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8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2534A–AVR–05/03 AVR415: RC5 IR Remote Control Transmitter Features • Utilizes ATtiny28 Special HW Modulator and High Current Drive Pin • Size Efficient Code, Leaves Room for Large User Code • Low Power Consumption through Intensive Use of Sleep Modes • Cost Effective through Few External Components Figure 1. RC5 Transmitter VCC VCC R1 VCC D1 IL RESET R3 PORT B C1 XTAL1 D2 R2 ATtiny28 PA2 Q1 XTAL1 C2 PORT D GND Introduction Use of IR (infrared) light as a method for wireless communication has become popular for remote control applications. There are a...
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Microcontroller Application NoteRev. 2534A–AVR–05/03
AVR415: RC5 IR Remote Control Transmitter Features• Utilizes ATtiny28 Special HW Modulator and High Current Drive Pin • Size Efficient Code, Leaves Room for Large User Code • Low Power Consumption through Intensive Use of Sleep Modes • Cost Effective through Few External Components Figure 1. RC5 Transmitter
VCC VCCR1 VCC D1 IL
RESETR3 PORT B C1 XTAL1 D2 R2 ATtiny28 PA2 Q1 XTAL1 C2 PORT D
GND IntroductionUse of IR (infrared) light as a method for wireless communication has become popular for remote control applications. There are a number of different standards for such communication. In this application note the widely used RC5 coding scheme from Philips will be described, and a fully working remote control solution will be presented. This application will use the ATtiny28 AVR microcontroller for this purpose. This pow- erful unit contains a hardware modulator, a high current LED driver and interrupt options which makes it especially well suited for these kinds of applications. Figure 2. RC5 Frame Format St1 St2 Ctrl S4 S3 S2 S1 S0 S5 S4 S3 S2 S1 S0 Figure 3. Bi-phase Coding 1 0, Figure 4. Example of Transmission Figure 5. Signal Before and After Modulation
RC5 Coding Scheme The RC5 code is a 14-bit word bi-phase coded signal (see Figure 2). The two first bitsare start bits, always having the value “1”. The next bit is a control bit, which is toggled every time a button is pressed on the remote control transmitter. This gives an easy way of determining whether a button is pressed and held down, or pressed and released continuously. Five system bits hold the system address so that only the right system responds to the code. Usually, TV sets have the system address 0, VCRs the address 5 and so on. The command sequence is six bits long, allowing up to 64 different com- mands per address. The bits are transmitted in bi-phase code (also known as Manchester code) as shown in Figure 3. An example where the command 0x35 is sent to system 5 is shown in Figure 4. Note that Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the signal that enters the ATtiny28 hardware modulator. The actual signal emitted by the IR-LED will be modulated with a certain carrier frequency as shown in Figure 5.
ATtiny28: The Ideal ATtiny28 is a low cost, high-performance 8-bit AVR RISC microcontroller with a number Solution for of features that makes it well suited for remote control applications. The built-in hard-ware modulator eases the task of generating the carrier frequency on which a data
Intelligent Remote signal can be modulated. Frequency and duty-cycle are both easily changed by modify- Control Systems ing the value residing in the Modulation Control Register MODCR. The high currentdriver on pin two of port A (PA2) is capable of driving a LED with a minimum of external components. This reduces size and system cost. In Power-down mode, the microcon- troller can be configured to wake up on a low level from any pin on Port B. This provides an easy solution for waking up, scanning the keyboard, sending the command and returning to Power-down mode. This application implements an easy keyboard scan- ning routine using Port B and Port D.
Implementation Figure 1 shows the complete schematics for a remote control transmitter. The 455 kHzresonator gives the application a reliable and flexible clock base. The external LED driver circuit provides a constant current for the IR-LED. Resistor R3 determines the driver strength, and is in this application chosen to 7Ω giving a drive capability of approximately 100 mA. Higher resistor values will reduce current, and lowering the resistor value will increase driver strength. The diodes, D1 and D2, are present to ensure a close to constant driving current and to compensate for temperature variations in the transistor. 2 AVR415,
AVR415In this application note two different implementations will be presented; One low cost solution requiring only a minimum of external components, and one using an external resonator and circuitry for driving the LED. The supplied code will work for both designs.
Low Cost For cost sensitive applications with high tolerance on accuracy, a solution utilizing the Implementation internally calibrated RC Oscillator of the ATtiny28 could be used. The high current drivecapabilities of PA2 can sink the LED directly giving a solution with only a few external components as shown in Figure 6. By using an external resonator and a driver circuit for the LED, a more flexible solution is achieved. The main advantage is higher driver capabilities and higher frequency stability over volt- age range. If however the receiver is self-synchronized, it will adapt to the changing frequency of the transmitter, and a solution using the internal RC Oscillator could be used with good results. Table 1. Components Type Comment R1 3 kΩ External pull-up resistor present to make the system less susceptible to external noise. Without this component, noise might Reset the microcontroller. R2 3 kΩ V −1,4 R2 = CC min β 2IL R3 7Ω R3= 0.7/IL C1 100 pF Resonator dependant C2 100 pF Resonator dependant D1 1N4148 Small signal diode D2 1N4148 Small signal diode D3 IR LED Q1 BC807-40TD IMAX = 0,5A, β = 250 - 600 Xtal 455 kHz Resonator Figure 6. Lowcost RC5 Transmitter VCC VCC
VCCPORTB[0..7] D3 PA2 PORTD[0..3]
The Software The assembly code found in the AVR415.ASM file contains the latest RC5 Transmittersoftware. The main program flow is shown in the flowchart in Figure 7. The program execution can be divided into two routines. Both of them are interrupt driven, and use different Power- down modes to reduce power consumption. The program is designed to use only one level of hardware stack, leaving two levels for user code.
Main The main program loop is shown in Figure 7. First all registers are initiated; The hard-ware modulator is configured for correct frequency and duty-cycle. In this application 38 kHz is used as the carrier frequency. This differs from the RC5 standard, which spec- ifies 36 kHz for the carrier wave. The RC5 signal will however be the same, and most standard RC5 Receivers should have no problem receiving and decoding the signal. Once the IO modules are initialized the purpose of the main loop is to decide what sleep mode to use after the next wake-up. Figure 7. Main Loop Flowchart Start Init Registers. Init Port Pins to Idle State. Enable IR Driver. Enable Hardware Modulator. Is Last No Transmission Execute Finished? Interrupt Code Yes Enable Low Level Interrupt. Enable Idle Enable Power-down Mode Enable Interrupts. Enter Sleep 4 AVR415,
AVR415The program execution can roughly be divided into two states: “Transmitting a RC5 code” and “Waiting for a key to be pressed”. While waiting for a key to be pressed, the ATtiny28 is put in Power-down mode. In this mode the current consumption for the device is at a minimum, and the wake-up time is slightly longer than for the Idle mode. Since the wake-up condition is caused by physically pressing a key, the longer wake-up time will not cause a noticeable delay in the system.
Low Level Interrupt When the ATtiny28 is in Power-down mode, a low level on any of the Port B pins willgenerate a Low Level interrupt, waking the device and executing the code illustrated by the flowchart in Figure 8. The main purpose of this routine is to scan through the key- board, and determine if a valid key is pressed. If two or more buttons are pressed simultaneously the routine returns the value 0xFF indicating an error. The “checksum” ensures that 63 of 64 combinations of row and column lines are high – that only one unique combination, representing the key, is low. If only one key is pressed, the column and row bit pattern is decoded into a pointer, which is used to perform a look-up in the Command table. Further, the Low Level interrupt also controls the toggling of the control bit, indicating if a new “instance” of a command is present, or if the “same” command should be retrans- mitted. At the end of this routine, the hardware modulator is started preparing the transmission.,
Figure 8. Low Level Interrupt FlowchartLow Level InterruptABDisable Low Level Interrupts Load Address to Start of Table. Set Checksum = 193 Add Pointer 2 (Word table) Set Column = 1 Load Low Byte of Command. Activate Column Load High Byte of Command. Select Next Column Wait for Signal Propagation Has Command No Changed? No Any Keys Pressed? Yes Yes Invert Toggle Bit Checksum += 8 Store Column Store Row Transfer Toggle Bit Deselect Column to Transmit Byte Next Column No Is bit "1"? Start Transmission by Starting Hardware Modulator. Load Number Yes of Bits to Transmit. No Select Next BitAll Columns Tested? Checksum += 1 Reset Keyboard Yes Save Command Pointer Has Entire Byte No Been Tested? Return Load no Button (0xFF) Yes Is Only Button No Pressed (Checksum = 0x00)? Yes Pointer + = 1 Shift Row Byte Right Is LSB of No Row Byte "0"? Yes Pointer + = 8 Shift Column Byte Right Is LSB of No Column Byte "1"? YesAB6AVR415,
AVR415 Timer Interrupt Routine Figure 9 shows the flowchart for the Timer Overflow interrupt. The main task of the Timer Interrupt routine is to keep track of the bit pattern that will be modulated on the IR- LED, i.e., make sure that the transmitted signal is in accordance with the bi-phase cod-ing scheme. Once a complete frame has been transmitted, the routines also generate a necessary delay before a new transmission is to be started.
Figure 9. Timer Overflow Interrup FlowchartTimer Interrupt Decrease Number of Bits to Transmit Have All Bits No Been Transferred? Reload Timer with Number of 38 kHz Yes Pulses to Transmit Has Holdoff No between Transmissions Is this No Occured? Second Half of Bit Space? Yes Disable Modulator Yes Output Stop Timer Shift Command Set Output to Invert om Left (Select Next Next Interrupt (Transmit Bit to Transfer) Second Half of Bit Space) Reload Counter to Give 12 ms Delay No Key Pressed? Set Modulator to Transmit Bit Value on Next Interrupt Set Pointer = 0xFF Yes (No Command) Return Transmission Return Transmission Complete Not Complete
Summary This application note describes how to make a simple RC5 Transmitter. Due to the flex-ible hardware of the ATtiny28, other IR coding schemes could easily be implemented. It is also possible to change the duty cycle of the transmitted signal, further decreasing the power consumption and thus extending battery life.
This application note acts as a foundation upon where the user can implement featuresgiving a power efficient intelligent Remote Control Transmitter.,
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