Download: 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note AVR230: DES Bootloader Features
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2541D–AVR–04/05 AVR230: DES Bootloader Features • Fits All AVR Microcontrollers with Bootloader Capabilities • Enables Secure Transfer of Compiled Software or Sensitive Data to Any AVR with Bootloader Capabilities • Includes Easy To Use, Configurable Example Applications – Encrypting Binary Files and Data – Creating Target Bootloaders – Downloading Encrypted Files to Target • Encryption Algorithm Follows Data Encryption Standard (DES) • Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) for Increased Security • DES Bootloader Fits Into 2-KB on All AVR Devices • ...
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Path to configuration file If set, contents of each Flash page is deleted before writing. Else, -d previous data will be preserved if not specifically written to. -e Path to EEPROM file (data that goes into EEPROM) -f Path to Flash file (code that goes into Application Section) Name of output header file. This file must later be included with the -h bootloader. Name of output key file. This file must later be included with the -k bootloader. Lock bits to set. These lock bits are set after all data has been -l [BLB12] [BLB11] [BLB02] transferred and before control is transferred to the updated [BLB01] application. Nonsense. Add random number of nonsense records to encrypted file. As nonsense records are ignored by the bootloader, this setting -n does not affect the application, only the predictability of the output file. Output file name. This is the encrypted file that may be distributed -o and sent to the target when it needs to be updated. First Run In the first run, typically, only key and header files for the bootloader are generated. The generation of key and header files is requested using command line arguments. For example: Create –c Config.txt –h BootLdr.h –k DESKeys.inc The key and header files must be copied to the project directory of the bootloader appli- cation and be included into the bootloader code. Note: Please note that the bootloader project files are preconfigured to use the file names men- tioned above, i.e. BootLdr.h and DESKeys.inc. It is recommended these file names are not changed. Subsequent Runs In subsequent runs, the application is used for encoding the firmware. Prior to encryp- tion, the source file must be compiled, assembled and linked into one code segment file and/or one EEPROM segment file. Files must be of type Intel hex. A file name is given at the command prompt and an encrypted file will be generated according to data in the configuration file. For example: Create –c Config.txt –e EEPROM.hex –f Flash.hex –o Update.enc –l BLB11 BLB12 The application software and EEPROM data files will be combined into a single encrypted file. Program Flow The program flow is illustrated in Figure 6., transferred -COMn Serial port, where n is the serial port number It should be noted that the update system only updates those parts of the Flash and EEPROM denoted in the application and EEPROM files. If CRC check of application section is enabled, or the erase option is selected in the Create tool, all application memory will be cleared before programming.
Microcontroller Application NoteRev. 2541D–AVR–04/05
AVR230: DES Bootloader Features• Fits All AVR Microcontrollers with Bootloader Capabilities • Enables Secure Transfer of Compiled Software or Sensitive Data to Any AVR with Bootloader Capabilities • Includes Easy To Use, Configurable Example Applications – Encrypting Binary Files and Data – Creating Target Bootloaders – Downloading Encrypted Files to Target • Encryption Algorithm Follows Data Encryption Standard (DES) • Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) for Increased Security • DES Bootloader Fits Into 2-KB on All AVR Devices • 3DES Bootloader Fits Into 2-KB on All AVR Devices, Except ATmega128 • Typical Update Times of a 16-KB Application, Including Transfer of Data, Decryption and Programming of Flash Memory – DES, 115200 Bauds, 16 MHz Target Frequency: 20 Seconds – 3DES, 115200 Bauds, 16 MHz Target Frequency: 50 Seconds
IntroductionThis application note describes how firmware can be updated securely on AVR micro- controllers with bootloader capabilities. The method includes using the Data Encryption Standard (DES) to encrypt the firmware. This application note also sup- ports the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). Electronic designs including a microcontroller always need to be equipped with a firm- ware, be it a portable music player, a hairdryer or a sewing machine. As many electronic designs evolve rapidly there is a growing need for being able to update products, which have already been shipped or sold. It may prove difficult to make changes to the hardware, especially if the product has already reached the end cus- tomer. But the firmware can easily be updated on products based on Flash microcontrollers, such as the AVR family. Many AVR microcontrollers are configured such that it is possible to create a boot- loader able to receive firmware updates and to reprogram the Flash memory on demand. The program memory space is divided in two sections: the Bootloader Sec- tion (BLS) and the Application Section. Both sections have dedicated lock bits for read and write protection such that a bootloader code can be secured in the BLS while still being able to update the code in the application area. Hence, the update algorithm in the BLS can easily be secured against outside access. The problem remains with the firmware, which typically is not secured before it has been programmed into Flash memory and lock bits have been set. This means that if the firmware needs to be updated in the field, it will be open for unauthorized access from the moment it leaves the programming bench or manufacturer’s premises., This application note shows how data to be transferred to Flash and EEPROM memo- ries can be secured at all times by using cryptographic methods. The idea is to encrypt the data before it leaves the programming bench and decrypt it only after it has been downloaded into the target AVR. This procedure does not prevent unauthorized copying of the firmware, but the copy (and of course the original) is virtually useless without the proper decryption keys. Decryption keys are only stored in one location outside the pro- gramming environment: inside the target AVR. Provided that lock bits are set, the keys cannot be read from the target AVR. Also, the keys cannot be regenerated from the encrypted data. The only way to gain access to the data is by using the proper keys. Figure 1 shows an example of how a product is first manufactured, loaded with initial firmware, sold and later updated with a new revision of the firmware. Figure 1. An Example of the Production and Update Procedure of an AVR-based Design
MANUFACTURER THIRD PARTYFIRMWARE UPDATES
FIRMWARE(INITIAL) BOOT- FIRMWARE
LOADER1 4 (UPDATE)
DECRYPTION KEYSPRODUCT BEING PRODUCT SOLD PRODUCT BEING MANUFACTURED UPDATED Notes: 1. During manufacturing, the microcontroller is first equipped with bootloader, decryp- tion keys and application firmware. The bootloader takes care of receiving the actual 2 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App Noteapplication and programming it into Flash memory, while keys are required for decrypting the incoming data. Lock bits are set to secure the firmware inside the AVR. 2. The product is then shipped to a distributor or sold to the end customer. Lock bit set- tings continue to keep the firmware secured inside the AVR. 3. A new release of the firmware is completed and there is a need to update products, which already have been distributed. The firmware is therefore encrypted and shipped to the distributor. The encrypted firmware is useless without decryption keys and therefore even local copies of the software (for example, on the hard drive of the distributor) do not pose a security hazard. 4. The distributor upgrades all units in stock and those returned by customers (for exam- ple, during repairs). The encrypted firmware is downloaded to the AVR and decrypted only once inside the microcontroller. Lock bit settings continue to keep the updated firmware secured inside the AVR.
Theory Cryptography is the art or science of keeping information secret and is based on eitherhiding the cryptographic method or securing the cryptographic key. Algorithms only based on the secrecy of the method used are mainly of historical interest and do not meet the needs of the real world. Modern algorithms use a key to control encryption and decryption. Without the matching key, the scrambled message or data cannot be arranged into plaintext.
Encryption Encryption is the method of encoding a message or data such that its contents are hid-den from outsiders. The plaintext message or data in its original form may contain information the author or distributor wants to keep secret, such as the firmware of a microcontroller. For example, when a microcontroller is updated in the field it may prove difficult to secure the firmware against illicit copying attempts and reverse engineering. Encrypting the firmware will render it useless until it is decrypted.
Decryption Decryption is the method of retrieving the original message or data and typically cannotbe performed without knowing the proper key. Keys can be stored in a bootloader of the microcontroller such that the device can receive encrypted data, decrypt it and repro- gram selected parts of the Flash or EEPROM memory. Decryption keys cannot be retrieved from the encrypted data and cannot be read from AVR microcontrollers if lock bits have been programmed.
Cryptographic Key Algorithms based on cryptographic keys are divided in two classes; symmetric and Algorithms asymmetric. Symmetric algorithms use the same key for encryption and decryptionwhile asymmetric algorithms use different keys. The most studied and probably the most widely spread symmetric algorithm is DES.
Data Encryption The Data Encryption Standard (DES) was originally developed in the 1970’s and was Standard – DES later turned into a standard by the US National Institute of Standards (NIST). DES is asymmetric cryptographic algorithm using a 56-bit key. The algorithm has proved very strong in practice and has outlived many others., The DES algorithm uses a 56-bit encryption key, meaning that the number of possible key combinations is: 256 = 72,057,594,037,927,936 = 7.206 x 1016 DES is a block cipher, operating on blocks of 64 bits of data. Each input block is pro- cessed as illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2. The Encryption Flow According to the DES Algorithm
INPUTINITIAL PERMUTATION 32 32 L0 K1 R0 32 48 + + 32 f L1 = R0 K2 R1 + + f L15 = R14 K16 R15 + + f R16 L16 = R15 INVERSE INITIAL PERMUTATION
OUTPUTFigure 2 illustrates how a single block of data is being encrypted. First, the order of the input bits is changed according to the permutation function. The low 32 bits (R0) are then processed separately from the high 32 bits (L0). There are 16 process steps, each step 4 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App Noteusing a different subset (Kn) of the encryption key (only steps 1, 2 and 16 are illustrated in Figure 2). Finally, the bit order is changed inversely with respect to the initial permuta- tion function. The decryption algorithm is the same as the encryption algorithm; only the sequence of the key subsets Kn is reversed. The DES algorithm is described in more details in the DES standard (see References section).
Triple Data Encryption Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) is based on using DES three times, thus Standard – 3DES increasing the key length from 56 to 168 bits. 3DES is very much stronger than DES butrather slow for real-time applications, as compared to some newer algorithms. For this application note, timing is not critical and 3DES may be considered apt. The 3DES algorithm uses three 56-bit encryption keys. The number of possible key combinations therefore increases (wrt single DES) to: 2168 = 3.741 x 1050 3DES is based on using DES three times, as defined in ANSI x9.52. The encryption flow is illustrated below. Figure 3. The Encryption Flow According to the 3DES Algorithm
INPUTDES ENCRYPTION KEY1 DES DECRYPTION KEY2 DES ENCRYPTION KEY3
OUTPUTDuring encryption, the input is first encrypted with the first key, then decrypted with the second key and finally encrypted with the third key. During decryption, the key sequence and encryption/decryption block sequence is reversed, as illustrated in Figure 4., Figure 4. The Decryption Flow According to the 3DES Algorithm
INPUTDES DECRYPTION KEY3 DES ENCRYPTION KEY2 DES DECRYPTION KEY1
OUTPUTThe following keying options are defined in the standard. Table 1. 3DES Keying Options Option Number of Independent Keys Related Keys Keying Option 1 Three (KEY1, KEY2 and KEY3) (None) Keying Option 2 Two (KEY1 and KEY2) KEY3 = KEY1 Keying Option 3 One (KEY1) KEY1 = KEY2 = KEY3 It should be noted that only the first keying option (1) utilizes the full encryption length of 3DES. The third keying option (3) is essentially the same as single DES.
Cipher Block Chaining – DES and 3DES are block ciphers, meaning that the algorithm operates on fixed-size CBC blocks of data. A 56-bit key is used to encrypt data in blocks of 64 bits. For a knowninput block and a constant (although, unknown) encryption key, the output block will always be the same. This information may provide useful for somebody wanting to attack the cipher system. There are some methods commonly used which cause identical plaintext blocks being encrypted to different ciphertext blocks. One such method is called Cipher Block Chain- ing (CBC). CBC is a method of connecting the cipher blocks such that leading blocks influence all trailing blocks. This is achieved by first performing an XOR operation on the plaintext block and the previous ciphertext block and then encrypting the result. This increases the number of plaintext bits one ciphertext bit depends on.
How Safe Is It? It is important to understand that, in theory, it is possible to break any key-based crypto-graphic method simply by testing all possible keys in a sequence. Considering an ideal system that cannot be broken down otherwise, the level of data security is exponentially proportional to the length of the cryptographic key. A common method for illicit decryption attempts is using brute force, i.e. stepping through all possible keys and trying them one at a time until the output appears intelligi- ble. No human operator can manually take on such a process, but it can be automated using specialized software or hardware. This yet requires that the human operator is able to model how to distinguish intelligible output from unintelligible. In brute force 6 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App Noteattacks, the computing power required to break the key increases exponentially with the length of the key. Since the average computing power increases exponentially over time, it is only a matter of time until any key can be broken. Table 2 illustrates the effect of key length versus encryption strength. It should be noted that these figures are guidelines only, and that there are large variations in many of the estimates. The information has been gathered from sources mentioned in the Refer- ences section. Table 2. Time Estimates for Breaking Encryption Versus Length of Encryption Key (see References) Individuals, Small Organized Criminals, Major Companies, Key Length Example Companies Governments Standard PC Linked PCs Special Hardware 32 bits Minutes … Hours 40 bits Days … Weeks Minutes … Hours 56 bits DES Weeks … Months Hours … Days 64 bits Very Long Short Virtually 80 bits Long Unbreakable Virtually 128 bits Unbreakable Virtually 168 bits 3DES Unbreakable Another attack method is that of targeting the hardware, not the encrypted information. In this application note, the hardware is secured by Atmel’s Flash-based AVR microcon- troller architecture. A DES/3DES bootloader including decryption keys is loaded into the Flash and the memory is then protected using lock bits. The firmware can now be updated in the field using encrypted patches but the decryption keys cannot be retrieved from the AVR. When lock bits are set, all write and external read access is denied. The only way to gain access to the memory is to erase the device. Doing so, bootloader and decryption keys will be destroyed before the lock bits are erased.
Recommendations on This application note presents techniques that can be used when securing a design How to Improve System from outside access. Although no design can ever be fully secured it can be constructed Security such that the effort required to break the security is as high as possible. There is a sig-nificant difference between an unsecured design that a person with basic engineering skills can duplicate and a design that only few, highly skilled intruders can break. In the first example, the design is easily copied and even reverse engineered, violating the intellectual property of the manufacturer and jeopardizing the market potential for the design. In the second example, the effort required to break the design is so high that most intruders simply focus on developing their own products. There is only one general rule on how to build a secure system: it should be designed to be as difficult to break as possible. Any mechanism that can be used to circumvent security will be tried during a break attempt. Even exotic situations should be consid- ered. A few examples of what must be considered are given below. What will happen if power is removed during a firmware update? What is the state of the microcontroller when power is restored back? Are lock bits and reset vectors set prop- erly at all times?, Are there any assumptions that can be made on what cleartext data will look like? In order for DES to be broken by brute force methods, there must be a pattern to look for. The attacker cannot simply try all key combinations and watch the output, looking for intelligible firmware. The attack software will have to be configured to search for a known pattern, such as interrupt vectors at the start of program memory, memory areas padded with zero or one, and so on. Is there any feedback that can be derived from the decryption process? Any such feed- back can help the attacker in constructing a brute force attack platform. For example, if the decryption algorithm inside the bootloader would give an OK/Not OK type of signal for each block processed then this signal could easily be routed as feedback to the attack platform. Should encrypted frames be sent in another order? If the first frame sent to the boot- loader always includes the first block of the encrypted file then the attacker can make some assumptions from this. For example, it can be assumed the first frame maps pro- gram data starting from address zero and that it contains the interrupt vector table. This information helps the attacker to refine the key search. To increase the security of the system, send the frames in random order (the decrypted frames will be mapped to their proper address, anyhow).
Implementation and This section describes how to use and configure the applications. The process is illus- Usage trated in Figure 5.Figure 5. Overview of Project Flow Application Note Miscellaneous Editor Application Builder Text Editor/GenTemp EEPROM Firmware Configuration Data File Create Bootloader Header Source File Key File Encrypted Firmware IAR Embedded Workbench Update Bootloader Frames Target AVR The main steps are as follows: 1. Create an application for the target AVR. If required, create an EEPROM layout in a separate file. 2. Create a configuration file with project dependent information. The application called GenTemp can be used for creating a file frame. 3. Run the application called Create. This will create the header file, key file and the encrypted file. 4. Using IAR EW, configure and build the bootloader for the target AVR. 5. Download bootloader to target AVR and set lock bits & fuse bits. 6. Now the encrypted firmware may be downloaded to the AVR at any time. 8 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App NoteThe procedure is discussed in more details below.
Configuration File The configuration file contains a list of parameters, which are used to configure theproject. The parameters are described in Table 3. Table 3. Summary of Configuration File Options Parameter Description Default Required Size of AVR Flash page in decimal bytes. This figure is PAGE_SIZE N/A Yes part-dependent. Please see datasheet. First encryption key in hexadecimal. Should be eight No, but strongly KEY1 random bytes, where every 8th bit is used as odd-parity None: No encryption recommended bit Second encryption key. Similar to first key, but used in KEY2 two-key 3DES. If omitted, single DES encryption will be None: use single DES No, but recommended used Third encryption key. Similar to first key, but only used None: use single or two-key KEY3 in three-key 3DES. If omitted, single or two-key DES No
DESencryption will be used Used for chaining cipher blocks. Should be eight No, but strongly INITIAL_VECTOR 0000000000000000 random bytes in hexadecimal recommended Frame validation data. This can be any four bytes, but it SIGNATURE 00000000 Yes is recommended the values are chosen on random Enable CRC checking: Yes or No. If enabled, all application section will be overwritten and the ENABLE_CRC No No, but recommended application must pass a CRC check before it is allowed to start Size of application section in target AVR (in decimal MEM_SIZE None Yes, if CRC is used bytes) Note: The DES algorithm uses 56-bit keys, but the keys are given 8-byte (64 bits) wide in the configuration file. This is because every 8th bit is used as an odd-parity bit. The configuration file can be given any valid file name (the name is later given as a parameter to the application that will create the project files). Below is a sample configu- ration file for the ATmega16. PAGE_SIZE = 128 MEM_SIZE = 14336 KEY1 = 0123456789ABCDEF KEY2 = FEDCBA9876543210 KEY3 = 89ABCDEF01234567 INITIAL_VECTOR = 0011223344556677 SIGNATURE = 89ABCDEF ENABLE_CRC = YES Some of the parameters cannot be set without specific knowledge of the target AVR. Table 4 summarizes the features of some present AVR microcontrollers with bootloader functionality. For devices not present in this table, please refer to the datasheet of the device., Table 4. AVR Feature Summary M8 M8515 M8535 M16 M162 M169 M32 M64 M128 Flash Size, bytes 8K 16K 32K 64K 128K Flash Page Size, bytes 64 128 256 Flash Pages 128 256 512 BLS (max), bytes 2048 4096 8192 BLS Pages 32 16 32 MEM_SIZE, bytes 6144 14336 28672 57344 122880 PAGE_SIZE, bytes 64 128 256
PC Application – This application note includes a small PC application, which will generate a template for GenTemp the configuration file. The application generates random encryption keys and initial vec-tors, leaving other parameters for the user to be filled in (such as the Flash page size). It is recommended to always start with creating a template using this application, as this procedure guarantees truly random encryption keys and removes human predictability. The application is used as follows: GenTemp FileName.Ext … where FileName.Ext is the name of the configuration file, which will be created. After the file has been generated it can be edited using any plain text editor of choice.
PC Application – Create This PC application has been created using Microsoft® Visual C++, version 6.0. It readsinformation from the configuration file and generates key and header files for the boot- loader. It is also used for encrypting the firmware. Typically, the application is run at least twice; first, to generate key and header files for the bootloader and, second, when a new firmware is encrypted. Note: It is very important that the same encryption information (configuration file) is used when generating project files and when encoding the firmware. Otherwise, the bootloader may not have the correct set of encryption keys and cannot decrypt the data. It should also be noted that it is possible to use the information in the configuration file to decrypt the encrypted firmware. Hence, the configuration file must be kept safe at all times and should not be modified after it has been used for the first time. 10 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App NoteCommand Line Arguments The application accepts the following command line arguments. Table 5. Summary of Command Line Arguments Argument Description -c
Figure 6. Program Flow of PC Application CreateNONE Command OTHER Line Args? Give Instructions Read Configuration File
DoneHow Many Keys? ONE TWO THREE DES Keying Option 3: 56 bits DES Keying Option 2: 112 bits DES Keying Option 1: 168 bits (all three keys are equal) (keys 1 and 3 are equal) (all three keys are independent) NO Key File YES Name Given? Create Key File NO Header YES File Name Given? Create Header File YES Flash NO File Name Given? Include Flash File In Encryption YES EEPROM NO File Name Given? Include EEPROM File In Encryption NO Output YES File Name Given? Create Encrypted File
Done12 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App Note The Encrypted File The Flash and EEPROM file are encrypted and stored in one target file. Before encryp-tion, however, data is organiszed into records. There are seven types of records, as illustrated in Figure 7. Figure 7. Types of Records RECORD TYPE LAYOUT END OF FRAME 0 FLASH PAGE ERASE 1 AB NB FLASH PAGE PREPARE 2 AB NB LEGEND AB ADDRESS IN BYTES FLASH PAGE DATA 3 AB NB (VARIABLE LENGTH) NB LENGTH IN BYTES L LOCK BITS FLASH PAGE PROGRAM 4 AB NB R RANDOM DATA N ANY VALUE IN 8...255 EEPROM SECTION DATA 5 AB NB (VARIABLE LENGTH) LOCK BITS6LRRESET7RNONSENSE N The record type is given as the first byte in the record. The application data is broken down to record types 1, 2, 3 and 4 (i.e., erase, prepare, load and write buffer page to Flash). The data for the EEPROM section is formatted into record type 5. Lock bits are sent in record type 6. Record types 0 and 7 are for ending a frame and transmission, respectively. All other records, i.e. those with a record identifier above 7, are of type nonsense. When this option is enabled (see Create tool), a random number of nonsense records will be placed at random locations in the file. The output file is created as illustrated in the Figure 8., Figure 8. Creating the Encrypted File STEP 1 SIG RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORDZFSTEP 2 INITIAL VECTOR CIPHER BLOCK CIPHER BLOCK CIPHER BLOCK CIPHER BLOCK CIPHER BLOCK STEP 3 CHAINED AND ENCRYPTED DATA STEP 4 CHAINED AND ENCRYPTED DATA C STEP5LCHAINED AND ENCRYPTED DATA C FILE FRAME The steps are described below (numbers refer to Figure 8). 1. Data is formatted into records, which are then lined up following the frame signa- ture (SIG). A zero (Z) is added to mark the end of the frame and the frame is padded with random data (F) to create an even 64-bit product. 2. The initial vector is attached to the frame. In the first frame, the vector is equal to the one given in the configuration file. In subsequent frames, the initial vector is equal to the last cipher block of the previous frame. 3. The initial vector and cipher blocks are chained and encrypted. The initial vector is then removed from the frame. 4. A CRC-16 checksum (C) is calculated and added to the frame. 5. The length (L) of the frame, excluding the length information, is calculated and saved at the start of the frame. The frame is written to the output file and the procedure is repeated until all data has been processed.
Bootloader The bootloader must reside in the target AVR before the device can be updated withencrypted firmware. The bootloader communicates with the PC and is capable of pro- gramming the EEPROM and the application area of the Flash memory. The bootloader included with this application note has been created using IAR Embedded Workbench, version 2.28a, but it can be ported to any other C compiler. The program flow is illus- trated in Figure 9. 14 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App NoteFigure 9. Program Flow of AVR Bootloader
BootldrNO Switch SW7 YES Pressed? Load Initial Vector for CBC CRC Check NO Enabled? Read Frame Size (Two Characters)
YESCalculate CRC of Appl. Section Read Character, Store in RAM NO Application Update Frame CRC Counter CRC Valid? YES NO End of Frame? Jump to Application
YESYES Frame CRC NO Valid? Decrypt and Unchain Send Frame CRC Error YES Signature NO Valid? NOTE WELL: IF CRC IS VALID, FRAME IS DECRYPTED. ANY INFORMATION SENT ON DECRYPTION STATUS OTHER THAN OK MAY BE USED IN AN ATTACK ATTEMPT Ignore Frame BUT Send OK ERASE Type? Erase Page PREPARE DATA PROGRAM EEPROM LOCKBITS NONSENSE RESET EOF Prepare Load Write Write Write Do Set Initial Page Data Page EEPROM Lock Bits Nothing Vector Send OK, Key and Header Files Before the bootloader can be compiled, there are some parameters that need to be set up. To start with, the encryption key and target header files generated by the PC appli- cation Create must be copied to the directory of the bootloader so that they may be included in the bootloader. The files will be included when they are referred to with the #include directive inside the bootloader source code. For example (this is a copy of the beginning of the des.c source code): ... #include "des.h" #include "bootldr.h" #include "loader.h" #if KEY_COUNT > 0 #include "deskeys.inc" ... Project Files This application note comes with device specific project files for the following devices: • ATmega8 • ATmega8515 • ATmega16 • ATmega169 • ATmega32 • ATmega64 • ATmega128 Use the predefined project files with the corresponding AVR. For AVR devices not listed, use the project file for a device that matches the target device as close as possible and modify the following sections, as described below. Linker File The IAR compiler requires a modified linker file because the bootloader will reside in the upper memory area, i.e. in the Bootloader Section (BLS). Linker files have an extension of .xcl and are distributed with the IAR compiler for each AVR device separately. This application note comes with two linker files, one of which should be used (depending on the set-up of the choice of interrupt vector table). Table 6. Linker File Selection Linker File Name Use With bootldr.xcl All AVR devices, interrupt vector table allocated for code (saves memory) bootldr_interrupts.xcl All AVR devices, interrupt vector table padded with RETI The linker file is defined under “Project” – “Options”, category “XLINK”, tab “Include”, field “XCL file name”. Note that the linker file is already set up in the device specific project files that come with this application note. Other Compiler Settings In the Project window, set Targets to Release. This will create no debug code and mini- mize overall code size of the bootloader. Code size is critical for AVR devices with only 2-KB Boot Section. Note: If Target is not set to Release, the project will not necessarily link properly. The following settings need to be defined in the dialog window found under “Project” – “Options”. Note that all settings are already defined in the device specific project files. 16 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App Note Table 7. Required Compiler SettingsCategory Tab Set to Example General Target Set “Processor configuration” to match target AVR -cpu=m8, AT90mega8 Set “Memory model” to Small Uncheck “Configure system using dialogs (not in .XCL file)” Library Check “Enable bit definitions in I/O-include files” Configuration AAVR Preprocessor Define symbol “INCLUDE_FILE” to match target AVR INCLUDE_FILE=”iom8.h” Define symbol SPMREG to match target SPMREG=SPMCR Define output file format such that the file can programmed XLINK Output to the target. Set to Intel-standard Define symbol BOOT_SIZE to match target bootloader #define BOOT_SIZE=800 section. In hex bytes Define symbol FLASH_SIZE to match Flash size of target. FLASH_SIZE=2000 In hex bytes Define symbol IVT_SIZE to match size of target interrupt IVT_SIZE=26 vector table. In hex bytes Define symbol RAM_SIZE to match amount of RAM on RAM_SIZE=400 target. In hex bytes Define symbol RAM_BASE to match start of SRAM RAM_BASE=60 (following I/O area). In hex bytes Include Under section “XCL file name”, check “Override default” Under section “XCL file name”, enter file name in box $PROJ_DIR$\bootldr.xcl
The following table summarizes some of the compiler options for currently supported AVR devices. Please note that bootloader start address depends on fuse settings, asexplained later (see Tables 8 and 9. Recommended Fuse Bits).
Table 8. Compiler Setting Reference (wrt Recommended Fuse Settings)M8 M8515 M16 M169 M32 M64 M128 Linker File Name bootldr.xcl BOOT_SIZE 800 800 1000 FLASH_SIZE 2000 4000 8000 10000 20000 IVT_SIZE 26 22 54 5C 58 8C 8C RAM_SIZE 400 200 400 800 1000 1000 RAM_BASE 60 100 60 100 100
Installing the Bootloader Compile the bootloader and then download it to the target using AVR Studio®. Beforerunning the bootloader, the following fuse bits must be configured: • Size of Bootloader Section. Set fuse buts such, that the section size matches the
BOOT_SIZE setting, as described earlier. Note that the BLS is usually given inwords, but the BOOT_SIZE parameter is given in bytes. • Boot reset vector. The boot reset vector must be enabled., • Oscillator options. The oscillator fuse bits are device dependent. They may require configuration (affects USART). Note: Please pay special attention in setting oscillator options correctly. Even small misadjust- ments will probably result in communication failure. The software is designed for using an 8 MHz oscillator frequency. TTable 9 lists the recommended fuse bit settings. See datasheet for detailed explana- tion of device dependent fuse bits. Table 9. Recommended Fuse Bits (“0” Means Programmed, “1” Means Not Programmed) M8 M8515 M16 M169 M32 M64 M128 BOOTSZ100BOOTSZ001BOOTRST00It is recommended to program lock bits to protect memory and bootloader, but only after fuse bits have been set. Lock bits can be programmed using AVR Studio. BLS lock bits will also be set during firmware update, provided that they have been defined as com- mand line arguments when the firmware is encrypted. The recommended lock bit settings are: • Memory lock bits: these should be set to prevent unauthorized access to memory. Note: after the memory has been locked it cannot be accessed via in-system programming without erasing the device • Protection mode for Bootloader Section: SPM and LPM should not be allowed to write to or read from the BLS. This will prevent the firmware in the application section to corrupt the bootloader and will keep the decryption keys safe • Protection mode for application section: no restrictions should be set for SPM or LPM accessing the application section, otherwise the bootloader cannot program it Note: It is important to understand that if the device is not properly locked then memory can be accessed via an ISP interface and the whole point of encrypting the firmware is gone. The following table lists the recommended lock bit setting for present AVR microcontrol- lers. See datasheet for detailed explanation of lock bits. Table 10. Recommended Lock Bit Settings M8 M8515 M16 M169 M32 M128 BLB12 : BLB1100BLB02 : BLB0111
PC Application – Update The update application has been created using Microsoft Visual C++, version 6.0. It isused for sending the encrypted file (including EEPROM, Flash and Lock Bit information) to the target. The data can be sent via a serial port on the PC directly to the USART on the target hardware. The program flow is illustrated in Figure 10. 18 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App NoteFigure 10. Program Flow of Update Application Update NO Two YES Arguments? NO Port Number YES Given? NO File YES Exists? Show Error Message NO Port YES Initialises? Show Error Message Read All File Into Buffer Give Instructions Close File Initialise Buffer Pointer Done Read Size of Next Frame CRC Byte OK Value? Flush Input of Serial Port Reset Retry Counter NO YES Send Frame Retry < 4? Increase Pointer Byte YES Received? Show CRC Error Message Increase Retry Counter
NOShow Error Message NO Pointer < Size YES of Buffer? Close Serial Port Close File Done The Update application reads in files generated with the Create application. The file con- sists of one or more concatenated frames of encrypted data. The application transmits data one frame at a time, pausing in between to wait for a reply from the bootloader. The next frame is transmitted only after an acknowledgement has been received, otherwise the application will either resend the frame or close communication., The update application is run from the command prompt. The command prompt argu- ments are listed in Table 11. Table 11. Command Prompt Arguments for Update Application Argument Description Path to encrypted file, which is going to be
Hardware Set-Up The target hardware must be properly set up before the encrypted firmware can be sentto the bootloader. In this application note, it is assumed an STK500 is used as the tar- get. The STK500 should be configured as follows: 1. Connect the STK500 (via connector labeled “RS232 CTRL”) to the PC using a serial cable. Power on the STK500 2. Use AVR Studio to download the bootloader and set fuse and lock bits, as described earlier. Power off the STK500 3. Move the serial cable to the connector labeled “RS232 SPARE” 4. Connect the RXD/TXD lines of the device to pin RXD and TXD of the connector labeled RS232 SPARE. PD0 should go to RXD and PD1 to TXD 5. Connect PD8 (pin 8 of PORTD) to SW7 (pin 8 of SWITCHES) 6. Press and hold down SW7 while switching on the STK500. This will start the bootloader and set it in update mode 7. Release switch SW7 8. The Update application on the PC can now be used to send encrypted data to the target
Performance The following sections summarize system performance with respect to execution timeand code size. Speed The time required for the target device to receive, decode and program data depends on the following factors: • File size. The more data that needs to be transferred, the longer the time it takes • Baudrate. The higher the transmission speed, the shorter the transmission time • Target AVR speed. The higher the clock frequency, the shorter the decoding time • Programming time of Flash page. This is a device constant and cannot be altered • Number of keys. Single-key DES is faster to decrypt than three-key 3DES • Miscellaneous settings. For example, CRC check of application section takes a short while 20 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App NoteFor single-key DES, the overall time can be estimated using the following equation. TDES ≈ FS × ⎛-5⎝ - + - 1-⎞ + 3 BR 60 × f⎠ …where FS is the filesize in bytes, BR is the baudrate (transmission speed) and f is the clock frequency in MHz. Please note that this only gives an estimation and that, for example, the ATmega128 differs slightly (replace constant 60 by 54). The default setting is a transmission speed of 9600 bauds and a clock frequency of 8 MHz. This simplifies the equation, as follows. TDES ≈ 0, 0026 × FS + 3 For 3DES, the overall time can be estimated using the following equation. T ⎛ 53DES ≈ FS × ⎝- + - 1-⎞ + 3 BR 22 × f⎠ At default settings, the equation can be simplified, as follows. T3DES ≈ 0, 0062 × FS + 3 The DES decryption itself takes 245k cycles per block for DES and 724k cycles per block for 3DES. This gives a throughput of 32 bytes/s/MHz for DES and 10 bytes/s/MHz for 3DES. Size The following table summarizes the code size of the bootloader with respect to target device and compilation options. It may be noted that all bootloader options fit into 2-KB, except for 3DES bootloader running on ATmega128. Table 12. Size of Bootloader in Bytes CRC Not Enabled CRC of Application Section Enabled No DES DES, 56-bit DES, 56-bit 3DES, 112-bit 3DES, 168-bit ATmega8 436 1684 1716 1818 1914 ATmega8515 436 1684 1716 1818 1914 ATmega16 476 1752 1786 1888 1984 ATmega169 500 1776 1810 1910 2008 ATmega32 476 1752 1786 1888 1984 ATmega64 504 1810 1844 1946 2042 ATmega128 588 1897 1945 2049 2143 It should be noted that if no encryption keys are given, the bootloader is built without DES/3DES support. This application note then performs as a standard bootloader sys- tem and can be used on any AVR with bootloader support.,
Summary This application note has presented a method for transferring data securely to an AVRmicrocontroller with bootloader capabilities. This document has also highlighted tech- niques, which should be implemented when building a secured system. As a summary, the following issues should be considered in order to increase the security of an AVR design. • Implement a bootloader that supports downloading in encrypted form. When the bootloader is first installed (during manufacturing) it must be equipped with decryption keys, required for future firmware updates. The firmware can then be updated encrypted, securing the contents from outsiders. • Use AVR lock bits to secure Application and Bootloader Sections. When lock bits are set to prevent read from the device, the memory contents cannot be retrieved. If lock bits are not set, there is no use encrypting the firmware. • Encrypt the firmware before distribution. Encrypted software is worthless to any outside entity without the proper decryption keys. • Keep encryption keys safe. Encryption keys should be stored in two places only: in the bootloader, which has been secured by lock bits and in the firmware development bench at the manufacturer. • Chain encrypted data. When data is chained, each encrypted block depends on the previous block. As a consequence, equal cleartext blocks produce different encrypted outputs. • Avoid standard, predictable patterns in the firmware. Most programs have a common framework and any predictable patterns, such as an interrupt vector table starting with a jump to a low address, only serve to help the intruder. Also avoid padding unused memory areas with a constant number. • Hide the method. There is no need to mention which algorithm is being used or what the key length is. The less the intruder knows about the system, the better. It may be argued that knowing the encryption method fends off some attackers, but knowing nothing about the method increases the effort and may fend off even more. • The bootloader may also be used to erase the application section, if required. Many attack attempts include removing the device from its normal working environment and powering it up in a hacking bench. Detecting, for example, that an LCD is missing or that there are CRC errors in memory, the bootloader may initiate a complete erase of all memory (including the bootloader section and decryption keys). • In applications where it is not feasible or possible to use an external communications channel for updates, the firmware can be stored in one of Atmel’s CryptoMemory® devices. The memory can be packaged as a removable smart card, which can easily be inserted in a slot of the device when upgrade is needed. The microcontroller can check for the presence of a CryptoMemory upon boot and retrieve a firmware upgrade as needed. • Use only secure hardware. A strong encryption protocol is useless if the hardware has structural flaws. There are no reported security issues with AVR microcontrollers. This list can be made very long but the purpose of it is merely to set the designer off in the right direction. Do not underestimate the wit or endurance of your opponent. 22 AVR230 App Note,
AVR230 App Note References  Douglas Stinson:Cryptography: Theory and Practice, CRC Press, second edition, 1996  Electronic Frontier Foundation: Cracking DES, 1998: http://www.eff.org/descracker.html  Electronic Privacy Information Center: http://www.privacy.org  International Association for Cryptologic Research: http://www.swcp.com/~iacr Man Young Rhee: Cryptography and Secure Data Communications, McGraw-Hill, 1994  SSH Communications Security http://www.ssh.com,
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AVR106: C functions for reading and writing to Flash memory Features • C functions for accessing Flash memory - Byte read - Page read - Byte write - Page write • Optional recovery on power failure • Functions can be used with any device having Self programming Program memory • Example project for us
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Printed Circuit Board Diagram 5-1 MAIN 5-1 Samsung Electronics 5-2 FRONT Samsung Electronics 5-2 5-3 DSP 5-3 Samsung Electronics 5-4 JACK * RCA JACK * SCART JACK Samsung Electronics 5-4 5-5 DVD PACK * TOP VIEW * BOTTOM VIEW 5-5 Samsung Electronics
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AVR241: Direct driving of LCD display using general IO Features • Software driver for displays with one common line • Suitable for parts without on-chip hardware for LCD driving • Control up to 15 segments using 16 IO lines • Fully interrupt driven operation Introduction As a low power alternative t
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Novice’s Guide to AVR Development intended for "Bare Bone" AVR basics.Download these files to a temporary folder on your computer. ( e.g. C:\Temp ): people with no AVR STUDIO 4 This file contains the AVR Studio 4 Program. This The AVR microcontrollers are divided into three groups:
Novice’s Guide to AVR Development Preparing your PC for AVR Development Basic AVR Knowledge An Introduction Let's make an easy start, and download the files that we will need later on. The AVR Microcontroller family is a modern architecture, with all the bells andFirst you should download the files
AVR079: STK600 Communication Protocol Features 8-bit • Supported Commands and Command options • Command and Answer package formats Microcontrollers 1 Introduction Application Note This document describes the STK®600 protocol. The firmware is distributed with AVR Studio® 4.14 or later. The definition
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Designer’s Designing for Efficient Production Corner with In-System Re-programmable Flash µCs By: OJ Svendlsi always the component where the majority of the engi- neering hours are spent. Thus, making sure the micro- For products where time-to-market and efficient pro- controller has what it takes t
AVR069: AVRISP mkII Communication Protocol Features • General commands • ISP commands • Return values • Parameters 1 Introduction This document describes the AVRISP mkII protocol. The firmware is distributed with AVR Studio 4.12 or later. Download the latest AVR Studio from the Atmel web site, http:
Studio® Integrated Development A COMPLETE SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT TO Environment DEVELOP AVR® APPLICATIONS. IT’S FREE!
MICROCONTROLLERSStudio® Integrated Development A COMPLETE SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT TO Environment DEVELOP AVR® APPLICATIONS. IT’S FREE! AVR Studio® is an Integrated Development Environment for writing and debugging AVR applications in Windows® 98/XP/ME/2000 and Windows NT® environments. AVR Studio provi
Hexadecimal Object File Format Specification Revision A January 6, 1988 This specification is provided "as is" with no warranties whatsoever, including any warranty of merchantability, noninfringement, fitness for any particular purpose, or any warranty otherwise arising out of any proposal, specifi
AVR914: CAN & UART based Bootloader for AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64, & AT90CAN128 1. Features • UART Protocol 8-bit – UART used as Physical Layer – Based on the Intel Hex-type records Microcontrollers – Auto-baud • CAN Protocol – CAN used as Physical Layer Application Note – 7 re-programmable ISP CAN ident
AVR Microcontrollers Application Note AVR495: AC Induction Motor Control Using the Constant V/f Principle and a Space-vector PWM Algorithm 1. Features • Cost-effective and energy efficient 3-phase induction motor drive • Interrupt driven • Low memory and computing requirements 2. Introduction In a p
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AVR465: Single-Phase Power/Energy Meter with Tamper Detection Features • Cost-Effective and Flexible Single-Phase Energy Meter • Fulfills IEC 61036 Accuracy Requirements for Class 1 Meters • Detects, Signals and Continues to Measure Accurately Under At Least 20 Different Tamper Conditions • Design E
AVR453: Smart Battery Reference Design Features • Support for up to 4 Li-Ion series-connected battery cells • Battery protection by dedicated Hardware - Deep under voltage protection - Over-current protection during charging - Over-current protection during discharging - Short circuit protection • C
8-bit Microcontroller Application Note AVR450: Battery Charger for SLA, NiCd, NiMH and Li-Ion Batteries Features
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Getting started with the AVR battery charger reference design. The AVR battery charger reference design is designed for use with several types of batteries and various number of battery cells. The AVR battery charger reference design is supplied with resistor values for scaling down the charge volta
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USB in a Nutshell. Making Sense of the USB Standard. Starting out new with USB can be quite daunting. With the USB 2.0 specification at 650 pages one could easily be put off just by the sheer size of the standard. This is only the beginning of a long list of associated standards for USB. There are U