Download: Measure 3 Types of Parameter and You’ll Define a Small Signal RF-Transistor: S-Parameter, Noise-Figure and Intermodulation

G. Lohninger L. Musiol Measure 3 Types of Parameter and You’ll Define a Small Signal RF-Transistor: S-Parameter, Noise-Figure and Intermodulation With the increasing need to reduce development time, RF Designers are increasingly employing simulation tools which need accurate device data . This note is intended to help understand the origin of the values required and to reconstruct a similiar setup for own analysis and verification. 1) S-Parameter measurements A) By using a test fixture S-Parameters of FETs or bipolar tranistors are usually measured in a common source / emitter configuration in...
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G. Lohninger L. Musiol

Measure 3 Types of Parameter and You’ll Define a Small Signal RF-Transistor: S-Parameter, Noise-Figure and Intermodulation

With the increasing need to reduce development time, RF Designers are increasingly employing simulation tools which need accurate device data . This note is intended to help understand the origin of the values required and to reconstruct a similiar setup for own analysis and verification. 1) S-Parameter measurements A) By using a test fixture S-Parameters of FETs or bipolar tranistors are usually measured in a common source / emitter configuration in a precision 50 Ω test fixture. A full 2-port calibration using 7mm cal kits must be performed at the ends of the measurement cables. In order to obtain a calibration at the reference plane of the transistor, the coefficients of the 12 term calibration are retouched by the controller using the known S-parameters of the test fixture. Bias decoupling network HP 8753 C HP6626 Network- Analyzer

HPIB

3 MHz - 6 GHz Device under Test in test fixture Controller 486/33 MHz Semiconductor Group 1 Edition A02, Port 1 attenuation must be set high enough to ensure small signal operation of the DUT even at lowest collector currents and lowest frequencies. Noisy readings can be avoided by 20 dB less attenuation at port 2 and a very narrow IF bandwidth setting. The HP6626 bias sources are connected according to HP application note 376-1, which describes the advantage of applying the collector-base voltage and the direct setting of the emitter current. An additional bias decoupling network prevents LF oscillation in the bias circuit.

R

Reference plane for S-parameters of R SOT343 packages

R

Reference plane for S-Parameters of SOT143 packages

R

B) By using Microstrip boards Some customers may wish to check a transistor’s S-Parameters on a microstrip board using cheap SMA jacks. After a calibration with a 3.5mm cal kit, the length between connector and transistor is corrected utilizing the analyzer’s electrical delay function. Connector discontinuities, microstrip impedance errors and losses are neglected. A more accurate method is to perform a TRL calibration with the appropriate standards, an accurate 50 Ω stripline and special connectors. A further problem with such methods is that the emitter grounding-via acts as a small negative feedback which is not included in the data sheet S-parameters. Semiconductor Group 2 Edition A02, 2) Noise-Figure measurement setup for transistors as DUT The setup described below is useful up to 2000 MHz with no mixer between pre-amplifier and NF-meter. The transistors are measured in a precision text fixture. Source impedance HP 8970 B Noise Figure Meter Low noise pre-ampilfier Bias 10 dB atten. Device under Test Noise Source hp346B slide screw Tuner 1 slide screw Tuner 2 is tunable to the minimum noise figure, the load impedance to maximum gain. The use of circulators can be avoided reducing the noise diodes impedanceshift by a 10 dB attenuator and by using a pre-amplifier with a low input reflection coefficient. One way of omitting a special cal path is to interconnect the tuners in a 50 Ω position directly without DUT. In this case the ENR table values have to be entered diminished by the loss between noise diode and DUT. The additional transformation losses resulting from the use of high-Q tuners can be neglected in most cases for BJT-measurements. 3) Noise Figure measurement setup for mixers as DUT The frequency shift of ENR values for calibration and the display of the true measurement frequency is provided by the meters noise figure mode setting (SP 1.3), sideband selection (SP 2.1 or 2.2) and input frequency fIF (SP 3.0). One combination of fLO and fIF is the wanted mesurement frequency - the other one is an interfering mirror frequency at a distance of2xfIF which has to be suppressed by a filter (e.g. variable bandpass). Semiconductor Group 3 Edition A02, HP 8970 B Noise Figure Meter fIF Bias 10 dB atten. Mixer Bandpass Tuner 1 Tuner 2

LO

Local Oscillator As the LO’s contribution to the noise figure is not removable by any kind of calibration, it is very important to use a generator of high spectral purity and low phase- and AM-noise (e.g. tube oscillator or quartz-oscillator). 4) Intercept point measurements Although the rule of thumb IP3out= P-1dB + 10 dB suggests the use of the compression point P-1dB as a replacement, the direct characterisation of the intermodulation is strongly recommended. In practice the operating conditions are hardly comparable as IP3out is a class A parameter, whereas P-1dB is a transmitter parameter influenced by high-power effects. The 3rd order distortion of the DUT generates IM products at 2f1-f2 and 2f2-f1. IP3out is defined as the intercept point of an extrapolated 3rd order IM product with an extrapolated fundamental. Pout IP3out 1dB P-1dB 1:1 dIM 3:1 Pin IP3in Semiconductor Group 4 Edition A02, The intercept point although measured at the output, can be refered to the input as well: IP3out= Pout + dIM/2 ... 3rd order intercept point at the output [dBm] IP3in= Pin+ dIM/2 ...3rd order intercept point at the input [dBm] IP3out - IP3in= Gain= Pout-Pin Pout and Pin are power levels of one fundamental. The dIM-value is the difference between the fundamental and the IM product in dB. HP 6561 Spectrum- Analyzer Pout dIM 2f1-f2 f1 f2 2f2-f1 DUT hp 11636 Power- Tuner1 Tuner2 meter Bias Bias HP 438 f1 Osc. LP Pout f2 Osc. LP Pin Power Combiner /Splitter f1- f2 = 1 to 5 MHz with port isolation The measurement is taken with relatively small signals in order to get dim-values between 50 and 60 dB. The DUT can be matched for optimum or measured unmatched (50 Ω), which is more appropriate to broadband application. Losses between DUT and power meter have to be accurately taken into account. Although the typical application of the above setup is the characterisation of amplifier transistors, it is useful with a mixer as DUT as well. In this case the spectrum analyzer has to be tuned to f1 - fLO, but the level definitions are not affected. The reading of the power-meter shows both carriers. For calculation of the IP3 the power of only one carrier is needed (- 3 dB). Semiconductor Group 5 Edition A02, 5) References 1) R. Soares: GaAs-MesFET Circuit Design, Artech House, Inc., 1988. 2) G.Gonzales: Microwave Transistor amplifiers - Analysis and Design,

Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1984.

3) G.Lohninger, J. Huber, "50 Ω auf dem Wafer messen," ELEKTRONIK Heft 9/95,

Seite 53-54

4) Application Note HP 376-1 G. Lohninger / L. Musiol HL EH PD 1 Published by Siemens AG, Bereich Bauelemente, Terms of delivery and rights to change design reserved. Vertrieb, Produkt-Information, Balanstraße 73, D-81541 München For questions on technology, delivery and prices please contact the Offices of Semiconductor Group in © Siemens AG 1997. All Rights Reserved Germany or the Siemens Companies and Representatives world-wide (see address list). As far as patents or other rights of third parties are concerned, liability is only assumed for components per Due to technical requirements components may se, not for applications, processes and circuits contain dangerous substances. For information on the implemented within components or assemblies. type in question please contact your nearest Siemens Office, Semiconductor Group. The information describes the type of component and shall not be considered as assured characteristics. Siemens AG is an approved CECC manufacturer.

Semiconductor Group 6 Edition A02

]
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