others Printed on recycled paper.]
8-bit RISC Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2508B–AVR–01/04 AVR182: Zero Cross Detector Features • Interrupt Driven • Modular C Source Code • Size Efficient Code • Accurate and Fast Detection • A Minimum of External Components Introduction One of the many issues with developing modern applicati
AVR242: 8-bit Microcontroller Multiplexing LED Drive anda4x4Keypad Multiplexing Features reduced to fifteen with a bit of ingenuity,
AVR242: 8-bit Microcontroller Multiplexing LED Drive anda4x4Keypad Multiplexing Features reduced to fifteen with a bit of ingenuity, allowing the smaller 20-pin AVR to be LED Drive and a • 16 Key Pushbutton Pad in4x4Matrix • 4 Digit Multiplexed LED Display with used. The circuit diagram is shown in
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 1051B–AVR–05/02 AVR180: External Brown-out Protection Features • Low-voltage Detector • Prevent Register and EEPROM Corruption • Two Discrete Solutions • Integrated IC Solution • Extreme Low-cost Solution • Extreme Low-power Solution • Formulas for Compone
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 1259D–AVR–04/05 AVR134: Real Time Clock (RTC) using the Asynchronous Timer Features • Real Time Clock with Very Low Power Consumption (4 µA @ 3.3V) • Very Low Cost Solution • Adjustable Prescaler to Adjust Precision • Counts Time, Date, Month, and Year wit
Wiring Diagram Samsung Electronics 6-1
8-bit Microcntroller Application Note Rev. 2532A–AVR–01/03 AVR243: Matrix Keyboard Decoder Features • 64-key Push-button Keyboard in8x8Matrix • No External Components Required • Wakes Up from Sleep Mode on Keypress • Easily Implemented into Other Applications • Low Power Consumption • Software Conta
Alignment and Adjustments 1. Tuner FM THD Adjustment FMOutput Antenna GND SETSSG FREQ. 98 MHz Terminal Oscilloscope Adjustment FM S.S.G Input point FM DETECTOR COIL Speaker (FM DET) Terminal output Input Output 60 dB Distortion Meter Minumum Distortion (0.4% below) (Figure 1-1) Figure1-1 IF CENTER
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2540A–AVR–07/03 AVR104: Buffered Interrupt Controlled EEPROM Writes Features • Flexible Multi-byte EEPROM Buffer • Power Efficient EEPROM Access • Access Control on Buffers • EEPROM Buffer Rewrite Introduction Many applications use the built-in EEPROM of t
Schematic Diagram - This Document can not be used without Samsung’s authorization - 7-1 MAIN 7-1 Samsung Electronics 7-2 FRONT - This Document can not be used without Samsung’s authorization - Samsung Electronics 7-2 7-3 DSP - This Document can not be used without Samsung’s authorization - 7-3 Sam
TroubleShooting 9-1 Main 9-1 Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics 9-2 9-3 Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics 9-4 9-2 DVD Servo parts 9-5 Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics 9-6 9-7 Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics 9-8 9-9 Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics 9-10 9-11 Samsung
AVR054: Run-time calibration of the internal RC oscillator Features • Calibration of internal RC oscillator via UART • LIN 2.0 compatible synchronization/calibration to within +/-2% of target frequency • Alternate run-time synchronization/calibration to within +/-1% of target frequency • Support for
DVD RECEIVER AMP HT-DB120 SERVICE Manual DVD RECEIVER AMP SYSTEM CONTENTS 1. Alignment and Adjustments 2. Exploded Views and Parts List 3. Electrical Parts List 4. Block Diagrams 5. PCB Diagrams 6. Wiring Diagram 7. Schematic Diagrams 8. IC block Diagrams 9.Troubleshooting - Confidential - ELECTRONI
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2542A–AVR–09/03 AVR131: Using the AVR’s High-speed PWM Features • Analog Waveform Generation using PWM • High-speed Prescalable PWM Clock Introduction This application note is an introduction to the use of the high-speed Pulse Width Mod- ulator (PWM) avail
8-bit RISC Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2521B–AVR–01/04 AVR042: AVR® Hardware Design Considerations Features • Providing Robust Supply Voltage, Digital and Analog • Connecting the RESET Line • SPI Interface for In-System Programming • Using External Crystal or Ceramic Resonator Oscillators
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note AVR240: 4x4Keypad – Wake-up on Keypress Features Introduction
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note AVR240: 4x4Keypad – Wake-up on Keypress Features • 16 Key Pushbutton Pad in4x4Matrix • Very Low Power Consumption • AVR in Sleep Mode and Wakes Up on Keypress • Minimum External Components • ESD Protection Included if Necessary • Efficient Code • Complete Progr
Microcontrollers for Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge Lamp Ballasts SMARTER, MORE FLEXIBLE LIGHTING SOLUTIONS
LIGHTINGMICROCONTROLLERSMicrocontrollers for Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge Lamp Ballasts SMARTER, MORE FLEXIBLE LIGHTING SOLUTIONS Developed together with the industry leading lamp ballast manufac- turers, Atmel® microcontrollers are optimized for Linear and Dimmable Fluorescent tubes, as
AVR121: Enhancing ADC resolution by oversampling Features • Increasing the resolution by oversampling • Averaging and decimation • Noise reduction by averaging samples 1 Introduction Atmel’s AVR controller offers an Analog to Digital Converter with 10-bit resolution. In most cases 10-bit resolution
IC Block Diagrams 8-1 Main 8-1-1. FAN8082D 8-1 Samsung Electronics 8-1-2. LC87F66C8A Samsung Electronics 8-2 8-3 Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics 8-4 8-5 Samsung Electronics 8-1-3. M62446AFP Samsung Electronics 8-6 8-7 Samsung Electronics 8-1-4. M66010FP 8-1-5. SI-8050SE 8-1-6. SI-8090JFE S
AVR053: Calibration of the internal RC oscillator Features • Calibration using STK500, AVRISP, JTAGICE or JTAGICE mkII • Calibration using 3rd party programmers • Adjustable RC frequency with +/-1% accuracy • Tune RC oscillator at any operating voltage and temperature • Tune RC oscillator to any fre
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2541D–AVR–04/05 AVR230: DES Bootloader Features • Fits All AVR Microcontrollers with Bootloader Capabilities • Enables Secure Transfer of Compiled Software or Sensitive Data to Any AVR with Bootloader Capabilities • Includes Easy To Use, Configurable Examp
AVR106: C functions for reading and writing to Flash memory Features • C functions for accessing Flash memory - Byte read - Page read - Byte write - Page write • Optional recovery on power failure • Functions can be used with any device having Self programming Program memory • Example project for us
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 1631C–AVR–06/02 AVR201: Using the AVR® Hardware Multiplier Features • 8- and 16-bit Implementations • Signed and Unsigned Routines • Fractional Signed and Unsigned Multiply • Executable Example Programs Introduction The megaAVR is a series of new devices i
Printed Circuit Board Diagram 5-1 MAIN 5-1 Samsung Electronics 5-2 FRONT Samsung Electronics 5-2 5-3 DSP 5-3 Samsung Electronics 5-4 JACK * RCA JACK * SCART JACK Samsung Electronics 5-4 5-5 DVD PACK * TOP VIEW * BOTTOM VIEW 5-5 Samsung Electronics
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note AVR105: Power Efficient High Endurance Parameter Storage in Flash Memory
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2546A–AVR–09/03 AVR105: Power Efficient High Endurance Parameter Storage in Flash Memory Features • Fast Storage of Parameters • High Endurance Flash Storage – 350K Write Cycles • Power Efficient Parameter Storage • Arbitrary Size of Parameters • Semi-redu
8-bit RISC Microcontoller Application Note Rev. 2505A–AVR–02/02 AVR130: Setup and Use the AVR® Timers Features • Description of Timer/Counter Events • Timer/Counter Event Notification • Clock Options • Example Code for Timer0 – Overflow Interrupt • Example Code for Timer1 – Input Capture Interrupt •
8-bit RISC Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2585A–AVR–11/04 AVR151: Setup And Use of The SPI Features • SPI Pin Functionality • Multi Slave Systems • SPI Timing • SPI Transmission Conflicts • Emulating the SPI • Code examples for Polled operation • Code examples for Interrupt Controlled operati
AVR241: Direct driving of LCD display using general IO Features • Software driver for displays with one common line • Suitable for parts without on-chip hardware for LCD driving • Control up to 15 segments using 16 IO lines • Fully interrupt driven operation Introduction As a low power alternative t
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 0938B–AVR–01/03 AVR204: BCD Arithmetics Features • Conversion 16 Bits ↔ 5 Digits, 8 Bits ↔ 2 Digits • 2-digit Addition and Subtraction • Superb Speed and Code Density • Runable Example Program Introduction This application note lists routines for BCD arith
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2530B–AVR–01/04 AVR065: LCD Driver for the STK502 and AVR Butterfly Features • Software Driver for Alphanumeric Characters • Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Contrast Control • Interrupt Controlled Updating • Conversion of ASCII to LCD Segment Control Codes (S
8-bit Instruction Set Rev. 0856D–AVR–08/02 Instruction Set Nomenclature Status Register (SREG) SREG: Status Register C: Carry Flag Z: Zero Flag N: Negative Flag V: Two’s complement overflow indicator S: N ⊕ V, For signed tests H: Half Carry Flag T: Transfer bit used by BLD and BST instructions I: Gl