Download: 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note

8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Rev. 2547A–AVR–11/03 AVR244: AVR UART as ANSI Terminal Interface Features • Make use of standard terminal software as user interface to your application. • Enables use of a PC keyboard as input and ascii graphic to display status and control information. • Drivers for ANSI/VT100 Terminal Control included. • Interactive menu interface included. Introduction This application note describes some basic routines to interface the AVR to a terminal window using the UART (hardware or software). The routines use a subset of the ANSI Color Standard to position the ...
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8-bit

Microcontroller Application Note

Rev. 2547A–AVR–11/03

AVR244: AVR UART as ANSI Terminal Interface Features

• Make use of standard terminal software as user interface to your application. • Enables use of a PC keyboard as input and ascii graphic to display status and control information. • Drivers for ANSI/VT100 Terminal Control included. • Interactive menu interface included.

Introduction

This application note describes some basic routines to interface the AVR to a terminal window using the UART (hardware or software). The routines use a subset of the ANSI Color Standard to position the cursor and choose text modes and colors. Rou- tines for simple menu handling are also implemented. The routines can be used to implement a human interface through an ordinary termi- nal window, using interactive menus and selections. This is particularly useful for debugging and diagnostics purposes. The routines can be used as a basic interface for implementing more complex terminal user interfaces. To better understand the code, an introduction to ‘escape sequences’ is given below.

Escape Sequences

The special terminal functions mentioned (e.g. text modes and colors) are selected using ANSI escape sequences. The AVR sends these sequences to the connected teminal, which in turn executes the associated commands. The escape sequences are strings of bytes starting with an escape character (ASCII code 27) followed by a left bracket ('['). The rest of the string decides the specific operation. For instance, the command '1m' selects bold text, and the full escape sequence thus becomes 'ESC[1m'. There must be no spaces between the characters, and the com- mands are case sensitive. The various operations used in this application note are described below.,

Implemented The following terminal functions are implemented: Sequences

Function Name Description Resets all text modes, clears the screen and positions the cursor in the top-left corner. All is Term_Initialise done using escape sequences. Term_Send Sends one byte to the attached terminal. Term_Get Waits and gets one byte from the attached terminal. Decodes an incoming escape sequence. Currently only supports arrow keys. It actually Term_Get_Sequence recognizes received sequences equal to moving one cell in any of the four directions. Sends a 0-terminated string contained in Flash memory to the terminal one character at a Term_Send_FlashStr time. Term_Send_RAMStr Sends a 0-terminated string contained in SRAM to the terminal one character at a time. Term_Erase_ScreenBottom Clear all lines from current line to bottom of screen. Term_Erase_ScreenTop Clear all lines from current line to top of screen. Term_Erase_Screen Clear entire terminal screen. Term_Erase_to_End_of_Line Clear all characters from current position to end of line. Term_Erase_to_Start_of_Line Clear all characters from current position to start of line. Term_Erase_Line Clear all characters on current line. Term_Set_Display_Attribute_Mode Set desired text mode. Available text modes are listed below. Set foreground or background to desired colour. Applies to all consecutive outputs until next Term_Set_Display_Colour change. Available colors are listed below. Term_Set_Cursor_Position Set current cursor position. Term_Move_Cursor Move cursor any number of steps in the desired direction. Term_Save_Cursor_Position Save current position for later retrieval. More on this below. Term_Restore_Cursor_Position Restore previously saved cursor position. More on this below. Term_Set_Scroll_Mode_All Enable scrolling for entire screen when issuing a newline on the last line of the screen. Term_Set_Scroll_Mode_Limit Limit scrolling window to only a few lines of the screen. Term_Print_Screen Issue a ‘print screen’ command to the terminal window. Display a single og double menu frame using graphical characters. This is a user-defined Term_Draw_Frame routine using escape sequences for drawing the frame. Display a pop-up menu with frame and highlighted choice. The menu is defines as a text string with newline-separated choices. This is a user-defined routine using escape Term_Draw_Menu sequences for drawing the frame and displaying the menu choices. Display a meny and handle arrow keys until Enter is pressed. Returns the choice number. Term_Handle_Menu This is a user-defined routine using the two routines above for handling a menu. 2 AVR244,

AVR244

Text Modes The example above (’ESC[1m’) selects bold text, which is just one of many text modes available. All text mode commands ends with the m-character. The following text modes are defined in the code: Mode Number Description 0 Plain text 1 Bold text 2 Dim text 4 Underlined text 5 Blinking text 7 Reversed text 8 Concealed text Multiple modes can be combined using a semicolon. The sequence ’ESC[1;4m’ will select bold underlined text. The predefined functions in this application note does not support multiple modes at a time. Use subsequent function calls to set multiple modes. Note that it is not possible to disable single modes. All modes must be canceled in one operation by selecting ‘Plain text’-mode. An example follows: Mode command issued Displayed text will be… 0 (Plain text) Plain 1 (Bold text) Bold 4 (Underlined text) Bold and underlined 0 (Plain text) Plain 4 (Underlined text) Underlined only Text Colors The following colors are available: Mode number Text colour Mode number Background colour 30 Black 40 Black 31 Red 41 Red 32 Green 42 Green 33 Yellow 43 Yellow 34 Blue 44 Blue 35 Magenta 45 Magenta 36 Cyan 46 Cyan 37 White 47 White These modes can also be combined, even with the other text modes. For instance, the sequence ‘ESC[4;34;40m’ will select underlined blue text on black background. The predfined functions in this application note sets either the foreground or background colour at a time., Saving and Restoring the It is possible to save the current cursor position for later retrieval. This is useful when a Cursor Position routine that writes to an absolute window position is called from different places in the code. The cursor position can be saved prior to calling the routine, and restored afterwards. It is not possible to save several positions. Each save operation replaces any previously saved positions. Subsequent restore operations will always return to the last saved position. The sequence ‘ESC[s’ saves the current position and the sequence ‘ESC[u’ positions the cursor on the last saved position. The predefines functions will send the escape sequences for you. 4 AVR244,

AVR244 Term_Handle_Menu The flowchart for the term_handleMenu function is as follows: Function

term_handleMenu Display menu frame and make the first choice current Display all menu choices with the current choice highlighted Wait for user keypress ENTER Yes pressed ? No Decrease current choice Yes UP arrow key number, wrapping to last pressed ? choice if necessary No Increase current choice Yes DOWN arrow number, wrapping to first key pressed ? choice if necessary No Return selected choice number,

Terminal Demo The included demo application clears the screen and displays a three-choice menu with Application a double frame. It then waits for arrow key-press for moving the menu highlight or Enter

for selecting a menu choice. When a choice is selected, the letter A, B or C is displayed according to the choice, and the application then echoes the user input forever. The terminal interface is implemented as a standalone code module, easily included in other applications. There are more commands available in the ANSI standard. Only the most common are implemented in this interface, but it should be easy to implement other required operations in the code.

Terminal Software To connect to the AVR Terminal interface, a terminal emulator program is needed.

There are many programs available for doing this, one is the HyperTerminal application included in most version of Microsoft Windows®. However, there are other programs available as freeware and shareware on the Inter- net. One of them is the TeraTerm® application, which can be downloaded from the following URL: http://hp.vector.co.jp/authors/VA002416/teraterm.html More information on the ANSI Colour Standard can be found at the following URL: http://www.termsys.demon.co.uk/vtansi.htm 6 AVR244,

Atmel Corporation Atmel Operations

2325 Orchard Parkway Memory RF/Automotive San Jose, CA 95131, USA 2325 Orchard Parkway Theresienstrasse 2 Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 San Jose, CA 95131, USA Postfach 3535 Fax: 1(408) 487-2600 Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 74025 Heilbronn, Germany Fax: 1(408) 436-4314 Tel: (49) 71-31-67-0 Fax: (49) 71-31-67-2340

Regional Headquarters Microcontrollers

Europe 2325 Orchard Parkway 1150 East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Atmel Sarl San Jose, CA 95131, USA Colorado Springs, CO 80906, USA Route des Arsenaux 41 Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 Tel: 1(719) 576-3300 Case Postale 80 Fax: 1(408) 436-4314 Fax: 1(719) 540-1759 CH-1705 Fribourg Switzerland La Chantrerie Biometrics/Imaging/Hi-Rel MPU/ Tel: (41) 26-426-5555 BP 70602 High Speed Converters/RF Datacom Fax: (41) 26-426-5500 44306 Nantes Cedex 3, France Avenue de Rochepleine Tel: (33) 2-40-18-18-18 BP 123 Asia Fax: (33) 2-40-18-19-60 38521 Saint-Egreve Cedex, France Room 1219 Tel: (33) 4-76-58-30-00 Chinachem Golden Plaza ASIC/ASSP/Smart Cards Fax: (33) 4-76-58-34-80 77 Mody Road Tsimshatsui Zone Industrielle East Kowloon 13106 Rousset Cedex, France Hong Kong Tel: (33) 4-42-53-60-00 Tel: (852) 2721-9778 Fax: (33) 4-42-53-60-01 Fax: (852) 2722-1369 1150 East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Japan Colorado Springs, CO 80906, USA 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg. Tel: 1(719) 576-3300 1-24-8 Shinkawa Fax: 1(719) 540-1759 Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0033 Japan Scottish Enterprise Technology Park Tel: (81) 3-3523-3551 Maxwell Building Fax: (81) 3-3523-7581 East Kilbride G75 0QR, Scotland Tel: (44) 1355-803-000 Fax: (44) 1355-242-743 Literature Requests www.atmel.com/literature Disclaimer: Atmel Corporation makes no warranty for the use of its products, other than those expressly contained in the Company’s standard warranty which is detailed in Atmel’s Terms and Conditions located on the Company’s web site. The Company assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in this document, reserves the right to change devices or specifications detailed herein at any time without notice, and does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. No licenses to patents or other intellectual property of Atmel are granted by the Company in connection with the sale of Atmel products, expressly or by implication. Atmel’s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems. © Atmel Corporation 2003. All rights reserved. Atmel® and AVR® and combinations thereof, are the trademarks of Atmel Corporation or its subsidiaries. Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Other terms and product names may be the trademarks of others. Printed on recycled paper.]
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