Download: 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note AVR201: Using the AVR® Hardware Multiplier

8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 1631C–AVR–06/02 AVR201: Using the AVR® Hardware Multiplier Features • 8- and 16-bit Implementations • Signed and Unsigned Routines • Fractional Signed and Unsigned Multiply • Executable Example Programs Introduction The megaAVR is a series of new devices in the AVR RISC Microcontroller family that includes, among other new enhancements, a hardware multiplier. This multiplier is capable of multiplying two 8-bit numbers, giving a 16-bit result using only two clock cycles. The multiplier can handle both signed and unsigned integer and fractional numbers...
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8-bit

Microcontroller Application Note

Rev. 1631C–AVR–06/02

AVR201: Using the AVR® Hardware Multiplier Features

• 8- and 16-bit Implementations • Signed and Unsigned Routines • Fractional Signed and Unsigned Multiply • Executable Example Programs

Introduction

The megaAVR is a series of new devices in the AVR RISC Microcontroller family that includes, among other new enhancements, a hardware multiplier. This multiplier is capable of multiplying two 8-bit numbers, giving a 16-bit result using only two clock cycles. The multiplier can handle both signed and unsigned integer and fractional numbers without speed or code size penalty. The first section of this document will give some examples of using the multiplier for 8-bit arithmetic. To be able to use the multiplier, six new instructions are added to the AVR instruction set. These are: • MUL, multiplication of unsigned integers. • MULS, multiplication of signed integers. • MULSU, multiplication of a signed integer with an unsigned integer. • FMUL, multiplication of unsigned fractional numbers. • FMULS, multiplication of signed fractional numbers. • FMULSU, multiplication of a signed fractional number and with an unsigned fractional number. The MULSU and FMULSU instructions are included to improve the speed and code density for multiplication of 16-bit operands. The second section will show examples of how to efficiently use the multiplier for 16-bit arithmetic. The component that makes a dedicated digital signal processor (DSP) specially suit- able for signal processing is the Multiply-Accumulate (MAC) unit. This unit is functionally equivalent to a multiplier directly connected to an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). The megaAVR microcontrollers are designed to give the AVR family the ability to effectively perform the same multiply-accumulate operation. This application note will therefore include examples of implementing the MAC operation. The Multiply-Accumulate operation (sometimes referred to as multiply-add operation) has one critical drawback. When adding multiple values to one result variable, even when adding positive and negative values to some extent cancel each other, the risk of the result variable to OverRun its limits becomes evident, i.e., if adding one to a signed byte variable that contains the value +127, the result will be -128 instead of +128. One solution often used to solve this problem is to introduce fractional numbers, i.e., numbers that are less than 1 and greater than or equal to -1. The final section pre- sents some issues regarding the use of fractional numbers., In addition to the new multiplication instruction, a few other additions and improvements are made to the megaAVR processor core. One improvement that is particularly useful is the new instruction MOVW - Copy Register Word, which makes a copy of one register pair into another register pair. The file “AVR201.asm” contains the application note source code of the 16-bit multiply routines. A listing of all implementations with key performance specifications is given in Table 1. Table 1. Performance Summary 8-bit x 8-bit Routines Word (Cycles) Unsigned multiply8x8= 16 bits 1 (2) Signed multiply8x8= 16 bits 1 (2) Fractional signed/unsigned multiply8x8= 16 bits 1 (2) Fractional signed multiply-accumulate8x8+= 16 bits 3 (4) 16-bit x 16-bit Routines Signed/unsigned multiply 16 x 16 = 16 bits 6 (9) Unsigned multiply 16 x 16 = 32 bits 13 (17) Signed multiply 16 x 16 = 32 bits 15 (19) Signed multiply-accumulate 16 x 16 += 32 bits 19 (23) Fractional signed multiply 16 x 16 = 32 bits 16 (20) Fractional signed multiply-accumulate 16 x 16 += 32 bits 21 (25) Unsigned multiply 16 x 16 = 24 bits 10 (14) Signed multiply 16 x 16 = 24 bits 10 (14) Signed multiply-accumulate 16 x 16 += 24 bits 12 (16) 8-bit Multiplication Doing an 8-bit multiply using the hardware multiplier is simple, as the examples in this section will clearly show. Just load the operands into two registers (or only one for square multiply) and execute one of the multiply instructions. The result will be placed in register pair R0:R1. However, note that only the MUL instruction does not have register usage restrictions. Figure 1 shows the valid (operand) register usage for each of the multiply instructions. Example 1 – Basic Usage The first example shows an assembly code that reads the port B input value and multi- plies this value with a constant (5) before storing the result in register pair R17:R16. in r16,PINB ; Read pin values ldi r17,5 ; Load 5 into r17 mul r16,r17 ; r1:r0 = r17 * r16 movw r17:r16,r1:r0 ; Move the result to the r17:r16 register pair Note the use of the new MOVW instruction. This example is valid for all of the multiply instructions. 2 AVR201,

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Figure 1. Valid Register Usage

MUL MULS MULSU FMUL

R0 R1 FMULS R2 R3 FMULSU R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R16 R16 R17 R17 R17 R18 R18 R18 R19 R19 R19 R20 R20 R20 R21 R21 R21 R22 R22 R22 R23 R23 R23 R24 R24 R25 R25 R26 R26 R27 R27 R28 R28 R29 R29 R30 R30 R31 R31 Example 2 – Special Cases This example shows some special cases of the MUL instruction that are valid. lds r0,variableA ; Load r0 with SRAM variable A lds r1,variableB ; Load r1 with SRAM variable B mul r1,r0 ; r1:r0 = variable A * variable B lds r0,variableA ; Load r0 with SRAM variable A mul r0,r0 ; r1:r0 = square(variable A) Even though the operand is put in the result register pair R1:R0, the operation gives the correct result since R1 and R0 are fetched in the first clock cycle and the result is stored back in the second clock cycle. Example 3 – Multiply- The final example of 8-bit multiplication shows a multiply-accumulate operation. The accumulate Operation general formula can be written as: c(n) = a(n) × b + c(n – 1) ; r17:r16 = r18 * r19 + r17:r16 in r18,PINB ; Get the current pin value on port B ldi r19,b ; Load constant b into r19 muls r19,r18 ; r1:r0 = variable A * variable B add r16,r0 ; r17:r16 += r1:r0 adc r17,r1 Typical applications for the multiply-accumulate operation are FIR (Finite Impulse Response) and IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters, PID regulators and FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). For these applications the FMULS instruction is particularly useful., The main advantage of using the FMULS instruction instead of the MULS instruction is that the 16-bit result of the FMULS operation always may be approximated to a (well- defined) 8-bit format. This is discussed further in the “Using Fractional Numbers” section. 16-bit Multiplication The new multiply instructions are specifically designed to improve 16-bit multiplication. This section presents solutions for using the hardware multiplier to do multiplication with 16-bit operands. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the general algorithm for multiplying two 16-bit num- bers with a 32-bit result (C = A • B). AH denotes the high byte and AL the low byte of the A operand. CMH denotes the middle high byte and CML the middle low byte of the result C. Equal notations are used for the remaining bytes. The algorithm is basic for all multiplication. All of the partial 16-bit results are shifted and added together. The sign extension is necessary for signed numbers only, but note that the carry propagation must still be done for unsigned numbers. Figure 2. 16-bit Multiplication, General Algorithm

AH AL X BH BL

(sign ext) AL * BL + (signext) AL * BH + (signext) AH * BL + AH * BH = CH CMH CML CL 16-bit x 16-bit = 16-bit This operation is valid for both unsigned and signed numbers, even though only the

Operation unsigned multiply instruction (MUL) is needed. This is illustrated in Figure 3. A mathe-

matical explanation is given: When A and B are positive numbers, or at least one of them is zero, the algorithm is clearly correct, provided that the product C = A • B is less than 216 if the product is to be used as an unsigned number, or less than 215 if the product is to be used as a signed number. When both factors are negative, the two’s complement notation is used; A = 216 - |A| and B = 216 - |B|: C = A • B = (216 - |A|) • (216 - |B|) = |A • B| + 232 - 216 • (|A| + |B|) 4 AVR201,

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Here we are only concerned with the 16 LSBs; the last part of this sum will be discarded and we will get the (correct) result C = |A • B|. Figure 3. 16-bit Multiplication, 16-bit Result

AH AL X BH BL AL * BL 1

+ AL * BH 2 + AH * BL 3 = CH CL When one factor is negative and one factor is positive, for example, A is negative and B is positive: C = A • B = (216 - |A|) • |B| = (216 • |B|) - |A • B| = (216 - |A • B|) + 216 • (|B| - 1) The MSBs will be discarded and the correct two’s complement notation result will be C = 216 - |A • B|. The product must be in the range 0 ≤ C ≤ 216 - 1 if unsigned numbers are used, and in the range -215 ≤ C ≤ 215 - 1 if signed numbers are used. When doing integer multiplication in C language, this is how it is done. The algorithm can be expanded to do 32-bit multiplication with 32-bit result., 16-bit x 16-bit = 24-bit The routine’s functionality is illustrated in Figure 4. For the 24-bit version of the multipli-

Operation cation routines, the result is present in registers r18:r17:r16. The algorithm gives correct

results provided that the product C = A • B is less than 224 when using unsigned multipli- cation, and less than ±223 when using signed multiplication. Figure 4. 16-bit Multiplication, 24-bit Result

AH AL X BH BL AH * BH 1 AL * BL 2

+ AH*BL 3 + BH*AL 4 = CH CM CL 16-bit x 16-bit = 32-bit

Operation

Example 4 – Basic Usage 16- Below is an example of how to call the 16 x 16 = 32 multiply subroutine. This is also bit x 16-bit = 32-bit Integer illustrated in Figure 5. Multiply ldi R23,HIGH(672) ldi R22,LOW(672) ; Load the number 672 into r23:r22 ldi R21,HIGH(1844) ldi R20,LOW(184) ; Load the number 1844 into r21:r20 call mul16x16_32 ; Call 16bits x 16bits = 32bits multiply routine Figure 5. 16-bit Multiplication, 32-bit Result

AH AL X BH BL

(sign ext) AL * BH 3 + (signext) AH * BL 4 + AH * BH AL * BL 1 + 2 = CH CMH CML CL 6 AVR201,

AVR201

The 32-bit result of the unsigned multiplication of 672 and 1844 will now be in the regis- ters R19:R18:R17:R16. If “muls16x16_32” is called instead of “mul16x16_32”, a signed multiplication will be executed. If “mul16x16_16” is called, the result will only be 16 bits long and will be stored in the register pair R17:R16. In this example, the 16-bit result will not be correct. 16-bit Multiply- Figure 6. 16-bit Multiplication, 32-bit Accumulated Result accumulate Operation

AH AL X BH BL

(sign ext) AL * BL + (signext) AL * BH + (signext) AH * BL + AH * BH + CH CMH CML CL ( Old ) = CH CMH CML CL ( New ),

Using Fractional Unsigned 8-bit fractional numbers use a format where numbers in the range [0, 2> are Numbers allowed. Bits 6 - 0 represent the fraction and bit 7 represents the integer part (0 or 1),

i.e., a 1.7 format. The FMUL instruction performs the same operation as the MUL instruction, except that the result is left-shifted 1-bit so that the high byte of the 2-byte result will have the same 1.7 format as the operands (instead of a 2.6 format). Note that if the product is equal to or higher than 2, the result will not be correct. To fully understand the format of the fractional numbers, a comparison with the integer number format is useful: Table 2 illustrates the two 8-bit unsigned numbers formats. Signed fractional numbers, like signed integers, use the familiar two’s complement for- mat. Numbers in the range [-1, 1> may be represented using this format. If the byte “1011 0010” is interpreted as an unsigned integer, it will be interpreted as 128 + 32 + 16 + 2 = 178. On the other hand, if it is interpreted as an unsigned fractional number, it will be interpreted as 1 + 0.25 + 0.125 + 0.015625 = 1.390625. If the byte is assumed to be a signed number, it will be interpreted as 178 - 256 = -122 (integer) or as 1.390625 - 2 = -0.609375 (fractional number). Table 2. Comparison of Integer and Fractional Formats Bit Number7654Unsigned integer bit 27 = 128 26 = 64 25 = 32 24 = 16 significance Unsigned fractional 20 = 1 2-1 = 0.5 2-2 = 0.25 2-3 = 0.125 number bit significance Bit Number3210Unsigned integer bit 23 = 8 22 = 4 21 = 2 20 = 1 significance Unsigned fractional 2-4 = 0.0625 2-5 = 0.3125 2-6 = 0.015625 2-7 = 0.0078125 number bit significance Using the FMUL, FMULS, and FMULSU instructions should not be more complex than the MUL, MULS and MULSU instructions. However, one potential problem is to assign fractional variables right values in a simple way. The fraction 0.75 (= 0.5 + 0.25) will, for example, be “0110 0000” if eight bits are used. To convert a positive fractional number in the range [0, 2> (for example 1.8125) to the format used in the AVR, the following algorithm, illustrated by an example, should be used: Is there a “1” in the number? Yes, 1.8125 is higher than or equal to 1. Byte is now “1xxx xxxx” Is there a “0.5” in the rest? 0.8125/0.5 = 1.625 Yes, 1.625 is higher than or equal to 1. Byte is now “11xx xxxx” Is there a “0.25” in the rest? 0.625/0.5 = 1.25 Yes, 1.25 is higher than or equal to 1. Byte is now “111x xxxx” 8 AVR201,

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Is there a “0.125” in the rest? 0.25/0.5 = 0.5 No, 0.5 is lower than 1. Byte is now “1110 xxxx” Is there a “0.0625” in the rest? 0.5/0.5 = 1 Yes, 1 is higher than or equal to 1. Byte is now “1110 1xxx” Since we do not have a rest, the remaining three bits will be zero, and the final result is “1110 1000”, which is 1 + 0.5 + 0.25 + 0.0625 = 1.8125. To convert a negative fractional number, first add two to the number and then use the same algorithm as already shown. 16-bit fractional numbers use a format similar to that of 8-bit fractional numbers; the high eight bits have the same format as the 8-bit format. The low eight bits are only an increase of accuracy of the 8-bit format; While the 8-bit format has an accuracy of ±2-8, the16-bit format has an accuracy of ±2-16. Then again, the 32-bit fractional numbers are an increase of accuracy to the 16-bit fractional numbers. Note the important difference between integers and fractional numbers when extra byte(s) are used to store the num- ber: while the accuracy of the numbers is increased when fractional numbers are used, the range of numbers that may be represented is extended when integers are used. As mentioned earlier, using signed fractional numbers in the range [-1, 1> has one main advantage to integers: when multiplying two numbers in the range [-1, 1>, the result will be in the range [-1, 1], and an approximation (the highest byte(s)) of the result may be stored in the same number of bytes as the factors, with one exception: when both fac- tors are -1, the product should be 1, but since the number 1 cannot be represented using this number format, the FMULS instruction will instead place the number -1 in R1:R0. The user should therefore assure that at least one of the operands is not -1 when using the FMULS instruction. The 16-bit x 16-bit fractional multiply also has this restriction. Example 5 – Basic Usage 8-bit This example shows an assembly code that reads the port B input value and multiplies x 8-bit = 16-bit Signed this value with a fractional constant (-0.625) before storing the result in register pair Fractional Multiply R17:R16. in r16,PINB ; Read pin values ldi r17,$B0 ; Load -0.625 into r17 fmuls r16,r17 ; r1:r0 = r17 * r16 movw r17:r16,r1:r0 ; Move the result to the r17:r16 register pair Note that the usage of the FMULS (and FMUL) instructions is very similar to the usage of the MULS and MUL instructions., Example 6 – Multiply- The example below uses data from the ADC. The ADC should be configured so that the accumulate Operation format of the ADC result is compatible with the fractional two’s complement format. For the ATmega83/163, this means that the ADLAR bit in the ADMUX I/O register is set and a differential channel is used. (The ADC result is normalized to one.) ldi r23,$62 ; Load highbyte of fraction 0.771484375 ldi r22,$C0 ; Load lowbyte of fraction 0.771484375 in r20,ADCL ; Get lowbyte of ADC conversion in r21,ADCH ; Get highbyte of ADC conversion call fmac16x16_32 ;Call routine for signed fractional multiply accumulate The registers R19:R18:R17:R16 will be incremented with the result of the multiplication of 0.771484375 with the ADC conversion result. In this example, the ADC result is treated as a signed fraction number. We could also treat it as a signed integer and call it “mac16x16_32” instead of “fmac16x16_32”. In this case, the 0.771484375 should be replaced with an integer.

Comment on All 16-bit x 16-bit = 32-bit functions implemented here start by clearing the R2 register, Implementations which is just used as a “dummy” register with the “add with carry” (ADC) and “subtract

with carry” (SBC) operations. These operations do not alter the contents of the R2 regis- ter. If the R2 register is not used elsewhere in the code, it is not necessary to clear the R2 register each time these functions are called, but only once prior to the first call to one of the functions. 10 AVR201,

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What is USB Enumeration? Enumeration is the process by which a USB device is attached to a system and is assigned a specific numerical address that will be used to access that particular device. It is also the time at which the USB host controller queries the device in order to decide what type of d
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CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECKS IN USB Introduction The USB specification calls for the use of Cyclic Redundancy Checksums (CRC) to protect all non-PID fields in token and data packets from errors during transmission. This paper describes the mathematical basis behind CRC in an intuitive fashion and then e