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8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 1181B–AVR–04/03 AVR360: Step Motor Controller Features • High-speed Step Motor Controller • Interrupt Driven • Compact Code (Only 10 Bytes Interrupt Routine) • Very High Speed • Low Computing Requirement • Supports all AVR Devices Introduction This application note describes how to implement a compact size and high-speed interrupt driven step motor controller. Step motors are typically used in applications like camera zoom/film feeder, fax machines, printers, copying machines, paper feed- ers/sorters and disk drives. The high performance of the AVR c...
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Microcontroller Application NoteRev. 1181B–AVR–04/03
AVR360: Step Motor Controller Features• High-speed Step Motor Controller • Interrupt Driven • Compact Code (Only 10 Bytes Interrupt Routine) • Very High Speed • Low Computing Requirement • Supports all AVR Devices
IntroductionThis application note describes how to implement a compact size and high-speed interrupt driven step motor controller. Step motors are typically used in applications like camera zoom/film feeder, fax machines, printers, copying machines, paper feed- ers/sorters and disk drives. The high performance of the AVR controller enables the designer to implement high speed step motor applications with low computing requirements of the controller.
Theory of OperationA DC step motor translates current pulses into motor rotation. A typical motor contains four winding coils. The coils are often labeled red, yellow/white, red/white and yellow, but may have other colors. Applying voltage to these coils forces the motor to step one step. In normal operation, two winding coils are activated at the same time. The step motor moves clockwise one step per change in winding activated. If the sequence is applied in reverse order, the motor will run counterclockwise. The speed of rotation is controlled by the frequency of the pulses. Every time a pulse is applied to the step motor the motor will rotate a fixed distance. A typical step rota- tion is 1.8 degrees. With 1.8 degree rotation in each step will a complete rotation of the motor (360 degrees) require 200 steps. By changing the interval of the timer interrupts, the speed of the motor can be regu- lated, and by counting the number of steps, the rotation angle can be controlled., Figure 1. Step Motor Step Sequence STEP 0 STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP3
REDTable 1 shows the hexadecimal values to be output to the step motor to perform each step. Table 1. Step Motor Values Step Yellow Red/White Yellow/White Red Hex Value01001911100C201106300113
Software Description The software uses a 16 bits timer with capture function to generate interrupt every100 µs. When the interrupt is executed, a new step value is output to PORTB. Values for the step motor are stored in Flash memory. At startup, the values are copied to SRAM to achieve faster access and maximum speed performance. In this implementation, the interrupt routine takes seven cycles + four cycles to enter and four cycles to exit the interrupt. This totals 15 cycles. The step motor control takes less than 2 µs. If interrupt is required every 100 µs, the step motor handling takes only 2% of the processing power in the CPU. In this example the values for the step motor are stored at RAM address 0100 (hex). The upper byte of the RAM address is constant and only the low nibble of the low byte is used to access the address information. See Figure 2. The lower nibble (four bits) of the variables is the actual value to control the step motor, the upper nibble holds the address of the next value. 2 AVR360,
AVR360Figure 2. Step Motor Addresses and Values ADDRESS (HEX) ADDRESS VALUE VALUE (HEX) 0100 0001 1001 19 ADDRESS VALUE 0101 0010 1100 2C 0102 0011 0110 36 0103 0000 0011 03 By using this method, maximum speed can be achieved, combined with a minimum of processor resources.
ResourcesTable 2. CPU and Memory Usage Function Code Size Cycles Register Usage Interrupt Description Main 38 words – R16, XL, XH, ZL, ZH – Initialization and example program OC1A 10 words 13 + return R16, XL, XH Timer 1 Output step Output motor value Compare A and calculate next value TOTAL 48 words – R16, XL, XH, ZL, ZH Table 3. Peripheral Usage Peripheral Description Interrupts Enabled 4 I/O pins Step motor output pins Timer 1 Generate timer interrupt for step motor frequency Timer 1 Output Compare A generation,
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Web Sitehttp://www.atmel.com Disclaimer: Atmel Corporation makes no warranty for the use of its products, other than those expressly contained in the Company’s standard warranty which is detailed in Atmel’s Terms and Conditions located on the Company’s web site. The Company assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in this document, reserves the right to change devices or specifications detailed herein at any time without notice, and does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. No licenses to patents or other intellectual property of Atmel are granted by the Company in connection with the sale of Atmel products, expressly or by implication. Atmel’s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems. © Atmel Corporation 2003. All rights reserved. Atmel® and combinations thereof, AVR® are the registered trademarks of Atmel Corporation or its subsidiaries. Other terms and product names may be the trademarks of others. Printed on recycled paper. 1181B–AVR–04/03 0M]
8-bit RISC Microcontroller Application Note AVR335: Digital Sound Recorder with AVR and Serial DataFlash Features
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File: X:\USERS\IGOR\DOC\WORD\Atmel\USB to RS232 Application Note\Firmware\USBtoRS232_ATmega8\AVR Studio 4 project\USBtoRS232.asm 1.2.2004
1 ;*************************************************************************** 2 ;* USBSTACKFORTHEAVRFAMILY3;* 4 ;* File Name :"USBtoRS232.asm" 5 ;* Title :AVR309:USB to UART protocol converter 6 ;* Date :01.02.2004 7 ;* Version :2.8 8 ;* Target MCU :ATmega8 9 ;* AUTHOR :Ing. Igor Cesko 10 ;* Slovak
File: X:\USERS\IGOR\DOC\WORD\Atmel\USB to RS232 Application Note\Firmware\USBtoRS232_AT90S2313\AVR Studio 4 project\USB90S2313.asm 26.1.2004
1 ;*************************************************************************** 2 ;* USBSTACKFORTHEAVRFAMILY3;* 4 ;* File Name :"USB90S2313.asm" 5 ;* Title :AVR309:USB to UART protocol converter (simple - small FIFO) 6 ;* Date :26.01.2004 7 ;* Version :2.2 8 ;* Target MCU :AT90S2313-10 9 ;* AUTHOR :I
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