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Order this document by AR609/D by Pascal OTERO Rodrigo BORRAS MOTOROLA Semiconductors, Toulouse. INTRODUCTION Halogen Electronic Transformers are basic electronic step–down converters used to supply 12V to low voltage halogen lamps. Based on a high frequency conversion they are less bulky than 50/60Hz transformers. In order to achieve a low cost, electronic transformers are designed using bipolar transistors instead of MOSFETs. The most common topology used is the half bridge converter; its basic schematic is shown Figure 1 (see EB407 “Basic Halogen Converter” for a general circuit description...
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Order this document by AR609/D by Pascal OTERO Rodrigo BORRAS MOTOROLA Semiconductors, Toulouse.

INTRODUCTION

Halogen Electronic Transformers are basic electronic step–down converters used to supply 12V to low voltage halogen lamps. Based on a high frequency conversion they are less bulky than 50/60Hz transformers. In order to achieve a low cost, electronic transformers are designed using bipolar transistors instead of MOSFETs. The most common topology used is the half bridge converter; its basic schematic is shown Figure 1 (see EB407 “Basic Halogen Converter” for a general circuit description). Q1 12V HALOGEN LAMPD2 Dz1 R2 400V R1 C2 330kΩ 100nF LINE FILTER 1N4937 T1 Ns D1 LINE T2 220 V NODE A C4 C5 NpNODE B Q2 400VR3 C3 D3 100nF Dz2 C1 22nF 1N4937 D4 R4 DIAC 32V 10 Ω CURRENT LIMIT C Q3 D5 Q3 = BC546 D5 = 1N4148 R7 R6 R5 R5/R6/R7/C8= to be defined accordingly to C8 the end application characteristics. Dz1/Dz2 = 1.5KE200ARL Figure 1. Basic Schematic Diagram for a 12 V Electronic Transformer This simple circuit normally sees almost no stress under PREVENTING HIGH VOLTAGE STRESSES nominal operating conditions (as described in EB407) but The theoretical V rating for the bipolar transistors is the because of its particular structure certain phenomena can CEpeak voltage of the rectified mains. In Europe, the mains cause the bipolar transistors to work very close to their limits. typically remain within 185 Vac to 265 Vac with an average Designers essentially have to deal with problems related of 230 Vac. Therefore, for 265 Vac the peak DC voltage seen to by the transistors is 375 Vdc. a) voltage spikes on the mains Taking some safety margin, the BV is chosen b) huge inrush currents due either to a cold lamp CEObetween 400 V and 500 V. But we can observe with the base start–up or an accidental short circuit drive conditions depicted Figure 1 that the VCE breakdownThese two points will be discussed in the following pages voltage of the transistor is no longer the BVCEO (i.e.and some techniques on how to handle these problems will base–emitter open) but BV instead. Due to the low be presented. CERimpedance connected between base and emitter, the BVCER is close to 700 V. M OMoTtOoroRlaO, ILncA. 1995 1 INPUT RECTIFIER, If a voltage spike occurs on the mains, this transient is current is 0.7 A for 50 W. The collector current depends on directly applied across the transistors through the filter. the load impedance. The lamp resistance varies typically Figure 2 shows the average occurrence of transients on the from 0.5 Ω while the lamp is cold to3Ωat thermal European mains together with their magnitude. The three equilibrium. Obviously the collector current decreases when curves show variations depending on the user reaching steady state. surroundings: the mains near factories are exposed to higher transients than the mains near a residential area. Of course this kind of overvoltage occurs randomly. TB 50ms 20 Ic 1A HIGH EXPOSED AREA 5.0 3.0 MEDIUM EXPOSED AREA 2.0 1.0 LOW EXPOSED AREA 0.5 0.3 0.2 Figure 3. Start Up Collector Current (50 W 0.1 Transformer), the mains being replaced by a DC 0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100 1000 power supply VCC = 240 V, TVOLTAGE SPIKE/YEAR amb = 23°C. Figure 2. Occurrence of Transients on the Mains In fact the main current stress appears during an accidental short circuit across the load. Under such Assuming the transient appears on the peak of the sine conditions the collector current can reach ten times the wave, the instantaneous collector voltage can reach 1500 to nominal current, as is shown in Table 1. The collector current 2000 V. This means an efficient solution cannot be provided is limited by wire and contact resistance but also by the by a passive bandpass filter. Even with an 8th order filter the output transformer leakage inductance. voltage rejection is not high enough to keep the bipolar transistor within its Safe Operating Area. ÁÁÁÁStÁeadyÁ staÁte ÁÁStarÁt–upÁÁSÁhortÁ circÁuitÁ Another solution could consist in increasing the 50 W 0.7 A 3.5 A 4.5 A transistor’s BVCES but in that case the die size would need ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ to be significantly larger in order to guarantee the same Á10Á0 WÁÁÁ1.4Á A ÁÁÁ7.0Á AÁÁÁ14Á AÁÁ VCE(sat) and the cost would become prohibitive (e.g. 150 W 2.1 A 10.5 A 25 A increasing BV from 700 V to 1000 V increases the die ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁCES size by 30%, all other parameters kept constant). Besides, ÁÁTabÁle 1Á. CoÁllecÁtor ÁCurÁrentÁ RaÁtingÁs veÁrsuÁs PÁoweÁr Á this solution would once again set a breakdown voltage limit ÁTÁhe ÁcolleÁctoÁr cuÁrrenÁt is aÁlsoÁ limiÁted Ávia tÁhe iÁnputÁ netÁworÁk that if exceeded would cause the transistor to fail. by the VBE, IB and hFE. This high IC level combined with the Since the higher the voltage spike the shorter the high VCE generates high losses or even transistor duration, the best way to prevent transients consists in the desaturation, and the transistor fails by a thermal runaway. use of transient suppressors. These active devices are A short circuit protection is added to the converter. This designed to absorb energy voltage transients and are circuit turns the converter off and needs a time constant to available in two power handling capabilities: 600 W and be triggered. This time constant must be as short as possible 1500 W (for a 1ms surge). We recommend the use of a to protect the transistor quickly during a short circuit but must 1.5KE200A as shown in Figure 1 (Dz1, Dz2). be long enough to allow the start–up inrush current So Transient suppressors are also the only safe way of during this time the bipolar transistor must be rugged protecting transistors against spikes occurring during short enough to sustain the short circuit collector current. circuit conditions: a high overvoltage combined with a high Let us examine the two main ways (that can be combined) collector current will force the transistor out of its FBSOA or to limit the short circuit current. RBSOA into failure. 1– Keeping the transistor in the saturation area: the base current is not limited by an external circuit, thus the

PREVENTING HIGH CURRENT STRESSES VCE(sat) remains low. In this case the collector current is

The nominal collector current is given by limited by: a) Using an inductive load

Pout 2 The inductor sets the collector current slope. The shortI (1)C V circuit period being shorter, the peak collector current isline

limited. In some cases this inductor can be the leakage Where IC, Pout and Vline are RMS values and η is the inductance of the output transformer. output transformer efficiency. b) Optimizing bridge capacitances The peak collector current depends on the IC wave shape. The collector current is supplied by the capacitor bridge Assuming a wave shape factor = √2 the peak collector setting the half voltage (node A). The smaller these 2 MOTOROLA VOLTAGE SPIKE (kV), capacitors are sized the smaller the amount of charges linear mode, and the power dissipation can be tremendous. available to supply the short circuit collector current. On the The efficiency of this method appears if IB is drastically other hand the capacitors must be large enough to keep the attenuated while IC tends to increase, keeping the on state node voltage roughly constant. Moreover, one must take product: IC x VCE lower than the one achieved without care of the series resonant frequency of the LC network resistor bias network. made by these two capacitors associated in parallel, Whatever the jig used, the halogen application requires a connected in series with the output transformer leakage transistor having high gain and high current capabilities. inductor. These capacitors must be determined to set the This allows the transistor to be rugged enough to overcome resonant frequency below the operating one. This the high current damaging stress. frequency increases during short circuit conditions and so The BUH series was specifically designed for these the impedance of the series resonant circuit is higher, the applications. short circuit current is hence limited. The BUH transistors have the best FBSOA and RBSOA 2– Reducing the base drive parameters ever designed by MOTOROLA for a given die a) Using an emitter negative feedback size. This technology allows us to fulfill the key parameters As the collector current increases, the voltage across Re required by the application. Moreover this technology allows increases as well, reducing the net driving voltage in the the manufacturing of 200 W converters with power input circuit, so IB and IC decrease. transistors packaged in the low cost T0220 package, b) Adjusting the base resistor value compared to existing solutions running with bulky T0218 or Since the base bias resistor influences both the short T0247 packages. circuit time capability and the overall losses in steady state, Figure 4 a) and b) compares the short circuit behaviour one must make the compromises to get the best behavior between BUH and standard designs. under either a fault condition or a normal operation. Based The BUH design (4a) recorded at 80 ms shows square on experiments performed on the BUH50 the value of such waves and only a slight desaturation: losses remain very a resistor can range between 3.3 Ω to 6.8 Ω (with drive low. The Standard design (4b) recorded at 13 ms (with the transformer turns ratio 1/3), but further analysis must be same die size) cannot remain in saturation. A high VCE(on) done if any of the components are changed (power combined with high current produces extremely high losses. transistor, drive transformer...). This device will fail within a few µs. By reducing the base drive the transistor operates in the Vce 100V/div33Ic 2 10A/div 2 FIGURE 4a FIGURE 4b Figure 4. Short Circuit Conditions in a 150 W Converter with VCC = 240 V. PRACTICAL POINT OF VIEW Since the short circuit collector current can be multiplied The thermal aspect of the output transformer is critical: its by 10 between nominal and short circuit conditions, the core Bsat will decrease by 25% for a temperature rising from collector current value is highly dependent on the resistive 25°C to 100°C. This parameter is often neglected and will path seen from the half bridge middle point (node B). This cause unexpected short circuit failures. impedance is made of the winding resistance of the For converters with output powers higher than 100 W, the transformer, connection contacts and lamp to module wire winding wire resistance decreases and the connection resistance. contact and wires resistance become preponderant. Therefore one must size the winding and the lamp wires as thin as possible. The limit being of course the Joule losses allowed. MOTOROLA 3,

CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY As discussed, the only safe way to protect a halogen 1. EB407, “Basic Halogen Converter”, Motorola

converter against overvoltage transients consists in the use Engineering Bulletin of transient suppressors. 2. AN1049, “The electronic control of fluorescent lamps.”,

This application requires a high gain and a high current Motorola Application Note

capability to overcome the huge inrush current under short circuit conditions.

Motorola specifically developed the BUH series of

transistors to match the halogen converter requirements.

Table 2 here below describes the BUH series. BUH51 BUH50 BUH100 BUH150

ÁPÁoweÁr ÁÁÁ50 ÁW ÁÁ50 ÁW Á1Á00 WÁÁ15Á0 WÁ ÁIÁc conÁtinuÁousÁÁ3 AÁÁÁ4 AÁÁÁ10 AÁÁ1Á5 AÁ ÁIÁc peaÁk ÁÁÁ8 AÁÁÁ8 AÁÁÁ20 AÁÁ2Á5 AÁ ÁPÁackÁageÁÁTOÁ126Á/C77ÁÁTO2Á20 ÁTÁO22Á0 ÁTOÁ220Á

Table 2. BUH Series

Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. Motorola makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Motorola assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation consequential or incidental damages. “Typical” parameters can and do vary in different applications. All operating parameters, including “Typicals” must be validated for each customer application by customer’s technical experts. Motorola does not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in systems intended for surgical implant into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the Motorola product could create a situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use Motorola products for any such unintended or unauthorized application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold Motorola and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless against all claims, costs, damages, and expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that Motorola was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part. Motorola and are registered trademarks of Motorola, Inc. Motorola, Inc. is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. How to reach us: USA / EUROPE: Motorola Literature Distribution; JAPAN: Nippon Motorola Ltd.; Tatsumi–SPD–JLDC, Toshikatsu Otsuki, P.O. Box 20912; Phoenix, Arizona 85036. 1–800–441–2447 6F Seibu–Butsuryu–Center, 3–14–2 Tatsumi Koto–Ku, Tokyo 135, Japan. 03–3521–8315 MFAX: email is hidden – TOUCHTONE (602) 244–6609 HONG KONG: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.; 8B Tai Ping Industrial Park, INTERNET: http://Design–NET.com 51 Ting Kok Road, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong. 852–26629298 4 ◊ MOTAORR60O9/LDA]
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